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Sample records for blood pressure response

  1. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  2. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained...

  3. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response and Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzemos, Nikolaos; Lim, Pitt O; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise predicts future hypertension. However, there is considerable lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of how this abnormal response is generated, and how it relates to the future establishment of cardiovascular disease. The authors studied 82 healthy male volunteers without cardiovascular risk factors. The participants were categorized into two age-matched groups depending on their exercise systolic BP (ExSBP) rise after 3 minutes of exercise using a submaximal step test: exaggerated ExSBP group (hyper-responders [peak SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg]) and low ExSBP responder group (hypo-responders [peak SBP Forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and norepinephrine (NE) were used to assess vascular reactivity. Proximal aortic compliance was assessed with ultrasound, and neurohormonal blood sampling was performed at rest and during peak exercise. The hyper-responder group exhibited a significantly lower increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) with ACh compared with the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF 215% [14] vs 332.3% [28], mean [standard error of the mean]; P<.001), as well as decreased proximal aortic compliance. The vasoconstrictive response to L-NMMA was significantly impaired in the hyper-responder group in comparison to the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF -40.2% [1.6] vs -50.2% [2.6]; P<.05). In contrast, the vascular response to SNP and NE were comparable in both groups. Peak exercise plasma angiotensin II levels were significantly higher in the hyper-responder group (31 [1] vs 23 [2] pg/mL, P=.01). An exaggerated BP response to exercise is related to endothelial dysfunction, decreased proximal aortic compliance, and increased exercise-related neurohormonal activation, the constellation of which may explain future cardiovascular disease. PMID:26235814

  4. Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether inner ocular vessels have an autoregulatory response to acute fluctuations in blood pressure is unclear. We tried to examine the validity of acute hypotension elicited by thigh-cuff release as to assess the dynamic autoregulation in the ocular circulation. Blood flow velocity in the superior nasal and inferior temporal retinal arterioles, and in the retinal and choroidal vasculature were measured with the aid of laser speckle flowgraphy before and immediately after an acute decrease in blood pressure in 20 healthy subjects. Acute hypotension was induced by a rapid release of bilateral thigh occlusion cuffs that had been inflated to 220 mmHg for 2 min. The ratio of the relative change in retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity to the relative change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated. Immediately after cuff release, the MAP and blood flows in the all ocular target vessels decreased significantly from the baseline values obtained before thigh-cuff release. The ratio of the relative change in inner ocular blood flow velocity to that in the MAP exceeded 1% / %mmHg. An explicit dynamic autoregulation in inner ocular vessels cannot be demonstrated in response to an acute hypotension induced by the thigh-cuff release technique. (paper)

  5. Limb venous compliance responses to lower body negative pressure in humans with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulopoulou, S; Deruisseau, K C; Carhart, R; Kanaley, J A

    2012-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that limb venous responses to baroreceptor unloading are altered in individuals with high blood pressure (HBP) compared with normotensive (NT) controls. Calf venous compliance was assessed in 20 subjects with prehypertension and stage-1 hypertension (mean arterial pressure, MAP: 104±1 mm Hg) and 13 NT controls (MAP: 86±2 mm Hg) at baseline and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP), using venous occlusion plethysmography. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was measured using the sequence technique and total peripheral resistance (TPR) was estimated from finger plethysmography. Baseline venous compliance was not different between groups, but the HBP group had lower baseline lnBRS (2.22±0.14 vs 2.7±0.18 ms mm Hg(-1)) and greater baseline TPR (3828±138 vs 3250±111 dyn sec(-1) cm(-5) m(2), Pcompliance was reduced in response to LBNP only in the NT group (Psec(-1) cm(-5) m(2), P<0.05). In conclusion, the early stages of hypertension are characterized by an attenuated venoconstrictor response to baroreceptor unloading, which may compensate for an exaggerated vasoconstrictor response and protect against further increases in blood pressure. PMID:21471995

  6. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  7. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  8. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  10. Response of blood pressure to maximum exercise in hypertensive patients under different therapeutic programs

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira Maria Angela Magalhães de Queiroz; Ribeiro Jamila Costa; Caldas José Antônio; Tavares Leandro Reis; Nani Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the behavior of blood pressure during exercise in patients with hypertension controlled by frontline antihypertension drugs. METHODS: From 979ergometric tests we retrospectively selected 49 hipertensive patients (19 males). The age was 53±12 years old and normal range rest arterial pressure ( or = 10 mmHg/MET; or increase of diastolic pressure greater than 15 mmHg. RESULTS: Physiologic response of arterial blood pressure occurred in 50% of patients on beta blockers, th...

  11. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  12. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connected Home » High Blood Pressure Heath and Aging High Blood Pressure What Is Blood Pressure? Do ... high blood pressure increases as you get older. Gender. Before age 55, men have a greater chance ...

  13. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  14. Blood pressure response to conventional and low-dose enalapril in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Kamper, Anne-Lise;

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: In chronic renal failure, the clearance of most ACE inhibitors including enalapril is reduced. Hence, with conventional dosage, plasma enalaprilat may be markedly elevated. It is unclear whether this excess of drug exposure affords an improved control of blood pressure. The aim of the present...... study was to evaluate short-term blood pressure response to two different plasma levels of enalaprilat. METHODS: As part of an open, randomized, controlled trial of the effect of high and low dosage of enalapril on the progression of renal failure, short-term blood pressure response was evaluated. Data...... potassium concentrations at day 90 and patients in the low group experienced a slight increase in GFR. CONCLUSIONS: In moderate to severe chronic renal insufficiency the same degree of blood pressure control was achieved on low as well as moderate daily doses of enalapril. This was irrespective of...

  15. Medications and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  16. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  17. High blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...

  18. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  19. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  20. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  1. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads;

    2013-01-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-ex...... was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P...

  2. Response of blood pressure to maximum exercise in hypertensive patients under different therapeutic programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Maria Angela Magalhães de Queiroz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the behavior of blood pressure during exercise in patients with hypertension controlled by frontline antihypertension drugs. METHODS: From 979ergometric tests we retrospectively selected 49 hipertensive patients (19 males. The age was 53±12 years old and normal range rest arterial pressure ( or = 10 mmHg/MET; or increase of diastolic pressure greater than 15 mmHg. RESULTS: Physiologic response of arterial blood pressure occurred in 50% of patients on beta blockers, the best one (p<0.05, in 36% and 31% on calcium antagonists and on diuretics, respectively, and in 20% on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, the later the leastr one (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Beta-blockers were more effective than calcium antagonists, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in controlling blood pressure during exercise, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors the least effective drugs.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow and CSF pressures during Cushing response induced by a supratentorial expanding mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to delineate the critical blood flow pattern during the Cushing response in intracranial hypertension, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres in 12 anesthetized dogs at respiratory arrest caused either by expansion of an epidural supratentorial balloon or by cisternal infusion. Regional cerebrospinal fluid pressures were recorded and the local cerebral perfusion pressure calculated in various cerebrospinal compartments. In the 8 dogs of the balloon expansion group, the systemic arterial pressure was unmanipulated in 4, while it was kept at a constant low level (48 and 70 mm Hg) in 2 dogs and, in another 2 dogs, at a constant high level (150 and 160 mm Hg) induced by infusion of Aramine. At respiratory arrest, regional cerebral blood flow had a stereotyped pattern and was largely independent of the blood pressure level. In contrast, concomitant pressure gradients between the various cerebrospinal compartments varied markedly in the 3 animal groups increasing with higher arterial pressure. Flow decreased by 85-100% supratentorially and by 70-100% in the upper brain stem down to the level of the upper pons, while changes in the lower brain stem were minor, on the average 25%. When intracranial pressure was raised by cisternal infusion in 4 dogs, the supratentorial blood flow pattern at respiratory arrest was appriximately similar to the flow pattern in the balloon inflation group. However, blood flow decreased markedly (74-85%) also in the lower brain stem. The results constitute another argument in favour of the Cushing response in supratentorial expansion being caused by ischemia in the brain stem. The critical ischemic region seems to be located rostrally to the oblongate medulla, probably in the pons. (author)

  4. Finger beat-to-beat blood pressure responses to successive hand elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raamat, R; Jagomägi, K; Talts, J; Mäger, I

    2009-06-01

    We investigated finger beat-to-beat blood pressure responses to a series of successive hand elevations in 14 normal volunteers. By passive elevation of the hand by 40 cm and lowering it again after a minute, calibrated hydrostatic pressure changes were induced in the finger arteries of the subjects. Three successive procedures with a 2-min interval between them were performed. Transitions between positions were completed smoothly over a 10-s period. Non-invasive beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the finger arteries was measured by applying the servo-oscillometric physiograph (University of Tartu, Estonia). A good agreement between the evoked MAP changes during all the three hand elevations (-31.2, -30.4 and -30.0 mmHg, respectively) and the calculated hydrostatic pressure change (-31.0 mmHg) was obtained. The height difference of approximately 40 cm and rate of 4-5 cm/s can be recommended for the hand elevation test, greater postural changes and higher rates may diminish agreement between the measured blood pressure response and the corresponding hydrostatic pressure change. The applied hydrostatic test may be helpful for assessing the accuracy of beat-to-beat finger blood pressure measurement. PMID:19027338

  5. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, Søren Tang;

    2006-01-01

    were measured using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA, Imedos, Germany) before, during, and after an increase in the blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. Additionally, the retinal thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography scanning. RESULTS: The arterioles contracted during......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group A...

  6. Intrathecal fentanyl abolishes the exaggerated blood pressure response to cycling in hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Thales C; Vianna, Lauro C; Fernandes, Igor A;

    2016-01-01

    intrathecal injection of fentanyl, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, aiming to attenuate the central projection of opioid-sensitive group III and IV muscle afferent nerves. The cardiovascular response to exercise of these subjects was compared with that of six normotensive men. During cycling, the hypertensive...... group demonstrated an exaggerated increase in blood pressure compared to the normotensive group (mean ± SEM: +17 ± 3 vs. +8 ± 1 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05), whereas the increase in heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and vascular conductance was similar (P > 0.05). Fentanyl inhibited the blood...... pressure response to exercise in the hypertensive group (+11 ± 2 mmHg) to a level comparable to that of the normotensive group (P > 0.05). Moreover, fentanyl increased the responses of vascular conductance and stroke volume to exercise (P < 0.05), whereas the heart rate response was attenuated (P < 0...

  7. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  8. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  10. Caffeine elevates blood pressure response to exercise in mild hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, B H; Lovallo, W R; Whitsett, T; Wilson, M F

    1995-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) regulation in hypertensive men during exercise. Twenty unmedicated, mild hypertensives (HT, BP = 140/90 to 160/105 mm Hg) and 12 age-matched, normotensives (NT, BP pressure products were significantly higher on caffeine days in HT at postdrug and during exercise. On caffeine day, 7 (39%) HT and 1 (8%) NT showed an excessive BP response (> 230 for systolic or > 120 for diastolic) during exercise. In conclusion, caffeine has significant hemodynamic effects on mild hypertensives at rest and during exercise. The increased rate-pressure products following caffeine during exercise place a greater workload on the heart, and abstinence from caffeine, especially before exercise, may be beneficial for persons with hypertension. PMID:8998252

  11. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is healthy for you. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: ... Alternative Names Controlling hypertension Images Taking your blood pressure at home Blood pressure check Low sodium diet References American Diabetes ...

  12. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also known as blood vessels and capillaries. The pressure --- blood pressure --- is the result of two forces. The ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  13. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...

  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  15. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Brito AF; Oliveira CV; Brasileiro-Santos MS; Santos AC

    2014-01-01

    Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular re...

  16. Oscillatory blood pressure response to the onset of cycling exercise in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Thales C; Fernandes, Igor A; Magalhães-Jr, Nisval;

    2015-01-01

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Neural feedback from group III/IV muscle afferents has a key role in regulation of cardiovascular responses to exercise. Blood pressure oscillates in the first seconds of dynamic exercise, but the contribution of muscle afferent feedback to...... this pattern is unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that attenuation of group III/IV muscle afferent feedback by spinal fentanyl impairs the pressor response after 10 s of moderate leg cycling exercise, but this afferent feedback does not appear to be necessary for......) response to the onset of dynamic exercise. Eight healthy, recreationally active men (28 ± 3 years old) performed 40 s of cycling at 80 W (60 r.p.m.) before (control) and after fentanyl administration, while heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, systolic, mean and diastolic BP and total vascular...

  17. Responses of heart rate and blood pressure to KC-135 hyper-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hirotaka; Matsunami, Ken'ichi; Reschke, Millard F.

    1992-01-01

    Many investigators have clarified the effects of hyper gravitational-inertial forces (G) upon the cardiovascular system, using the centrifugal apparatus with short rotating radius. We investigated the cardiovascular responses to KC-135 hyper-G flight with negligibly small angular velocity. Six normal, healthy subjects 29 to 40 years old (5 males and 1 female) took part in this experiment. Hyper gravitational-inertial force was generated by the KC-135 hyper-G flight, flown in a spiral path with a very long radius of 1.5 miles. Hyper-G was sustained for 3 minutes with 1.8 +Gz in each session and was repeatedly exposed to very subject sitting on a chair 5 times. The preliminary results of blood pressure and R-R interval are discussed. An exposure of 1.8 +Gz stress resulted in a remarkable increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while the pulse pressure did not change and remained equal to the control level regardless of an exposure of hyper-G. These results in blood pressure indicate an increase of resistance in the peripheral vessels, when an exposure of hyper-G was applied. The R-R interval was calculated from ECG. R-R interval in all subjects was changed but not systematically, and R-R interval became obviously shorter during the hyper-G period than during the 1 +Gz control period although R-R interval varied widely in some cases. The coefficient of variation of R-R interval was estimated to determine the autonomic nerve activity, but no significant change was detectable.

  18. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...

  19. Central injection of captopril inhibits the blood pressure response to intracerebroventricular choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Isbil-Buyukcoskun

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the brain renin-angiotensin system in the effects of central cholinergic stimulation on blood pressure in conscious, freely moving normotensive rats. In the first step, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv choline (50, 100 and 150 µg on blood pressure. Choline increased blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. In order to investigate the effects of brain renin-angiotensin system blockade on blood pressure increase induced by choline (150 µg, icv, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril (25 and 50 µg, icv, was administered 3 min before choline. Twenty-five µg captopril did not block the pressor effect of choline, while 50 µg captopril blocked it significantly. Our results suggest that the central renin-angiotensin system may participate in the increase in blood pressure induced by icv choline in normotensive rats.

  20. Effect of breathing techniques on blood pressure response to resistance exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Linsenbardt, S T; Thomas, T. R.; Madsen, R W

    1992-01-01

    Twenty novice male weight lifters performed resistance exercises using three different breathing techniques to determine the effects on blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by an automated non-invasive method while subjects performed the single arm curl and double knee extension using the different breathing techniques. Performing the Valsalva manoeuvre (breath-holding) during either the single arm curl or double knee extension produced the highest blood pressu...

  1. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  2. Acute responses of blood pressure, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Giovanni García Cardona

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess and compare acute responsesin arterial blood pressure (BP, heartrate (HR and rating of perceived exertion scale(PES during a variable-resistance weight-liftingcircuit (WC versus submaximal aerobicexercise in cycloergometer (AE in individualswith hypertension scaled I and II.Methods: 21 subjects with controlled hypertensionscaled I and II (8 males and 13 females,15 actives and 6 sedentary, age 56±5.9 yearswere evaluated. All the participants receivedtraining about warm-up, use of PES, and respiratoryand weight lifting machines techniquesin exercise. All underwent a single session ofWC in six stations at 50% 1RM and a singlesession of AE at 70%-80% FCmax, in intervalsof one week. BP, HR and PES was measured inboth exercises.Results: To compare responses in both typesof exercise, at Test was used. It found a lowerresponse of HR (p<0.001, systolic BP (p<0.005and PES (p<0.005 during WC. Greater diastolicBP response was found in WC, although it wasnot significative (p=0.139. Sedentary subjectsshowed greater increases. Responses of variableswere similar between stations in WC.Conclusion: This study evidenced a similarbehavior of acute cardiovascular responses and PESduring WC versus AE in hypertensive subjects. Itshowed a lower pressure response during WC insubjects with previous aerobic training.

  3. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  4. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  5. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  6. Social support is associated with blood pressure responses in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Stephen; Whiteley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed The present study tested whether parents caring for children with developmental disabilities would have higher blood pressure compared to parents of typically developing children (controls). It also examined the psychosocial factors underlying this observation. Thirty-five parents of children with developmental disability and thirty controls completed standard measures of perceived stress, child challenging behaviours and social support and wore an ambulatory blood pressure (...

  7. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  8. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dangerous as elevations of both systolic and diastolic pressure. Blood pressure is elevated for two main reasons: too ... and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), reduce blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels Beta blockers, which also cause the heart ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  11. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  12. Intra-arterial blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Souza Nery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe blood pressure responses during resistance exercise in hypertensive subjects and to determine whether an exercise protocol alters these responses. INTRODUCTION: Resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement for aerobic exercise for hypertensive patients. However, blood pressure changes during this kind of exercise have been poorly investigated in hypertensives, despite multiple studies of normotensives demonstrating significant increases in blood pressure. METHODS: Ten hypertensive and ten normotensive subjects performed, in random order, two different exercise protocols, composed by three sets of the knee extension exercise conducted to exhaustion: 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM with a 45-s rest between sets, and 80% of 1RM with a 90-s rest between sets. Radial intra-arterial blood pressure was measured before and throughout each protocol. RESULTS: Compared with normotensives, hypertensives displayed greater increases in systolic BP during exercise at 80% (+80±3 vs. +62±2 mmHg, P<0.05 and at 40% of 1RM (+75±3 vs. +67±3 mmHg, P<0.05. In both exercise protocols, systolic blood pressure returned to baseline during the rest periods between sets in the normotensives; however, in the hypertensives, BP remained slightly elevated at 40% of 1RM. During rest periods, diastolic blood pressure returned to baseline in hypertensives and dropped below baseline in normotensives. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise increased systolic blood pressure considerably more in hypertensives than in normotensives, and this increase was greater when lower-intensity exercise was performed to the point of exhaustion.

  13. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Aug 26,2016 Many medications known ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  14. High Blood Pressure and Women

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    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people ... was last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  17. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Page Content What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against the ... do I know if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent killer" because ...

  18. Use of intrinsic modes in biology: Examples of indicial response of pulmonary blood pressure to ± step hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Shen, Zheng; Huang, Norden E.; Fung, Yuan Cheng

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a new method to analyze biological nonstationary stochastic variables has been presented. The method is especially suitable to analyze the variation of one biological variable with respect to changes of another variable. Here, it is illustrated by the change of the pulmonary blood pressure in response to a step change of oxygen concentration in the gas that an animal breathes. The pressure signal is resolved into the sum of a set of oscillatory intrinsic mode functions, which have z...

  19. E112D polymorphism in the prolylcarboxypeptidase gene is associated with blood pressure response to benazepril in Chinese hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; HONG Xiu-mei; XING Hou-xun; Li Jian-ping; HUO Yong; XU Xi-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Marked interindividual variation exists in blood pressure response to benazepril, which is considered to have genetic basis. Our objectives were to evaluate whether the E112D polymorphism in the prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) gene has impact on blood pressure response to benazeprit.Methods Hypertensive patients from Huoqiu County and Yuexi County of Anhui Province received daily treatment with an oral dosage of 10 mg benazepril for 15 days. Genotypes of the E112D polymorphism in the PRCP gene were determined by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Multivariate linear and Logistic regressions using generalized estimating equation model were performed in a total of 1092 patients to evaluate the association of PRCP genotypes and blood pressure response to benazepril.Results Patients carrying ED or DD genotype had a less systolic blood pressure reduction (adjusted β= -3.7±1.1, P<0.001), a less diastolic blood pressure reduction (adjusted β= -3.1±0.8, P <0.001) and a lower percentage of reaching target blood pressure defined as SBP lower than 140 mmHg and DBP lower than 90 mmHg (adjusted OR=0.6, P=0.005) than those patients carrying EE genotype. In addition, the results from stratified analysis by county (Huoqiu or Yuexi)were similar to those observed in the pooled population.Conclusions Our data suggest that the El12D polymorphism in the PRCP gene may be a useful genetic marker to predict the antihypertensive effect of short-term benazepril treatment in hypertensive patients of Anhui Province, China.

  20. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  1. Perfectionism Affects Blood Pressure in Response to Repeated Exposure to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Phebe; Rice, Kenneth G; Caffee, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of perfectionism on blood pressure (BP) in response to repeated exposure to mental arithmetic stressors. College students (N = 30) in a laboratory setting were administered a series of challenging mathematical tasks. BP was measured at baseline and after each task. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that BP tended to decline over the course of the mathematical tasks. However, higher levels of performance standards predicted relatively stable levels of systolic BP, whereas moderate and lower levels of standards predicted declines in systolic BP. Higher levels of self-critical perfectionism predicted generally sustained levels of diastolic BP, with moderate and low self-criticism predicting declines in diastolic BP during the repeated stressors. These preliminary results suggest that students with higher levels of perfectionism may be at risk for physiological problems associated with stress reactivity, perhaps especially so in situations in which they experience persistent stress. Although results were qualified by a relatively small sample size, effects were statistically significant and supported the importance of examining the short-term and long-term implications of the effects of perfectionism on cardiovascular function and the different implications of elevations in systolic and diastolic BP. PMID:24966018

  2. Influence of albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate on blood pressure response to antihypertensive drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Flack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available John M Flack1, Karl Duncan2, Suzanne E Ohmit3, Ruth Quah1, Xuefeng Liu1, Preeti Ramappa1, Sandra Norris1, Lowell Hedquist1, Amanda Dudley1, Samar A Nasser11Division of Translational Research and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Department of Interventional Cardiology, Harper University Hospital, Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 3School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USABackground: Albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR, two factors linked to kidney and vascular function, may influence longitudinal blood pressure (BP responses to complex antihypertensive drug regimens.Methods: We reviewed the clinic records of 459 patients with hypertension in an urban, academic practice.Results: Mean patient age was 57-years, 89% of patients were African American, and 69% were women. Mean patient systolic/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP at baseline was 171/98 mmHg while taking an average of 3.3 antihypertensive medications. At baseline, 27% of patients had estimated (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.732, 28% had micro-albuminuria (30–300 mg/g and 16% had macro-albuminuria (300 mg/g. The average longitudinal BP decline over the observation period (mean 7.2 visits was 25/12 mmHg. In adjusted regression models, macro-albuminuria predicted a 10.3 mmHg lesser longitudinal SBP reduction (p < 0.001 and a 7.9 mmHg lesser longitudinal DBP reduction (p < 0.001; similarly eGFR <60 ml/min/1.732 predicted an 8.4 mmHg lesser longitudinal SBP reduction (p < 0.001 and a 4.5 lesser longitudinal DBP reduction (p < 0.001. Presence of either micro- or macro-albuminuria, or lower eGFR, also significantly delayed the time to attainment of goal BP.Conclusions: These data suggest that an attenuated decline in BP in drug-treated hypertensives, resulting in higher average BP levels over the long-term, may mediate a portion of the increased risk of cardiovascular-renal disease linked to elevated

  3. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned. PMID:21399536

  4. Triphasic blood pressure responses to cannabinoids: do we understand the mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Barbara; Baranowska-Kuczko, Marta; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2012-04-01

    The cannabinoids comprise three major classes of substances, including compounds derived from the cannabis plant (e.g. Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol and the chemically related substances CP55940 and HU210), endogenously formed (e.g. anandamide) and synthetic compounds (e.g. WIN55212-2). Beyond their psychotropic effects, cannabinoids have complex effects on blood pressure, including biphasic changes of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol and WIN55212-2 and an even triphasic effect of anandamide. The differing pattern of blood pressure changes displayed by the three types of compounds is not really surprising since, although they share an agonistic effect at cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, some compounds have additional effects. In particular, anandamide is known for its pleiotropic effects, and there is overwhelming evidence that anandamide influences blood pressure via (i) CB(1) receptors, (ii) TRPV1 receptors, (iii) endothelial cannabinoid receptors and (iv) degradation products. This review is dedicated to the description of the effects of externally added cannabinoids on cardiovascular parameters in vivo. First, the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in anaesthetized animals will be highlighted since most data have been generated in experiments of that type. The text will follow the three phases of anandamide on blood pressure, and we will check to which extent cardiovascular changes elicited by other cannabinoids show overlap with those effects or differ. The second part will be dedicated to the cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoids in conscious animals. In the third part, cardiovascular effects in humans will be discussed, and similarities and differences with respect to the data from animals will be examined. PMID:22022923

  5. Triphasic blood pressure responses to cannabinoids: do we understand the mechanism?

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowska, Barbara; Baranowska-Kuczko, Marta; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    The cannabinoids comprise three major classes of substances, including compounds derived from the cannabis plant (e.g. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and the chemically related substances CP55940 and HU210), endogenously formed (e.g. anandamide) and synthetic compounds (e.g. WIN55212-2). Beyond their psychotropic effects, cannabinoids have complex effects on blood pressure, including biphasic changes of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and WIN55212-2 and an even triphasic effect of anandamide. The differing ...

  6. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  7. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 1,2016 A diet that includes ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  8. Myths about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Myths About High Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 12,2014 You CAN manage your ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or high blood pressure ... same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ... he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure is due ...

  10. Histamine H2 receptor blockade augments blood pressure responses to acute submaximal exercise in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Hyung-Woo; Stebbins, Charles L; Choi, Hyun-Min; Park, Joonsung; Nho, Hosung; Kim, Jong-Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Histamine is a potent vasodilator that has been found to increase during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that histamine would attenuate blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (CO), and vascular resistance responses to short-term, submaximal dynamic exercise during H2 receptor blockade. Fourteen healthy men (20-29 years of age) were studied. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) BP and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest and during the last minute of 10 min of submaximal cycling exercise (60% of peak oxygen consumption) in the absence and presence of histamine H2 receptor blockade (ranitidine, 300 mg). Stroke volume (SV) (impedance cardiography) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) were measured, and CO, rate × pressure product (RPP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. Plasma levels of histamine were also measured. H2 blockade had no effects on any variables at rest. During exercise, SBP (184 ± 3 mm Hg vs. 166 ± 2 mm Hg), MAP (121 ± 2 mm Hg vs. 112 ± 5 mm Hg), and RPP (25.9 ± 0.8 × 10(3) mm Hg·beats/min vs. 23.5 ± 0.8 × 10(3) mm Hg/beats·min) were greater during blocked conditions (P < 0.05), and an interaction was observed for TPR. SV, DBP, HR, and NE levels were unaffected by blockade. Plasma histamine increased from 1.83 ± 0.14 ng/mL at rest to 2.33 ± 0.23 ng/mL during exercise (P < 0.05) and was not affected by H2 blockade (1.56 ± 0.23 ng/mL vs. 1.70 ± 0.24 ng/mL). These findings suggest that, during submaximal exercise, histamine attenuates BP, vascular resistance, and the work of the heart via activation of H2 receptors and that these effects occurred primarily in the vasculature and not in the myocardium. PMID:27191340

  11. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  13. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ... the office on different days and at different times to take your blood pressure. The health care ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... visit the health care provider, he or she should tell you what your blood pressure numbers are; if he or she does not, you should ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and ...

  16. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  17. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters September 26, 2011 Genes that Influence Blood Pressure In one of the ... 16 previously unknown variations. Six were found in genes already suspected of regulating blood pressure. The remaining ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  20. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... care provider and take steps to control your blood pressure by making healthy lifestyle changes and taking medications, ...

  1. Evaluation of treatment efficacy of Raynaud phenomenon by digital blood pressure response to cooling. Raynaud's Treatment Study Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricq, H R; Jennings, J R; Valter, I; Frederick, M; Thompson, B; Smith, E A; Hill, R

    2000-01-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that digital blood pressure response to cooling could provide a measure of the efficacy of treatments that are administered to patients with Raynaud phenomenon (RP). This method was used on 158 primary RP patients participating in a multicenter, randomized clinical trial that compared the efficacy of sustained-release nifedipine with temperature biofeedback in the treatment of RP. A pill placebo and electromyography served as controls. The response to local finger cooling was measured at 30 degrees, 20 degrees, 15 degrees and 10 degrees C in a temperature-controlled room under standardized conditions. The results showed that, at the 15 degrees C and 10 degrees C local cooling temperatures, the patients in the nifedipine group had a higher mean digital systolic blood pressure, a higher relative digital systolic blood pressure (RDSP), a smaller proportion of subjects with RDSP < 70% and a smaller proportion of subjects with a zero reopening pressure than the patients in the three other treatment groups. These results were statistically significant at 10 degrees C, the nifedipine group being significantly different from all others (p < 0.05); no significant difference was found between the three other treatment groups. PMID:11104295

  2. Antenatal hypoxia induces programming of reduced arterial blood pressure response in female rat offspring: role of ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaLiao Xiao

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to adverse environmental factors increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The present study tested the hypothesis that antenatal hypoxia causes a gender-dependent programming of altered arterial blood pressure response (BP in adult offspring. Time-dated pregnant rats were divided into normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from days 15 to 21 of gestation groups. The experiments were conducted in adult offspring. Antenatal hypoxia caused intrauterine growth restriction, and resulted in a gender-dependent increase Angiotensin II (Ang II-induced BP response in male offspring, but significant decrease in BP response in female offspring. The baroreflex sensitivity was not significantly altered. Consistent with the reduced blood pressure response, antenatal hypoxia significantly decreased Ang II-induced arterial vasoconstriction in female offspring. Ovariectomy had no significant effect in control animals, but significantly increased Ang II-induced maximal BP response in prenatally hypoxic animals and eliminated the difference of BP response between the two groups. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized animals significantly decreased the BP response to angiotensin II I only in control, but not in hypoxic animals. The result suggests complex programming mechanisms of antenatal hypoxia in regulation of ovary function. Hypoxia-mediated ovary dysfunction results in the phenotype of reduced vascular contractility and BP response in female adult offspring.

  3. Correlation between baseline blood pressure and the brainstem FMRI response to isometric forearm contraction in human volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, J M; Murphy, K; Harris, A D; Fjodorova, M; Cockcroft, J R; Wise, R G

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown previously that changes in brainstem neural activity correlate with changes in both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG). However, the relationship between baseline MAP and brainstem neural activity is unclear. We investigated changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal induced by SHG in 12 young adults using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). An estimation of the blood pressure response to SHG was obtained in seven subjects during a session outside the MRI scanner and was used to model the blood pressure response to SHG inside the scanner. SHG at 40% of maximum grip increased MAP (mean ± s.d.) at the end of the 180-s squeeze from 85 ± 6 mm Hg to 108 ± 15 mm Hg, P = 0.0001. The brainstem BOLD signal change associated with SHG was localised to the ventrolateral medulla. This regional BOLD signal change negatively correlated with baseline MAP, r = -0.61, P = 0.01. This relationship between baseline MAP and brainstem FMRI responses to forearm contraction is suggestive of a possible role for brainstem activity in the control of MAP and may provide mechanistic insights into neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25391759

  4. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against ... filtering units called nephrons. [ Top ] How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can damage ...

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead an active, normal life. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force that blood puts on ... and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  6. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuff, or an automatic device may measure the pressure. Blood pressure is given as 2 numbers. The first ... described above. High Blood Pressure NIHSeniorHealth: High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Heart and Vascular Diseases ...

  7. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  8. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, VERNON; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; FRANKS, B. DON; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African...

  9. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  10. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  11. Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's Worth the Effort!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Numbers: What They Mean / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" / Keep the Beat ...

  12. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  13. Review and Response to the Final Report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report presents the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) review of and response to the final report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control. The response includes a statement of NHLBI's involvement in health research, and descriptions of what steps can be taken to solve the…

  14. Blood pressure response to controlled diesel exhaust exposure in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosselman, Kristen E; Krishnan, Ranjini M; Oron, Assaf P; Jansen, Karen; Peretz, Alon; Sullivan, Jeffrey H; Larson, Timothy V; Kaufman, Joel D

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. We examined whether exposure to diesel exhaust increased blood pressure (BP) in human subjects. We analyzed data from 45 nonsmoking subjects, 18 to 49 years of age in double-blinded, crossover exposure studies, randomized to order. Each subject was exposed to diesel exhaust, maintained at 200 μg/m(3) of fine particulate matter, and filtered air for 120 minutes on days separated by ≥2 weeks. We measured BP pre-exposure, at 30-minute intervals during exposure, and 3, 5, 7, and 24 hours from exposure initiation and analyzed changes from pre-exposure values. Compared with filtered air, systolic BP increased at all of the points measured during and after diesel exhaust exposure; the mean effect peaked between 30 and 60 minutes after exposure initiation (3.8 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.4 to 8.0 mm Hg] and 5.1 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.7-9.5 mm Hg], respectively). Sex and metabolic syndrome did not modify this effect. Combining readings between 30 and 90 minutes, diesel exhaust exposure resulted in a 4.4-mm Hg increase in systolic BP, adjusted for participant characteristics and exposure perception (95% CI: 1.1-7.7 mm Hg; P=0.0009). There was no significant effect on heart rate or diastolic pressure. Diesel exhaust inhalation was associated with a rapid, measurable increase in systolic but not diastolic BP in young nonsmokers, independent of perception of exposure. This controlled trial in humans confirms findings from observational studies. The effect may be important on a population basis given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to traffic-related air pollution. PMID:22431582

  15. Impaired blood pressure response to exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: possible contribution of attenuated reflex vasoconstriction in non-exercising muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Okamatsu, S; Takeshita, A; Nakamura, M.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen patients with coronary artery disease were divided into two groups according to whether their blood pressure decreased (eight, group 1) or increased (10, group 2) in response to treadmill exercise testing. Age and the extent and distribution of coronary artery disease were similar in the two groups. At rest, blood pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, cardiac index, forearm vascular resistance, and oxygen consumption were similar in the two groups. During supine leg exercise on ...

  16. A Model of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Vaso-Vagal Responses Produced by Vestibulo-Sympathetic Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B

    2016-01-01

    Blood Pressure (BP), comprised of recurrent systoles and diastoles, is controlled by central mechanisms to maintain blood flow. Periodic behavior of BP was modeled to study how peak amplitudes and frequencies of the systoles are modulated by vestibular activation. The model was implemented as a relaxation oscillator, driven by a central signal related to Desired BP. Relaxation oscillations were maintained by a second order system comprising two integrators and a threshold element in the feedback loop. The output signal related to BP was generated as a nonlinear function of the derivative of the first state variable, which is a summation of an input related to Desired BP, feedback from the states, and an input from the vestibular system into one of the feedback loops. This nonlinear function was structured to best simulate the shapes of systoles and diastoles, the relationship between BP and Heart Rate (HR) as well as the amplitude modulations of BP and Pulse Pressure. Increases in threshold in one of the feedback loops produced lower frequencies of HR, but generated large pulse pressures to maintain orthostasis, without generating a VasoVagal Response (VVR). Pulse pressures were considerably smaller in the anesthetized rats than during the simulations, but simulated pulse pressures were lowered by including saturation in the feedback loop. Stochastic changes in threshold maintained the compensatory Baroreflex Sensitivity. Sudden decreases in Desired BP elicited non-compensatory VVRs with smaller pulse pressures, consistent with experimental data. The model suggests that the Vestibular Sympathetic Reflex (VSR) modulates BP and HR of an oscillating system by manipulating parameters of the baroreflex feedback and the signals that maintain the oscillations. It also shows that a VVR is generated when the vestibular input triggers a marked reduction in Desired BP. PMID:27065779

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood pressure response during exercise in healthy children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Niels C; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Kristensen, Peter L; Andersen, Lars B; Froberg, Karsten

    2010-10-01

    Raised blood pressure (BP) response during exercise independently predicts future hypertension. Subjects with higher BP in childhood also have elevated BP later in life. Therefore, the factors related to the regulation of exercise BP in children needs to be well understood. We hypothesized that physiological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors would influence BP response during exercise in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 439 Danish third-grade children and 364 ninth-grade adolescents. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured with sphygmomanometer during a maximal aerobic fitness test. Examined CVD risk factors were high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and aerobic fitness. A random effect model was used to test the hypotheses. In boys, HOMA-IR score and BMI were positively related to SBP response during exercise (β = 1.03, P = 0.001, and β = 0.58, P = 0.017, respectively). The effects sizes of HOMA-IR score and BMI and the significance levels only changed slightly (β = 0.91, P = 0.004, and β = 0.43, P = 0.08, respectively) when the two variables were added in the same model. A significant positive association was observed between aerobic fitness and SBP response in girls (β = 3.13 and P = 0.002). HOMA-IR score and BMI were found to be positively related to the SBP response in male children and youth. At least partly, adiposity and insulin sensitivity seem to influence exercise SBP through different mechanisms. The positive relationship observed between aerobic fitness and SBP response in girls remains unexplainable for us, although post hoc analyses revealed that it was the case in the ninth graders only. PMID:20634358

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does not, you should ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and ...

  19. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  20. [Ambulatory invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K; Wortmann, A; Engels, G

    1989-08-01

    Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement has not changed substantially since its introduction by Riva-Rocci in 1986, Korotkoff in 1905 and Recklinghausen in 1906. Random measurements in the clinic or practice reflect only incompletely the dynamic nature of the blood pressure. Blood pressure recordings by patients themselves have provided more information through better temporal resolution, however, exact characterization of the pressure response throughout the entire day and, in particular, during physical exertion are not enabled; the latter are especially important with regard to diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. In 1966, therefore, radiotelemetric transmission of direct, continuously-measured arterial blood pressure was developed which enabled beat-to-beat registration of blood pressure, outside the laboratory, during normal daily life and sport activities. The initial results showed a marked variability of the blood pressure during the course of the day (Figure 1). Excessive blood pressure increases were observed during exposure to cold, static and dynamic exercise and to a lesser degree during automobile driving and exposure to heat (Figure 3). Recording of the pressure curves via transmission by radiotelemetry shows a high degree of accuracy and temporal resolution, spatial and situational freedom but is invasive and costly in terms of personnel. The same holds true for direct continuous blood pressure registration and storage on a portable tape recorder. Portable, automatic blood pressure measuring units for ambulatory monitoring employ indirect auscultatory or oscillometric recording with a cuff. As compared with the radiotelemetric direct continuous blood pressure measuring method, the indirect method has subordinate temporal resolution, that is, the measurements are only intermittent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2676813

  1. Effects of race and sex on blood pressure and hemodynamic stress response as a function of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwal; Mills; Kalshan; Nelesen

    1997-08-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of race and sex on responses to cardiovascular stress during two menstrual cycle phases. METHODS: Subjects were exposed to two stressors, a mirror star-tracing task and a speaking task. Blood pressure, heart rate, and impedance cardiography measures of reactivity were recorded. Women were examined both during the follicular and during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle with men matched for the number of days between testing sessions (approximately 6 weeks). The subjects were 33 black and white women and 37 black and white men who were healthy, normotensive, and not being administered medication. RESULTS: For black women, the reactivity of the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to the speaking task was less in the luteal phase than it was in the follicular phase, whereas for white women (and men) there was no difference between the two phases (testing sessions) (P rate reactivities in both menstrual phases than did men (P speak, black and white women had greater DBP reactivities than did men; however, their DBP responses were attenuated during the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (P influence this phenomenon. PMID:10234110

  2. Do Cardiovascular Responses to Active and Passive Coping Tasks predict Future Blood Pressure over a 10-Month Later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian; Maratos, Frankie; Sheffield, David

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to active or passive coping tasks and single or multiple tasks predicted changes in resting blood pressure (BP) over a ten-month period. Heart rate (HR), BP, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured at rest, and during mental stress tests (mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks). A total of 104 eligible participants participated in the initial study, and 77 (74.04%) normotensive adult participants' resting BP were re-evaluated at ten-month follow-up. Regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for baseline BP, initial age, gender, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, and current cigarette smoking, heighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR responses to an active coping task (mental arithmetic) were associated with increased future SBP (ΔR2 = .060, ΔR2 = .045, respectively). Further, aggregated SBP responsivity (over the three tasks) to the predictor models resulted in significant, but smaller increases in ΔR2 accounting for .040 of the variance of follow-up SBP. These findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to active coping tasks predict future SBP. Further, compared with single tasks, the findings revealed that SBP responses to three tasks were less predictive compared to an individual task (i.e., mental arithmetic). Of importance, hemodynamic reactivity (namely CO and TPR) did not predict future BP suggesting that more general psychophysiological processes (e.g., inflammation, platelet aggregation) may be implicated, or that BP, but not hemodynamic reactivity may be a marker of hypertension. PMID:26972632

  3. Phytoestrogen genistein decreases contractile response of aortic artery in vitro and arterial blood pressure in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-fang LI; Long-de WANG; Song-yi QU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the mechanisms of effects of phytoestrogen genistein on the contracted rabbit aortic arteries in vitro, and observe the effect of genistein and 17-β estradiol on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: (1) Strips of rabbit aortic smooth muscle were suspended in organ baths containing Kreb's solution, and then isometric tension was measured. (2) Female mature Wistar rats underwent a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). Sham-operated rats (SHAM) were used as controls. After administration of genistein (0.4(1) Similar to 17-β estradiol, genistein could dose-dependently relax 40 mmol/L KCl-precontracted arterial strips.Incubation with Nω-L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), methylene blue (MB), indomethacin, propranolol or endothelium removal did not affect relaxation induced by genistein. In calcium-free solution containing 0.01mmol/L egtazic acid (EGTA), genistein inhibited not only the first phase contraction induced by noradrenaline (NA), but also the second contraction induced by CaCl2. In addition, genistein could reduce the contractile responses of NA, KCl and CaCl2,and shift their cumulative concentration-response curves rightward. (2) MAP in OVX rats was significantly higher compared with that of SHAM rats. However, after chronically treatment with genistein or 17-β estradiol for 21 d the baseline MAP in OVX rats was reduced significantly. CONCLUSIONS: (1) The vasodilator effect of genistein in vitro is endothelium independent and not related to the nitric oxide, its mechanisms being probably due to inhibition of Ca2+ influx through calcium channels in a noncompetitive manner and Ca2+ release from intracellular store induced by NA. (2) Administration of genistein or 17-β estradiol can chronically decrease MAP in OVX rats.

  4. Genetic variants in adiponectin and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium or potassium interventions: a family-based association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C; Wang, Y; Ren, K-Y; Yan, D-Y; Guo, T-S; Zheng, W-L; Yuan, Z-Y; Mu, J-J

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic factors might have an important role in blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary salt or potassium intake. The aim of this study was to assess the association of common genetic variants of the adiponectin gene with BP responses to controlled dietary sodium or potassium interventions. Subjects (n=334) from 124 families in rural areas of Northern China were recruited. After a 3-day baseline observation, participants sequentially maintained a 7-day low-sodium diet (NaCl, 3 g per day; or sodium, 51.3 mmol per day), followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (NaCl, 18 g per day; or sodium, 307.8 mmol per day) and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention (KCl, 4.5 g per day; or potassium, 60 mmol per day). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene were selected as the study sites. After adjustment for multiple testing, the adiponectin SNP rs16861205 was significantly associated with the diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-salt intervention, and the DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to high-salt intervention (P=0.028, 0.023 and 0.027, respectively). SNP rs822394 was associated with the DBP and MAP responses to low-salt intervention and the DBP response to high-salt intervention (P=0.023, 0.030 and 0.033 respectively). Meanwhile, significant association also existed between SNP rs16861194 and the systolic BP response to potassium supplementation intervention (P=0.026). In addition, SNP rs822394 was significantly associated with basal DBP after adjustment for multiple testing (P=0.033). Our study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. PMID:27011258

  5. Genetic variants in adiponectin and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium or potassium interventions: a family-based association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C; Wang, Y; Ren, K-y; Yan, D-y; Guo, T-s; Zheng, W-l; Yuan, Z-y; Mu, J-j

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic factors might have an important role in blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary salt or potassium intake. The aim of this study was to assess the association of common genetic variants of the adiponectin gene with BP responses to controlled dietary sodium or potassium interventions. Subjects (n=334) from 124 families in rural areas of Northern China were recruited. After a 3-day baseline observation, participants sequentially maintained a 7-day low-sodium diet (NaCl, 3 g per day; or sodium, 51.3 mmol per day), followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (NaCl, 18 g per day; or sodium, 307.8 mmol per day) and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention (KCl, 4.5 g per day; or potassium, 60 mmol per day). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene were selected as the study sites. After adjustment for multiple testing, the adiponectin SNP rs16861205 was significantly associated with the diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-salt intervention, and the DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to high-salt intervention (P=0.028, 0.023 and 0.027, respectively). SNP rs822394 was associated with the DBP and MAP responses to low-salt intervention and the DBP response to high-salt intervention (P=0.023, 0.030 and 0.033 respectively). Meanwhile, significant association also existed between SNP rs16861194 and the systolic BP response to potassium supplementation intervention (P=0.026). In addition, SNP rs822394 was significantly associated with basal DBP after adjustment for multiple testing (P=0.033). Our study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. PMID:27011258

  6. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  7. What is the magnitude of blood pressure response to a programme of moderate intensity exercise? Randomised controlled trial among sedentary adults with unmedicated hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, A.R.; L.A. Moore; McKenna, J.; Riddoch, C J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend regular, moderate intensity aerobic exercise such as brisk walking as a means of blood pressure reduction. However, there is a lack of consistent evidence regarding the magnitude of blood pressure response to such a prescription. In particular, no well designed studies have investigated the efficacy of a programme of exercise meeting current guidelines. AIM: To investigate the effect of a six-week programme of moderat...

  8. Arm vs. Combined Leg and Arm Exercise: Blood Pressure Responses and Ratings of Perceived Exertion at the Same Indirectly Determined Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Di Blasio; Andrea Sablone; Paola Civino; Emanuele D'Angelo; Sabina Gallina; Patrizio Ripari

    2009-01-01

    Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR). Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank erg...

  9. High Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood to pass through more easily. Alpha-beta blockers not only reduce nerve impulses, but also make ... with less force. They combine the effects of beta blockers and alpha blockers. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (also ...

  10. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure . Your heart may not be able to circulate enough blood to meet your body's needs. Endocrine ... related to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! Related Tools HBP Risk Calculator HBP Trackers Videos ...

  11. Blood Pressure Measurement Guidelines for Physical Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, Ethel M; Fick, Ann; Sadowsky, H. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical the...

  12. Relation of Risk of Atrial Fibrillation With Systolic Blood Pressure Response During Exercise Stress Testing (from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Nasir, Khurram; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-12-15

    Decreases in systolic blood pressure during exercise may predispose to arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) because of underlying abnormal autonomic tone. We examined the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF in 57,442 (mean age 54 ± 13 years, 47% women, and 29% black) patients free of baseline AF who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing project. Exercise systolic blood pressure response was examined as a categorical variable across clinically relevant categories (>20 mm Hg: referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg, and ≤0 mm Hg) and per 1-SD decrease. Cox regression, adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, history of coronary heart disease, history of heart failure, and metabolic equivalent of task achieved, was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 5.0 years, a total of 3,381 cases (5.9%) of AF were identified. An increased risk of AF was observed with decreasing systolic blood pressure response (>20 mm Hg: HR 1.0, referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg: HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99, 1.20; ≤0 mm Hg: HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.40). Similar results were obtained per 1-SD decrease in systolic blood pressure response (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). The results were consistent when stratified by age, sex, race, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. In conclusion, our results suggest that a decreased systolic blood pressure response during exercise may identify subjects who are at risk for developing AF. PMID:26603907

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments ... stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for children of the same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  17. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  18. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your doctor about any over-the-counter medications you are taking or are thinking about taking. Does Hypertension or Preeclampsia During Pregnancy Cause Long-Term Heart and Blood Vessel Problems? The effects of high blood pressure during pregnancy vary depending on the disorder and ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information ... Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood ...

  20. Pharmacogenomic Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Blood Pressure Response to β-Blockers in Hypertensive African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan; Wang, Zhiying; Beitelshees, Amber L; McDonough, Caitrin W; Langaee, Taimour Y; Hall, Karen; Schmidt, Siegfried O F; Curry, Robert W; Gums, John G; Bailey, Kent R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chapman, Arlene B; Turner, Stephen T; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, Julie A

    2016-03-01

    African Americans suffer a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In this study, we performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study of blood pressure (BP) response to β-blockers in African Americans with uncomplicated hypertension. Genome-wide meta-analysis was performed in 318 African American hypertensive participants in the 2 Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses studies: 150 treated with atenolol monotherapy and 168 treated with metoprolol monotherapy. The analysis adjusted for age, sex, baseline BP and principal components for ancestry. Genome-wide significant variants with Pmetoprolol monotherapy, and atenolol add-on therapy: -9.3 versus -4.6, -9.6 versus -4.8, and -9.7 versus -6.4 mm Hg, respectively (3-group meta-analysis P=2.5×10(-8), β=-4.42 mm Hg per variant allele). Similarly, LRRC15 rs11313667 was validated for systolic BP response to β-blocker therapy with 3-group meta-analysis P=7.2×10(-8) and β=-3.65 mm Hg per variant allele. In this first pharmacogenomic genome-wide meta-analysis of BP response to β-blockers in African Americans, we identified novel variants that may provide valuable information for personalized antihypertensive treatment in this group. PMID:26729753

  1. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features ... are sent to the brain. Causes High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood ...

  2. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? Based on your diagnosis, health care providers ... the medicine suspected of causing your high blood pressure. If high blood pressure persists or is first diagnosed as primary ...

  3. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  4. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... you have high blood pressure. How can I control or prevent high blood pressure? High blood pressure ...

  5. Lactotripeptides effect on office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure stress response, pulse wave velocity and cardiac output in patients with high-normal blood pressure or first-degree hypertension: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Rosticci, Martina; Gerocarni, Beatrice; Bacchelli, Stefano; Veronesi, Maddalena; Strocchi, Enrico; Borghi, Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Contrasting data partially support a certain antihypertensive efficacy of lactotripeptides (LTPs) derived from enzymatic treatment of casein hydrolysate. Our aim was to evaluate this effect on a large number of hemodynamic parameters. We conducted a prospective double-blind randomized clinical trial, which included 52 patients affected by high-normal blood pressure (BP) or first-degree hypertension. We investigated the effect of a 6-week treatment with the LTPs isoleucine-proline-proline and valine-proline-proline at 3 mg per day, assumed to be functional food, on office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) values, stress-induced BP increase and cardiac output-related parameters. In the LTP-treated subjects, we observed a significant reduction in office systolic BP (SBP; -5±8 mm Hg, P=0.013) and a significant improvement in pulse wave velocity (PWV; -0.66±0.81 m s(-1), P=0.001; an instrumental biomarker of vascular rigidity). No effect on 24-h ABPM parameters and BP reaction to stress was observed from treatment with the combined LTPs. LTPs, but not placebo, were associated with a mild but significant change in the stroke volume (SV), SV index (markers of cardiac flow), the acceleration index (ACI) and velocity index (VI) (markers of cardiac contractility). No effect was observed on parameters related to fluid dynamics or vascular resistance. LTPs positively influenced the office SBP, PWV, SV, SV index, ACI and VI in patients with high-normal BP or first-degree hypertension. PMID:21753776

  6. Relationship between body composition changes and the blood pressure response to exercise test in overweight Japanese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numata,Takeyuki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the link between changes in body composition and the blood pressure (BP response to exercise in overweight Japanese by a retrospective clinical study carried out over a 3-year period. We analyzed data for 38 overweight Japanese aged 22-69 years (47.8 +- 11.4 at baseline. Among the participants, 32 overweight subjects (body mass index : BMI, 29.0 +- 3.0 kg/m2 were further analyzed with a 3-year follow up. BP at rest, the BP response to an exercise test, the aerobic exercise-level determined ventilatory threshold (VT, and body composition were evaluated at an interval of 1 year. During the study period, there were 6 drop outs, who started to receive anti-hypertensive drugs because of the development of hypertension. Based on analysis of follow up data, parameters of body composition were significantly reduced over the 3 years. Systolic BP (SBP at rest and at VT was also reduced. In addition, delta SBP (? : delta represents positive change in parameters at VT was positively correlated with ?parameters of body composition over the 3 years. In overweight subjects with increased body weight, there was a significant time (pre vs year 3 effect and interactions by 2 factor-factorial ANOVA. The present study indicates that changes in body composition are closely linked to the SBP response to an exercise test.

  7. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  8. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  9. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia in response to atonal music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time. A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents was received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching. Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic, possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the aesthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one.

  10. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... is your pressure when your heart relaxes ( diastolic pressure ). High Blood Pressure Medicines Use this guide to help you ...

  11. Cardiac and blood pressure responses to mental stress in reactive hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannarale, G; Isea, J E; Coats, A J; Conway, J; Sleight, P

    1991-01-01

    To study the haemodynamic response to a standardized mental stress, we measured ascending aorta velocity using Doppler ultrasonography in 20 reactive ("white-coat") hypertensives and 20 age and sex matched normal controls (NC) familiar with the hospital setting. Reactive hypertensives (RH) had 3 office diastolic BP recordings between 90-110 mmHg and ambulatory BP less than 140/90 mmHg. The cardiac response to mental arithmetic was greater in RH than NC (minute distance, RH: +36.7 +/- 40.2% vs NC: +10.3 +/- 19%, p less than 0.05; peak velocity, RH: +8.4 +/- 16.5% vs NC: -1.4 +/- 11.9%, p less than 0.05), and there was a different peripheral resistance response (RH: -12.2 +/- 24.2% vs NC: +6.5 +/- 22%, p less than 0.05). We suggest that subjects with reactive hypertension have a strong cardiac response to mental stress and this could be a characteristic of this condition. PMID:2022068

  12. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  13. Microvascular blood flow response in the intestinal wall and the omentum during negative wound pressure therapy of the open abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hansson, Johan; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Higher closure rates of the open abdomen have been reported with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) compared with other wound therapy techniques. However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of intestinal fistulae. The present study measures microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall and the omentum before and during NPWT. Methods Six pigs underwent midline incision and application of NPWT to the open abdomen. The microvascular blood flow in...

  14. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P < 0.0005). 443 patients were measured on two separate occasions and the interarm difference for systolic blood pressure was reproducible for...

  15. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

    OpenAIRE

    Bronzwaer, Anne-Sophie G. T.; Stok, Wim J.; Westerhof, Berend E.; Johannes J. van Lieshout

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV) is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV). Stroke volume index (SVI) serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI a...

  16. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-SophieG.T.Bronzwaer; WimJ.Stok; BerendE.Westerhof; JohannesJ.Van Lieshout

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV) is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV). Stroke volume index (SVI) serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI ...

  17. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  18. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute To Improve Blood Pressure, Try the DASH Diet If you're one ...

  19. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  4. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  5. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  6. Heart rate and blood pressure responses during hypoxic cycles of a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program in patients at risk for or with mild COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulhaber M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Martin Faulhaber,1 Hannes Gatterer,1 Thomas Haider,2 Tobias Linser,1 Nikolaus Netzer,1 Martin Burtscher11Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; 2Institute of Veterinary Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: The aim of this study was to provide information on heart rate and blood pressure responses during a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program in COPD patients. Sixteen participants with COPD symptoms were randomly assigned to a hypoxia or control group and completed a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program (five sessions per week, each consisting of three to five breathing cycles, each cycle lasting 3–5 minutes with 3-minute breaks between cycles. During the breathing cycles, the hypoxia group received hypoxic air (inspired fraction of oxygen 15%–12%, whereas the control group received normal air (sham hypoxia. During the breaks, all participants breathed normoxic room air. Arterial oxygen saturation, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during the normoxic and hypoxic/sham hypoxic periods. For each breathing cycle, changes from normoxia to hypoxia/sham hypoxia were calculated, and changes were averaged for each of the 15 sessions and for each week. Changes in arterial oxygen saturation were significantly different between groups in the course of the 3 weeks (two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures, with post hoc differences in weeks 1, 2, and 3. During the course of the intermittent hypoxia application, no between-group differences were detected for blood pressure or rate pressure product values. Changes in heart rate were significantly different between groups in the course of the 3 weeks (two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures, with post hoc differences only in week 3. Averages over all 15 sessions were significantly higher in the hypoxia group for heart rate and rate pressure product, and tended to be

  7. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Sardari; Mostafa Nejatian; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP) is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR) in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent sta...

  8. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure from normal systolic blood pressure (120 mm Hg) in middle age to high (160 mm Hg). Normal blood pressure in middle age but a steep rise to very high (200 mm Hg). Moderately high blood pressure (140 mm Hg) in ...

  9. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Sardari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent standard symptom-limited exercise testing immediately before and also after the completion of the CR sessions. rSBP was defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure at 3 minutes in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise.Results: An abnormal baseline rSBP after exercise was a strong predictor of exercise parameters in the last session, including metabolic equivalents (β = -0.617, SE = 0.127, p value < 0.001 and peak O2 consumption (β = -1.950, SE = 0.363, p value < 0.001 measured in the last session adjusted for baseline exercise characteristics, demographics, function class, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Conclusion: The current study strongly emphasizes the predictive role of baseline rSBP after exercise in evaluating exercise parameters following CR. This baseline index can predict abnormal METs value, peak O2 consumption, post-exercise heart rate, and heart rate recovery after a 24-session CR program.

  10. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  11. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  12. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... care and improve or maintain quality of life. Blood Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High ...

  13. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure reading) of more than 6,700 Dutch adults. Participants were ages 55 to 106 and ... stroke or death from other blood pressure-related diseases up to age 80, the study found. Moderately ...

  14. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  15. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  16. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  17. Influence factors of salt-sensitive hypertension and responses of blood pressure and urinary sodium and potassium excretion to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶舟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of saltsensitive hypertension and to observe changes of blood pressures and urinary sodium and potassium excretion in response to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients in China.Methods Essential hypertensive patients from Beijing Jinzhan second community were included in this study.Salt-sensitivity was determined via the improved Sullivan’s acute oral saline loading

  18. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  19. l-Citrulline supplementation attenuates blood pressure, wave reflection and arterial stiffness responses to metaboreflex and cold stress in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kalfon, Roy

    2016-07-01

    Combined isometric exercise or metaboreflex activation (post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI)) and cold pressor test (CPT) increase cardiac afterload, which may lead to adverse cardiovascular events. l-Citrulline supplementation (l-CIT) reduces systemic arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)) at rest and aortic haemodynamic responses to CPT. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of l-CIT on aortic haemodynamic and baPWV responses to PEMI+CPT. In all, sixteen healthy, overweight/obese males (age 24 (sem 6) years; BMI 29·3 (sem 4·0) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to placebo or l-CIT (6 g/d) for 14 d in a cross-over design. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), aortic augmented pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx), baPWV, reflection timing (Tr) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated at rest and during isometric handgrip exercise (IHG), PEMI and PEMI+CPT at baseline and after 14 d. No significant effects were evident after l-CIT at rest. l-CIT attenuated the increases in aortic SBP and wave reflection (AP and AIx) during IHG, aortic DBP, MAP and AIx during PEMI, and aortic SBP, DBP, MAP, AP, AIx and baPWV during PEMI+CPT compared with placebo. HR and Tr were unaffected by l-CIT in all conditions. Our findings demonstrate that l-CIT attenuates aortic blood pressure and wave reflection responses to exercise-related metabolites. Moreover, l-CIT attenuates the exaggerated arterial stiffness response to combined metaboreflex activation and cold exposure, suggesting a protective effect against increased cardiac afterload during physical stress. PMID:27160957

  20. Immediate responses of arterial blood pressure and heart rate to sudden inhalation of high concentrations of isoflurane in normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T; Nishino, T; Hiraga, K

    1993-11-01

    Inhalation of pungent volatile anesthetics elicits respiratory reflex responses. To clarify whether an upper airway irritation produced by pungent anesthetics can also induce circulatory reflex responses that are clinically significant, a sudden administration of 5% isoflurane by mask was performed during continuous measurement of arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in eight normotensive and eight hypertensive patients anesthetized with thiamylal and paralyzed with vecuronium. The sudden administration of 5% isoflurane caused immediate increases in BP, HR, and rate pressure products (RPP) in both normotensive and hypertensive patients. The responses observed were more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive patients. The circulatory changes in hypertensive patients were sufficient to be clinically significant. Our findings suggest that sudden administration of a high concentration of pungent volatile anesthetics may be associated with transient hypertensive responses in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:8214702

  1. Murata - A Pressure Sensor Based Blood Pressure : Preliminary Reliability Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nummelin, Elina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability of a blood pressure sensor developed by Murata as a blood pressure monitoring tool compared to an automatic blood pressure monitor, Omron M6. Blood pressure is one of the principal vital signs and is utilized for monitoring both short-term and long-term health of the cardiovascular system and thereby the health of the patient. Therefore there is a need for a non-invasive blood pressure monitor for accurate, continuous and comfortab...

  2. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  3. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Özanli; Sebahat Tülpar; Yunus Yılmaz; Fatih Yıldız

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP) values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males) children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pr...

  4. Home blood pressure monitoring for mild hypertensives.

    OpenAIRE

    Midanik, L T; Resnick, B; Hurley, L B; Smith, E J; Mccarthy, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinical trial of 204 untreated patients with mild hypertension was conducted to assess the effect of home blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure level, pharmacologic treatment, reduction of risk factors, and use of health services. After 1 year, no statistically significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups. The findings indicate that, while home blood pressure monitoring may be useful, it has no measurable short-term impact on these aspects of blood pres...

  5. Accuracy of the blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F

    2006-08-01

    Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412

  6. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-SophieG.T.Bronzwaer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rationale:\tA critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV. Stroke volume index (SVI serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI and regional brain perfusion during CBV depletion and repletion in spontaneously breathing volunteers. Methods: This study quantified in 14 healthy subjects (11 male the effects of CBV depletion (by 30 and 70 degrees passive head-up tilt (HUT and a fluid challenge (by tilt back on CBV (thoracic admittance, mean middle cerebral artery (MCA blood flow velocity (Vmean, SVI, cardiac index (CI , PPV and SPV. Results: PPV (103±89%, p< 0.05 and SPV (136±117%, p< 0.05 increased with progression of central hypovolemia manifested by a reduction in thoracic admittance (11±5%, p< 0.001, SVI (28±6%, p< 0.001, CI (6±8%, p< 0.001 and MCAVmean (17±7%, p< 0.05 but not in arterial pressure. The reduction in MCAVmean correlated to the fall in SVI (R2=0.52, p< 0.0001 and inversely to PPV and SPV (R2=0.46 (p< 0.0001 and R2=0.45 (p< 0.0001, respectively. PPV and SPV predicted a ≥15% reduction in MCAVmean and SVI with comparable sensitivity (67%/ 67% vs. 63%/ 68% respectively and specificity (89%/94% vs. 89%/94%, respectively. A rapid fluid challenge by tilt-back restored all parameters to baseline values within one minute. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing subjects, a reduction in MCAVmean was related to an increase in PPV and SPV during graded CBV depletion and repletion. Specifically, PPV and SPV predicted changes in both SVI and MCAVmean with comparable sensitivity and specificity, however the predictive value is limited in spontaneously breathing subjects.

  7. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 What is ... Blood Pressure? How Can I Reduce High Blood Pressure? High Blood Pressure and Stroke What Is Diabetes and How ...

  8. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); P. Munroe (Patricia); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); M. Bochud (Murielle); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.D. Tobin (Martin); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); S.J. Hwang; V. Pihur (Vasyl); P. Vollenweider (Peter); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); A. Teumer (Alexander); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J. Hua Zhao (Jing); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S.C. Heath (Simon); S. Sõber (Siim); A. Parsa (Afshin); J. Luan; P. Arora (Pankaj); A. Dehghan (Abbas); F. Zhang (Feng); G. Lucas (Gavin); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Peden (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Rudan (Igor); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); A.N. Parker (Alex); C. Fava (Cristiano); J.C. Chambers (John); E.R. Fox (Ervin); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Jin Go (Min); P. van der Harst (Pim); W. Hong Linda Kao (Wen); M. Sjögren (Marketa); D.G. Vinay; M. Alexander (Myriam); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Y. Liu (Yongmei); G. Shi (Gang); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Seielstad (Mark); X. Sim (Xueling); K.-D. Hoang Nguyen; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Matullo (Giuseppe); Y. Wu (Ying); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; M.N. Cooper (Matthew); C. Platou (Carl); E. Org (Elin); R. Hardy (Rebecca); S. Dahgam (Santosh); J. Palmen (Jutta); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.S. Braund (Peter); T. Kuznetsova (Tatiana); C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal (Cuno); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); W. Palmas (Walter); H. Campbell (Harry); B. Ludwig (Barbara); M. Tomaszewski; I. Tzoulaki; N.D. Palmer (Nicholette); T. Aspelund (Thor); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); J.R. O´Connell; N.I. Steinle (Nanette); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Kardia (Sharon); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); D. Hadley (David); M.J. Brown (Morris); J. Connell (John); A. Hingorani (Aroon); I.N.M. Day (Ian); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.P. Beilby (John); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); A.W. Dreisbach (Albert); Y. Li (Yali); J. Hunter Young; J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); N.R. Lee (Nanette); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); M. Olden (Matthias); C. Pattaro (Cristian); J.A. Hoffman Bolton (Judith); A. Köttgen (Anna); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); V. Mooser (Vincent); N. Chaturvedi (Nish); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M. Islam (Muhammad); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); S.R. Kulkarni (Smita); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P. Howard (Philip); A. Taylor (Andrew); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); F. Ricceri (Fulvio); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); A.B. Weder (Alan); S.C. Hunt (Steven); Y.V. Sun (Yan); R.N. Bergman (Richard); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); L.J. Scott (Laura); H.M. Stringham (Heather); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); M. Perola (Markus); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); S.-M. Brand; J.A. Staessen (Jan); Y.A. Wang (Ying); P.R. Burton (Paul); M. Soler Artigas (Maria); Y. Dong (Yanbin); H. Snieder (Harold); H. Zhu (Haidong); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Rudock (Megan); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Doumatey (Ayo); D. Shriner (Daniel); G. Veldre (Gudrun); M. Viigimaa (Margus); S. Kinra (Sanjay); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); V. Tripathy (Vikal); C.D. Langefeld (Carl); A. Rosengren (Annika); D.S. Thelle (Dag); A. Maria Corsi (Anna); A. Singleton (Andrew); T. Forrester (Terrence); G. Hilton (Gina); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); T. Salako (Tunde); N. Iwai (Naoharu); Y. Kita (Yoshikuni); T. Ogihara (Toshio); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); T. Okamura (Tomonori); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); S. Umemura (Satoshi); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); T. Meitinger (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Y. Shin Cho (Yoon); H.-L. Kim; J.S. Sehmi (Joban); B. Hedblad (Bo); P. Nilsson (Peter); G. Davey-Smith (George); A. Wong (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Stancáková (Alena); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); J. Yao (Jie); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas); S. Seshadri (Sudha); N.R.G. Shrine (Nick); L.V. Wain (Louise); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.J. Swift (Amy); J. Laitinen (Jaana); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Zitting (Paavo); S.E. Humphries (Steve); J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed (Asif); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); H. Watkins (Hugh); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); C.S. Janipalli (Charles); K. Radha Mani; C. Yajnik (Chittaranjan); A. Hofman (Albert); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E. Lakatta (Edward); M. Orrù (Marco); A. Scuteri (Angelo); M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); A.J. Kangas (Antti); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Soininen (Pasi); T. Tukiainen (Taru); P. Würtz (Peter); R. Twee-Hee Ong (Rick); M. Dörr (Marcus); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D. Zelenika (Diana); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G. Zhai (Guangju); J.F. Meschia (James F.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Sharma (Pankaj); J. Terzic (Janos); M.V. Kranthi Kumar; M. Denniff (Matthew); E. Zukowska-Szczechowska (Ewa); L.E. Wagenknecht (Lynne); F. Gerald R. Fowkes; F.J. Charchar (Fadi); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Hayward (Caroline); X. Guo (Xiuqing); C. Rotimi (Charles); M.L. Bots (Michiel); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.J. Talmud (Philippa); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laan (Maris); K. Hveem (Kristian); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J.P. Casas (Juan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); P. Vineis (Paolo); O. Raitakari (Olli); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Shyong Tai; M. Laakso (Markku); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.W. Morris (Richard); A. Dominiczak (Anna); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Marmot (Michael); T. Miki (Tetsuro); D. Saleheen; G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); J. Coresh (Josef); G. Navis (Gerjan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.-G. Han; J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); R. Rettig (Rainer); M. Uda (Manuela); D.P. Strachan (David); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.L. Hartikainen; J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); E. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.R. Järvelin; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); P. Elliott (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); M. Caulfield (Mark); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); L.S. Adair (Linda); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); I. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140mmg Hg systolic blood pressure ≥90mmg Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  9. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sober, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjogren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, [No Value; Lehtimaki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Koettgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Graessler, Juergen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Ine S.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stancakova, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Wurtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Doerr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Voelker, Uwe; Voelzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  10. Biofeedback With Implanted Blood-Pressure Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Additional uses found for equipment described in "Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device" (GSC-13042). Implanted with device electronic circuitry that measures, interprets, and transmits data via inductive link through patient's skin to external receiver. Receiver includes audible alarm generator activated when patient's blood pressure exceeds predetermined threshold. Also included in receiver a blood-pressure display, recorder, or both, for use by patient or physician.

  11. Life style as a blood pressure determinant.

    OpenAIRE

    Staessen, J A; Bieniaszewski, L; Pardaens, K; V. Petrov; Thijs, L.; Fagard, R.

    1996-01-01

    In Belgium, an affluent Western European country, participation in sports, alcohol intake, and living in a working class area were identified as the life style factors with the closest associations with the blood pressure level. Obesity was another important blood pressure correlate. Sodium intake, determined from the 24 h urinary output, and smoking were not associated with blood pressure. Controlled intervention studies have proven that weight reduction, endurance training and alcohol absti...

  12. Ballroom dance: chronic responses on blood pressure in medicated hypertensives. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Christina de Souza Guidarini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical exercise for patients with systemic hypertension is well established in the literature. However, ballroom dance has been little investigated in this context. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic effect of ballroom dance on blood pressure in medicated hypertensives. The sample was the number of blood pressure measurements obtained during the patients’ participation in the dance program. Thus, 92 blood pressure measurements were taken and divided into four groups: 1 pre-session systolic blood pressure, 2 post-session systolic blood pressure, 3 pre-session diastolic blood pressure, 4 post-session diastolic blood pressure. We used a mercury sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. As measuring protocol, we considered the Brazilian Guidelines. Blood pressure was measured before and after each ballroom dance session. The mean age of the 23 medicated hypertensive patients studied was 62.5 ± 7 years and 34.8% of them were male. Forty sessions were held three times a week, lasting one hour/session. The mean pre-session systolic blood pressure was 131,8 ± 17mmHg and 117,8±13mmHg after the session, with statistically significant difference (p <0.001; in diastolic blood pressure values were 70,7±6mmHg and 67,7±9mmHg (p <0.075. We conclude that ballroom dance can contribute to a better control of blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients, which may be considered as a cardiac rehabilitation exercise.

  13. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Matteucci; Ottavio Giampietro

    2013-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures display a circadian rhythmicity that can be assessed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and analysed using the cosinor procedure. Altered characteristics to the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, which may result in adverse health outcomes, have been observed in both prediabetes and diabetes. We have investigated the circadian variability of blood pressure in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Chronobiologically interpreted ambulator...

  14. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP) measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment...

  15. Dynamic changes in the relationship of microglia to cardiovascular neurons in response to increases and decreases in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Komal; Bhandare, Amol M; Nedoboy, Polina E; Mohammed, Suja; Farnham, Melissa M J; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Microglia are present throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and express receptors for every known neurotransmitter. During inflammation, microglia change into a state that either promotes removal of debris (M1), or into a state that promotes soothing (M2). Caudal- and rostral- ventrolateral medullary regions (CVLM and RVLM, respectively) of the brainstem are key nuclei involved in all aspects of the cardiovascular system. In this study, we investigate a novel role for microglia in cardiovascular control in the brainstem of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. Here we show, that increases and decreases in blood pressure (BP) triggers alertness in the physiology of microglia in the brainstem region; inducing changes in microglial spatial distribution and the number of synapses in contact with microglial end processes. Following 6h of acute hypertension, the number of synapses in contact with microglia increased by ≈30% in both regions of the brainstem, CVLM and RVLM. Induction of acute hypotension for 6h causes microglia to reduce the number of synaptic contacts by >20% in both, CVLM and RVLM, nuclei of the brainstem. Our analysis of the morphological characteristics of microglia, and expression levels of M1 and M2, reveals that the changes induced in microglial behavior do not require any obvious dramatic changes in their morphology. Taken together, our findings suggest that microglia play a novel, unexpected, physiological role in the uninjured autonomic nuclei of CNS; we therefore speculate that microglia act cooperatively with brainstem cardiovascular neurons to maintain them in a physiologically receptive state. PMID:27155147

  16. Palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.

  17. CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY AND EXERCISE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    HAVELKOVÁ, A.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; MÍFKOVÁ, L.; CHLUDILOVÁ, V.; POCHMONOVÁ, J.; VANK, P.; POHANKA, M.; DUŠEK, J.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find if there was a relationship between the time when cardiovascular rehabilitation was running in the patients after myocardial infarction and an average daily value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 7-day ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

  18. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  19. Microcirculation impairment and blood pressure in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjančević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure is crucial for the tissue perfusion, oxygenation andelimination of metabolites in normal tissue. In septic patients itmay be altered by several mechanisms. Endothelial lesions andimpaired vasoregulation resulting from bacteriemia may producevasodilatation, hypotension, tissue hypoxia and decrease in theblood velocity. These events may favour disseminated intravascularcoagulation in septic patients, and thus pronounce perfusionmisdistribution. Since hypotension is commonly treated byvasoactive drugs to increase vascular tone toward normal values,more pronounced peripheral tissue ischemia may result. Duringthe process of blood pressure regulation in septic patients a diversityof physiological parameters should be encountered, i.e. age,body weight, core temperature, overall patients’ cardiovascularperformance, anemia, and protein status. In a healthy, adult person,in the absence of other causes of hypotension systolic bloodpressure of > 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 mmHgshould maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Together with specificantibiotics, therapeutic procedures like haemodilution, use of vasoconstrictors,vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin, corticosteroidsare currently used to improve outcome of hypotensive septicpatients. Numerous studies were undertaken to point the valuesof the biochemical tests suggesting a need for prompt intervention.The arterial lactate, cortisol response, TNF, interleukin (IL6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 production, together with submucosal(gastric intramucosal or sublingual CO2 values were proven as indicative.These may suggest whether microcirculatory impairmentis reversible or not, and which therapeutic maneuver should beappropriate.

  20. Change in pulse pressure/stroke index in response to sustained blood pressure reduction and its impact on left ventricular mass and geometry changes: the life study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmieri, V.; Bella, J.N.; Gerdts, E.; Wachtell, K.; Papademetriou, V.; Nieminen, M.S.; Dahlof, B.; Devereux, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    , -15% at year 2, and -16% at year 3 follow-up, and was sustained through year 4 and year 5 follow-ups; change in PP/SVi was related to increased SVi and decreased PP during the annual follow-ups, but not to LV mass change. Restricting analyses to the first two follow-ups to ensure highest statistical...... power, age >65 and diabetes were associated with higher PP/SVi at baseline and throughout follow-ups; black participants and women had baseline PP/SVi mean values comparable with those of their counterparts, showed blunted PP/SVi reduction after 1 year, but differences became smaller and not...... statistically significant at year 2 follow-up. Losartan- or atenolol-based treatments were associated with comparable reduction of PP/SVi. At year 2 follow-up, reduced PP/SVi was associated with greater reductions in mean blood pressure (BP) and heart rate and greater increase in SVi, but not with lower LV mass...

  1. Influence of genetic variance on sodium sensitivity of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, F C; Miller, J Z; Weinberger, M H; Grim, C E; Daugherty, S A; Christian, J C

    1987-02-01

    To examine the effect of genetic variance on blood pressure, sodium homeostasis, and its regulatory determinants, we studied 37 pairs of monozygotic twins and 18 pairs of dizygotic twins under conditions of volume expansion and contraction. We found that, in addition to blood pressure and body size, sodium excretion in response to provocative maneuvers, glomerular filtration rate, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system are influenced by genetic variance. To elucidate the interaction of genetic factors and an environmental influence, namely, salt intake, we restricted dietary sodium in 44 families of twin children. In addition to a modest decrease in blood pressure, we found heterogeneous responses in blood pressure indicative of sodium sensitivity and resistance which were normally distributed. Strong parent-offspring resemblances were found in baseline blood pressures which persisted when adjustments were made for age and weight. Further, mother-offspring resemblances were observed in the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction. We conclude that the control of sodium homeostasis is heritable and that the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction is familial as well. These data speak to the interaction between the genetic susceptibility to hypertension and environmental influences which may result in its expression. PMID:3553721

  2. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  3. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty A; Johnson, Heather M; Vanness, David J; Young, Henry N; Kreling, David H

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (pbehavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing blood pressure feedback may have promise as part of a multi-method approach

  4. Home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: when? who?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Gülçin

    2013-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environment, which represents a more reliable assessment of actual blood pressure than office blood pressure. The advantage of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is its unique ability to measure nocturnal blood pressure. Although not fully validated in large-scale clinical trials, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring appears to correlate best with prognosis. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring provide somewhat different information on the subject's blood pressure status, and the two methods should thus be regarded as complementary, rather than competitive or alternative. PMID:25019016

  5. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found on...... the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  6. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment during systole and causes auscultatory sound and, the first sound, which, in Korotkoff’s opinion, is a measurement of systolic blood pressure. In the same BP measurement, when normal blood flow is fully restored, the auscultatory sounds disappear and, the last sound, which, in Korotkoff's opinion is a measurement of diastolic blood pressure. Listening to Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP has been the standard for noninvasive BP measurement in medical practices for nearly 100 years and it is the essential tool used for evaluation and assessment of patients with hypertension and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD by physicians and nurses despite limited understanding of the nature of K-sounds. This article focuses particularly on the cardiovascular biomechanics of the first and last auscultatory sound and suggests two new terminologies; Highest systolic blood pressure and Baseline systolic blood pressure to represent the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, respectively. Experimenting blood pressures on the basis of these two new suggested terminologies may reveal various additional undiscovered aspects of normal BP and abnormal BP. KEY WORDS: Highest systolic blood pressure, Baseline systolic blood pressure, Korotkoff sounds

  7. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M091)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.

  8. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in New York City. Until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, the results should be considered preliminary. One-third of U.S. adults have high blood pressure, also called hypertension. It contributes to more than ...

  9. Elderly Benefit from Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater ... The study included more than 2,600 patients, aged 75 and older. They were randomly assigned to ...

  10. Obesity Can Send Kids' Blood Pressure Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157363.html Obesity Can Send Kids' Blood Pressure Soaring: Study Losing ... and effective clinical and public health strategies for obesity prevention," said lead researcher Emily Parker. She is ...

  11. Deletion of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the mouse increases arterial blood pressure with no impairment in renal NO production in response to chronic high salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Mette; Hansen, Pernille B L; Madsen, Kirsten;

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that COX-2 activity attenuates the blood pressure increase during high NaCl intake by stimulation of eNOS-mediated NO synthesis in the kidney medulla. COX-2(-/-) (C57BL6) and (+/+) mice were fed a diet with 0.004% (LS) or 4% (HS) NaCl for 18 days....... Arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously using indwelling catheters. Food and water intake and diuresis were measured in metabolic cages. Urine osmolality and excretion of electrolytes, cGMP, cAMP and NOx were determined, as well as plasma NOx and cGMP. There was a significant dependence of blood...... pressure on salt intake and genotype: COX-2(-/-) exhibited higher blood pressure than COX-2(+/+) both on HS and LS intake. COX-2(+/+) littermates displayed an increase in blood pressure on HS vs. LS (102.3±1.1 mmHg vs. 91.9±0.9 mmHg) day and night. The mice exhibited significant blood pressure increases...

  12. Accurate, reproducible measurement of blood pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, N. R.; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J. G.; McKay, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine con...

  13. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  14. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Drawz, Paul E; ABDALLA, MOHAMED; Rahman, Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk...

  15. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Circulation Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Why is high blood pressure dangerous? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... pur-TEN-shun”). If it is not controlled, high blood pressure can cause: yy Stroke yy Kidney yy Heart ...

  16. The effects of genes implicated in cardiovascular disease on blood pressure response to treatment among treatment-naive hypertensive African Americans in the GenHAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, A N; Lynch, A I; Claas, S A; Boerwinkle, E; Davis, B R; Ford, C E; Eckfeldt, J H; Tiwari, H K; Arnett, D K; Irvin, M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the United States. Blood pressure (BP) control is important to reduce cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality in this ethnic group. Genetic variants have been found to be associated with BP response to treatment. Previous pharmacogenetic studies of BP response to treatment in African Americans suffer limitations of small sample size as well as a limited number of candidate genes, and often focused on one antihypertensive treatment. Using 1131 African-American treatment-naive participants from the Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment Study, we examined whether variants in 35 candidate genes might modulate BP response to four different antihypertensive medications, including an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril), a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine), and an a-adrenergic blocker (doxazosin) as compared with a thiazide diuretic (chlorthalidone) after 6 months of follow-up. Several suggestive gene by treatment interactions were identified. For example, among participants with two minor alleles of renin rs6681776, diastolic BP response was much improved on doxazosin compared with chlorthalidone (on average -9.49 mm Hg vs -1.70 mm Hg) (P=0.007). Although several suggestive loci were identified, none of the findings passed significance criteria after correction for multiple testing. Given the impact of hypertension and its sequelae in this population, this research highlights the potential for genetic factors to contribute to BP response to treatment. Continued concerted research efforts focused on genetics are needed to improve treatment response in this high-risk group. PMID:26791477

  17. The significance of abnormal systolic blood pressure response during supine ergometer exercise and postexercise in ischemic heart disease, studied by exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal response to blood pressure (BP) during exercise and postexercise was examined in 169 patients with ischemic heart disease. The patients underwent supine ergometer exercise gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography. When BP during exercise did not increase by at least 11 mmHg or initially increased but later decreased by more than 10 mmHg, the BP response was defined as abnormal during exercise. A postexercise BP increase of more than 10 mmHg above the peak exercise BP was defined as abnormal during postexercise. Fifteen-one patients (30%) were classified as abnormal (group 1) and the other 118 as normal (group 2). Abnormal BP response fell into three types: (1a) exercise hypotension (n=11), (1b) postexercise hypertension (n=30), and (1c) exercise hypotension with postexercise hypertension (n=10). Both average exercise duration and peak heart rate were significantly lower in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c than group 2. Exercise ST-segment depression was more noticeable in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the severitiy of exercise ST-segment depression between groups 1a and 2. A decline in ejection fraction occurred more frequently in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. Patients in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c had more extensive coronary artery disease than did patients in group 2. Medically managed patients having an abnormal BP response had a poorer prognosis than those with a normal BP response. An abnormal BP response during both supine exercise and postexercise was infrequent. The abnormal BP during exercise may be usually associated with impaired exercise tolerance and severe coronary artery disease; and that during postexercise may be closely associated with myocardial ischemia and global left ventricular dysfunction. Postexercise hypertension may be of the same value as exercise hypotension in predicting poor prognosis. (Namekawa, K)

  18. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  19. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  20. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood pressure response during exercise in healthy children and adolescents: The European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels C; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    aerobic fitness test. Examined CVD risk factors were high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and aerobic fitness. A random effect model...... and youth. At least partly, adiposity and insulin sensitivity seem to influence exercise SBP through different mechanisms. The positive relationship observed between aerobic fitness and SBP response in girls remains unexplainable for us, although post hoc analyses revealed that it was the case in the ninth...

  1. Blood glucose and nocturnal blood pressure in African and caucasian men: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Lammertyn, Leandi; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schutte, Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between nocturnal blood pressure and chronically elevated blood glucose to determine if these elevated blood glucose concentrations contribute to a non-dipping blood pressure, especially in high-risk groups such as Africans.

  2. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José;

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies to...... conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation of...

  3. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement in large vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse pressure in the aorta was evaluated by the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood flow velocity (BFV). PWV reflects the elasticity of the vessel and was determined by a time-of-flight method. BFV was measured by analyzing the change of magnetization decay due to flow in multiecho experiments. If one neglects pulse wave reflections at vascular branch points and flow resistance due to blood viscosity, pulse pressure is proportional to PWV and BFV. Noninvasive MR imaging measurements were obtained in 12 patients, all of whom underwent correlative arterial catheterization. Values varied between 35 and 100 mm Hg. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the two methods

  4. Blood pressure in head‐injured patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594

  5. Converting enzyme inhibition and blood pressure reactivity to psychological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, J E; Mills, P; Ziegler, M; Leitz, K; Nelesen, R

    1992-08-01

    There is considerable interest in blood pressure reactivity to psychological stressors. Because the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system are so responsive to stressors and are themselves the targets of many antihypertensive medications, many investigators have wondered if such medications decrease the blood pressure response to stressful stimuli. We studied 25 normotensive and 21 hypertensive men in a double-blind crossover study during which they received either placebo for 4 days or captopril (25 mg b.i.d.) for 4 days while they were hospitalized in a clinical research center. Patients were studied at resting baseline, while performing a mathematics task, and while reading out loud a disturbing newspaper article. Although captopril lowered the resting blood pressure levels, it had no effect on the amplitude of reactivity to stressors. PMID:1639462

  6. Verapamil buffering effect on the abrupt elevation in blood pressure, linkage with microcirculatory blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrov, J

    2008-01-01

    1 We studied the effects of verapamil on sudden elevation in blood pressure, microcirculation and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). 2 Thirty experiments (10 controls and 20 with verapamil) were performed in rabbits sedated using pentobarbital infusion (5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). 3 BRS, mean femoral artery blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, estimated using microphotoelectric plethysmography (MPPG), were simultaneously measured during 30 min of verapamil infusion (20 mug kg(-1) min(-1)). BRS was assessed from HR and MAP responses to intravenous phenylephrine (Ph) and by power spectral analysis using transfer function (TF) from MAP to the HR (BRS(Ph,TF)). 4 Verapamil significantly increased microcirculatory blood flow, and decreased BRS(Ph,TF) and phenylephrine-induced abrupt elevation in MAP (MAP(AE)). 5 A significant inverse correlation was found between verapamil-induced changes in MAP(AE), BRS and in microcirculatory blood flow, measured before phenylephrine blood pressure ramps (DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaBRS(TF), r = -0.47, P < 0.036; DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaMPPG, r = -0.49, P < 0.025). 6 These results suggest involvement of the arterial baroreflex and vascular blood pressure-buffering mechanisms, their enhancement by verapamil, and thus a potential benefit of verapamil in cardiovascular conditions where patients present with abrupt high elevations in blood pressure. PMID:18598288

  7. Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet Updated:Apr 8, ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  8. Blood pressure control among type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess blood pressure BP control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 DM type treated in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health care at King Fahd Military Complex Hospital in Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August 2003 and February 2004, to assess blood control in type 2 diabetics. A sample of 403 medical records of type 2 diabetic patients was selected using systematic random sampling after ordering the medical record numbers. The data were collected through the pre-coded checklist. Hypertension was found in 57.8% of diabetic patients with no statistically significant difference between males and females. The mean age of diabetic patients was significantly highly in hypertensive than non-hypertensive p=0.001. The mean duration of hypertension was significantly higher in females p=0.02. There were only 14.2% of hypertensive diabetic patients in whom blood pressure was controlled. Poor control was significantly associated with obesity and a high rate of complications. Blood pressure control correlated positively and significantly with the age of patients and negatively with duration of diabetes and hypertension. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in 29.3%, followed by angiotensin receptors blockers in 24.1%, and the least prescribed drug was thiazide diuretic. Blood pressure in diabetic patients needs to be given particular attention from all health care professionals, especially primary care family physicians, who should follow the new guideline for better control of blood pressure, and fewer complications. Patient's awareness should be increased, through continuous health education with different modalities. (author)

  9. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  10. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  11. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone responsiveness to low sodium and blood pressure reactivity to angiotensin-II are unrelated to cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Jan A.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Navis, Gerjan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The blood pressure increase associated with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, torcetrapib is probably attributable to an off-target effect but it is unknown whether activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be related to variation in the pla

  12. Effects of maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Chinese women on children's heart rate and blood pressure response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, F; Zou, Y; Tian, H; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Ma, X; Meng, Y; Yue, Y; Liu, K; Dart, A M

    2016-03-01

    Psychological disturbances, including anxiety and depression, are common during human pregnancy. Our objective was to determine whether these maternal disturbances influence cardiovascular responses of the offspring. The psychological status of 231 pregnant women was determined. Offspring (216) of these women were subsequently exposed to a video challenge stress when aged 7-9 years. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) of the children were determined at rest, in response to video stress and during subsequent recovery. Children's resting and stress-induced increases in HR (bpm), systolic (SBP, mm Hg) and diastolic (DBP, mm Hg) BP were all greater in children whose mothers reported anxiety during pregnancy. Values (mean±s.d.) for resting HR, SBP and DBP were 75.15±5.87, 95.37±2.72 and 66.39±4.74 for children whose mothers reported no anxiety and an average of 81.62±6.71, 97.26±2.90 and 68.86±2.82 for children whose mothers reported anxiety at any level. Respective values for stress-induced increments in HR, SBP and DBP were 14.83.±2.14, 16.41±1.97 and 12.72±2.69 for children whose mothers reported no anxiety and 17.95±3.46, 18.74±2.46 and 14.86±2.02 for children whose mothers reported any level of anxiety. Effects of maternal depression were less consistent. The effects of maternal anxiety remained in multivariate analyses, which also included children's birth weight. The results indicate a long-term influence of maternal psychological status during pregnancy on the cardiovascular responses to stress among offspring. These effects may contribute to prenatal influences on subsequent health of the offspring. PMID:26084653

  13. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M;

    1999-01-01

    5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude......This study measured the pressor and plasma catecholamine response to local hypothermia during adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and after 10 and 45 min of local cooling of one hand and forearm as well as after 30 min of rewarming at sea level and again 24 h and...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...

  14. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 196

  15. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  16. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  17. Home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: when? who?

    OpenAIRE

    Gülçin KANTARCI

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environme...

  18. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate and blood constituents during heat exposure in men with elevated blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaebelein, C.J.; Senay, L.C. Jr.; Ladd, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Although the vascular volume response of hypertensive men during exercise has been rather well characterized, the effect of resting heat exposure in this patient population has not been examined. This was done in the present report in seven men with high blood pressure (BP) (i.e., diastolic pressure greater than 12 kPa (90 mmHg) upon initial interview) and 5 normotensive control subjects. 50 min after each subject had consumed an amount of water equal to 1% of his body weight, he reclined on a cot. 10 min later the subject was carried into an environmental chamber equilibrated at Tdb = 45 degrees C, Twb = 28 degrees C. Free-flowing venous blood samples were obtained from a cubital vein, and BP and heart rate were measured, before the heat exposure and at 15 min intervals during the experiment. Within 30 min systolic, diastolic and mean BP of the high BP subjects had decreased to normal levels; no BP changes were detected in normotensive subjects. Accompanying this depressor response was an exaggerated elevation in plasma glucose concentration. No alterations were found with haematocrit, plasma osmolality or electrolytes, or total protein and albumin. The data suggest that heat exposure may have been more stressful for the subjects with high BP than for their controls. This finding implies that phasic depressor responses may be as important as phasic pressor episodes in the aetiology of established essential hypertension.

  19. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: Does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-28

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either sucrose, glucose or fructose, or an amount of fructose equivalent to that present in sucrose (i.e. 30 g fructose). Continuous cardiovascular monitoring was performed for 30 min before and at 60 min after ingestion of sugary drinks, and measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography. Additionally, microvascular endothelial function testing was performed after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using laser Doppler flowmetry. Ingestion of fructose (60 or 30 g) increased diastolic and mean BP to a greater extent than the ingestion of 60 g of either glucose or sucrose (Psugary drinks. In conclusion, ingestion of fructose, but not sucrose, increases BP in healthy human subjects. Although sucrose comprises glucose and fructose, its changes in TPR and CO are more related to glucose than to fructose. PMID:24780643

  20. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  1. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  2. The period of the day affects the twenty-four hour blood pressure response to an acute combined exercise session in Brazilian jiu jitsu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaello Pinheiro Mazzoccante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a combined exercise session performed at different periods of the day on the 24h blood pressure (BP response. Anaerobic threshold (AT and 12 repetition maximum (12RM tests were evaluated in nine Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (male (22±3.7 y; 176±5.0 cm; 73.4±9.7 kg; 6.8±2.1 % body fat. Four experimental sessions were performed: resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise [Morning (MornS and Afternoon (AfternS] and Control (C [Morning and Afternoon]. The morning sessions were conducted at 09:00 a.m. and the afternoon sessions were conducted at 3:00 p.m. The resistance exercise consisted of three sets at 90% of a 12RM for six resistance exercises. The aerobic exercise consisted of 15min at 90% of the AT. Blood pressure (BP was measured before, during and 1h (Microlife(r BP3A1C after the performance of exercises in laboratory, and then during daily activities for the succeeding 23h by ambulatory BP monitoring (Dyna-MAPA(r. Analysis of the area under the curve (AUC indicated significant reductions in blood pressure parameters at various time points during the 24h monitoring period. For systolic BP (SBP, significantly lower values were shown following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 1756.2±100.8 vs. C: 1818.2±84.3 mmHg*15h; p < .05 and total-24h (MornS: 2695.8±143.3 vs. C: 2784.1±143.2 mmHg*24h; p < .05. The total-24h mean BP (MAP was also significantly lower following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 2015.7±121.2 vs. C: 2087.3±153.8 mmHg*24h; p < .05. There were significant differences in the sleeping AUC of SBP (AfternS: 883.6±27.0 vs. C: 965.2±67.9 mmHg*9h; p< .05, diastolic BP (DBP (AfternS: 481.4±30.9 vs. MornS: 552.9±34.2 and C: 562.1±52.3 mmHg*9h; p < .01 and MBP (AfternS: 651.9±22.4 vs. MornS: 708.7±43.1 and C: 726.9±64.7 mmHg*9h; p < .01. The combined exercise performed at different periods of the day contributed distinctly to

  3. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane;

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus....... Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a reduction in plasma renin concentration, angiotensin, and aldosterone, despite a compensatory up-regulation of AT1 receptors and an augmented hypertensive response to infused angiotensin II. Plasma and urinary osmolality are decreased in FP KOs...

  4. Longitudinal analysis of arterial blood pressure and heart rate response to acute behavioral stress in rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in age-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Randall

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We recorded via telemetry the arterial blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR response to classical conditioning following the spontaneous onset of autoimmune diabetes in BBDP/Wor rats versus age-matched, diabetes resistant control (BBDR/Wor rats. Our purpose was to evaluate the autonomic regulatory responses to an acute stress in a diabetic state of up to 12 months duration. The stress was a 15 sec. pulsed tone (CS+ followed by a 0.5 sec. tail shock. The initial, transient increase in BP (i.e., the ‘first component’, or C1, known to be derived from an orienting response and produced by a sympathetic increase in peripheral resistance, was similar in diabetic and control rats through ~9 months of diabetes; it was smaller in diabetic rats 10 months after diabetes onset. Weakening of the C1 BP increase in rats that were diabetic for > 10 months is consistent with the effects of sympathetic neuropathy. A longer-latency, smaller, but sustained ‘second component’ (C2 conditional increase in BP, that is acquired as a rat learns the association between CS+ and the shock, and which results from an increase in cardiac output, was smaller in the diabetic vs. control rats starting from the first month of diabetes. A concomitant HR slowing was also smaller in diabetic rats. The difference in the C2 BP increase, as observed already during the first month of diabetes, is probably secondary to the effects of hyperglycemia upon myocardial metabolism and contractile function, but it may also result from effects on cognition. The small HR slowing concomitant with the C2 pressor event is probably secondary to differences in baroreflex activation or function, though parasympathetic dysfunction may contribute later in the duration of diabetes. The nearly immediate deficit after disease onset in the C2 response indicates that diabetes alters BP and HR responses to external challenges prior to the development of structural changes in the vasculature or autonomic

  5. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  6. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  7. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  8. Effect of Classical Music on Reducing Blood Pressure in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Saing, Saloma Klementina; Rina, Oke; Ramayati, Rafita; Rusdidjas

    2009-01-01

    Background High blood pre ssure remains a public health problem. High blood pressure in children and adolescent is a major risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood which can cause high morbidity and mortality. Listening to the classical music can be used as an alternative in reducing high blood pressure. Objective To investigate the effect of classical music in reducing blood pressure in children with high normal blood pressure and or hypertension. Methods Eighty eight students of S...

  9. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  10. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Davis, Scott L.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sy...

  11. Albuminuria and blood pressure, independent targets for cardioprotective therapy in patients with diabetes and nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtkamp, Frank A; de Zeeuw, Dick; de Graeff, Pieter A;

    2011-01-01

    The long-term cardioprotective effect of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is associated with the short-term lowering of its primary target blood pressure, but also with the lowering of albuminuria. Since the individual blood pressure and albuminuria response to an ARB varies between and withi...... an individual, we tested whether the variability and discordance in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria response to ARB therapy are associated with its long-term effect on cardiovascular outcomes....

  12. Association of maternal blood pressure in pregnancy with blood pressure of their offspring through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal-Thomas, Tamika; McGee, Daniel; Sinha, Debajyoti; Osmond, Clive; Forrester, Terrence

    2015-11-01

    This article looks at the association of maternal blood pressure with the blood pressure of the offspring from birth to childhood. The Barker hypothesis states that maternal and "in utero" attributes during pregnancy affect a child's cardiovascular health throughout life. We present an analysis of a unique dataset that consists of three distinct developmental processes: maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy; fetal development; and child's cardiovascular health from birth to 14 years. This study explored whether a mother's blood pressure reading in pregnancy predicts fetal development and determines if this in turn is related to the future cardiovascular health of the child. This article uses data that have been collected prospectively from a Jamaican cohort which involves the following three developmental processes: (1) maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy which is the blood pressure and anthropometric measurements at seven time-points on the mother during pregnancy; (2) fetal development which consists of ultrasound measurements of the fetus taken at six time-points during pregnancy; and (3) child's cardiovascular health which consists of the child's blood pressure measurements at 24 time-points from birth to 14 years. The inter-relationship of these three processes was examined using linear mixed effects models. Our analyses indicated that attributes later in childhood development, such as child's weight, child's baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), age and sex, predict the future cardiovascular health of children. The results also indicated that maternal attributes in pregnancy, such as mother's baseline SBP and SBP change, predicted significantly child's SBP over time. PMID:25178900

  13. Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754

  14. [Blood pressure control in eldery hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Case of diabetes mellitus associated with essential hypertension are mostly type 2 diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in elderly patients. In the JNC VI and JSH 2004, it is recommended that the therapeutic target blood pressure level should be lower then 130/80 mmHg in hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus, and this target has recently obtained wide acceptance. On the other hand, the target blood pressure in elderly is recommended below 140/90 mmHg. Accordingly, diabetes mellitus in elderly hypertensives should be treated similarly as in the young and middle-aged. Because ACE inhibitors/ARBs or Ca blockers increase insulin sensitivity, these drugs should be used as the first choice in cases of elderly hypertensive patients complicated with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16408451

  15. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  16. [Reducing blood pressure with Dipyron (novaminsulfone sodium)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, M; Hoigné, R; Keller, M F; Streit, F; Hess, T

    1983-11-26

    A fall in systolic blood pressure without other symptoms of anaphylactic shock has been described following the administration of drugs containing dipyrone. This adverse reaction was first observed in 4 patients by the same team in 1972-1973. Ten further cases with a fall in systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg occurring within minutes to 6 hours after intravenous administration of dipyrone are presented in this paper. In each of them this adverse reaction was considered to be probable or even definite. During the years 1976-1981 drug exposure was registered for all 15 678 patients of the two medical divisions of Comprehensive Hospital Drug Monitoring Berne. This adverse reaction was found in 7, representing 0.34% of the 2053 patients who received intravenous treatment with a dipyrone preparation. PMID:6658424

  17. The relationship of blood lead to systolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of policemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S T; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F E

    1988-01-01

    We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an el...

  18. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  19. Blood pressure: trends, determinants and consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, van E.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in blood pressure, prevalence and treatment of hypertension were studied in 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 years during the period 1974-1980, in 80,000 men aged 33-37 years during the period 1981-1986 and 36,000 in men and women aged 20-59 years during the period 1987-1991. Between 1974 and

  20. Accurate blood pressure recording: Is it difficult?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalla A; Singh R; D'cruz S; Lehl S; Sachdev A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All ...

  1. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; Melda DİLEK; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; Akpolat, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  2. Blood pressure changes resulting from aortography.

    OpenAIRE

    Snowdon, S L; Whitehouse, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Patients requiring aortography frequently suffer from generalized arteriosclerosis. Uncontrolled hypotension is therefore clearly undesirable, especially if associated with myocardial depression. Significant hypotension was observed following the use of conventional ionic contrast media, Urografin 370 and Cardioconray, and occurred following every injection in this study. Metrizamide, a non-ionic contrast medium, was found to be associated with a smaller fall in blood pressure of a shorter du...

  3. Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Chopra; Chris Baby; Jubbin Jagan Jacob

    2011-01-01

    As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP) is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP con...

  4. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contr...

  5. The effect of nutrition on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Vincenzo; Bellinghieri, Guido; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-08-21

    The incidence and severity of hypertension are affected by nutritional status and intake of many nutrients. Excessive energy intake and obesity are major causes of hypertension. Obesity is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, possibly other mineralcorticoid activity, insulin resistance, salt-sensitive hypertension and excess salt intake, and reduced kidney function. High sodium chloride intake strongly predisposes to hypertension. Increased alcohol consumption may acutely elevate blood pressure. High intakes of potassium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein, along with exercise and possibly vitamin D, may reduce blood pressure. Less-conclusive studies suggest that amino acids, tea, green coffee bean extract, dark chocolate, and foods high in nitrates may reduce blood pressure. Short-term studies indicate that specialized diets may prevent or ameliorate mild hypertension; most notable are the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and the DASH low-sodium diet. Long-term compliance to these diets remains a major concern. PMID:20645853

  6. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  7. Effects of exercise training with blood flow restriction on blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Cezar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of non-pharmacological approaches to hypertension (HA is critical for both prevention and treatment. This study examined the hemodynamic and biochemical responses of medicated hypertensive women to resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (vascular occlusion. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: High intensity strength training (n = 8; low-intensity resistance exercise with occlusion (n = 8; and control (n = 7. The first two groups underwent eight weeks of training performed twice a week, including three series of wrist flexion exercises with or without vascular occlusion. The exercised with occlusion group showed pre- to post-test reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product, whereas the other groups showed no significant hemodynamic changes. In conclusion, resistance exercise during 8 weeks was effective in lowering blood pressure in medicated hypertensive subjects.

  8. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  9. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  10. "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Your ... a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is especially common ...

  11. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control People who didn't get enough daily ... nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good blood pressure, new research suggests. "Magnesium dilates arteries, and in ...

  12. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Compartir Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...

  13. Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159580.html Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later? Spotting risk ... 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who have blood pressure in the high-normal range may have an ...

  14. Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure Researchers cite aging populations, diet, inactivity and lack ... HealthDay News) -- For the first time ever, high blood pressure rates are higher in low- and middle-income ...

  15. Standard Blood Pressure Target is Sufficient for Treating Some Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Wednesday, June 8, 2016 Standard blood pressure target is sufficient for treating some ... of Minnesota An international stroke study found that standard and intensive blood pressure treatments were equally effective ...

  16. Smartphone Blood-Pressure App Often Wrong, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157555.html Smartphone Blood-Pressure App Often Wrong, Study Finds Measurements ... HealthDay News) -- A popular app that uses your smartphone to check your blood pressure is inaccurate, missing ...

  17. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  18. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  19. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b

  20. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  3. Risk Stratification by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Across JNC Classes of Conventional Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (<120/<80 mm Hg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), and hypertension (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). METHODS: To assess the potential differential contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in predict......BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (...) in predicting risk across CBP strata, we analyzed outcomes in 7,826 untreated people recruited from 11 populations. RESULTS: During an 11.3-year period, 809 participants died (276 cardiovascular deaths) and 639, 383, and 225 experienced a cardiovascular, cardiac, or cerebrovascular event. Compared...... with normotension (n = 2,639), prehypertension (n = 3,076) carried higher risk (P ≤ 0.015) of cardiovascular (+41%) and cerebrovascular (+92%) endpoints; compared with hypertension (n = 2,111) prehypertension entailed lower risk (P ≤ 0.005) of total mortality (-14%) and cardiovascular mortality (-29...

  4. E-health blood pressure control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, David K; Stinson, Lynda J; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Wroblewski, Joseph P; McMurray, Jerome H; Eaton, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Both technological and human factors design requirements for integration of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) into a patient centered medical home (PCMH) model primary care practice are described. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were given home blood pressure (BP) monitors, and after a three-month run-in period introduced to either a high-tech only (HBPM connectivity to personal health record and tailored Web portal access) or a high-tech/"high-touch" (high-tech solution plus patient navigator [PN]) solution. Features of the Web portal included: BP graphing function, traffic-light feedback system of BP goal attainment, economic incentives for self-monitoring, and dual patient-facing and care-team-facing dashboard functions. The e-health BP control system with PN support was well received by patients, providers, and the healthcare team. Current e-health technology and limited technological literacy of many patients suggest that a PN or some other personnel resource may be required for the adoption of patient-facing technology in primary care. PMID:23167022

  5. From blood pressure to physical disability: the role of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Davey, Adam; Robbins, Michael A; Elias, Penelope K

    2010-06-01

    We examined the hypothesis that lowered cognitive performance plays a role in the relation between elevated blood pressure and physical disability in performing basic physical tasks. A community-based sample (N=1025) free from stroke and dementia (mean age: 61.1 years; SD: 13.0 years; 59.8% women) was used. Using path analysis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (predictor variable) measured over multiple longitudinal examinations were averaged and related to multiple measures of cognition (intermediate variable) and physical ability (PA; outcome variable) measured at wave 6 of the Maine-Syracuse Study. PA was indexed by time required to execute standing, walking, and turning tests. A best-fit path model including blood pressure and multiple demographic and cardiovascular disease covariates was used. Paths from systolic blood pressure to global performance, verbal memory, and abstract reasoning (Similarities test) were significant (Pspatial organization/memory, verbal memory, working memory, and abstract reasoning. Regardless of the blood pressure predictor, lower cognitive performance (intermediate variable) was related to lower PA (outcome) in the path from blood pressure to PA. The direct path from blood pressure to PA was significant only for systolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance mediates between blood pressure and PA. As compared with systolic blood pressure, more domains of cognitive functioning intervene between diastolic blood pressure and PA. PMID:20404216

  6. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Abou Merhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims: The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls, and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively (P < .001. There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90th and 95th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately, was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.

  7. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Abou Merhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims : The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls, and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively (P < .001. There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90 th and 95 th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately, was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD-PRESSURE DURING HEMODIALYSIS AND AMBULATORY BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BETWEEN DIALYSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next (mea

  9. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W;

    2016-01-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively...

  10. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José;

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  11. Surfactant bolus instillation: effects of different doses on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, M.; Segerer, Hugo; Kiessling, C.; Obladen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen preterm infants suffering from respiratory distress syndrome were randomly allocated to receive either high-dose (200 mg/kg) or low-dose (100 mg/kg) surfactant treatment. Retreatments were done with the low dose. Blood pressure, blood gases and cerebral blood flow velocities were determined before and after 24 bolus instillations. With the high dose mean blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity dropped significantly. With the low dose only mean cerebral blood flow velocity...

  12. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo

  13. Economic evaluation of home blood pressure telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Bille; Christiansen, Terkel; Kirkegaard, Peder;

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the costs of home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (HBPM) with the costs of conventional office BP monitoring. In a randomized controlled trial, 105 hypertensive patients performed HBPM and 118 patients received usual care with conventional......-time ambulatory BP (ABP) were reduced in both groups. The uncertainty around the incremental cost effectiveness ratio point estimates was considerable for both systolic and diastolic ABP. For systolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 256 Danish kroner (DKK)/mmHg [95......% uncertainty interval, UI -860 to 4544]. For diastolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 655 DKK/mmHg [95% UI -674 to 69315]. Medication and consultation costs were lowest in the intervention group, but were offset by the cost of the telemonitoring equipment...

  14. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP. PMID:25432901

  15. Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP control, the neural mechanisms, renal-endocrine mechanisms, and a variety of other hormones that have a bearing in normal BP control are discussed and the possible role in the pathophysiology is alluded to.

  16. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  17. How to measure blood pressure manually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Melanie; Smith, Joyce

    2016-01-20

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to measure blood pressure (BP) manually using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. ▶ BP measurement is an essential clinical skill, and nurses must be competent in performing this procedure and taking accurate readings. ▶ Nurses should be aware of manual BP measurement techniques and understand the patient and environmental factors that may result in inaccurate readings that could compromise patient care. ▶ Nurses should regularly undertake manual BP measurement to ensure they remain competent to perform the procedure. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. Further learning needs to extend your professional development. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26786460

  18. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  19. Salt Really Does Boost Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ransdell; pierson; 张仙根

    2000-01-01

    盐的摄入与高血压到底存在怎样的关系?多年来,人们对这个问题争论不休。现在,终于有了可靠的结论:A salty diet really does drive up bloodpressure;both in people with and without elevated pressure.本文出现了一个新的首字母缩略词DASH。《英汉大词典补编》尚未收入此词。所幸的是,本文作者对此DASH作了说明,DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension,我们是否可将它译成“食疗降血压法”?高血压是诱发各种心血管疾病的元凶,我们不能掉以轻心。本文的一个观点可供我们参考:An intake of sodium below thecurrent recommended daily level of 2,400 milligrams(毫克)could help Americansprevent blood pressure rises that occur especially with advancing age.

  20. Accurate blood pressure recording: Is it difficult?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. STATISTICAL METHODS: The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. RESULTS: In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. CONCLUSION: The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard

  1. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement. Objective. To compare blood pressure by auscultatory and oscillometric measurements in...... patients 80 years. Method. 100 patients had blood pressure measured by auscultation with a sphygmomanometer and by an electronic device using the oscillometric method. For each patient the mean of two blood pressures with each method measured within 15 min were compared. Results. The mean age of...... participants was 85.8 years; 55.8% were women. The correlation coeffi cient for systolic blood pressure was 0.88 and for diastolic 0.79. Differences between auscultatory and oscillometric values were less than 10 mmHg in 70.6% of systolic blood pressures and in 83.2% for diastolic. Arrhythmia and hypertension...

  2. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Whincup, P H; Cook, D G; Papacosta, O

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  3. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue;

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking....

  4. A blood pressure measurement method based on synergetics theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The principle for blood pressure measurement using pulse transit time is introduced in this paper.And the math model of synergetics theory is studied in detail.The synergetics theory is applied in the analysis of blood pressure measurement data.The simulation results show that the application of synergetics theory is helpful to judge the normal blood pressure,and the accuracy is up to 80%.

  5. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Georg B; Munroe, Patricia B; Rice, Kenneth M; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D; Chasman, Daniel I; Smith, Albert V; Tobin, Martin D; Verwoert, Germaine C; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A; Jackson, Anne U; Peden, John F; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C; Fox, Ervin R; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D G; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N; Platou, Carl G P; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Steinle, Nanette I; Grobbee, Diederick E; Arking, Dan E; Kardia, Sharon L; Morrison, Alanna C; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Hingorani, Aroon D; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Beilby, John P; Lawrence, Robert W; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W; Li, Yali; Young, J Hunter; Bis, Joshua C; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette R; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R; Bornstein, Stefan R; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B; Hunt, Steven C; Sun, Yan V; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Scott, Laura J; Stringham, Heather M; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R; Soler Artigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K; Rudock, Megan E; Heckbert, Susan R; Smith, Nicholas L; Wiggins, Kerri L; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Schwartz, Stephen M; Ikram, M Arfan; Longstreth, W T; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R G; Wain, Louise V; Morken, Mario A; Swift, Amy J; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A; Humphries, Steve E; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J L; van Gilst, Wiek H; Janipalli, Charles S; Mani, K Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Oostra, Ben A; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M V Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Charchar, Fadi J; Schwarz, Peter E H; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Casas, Juan P; Mohlke, Karen L; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K; Wong, Tien Y; Tai, E Shyong; Cooper, Richard S; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C; Harris, Tamara B; Morris, Richard W; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J; Johnson, Toby

    2011-10-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21909115

  6. A new method of non-invasive blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangling; Yang, Yongming; Yu, Chengbo; Guo, Qiaohui; Zhu, Gang

    2005-12-01

    Blood pressure reflects a person's health.It is proposed here that the method of detecting blood pressure may be the key to improving the precision of blood pressure measurements. The oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique is widely used in automatic blood pressure measurement instruments correctly. A method of blood pressure measurement by oscillometric method is first presented. In the oscillometric method, the basic principle of the "feature point" method and the "amplitude characteristic ratios" method is also explained and discussed here. A new method of blood pressure measurement, namely the coefficient difference comparative method, is proposed here,which is based on the feature point method and amplitude characteristic ratios method. The method is proved both effective and reliable through the analysis of many cases and clinical tests. Utilizing Visual C++, software for this new and novel method was developed and passed criterion simulation apparatus test. When applied in hospital situation, its error was +/-5%. It is concluded that the oscillometric blood pressure measurement method can provide better means of blood pressure measurements reference for doctors.

  7. Auscultatory Blood Pressure Measurement—Effect of Pressure on the Head of the Stethoscope

    OpenAIRE

    Londe, Sol; Klitzner, Thomas S.

    1984-01-01

    Excessive pressure on the stethoscope head in auscultatory blood pressure measurement does not affect systolic blood pressure value but it does erroneously lower diastolic readings and frequently causes the sounds to persist to zero. Consequently, the lightest possible pressure should be placed on the stethoscope head.

  8. Water sodium, urinary electrolytes, and blood pressure of adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Blood pressure measurements were made on children in their fourth year at secondary schools in parts of Scunthorpe Health District supplied with drinking water of varying sodium content. Of the 3131 children, 2740 were examined (1394 boys and 1346 girls). Boys had slightly higher systolic pressures and slightly lower diastolic pressures than the girls. There was no difference between the blood pressure distributions of children in areas supplied with water containing 105 mg/l sodium, 50 mg/l ...

  9. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  10. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.36 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook ... by County http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National ...

  11. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  12. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  13. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  14. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (

  15. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie;

    2002-01-01

    influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  16. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P < .0001 to P < .05). The nighttime blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P < .0001) and at night (80 vs. 64/min, P < .0001). Consequently, the reduction in blood pressure and HR from daytime to...

  17. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnant diabetic patients are often required to self- measure their blood pressure in the waiting room before consulta- tion. Currently used blood pressure devices do not guarantee valid measurements when used unsupervised. This could lead to misdi- agnosis and treatment error. The aim...... of this study was to investigate current use of blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room in order to identify challenges that could influence the resulting data quality. Also, we wanted to investigate the potential for addressing these challenges with e-health and telemedicine technology...... obtain a reliable blood pressure reading. Results: We found that the patients did not adhere to given instructions when performing blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room. None of the 81 patients adhered to all six inves- tigated recommendations, while around a quarter adhered to five out of...

  18. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  19. SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE: BIOPHYSICAL, AGE AND GENDER FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Malinova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of systolic blood pressure features in the population of large industrial center. On the basis of measurement of blood pressure in adult population of three city regions there were revealed the following age-related changes in systolic blood pressure in men: three periods of rise and two periods of stabilization. The principal difference in women is the absence of the periods of rise and stabilization, lower level of blood pressure in young and middle aged people and authentically higher level of blood pressure - in elderly women. The increase of haemodynamical loading for one year of life in men of the middle (2 times and elder ages (3 times was revealed, that was not typical forwomen.

  20. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R;

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter...

  1. Pulse pressure variation and volume responsiveness during acutely increased pulmonary artery pressure: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Daudel, Fritz; Tüller, David; Krähenbühl, Stefanie; Jakob, Stephan M; Takala, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We found that pulse pressure variation (PPV) did not predict volume responsiveness in patients with increased pulmonary artery pressure. This study tests the hypothesis that PPV does not predict fluid responsiveness during an endotoxin-induced acute increase in pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular loading. Methods Pigs were subjected to endotoxemia (0.4 μg/kg/hour lipopolysaccharide), followed by volume expansion, subsequent hemorrhage (20% of estimated blood volume), ...

  2. A Discussion on the Regulation of Blood Flow and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christopher B; Collier, David J; Shah, Mussadiq; Saxena, Manish; Brier, Timothy J; Kapil, Vikas; Green, David; Lobo, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two kinds of regulation essential to the circulatory system: namely the regulation of blood flow and that of (systemic) arterial blood pressure. It is pointed out that blood flow requirements sub-serve the nutritional needs of the tissues, adequately catered for by keeping blood flow sufficient for the individual oxygen needs. Individual tissue oxygen requirements vary between tissue types, while highly specific for a given individual tissue. Hence, blood flows are distributed between multiple tissues, each with a specific optimum relationship between the rate of oxygen delivery (DO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2). Previous work has illustrated that the individual tissue blood flows are adjusted proportionately, where there are variations in metabolic rate and where arterial oxygen content (CaO2) varies. While arterial blood pressure is essential for the provision of a sufficient pressure gradient to drive blood flow, it is applicable throughout the arterial system at any one time. Furthermore, It is regulated independently of the input resistance to individual tissues (local arterioles), since they are regulated locally, that being the means by which the highly specific adequate local requirement for DO2 is ensured. Since total blood flow is the summation of all the individually regulated tissue blood flows cardiac inflow (venous return) amounts to total tissue blood flow and as the heart puts out what it receives cardiac output is therefore determined at the tissues. Hence, regulation of arterial blood pressure is independent of the distributed independent regulation of individual tissues. It is proposed here that mechanical features of arterial blood pressure regulation will depend rather on the balance between blood volume and venous wall tension, determinants of venous pressure. The potential for this explanation is treated in some detail. PMID:26782204

  3. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring: The GUSTO Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-11-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother-offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00-0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01-0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (-0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (-0.04 to 0.10; P = 0.35), and 0.05 (-0

  4. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  5. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring-Derived Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability in Primary Aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Andrea; Bernardi, Stella; Rebellato, Andrea; Fabris, Bruno; Bardelli, Moreno; Burrello, Jacopo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Fallo, Francesco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), either idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) or aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), in comparison with patients with essential hypertension (EH) and normotensive (NT) controls. Thirty patients with PA (16 with IHA and 14 with APA), 30 patients with EH, and 30 NT controls, matched for sex, age, body mass index, and antihypertensive therapy, were studied. The standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP; 24-hour weighted SD of BP; and 24-hour BP average real variability were not different between patients with PA and those with EH (P=not significant). All BPV indices were higher in patients with PA, either IHA or APA subtypes, and patients with EH, compared with NT controls (P<.001 to P<.05). ABPM-derived short-term BPV is increased in patients with PA, and it may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of aldosterone excess in BPV has to be clarified. PMID:25880017

  6. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  7. Effect of citicoline on blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the results of their investigation dealing with citicoline therapy in patients with hypertension and cognitive impairments.Objective: to determine the efficiency of citicoline therapy on the level and variability of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP (SBP and DBP.Patients and methods. The investigation covered 60 patients with Stage II hypertension and a goal BP of < 140/90 mm Hg within ≥3 months before their inclusion. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: 30 patients in the study group were assigned to receive a cycle of 10 injections of citicoline in a daily dose of 1000 mg dropwise intravenously, then 1000 mg/day orally for as long as 3 months. 30 patients comprised the control group.Results and discussion. 24-hour BP monitoring indicated that during 4-week citicoline therapy there were significant (p<0.05 reductions in average nocturnal SBP (by 4.1±2.24 mm Hg, average daytime (-1.5±0.39 mm Hg and average nighttime (-1.5±0.37 mm Hg BP variabilities; such changes were not found in the control group. In the study group, normal daytime SBP variability at baseline (≤15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 21 (70%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 14 (46.7% patients before and after 4-week therapy, respectively. In the study group, normal nocturnal SBP variability at baseline (≤ 15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 23 (76.7%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 16 (53.3% patients, respectively.Twenty-one (70% patients in each group had baseline normal daytime DBP variability (<14 mm Hg; following 4 weeks of treatment, the number of patients with normal daytime DBP variability remained unchanged in the control group and that increased by one patient (n = 22 (73.3% in the citicoline group. Normal nocturnal DBP variability at baseline (<12 mm Hg was observed in 19 (63.3% patients in each group

  8. What Blood Pressure Goal in Type-2 Diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson PM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in diabetes is a wellknown risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that should be taken seriously. Observational studies have shown a more or less linear relationship between systolic blood pressure levels and risk, but this does not correspond with the outcome results of intervention trials to lower blood pressure. In fact, tight blood pressure control has only been shown to be of general benefit in the range of 130–135 mmHg systolic blood pressure, but not below except for stroke prevention. On the other hand, there might even exist an increased risk for coronary heart disease events and cardiovascular mortality at lower ranges based on data from observational studies. This fact, in combination with the increased costs and risk of serious adverse events, cautions clinicians not to lower systolic blood pressure too much in susceptible patients with longer diabetes duration, more comorbidities, and in older age groups. However, we should not lose sight of the challenge that still around half of all patients with type-2 diabetes are not even below the desired minimum goal of 140 mmHg systolic blood pressure. This calls for improved actions to control blood pressure as part of a general strategy to counteract all cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type-2 diabetes. The higher the risk, the more ambitious should be the approach to screen, detect, treat, and monitor these risk factors.

  9. Relationship between blood pressure measurements recorded on patients' charts in family physicians' offices and subsequent 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birtwhistle Richard

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most western countries 20% of adults have hypertension. Reports in the literature suggest that from 31 to 86% of treated patients are not at recommended target levels. However it is important to consider how we are determining whether targets are unmet and the degree to which they are unmet. Our underlying hypothesis is that white coat effect is partially responsible for the reported low rates of control of hypertension by primary care practitioners. Methods The study population consists of 1142 patients who are being assessed for enrolment in two community-based randomized controlled trials. Patients must have essential hypertension, be on antihypertensive medication, and must not have met their blood pressure targets. We are reporting on the proportion of patients who have not achieved target, and the degree to which they have not achieved their target. We also report on the mean daytime blood pressures on 24 hour ABPM and compare these to mean blood pressures found on the patients' charts. Results We identified 3284 patient charts of patients with hypertension. Of these, 1142 were determined to be "out of control" (did not achieve target and 436 agreed to undergo 24 hour ABPM for final determination of eligibility. Overwhelmingly (95.8% of the time it was the systolic blood pressure that was not under control. However, most of the patients who had not achieved target according to our criteria were within 10 mmHg of the recommended targets. Isolated systolic blood pressure was the best predictor of elevated mean daytime blood pressure on 24 hour ABPM. Conclusions At least 35% of patients had not achieved target blood pressure levels and this is primarily due to lack of control of systolic blood pressure. The best predictor of continuing hypertension on 24 hour ABPM was the mean systolic blood pressure on the patients chart. However, only 69% of patients who were uncontrolled according blood pressures recorded in the

  10. Proton-Pump Inhibitors Therapy and Blood Pressure Control

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Sánchez Muñoz-Torrero; Pedro Joya-Vazquez; M Asunción Bacaicoa; Raul Velasco; Jose L. Chicón; Sara Trejo; M. Antonia Carrasco; N. Roberto Robles

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate  the potential impact of inhibitors of proton-pump in blood-pressure. .Methods: In a 24-hour-ambulatory-blood-pressure-monitoring (AMBP)-database we analyzed records of 462-hypertensive-patients according Proton-Pump Inhibitors (PPI). 150(33%)-patients were regularly users of PPI, and 312(67%) nonusers of PPI. Ambulatory-blood-pressure was measured non-invasively for 24--hours by the Spacelab-devices programmed-to-measure every 20-minutes during-daytime and every 60-min...

  11. Specific Blood Pressure Targets for Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Nilsson, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy represents a condition frequently detected in current clinical practice characterized by a very high cardiovascular risk profile. Blood pressure reduction via antihypertension drug treatment represents a therapeutic approach capable of exerting favorable effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and results of key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure goals of antihypertension treatment in these patients. The pros and cons of a less or a more intensive blood pressure goal in diabetic nephropathy will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular and renal effects of each therapeutic strategy. PMID:27440837

  12. Blood pressure management in cardiovascular risk stratification : procedure, progression, process

    OpenAIRE

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure and the cardiovascular risk is overstimated. We demonstrated that crossing the legs at the level of the knee, but not at the level of the ankle, causes a rise of blood pressure. We proved that the phy...

  13. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  14. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  15. Intensive blood pressure control affects cerebral blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper;

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM...... groups. However, in contrast to nondiabetic hypertensive patients, intensive BP control reduced CBFV in T2DM- (58±9 to 54±12 cm · s-1) and T2DM+ (57±13 to 52±11 cm · s-1) at 3 months, but CBFV returned to baseline at 6 months only in T2DM-, whereas the reduction in CBFV progressed in T2DM+ (to 48±8 cm...

  16. Acute and Conditioned Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Social and Psychosocial Stimuli in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    1985-01-01

    The naturally occurring tendency to compete with other rats for territorial space has been used to study individual behavior characteristics and blood pressure reactivity to social stimuli in adult male TMD-S3 rats. The competitive characteristics of the individual rats are consistent in two different social situations (victory and defeat). Blood pressure responses during the victory of home territory rats over intruders was more pronounced in the more competitive animals. In addition to defe...

  17. Effect on intra-arterial blood pressure of slow release metoprolol combined with placebo or chlorthalidone.

    OpenAIRE

    Kieso, H A; Gould, B A; Mann, S; Hornung, R S; Altman, D G; Raftery, E. B.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty patients with essential hypertension participated in a double blind crossover trial in which they were randomly allocated to treatment with either once daily slow release metoprolol (200 mg) with placebo or once daily slow release metoprolol (200 mg) with chlorthalidone (25 mg). Ambulatory intra-arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously for 24-48 hours before treatment and two months after each change in regimen. The response of blood pressure and pulse rate to a standard exerc...

  18. Estimated daily salt intake in relation to blood pressure and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Toft, Ulla; Buhelt, Lone P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive salt intake causes increased blood pressure which is considered the leading risk for premature death. One major challenge when evaluating associations between daily salt intake and markers of non-communicable diseases is that a high daily salt intake correlates with obesity......, which is also a well described risk factor for poor cardiometabolic outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of estimated daily salt intake with blood pressure and blood lipids and to investigate the effect of taking different measures of obesity into account. METHODS: We included...... estimated 24-hour sodium excretion with blood pressure and blood lipids were evaluated by linear regression models. RESULTS: The daily mean estimated intake of salt was 10.80 g and 7.52 g among men and women, respectively. Daily salt intake was significantly associated with blood pressure (β-estimates 1...

  19. 肥厚型心肌病患者静息脉压和运动诱导的血压异常之间的关系%Relationship between Pulse Pressure and Abnormal Blood Pressure Response to Exercise in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古平; 代静澜; 潘波; 杨坤; 粱伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between pulse pressure and abnormal blood pressure response to exercise in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: 70 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy admitted in our hospital from January 2007 to January 2012 underwent echocardiography for assessment of the cardiac dimensions followed by a symptom-limited exercise test using a standard Bruce protocol with a concurrent hemodynamic assessment. Measurement of blood pressure was proceeded after the patient supine rest and exercise. Results: In the patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, post-exercise blood pressure response to abnormal resting pulse pressure was significantly higher than normal. Pulse pressure was significantly greater in patients with an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise than that without an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise (P=0.007). According to binary logistic regression analysis, pulse pressure at rest was a significant predictor of abnormal blood pressure response to exercise in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, excluding age, gender, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, septal thickness, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction(P=0.016). Conclusions: Pulse pressure at rest could be used as an effective auxiliary index to prevent the occurrence of sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.%目的:探讨肥厚型心肌病患者静息脉压和运动诱导的血压异常之间的关系.方法:根据Bruce方案,对70例2007年1月至2012年1月在我院治疗的肥厚型心肌病患者进行症状限制运动试验,监测患者的血液动力学指标,即分别在患者仰卧休息和运动结束后测量血压.结果:肥厚型心肌病患者中,运动后血压反应异常者与正常者相比,前者的静息脉压显著高于后者.表现出运动性非正常血压反应的肥厚型心肌病患者,静息脉压明显高于无运动性非正常血压反应患者(P=0.007).根

  20. Occlusion cuff for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Krähenbühl, B; Hirai, M

    1977-01-01

    A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for us...... in conjunction with a mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow in patients with arterial disease....

  1. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work. PMID:8899576

  2. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Brewster; G. Mairuhu; N.R. Bindraban; R.P. Koopmans; J.F. Clark; G.A. van Montfrans

    2006-01-01

    Background - We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascula

  3. Variability of arterial blood pressure in normal and hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oney, T; Meyer-Sabellek, W

    1990-12-01

    In normal pregnancy the circadian blood pressure rhythm is similar to that in the non-pregnant state, with the highest blood pressure values in the morning and the lowest at midnight. This rhythm is lost in patients with pre-eclampsia. Women with severe pre-eclampsia show a reversed circadian rhythm, with a nocturnal increase in blood pressure during the sleeping phase. Although the reasons for this nocturnal hypertension in severe pre-eclampsia are poorly understood, the results suggest that pre-eclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies, mostly at night. Therefore blood pressure measurement should be extended to the night, and antihypertensive treatment must be adapted to the demands of a reversed circadian rhythm in relevant subgroups of patients. PMID:2082002

  4. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trudnoći - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy 孕期高血压 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  5. More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly Latest findings from national trial show it lowers ... risk of heart disease -- even if they're elderly or have already had heart problems, new research ...

  6. Indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure: physiotherapists’ theoretical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Morgana Vieira de Assis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure checking and its theoretical knowledge are crucial to obtain reliable data in clinical examination. Although it is considered a simple technique to be learned and applied, it is not fully dealt with at physiotherapy university courses. Therefore, a wide range of mistakes and misinterpretations are likely to threaten treatment quality. This work aims to evaluate the theory background of physiotherapists for blood pressure measurement. From June to October 2002, 55 physiotherapists answered a 20- question multiple-choice questionnaire on general knowledge related to concepts, anatomy and physiology, suitable equipment, indirect measurement, blood pressure values, mistakes and misinterpretation factors related to blood pressure measurement. The results disclose faulty theory concepts in the sample studied, indicating the need of deeper approach to this complex theme during course and ongoing updating of professionals.

  7. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed if you have high blood pressure or atrial fibrillation . Stroke prevention is often the focus of doctor-patient conversations in atrial fibrillation, Dr. Sacco said. But for people with high ...

  8. Resistance exercise performed with repetitions until failure affects nocturnal blood pressure decreases in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Almeida Correia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that resistance exercise reduces 24-hour blood pressure to levels below resting values, although this is not a universal finding. The number of repetitions has been shown to influence this response. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effects of resistance exercise performed until failure (UF on 24-hour blood pressure in hypertensive women. Thirteen hypertensive women underwent three experimental sessions in random order: UF, resistance exercise with repetitions before concentric failure (BF and control (C. Prior to and up to 24 hours after the sessions, cardiovascular variables, as well as the nocturnal fall in blood pressure, the morning surge, and the presence or absence of a blood pressure dip pattern were established using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. In both wakefulness and sleep there was no significant difference among the three groups. However, after UF and C fewer patients presented a dip in blood pressure (46% and 38%, respectively compared BF (77%, p=0.047. In conclusion, the UF attenuated blood pressure dips at night in hypertensive patients.

  9. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Kylie J. Smith

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention...

  10. Blood Pressure Level Amongst Lactovegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Males

    OpenAIRE

    Jain B K; Jain S C

    1999-01-01

    Research Question: Is the relative risk for the development of hypertension more among non vegetarians than lacto vegetarians? Objectives: To compare the arterial blood pressure between lacto vegetarian and non-vegetarian males of 30 years and above. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In two different areas of walled city of Delhi. Study Variables: Blood pressure. Statistical analysis: Quetelet Index, t-test, z-test, x2-test, Relative risk

  11. Blood Pressure Level Amongst Lactovegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain B K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is the relative risk for the development of hypertension more among non vegetarians than lacto vegetarians? Objectives: To compare the arterial blood pressure between lacto vegetarian and non-vegetarian males of 30 years and above. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In two different areas of walled city of Delhi. Study Variables: Blood pressure. Statistical analysis: Quetelet Index, t-test, z-test, x2-test, Relative risk

  12. Functional capillary rarefaction in mild blood pressure elevation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Cynthia; Diamond, James J.; Falkner, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    Capillary rarefaction is described in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. The study objective was to determine if structural and/or functional capillary rarefaction is detectable and associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with mild blood pressure elevation (HBP: Systolic blood pressure 130 – 160 mm Hg). Capillary density was quantified by direct capillaroscopy in 110 nondiabetic black and non-black subjects. Endothelial function was quantified by plethysmographic measu...

  13. Optimizing blood pressure control through the use of fixed combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Düsing

    2010-01-01

    Rainer DüsingMedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik 1, Bonn, GermanyAbstract: The majority of hypertensive patients need ≥2 antihypertensive agents to reach goal blood pressure. As an estimate, one-third of unselected hypertensive patients may be successfully treated with monotherapy, one-third may require 2 and the remaining one-third of patients will need ≥3 antihypertensive agents for effective blood pressure control. However, doctors are often hesitant to expand therapy...

  14. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, D

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant re...

  15. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of drugs are there? • D IURETICS rid the ... by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood ... types may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if you have side effects, but don’ ...

  16. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  17. Relationship of Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring, Medication Adherence, Self-Efficacy, Stage of Change, and Blood Pressure Control Among Municipal Workers With Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L.; Brown, Kathleen C.; Pryor, Erica R.; Maples, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled blood pressure remains a major public health issue. Medication adherence is a key factor in blood pressure management; however, adherence behavior is not clearly understood and the most significant factors contributing to poor medication adherence and blood pressure control are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of self-monitoring of blood pressure, medication adherence, self-efficacy, stage of change, and blood pressure control among municipal w...

  18. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

  19. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  20. Techniques for estimating blood pressure variation using video images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Norihiro; Obara, Kazuma; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Abe, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Homma, Noriyasu

    2015-08-01

    It is important to know about a sudden blood pressure change that occurs in everyday life and may pose a danger to human health. However, monitoring the blood pressure variation in daily life is difficult because a bulky and expensive sensor is needed to measure the blood pressure continuously. In this study, a new non-contact method is proposed to estimate the blood pressure variation using video images. In this method, the pulse propagation time difference or instantaneous phase difference is calculated between two pulse waves obtained from different parts of a subject's body captured by a video camera. The forehead, left cheek, and right hand are selected as regions to obtain pulse waves. Both the pulse propagation time difference and instantaneous phase difference were calculated from the video images of 20 healthy subjects performing the Valsalva maneuver. These indices are considered to have a negative correlation with the blood pressure variation because they approximate the pulse transit time obtained from a photoplethysmograph. However, the experimental results showed that the correlation coefficients between the blood pressure and the proposed indices were approximately 0.6 for the pulse wave obtained from the right hand. This result is considered to be due to the difference in the transmission depth into the skin between the green and infrared light used as light sources for the video image and conventional photoplethysmogram, respectively. In addition, the difference in the innervation of the face and hand may be related to the results. PMID:26737225

  1. Splanchnic vasoconstriction in hyperthermic man - Role of falling blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, L. B.; Profant, G. R.; Wyss, C.; Detry, J.-M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a study in which six supine resting subjects, wearing water-perfused suits, had body skin temperature controlled at 35 C for 30 min (control period), then rapidly increased to 40.5 C for 43 to 50 min (heating period) in a two-part experiment. In the first part of the experiment arterial mean pressure (MP) in three men was increased back to, or above control levels at the 30 to 35th min of heating by total occlusion of both legs for 8 to 10 min. Splanchnic blood flow (SBF), which had fallen from 1.4 to 0.9 L/min at occlusion, rose only 0.05 L/min during occlusion. Splanchnic vascular resistance (SVR) rose throughout heating and occlusion. In the second part of the experiment (three men) SBF fell despite a spontaneous rise in MP and aortic pulse pressure prior to leg occlusion. Cardiac output (CO) was measured just before, during and after occlusion. Occlusion raised MP 10 to 15 mm Hg and reduced CO only slightly. It is concluded that falling MP or aortic pulse pressure are not major causes of the splanchnic vasoconstriction in response to heating man.

  2. Regular Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gedif Teferi; Getahun Workineh; Tesfaye Fikru

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Fresh leaves and buds of the Khat plant (Catha edulis) contain Cathinone, an amphetamine like alkaloid responsible for its pharmacological action. Chewing of Khat has been associated with a transient rise in blood pressure and heart rate in experimental studies. Few studies examined the effect of regular or frequent Khat chewing on blood pressure at the population level. This study was conducted to examine the association of regular Khat chewing with blood pressure among a...

  3. Blood pressure, sodium intake, insulin resistance, and urinary nitrate excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F S; DoNascimento, C; Reaven, G M; Yip, J W; Ni, X P; Humphreys, M H

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among various humoral factors thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure during high NaCl intake. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent sequential 5-day periods ingesting a low-sodium (25 mmol/d) or high-sodium (200 mmol/d) diet. Insulin resistance was assessed by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration at the end of a 3-hour insulin suppression test. Insulin resistance correlated inversely with natriuresis (P=0.04) and directly with increase in weight (P=0.03). The increase in mean arterial pressure associated with the high-sodium diet correlated directly with the gain in weight (P<0.05) and inversely with the increase in urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.0001). In a multiple regression model, more than 2/3 of the variance in mean arterial pressure was accounted for by the gain in weight and change in urinary nitrate excretion. The steady-state plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the 2 diets were similar, indicating that insulin resistance was unaffected by sodium intake. During high sodium intake, plasma renin activity and aldosterone decreased and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased; these changes did not correlate with the change in mean arterial pressure, insulin resistance, or change in urinary nitrate excretion. To the extent that urinary nitrate excretion reflects activity of the endogenous nitric oxide system, these results suggest that the salt sensitivity of mean arterial pressure may be related to blunted generation of endogenous nitric oxide. The results also demonstrate that insulin-resistant individuals have an impaired natriuretic response to high sodium intake. PMID:10205239

  4. PERFUSION PRESSURE AND RENAL BLOOD FLOW: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Musso, MD. PhD.1,2, Manuel Vilas, MD.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of renal perfusion pressure (RPP and renal blood flow (RBF are usually confused, but although they are intimately related, they are not strictly the same. RPP originates from the minute cardiac volume and is, therefore, the cause of RBF, which generates glomerular filtration and as a consequence, also induces the urinary flow. On the other hand, whereas RPP can be subject to fluctuations, the same happens to RBF though at a much lower level due to the existence of physiological mechanisms, such as self-regulation of the flow and tubule-glomerular feed-back. We conclude that there is a dependence of the RBF in relation with RPP, with the former acting as the final responsible of the glomerular filtration.

  5. Timing of blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcel, Cheryl; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    Whether there are any benefits without harm from early lowering of blood pressure (BP) in the setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been a longstanding controversy in medicine. Whilst most studies have consistently shown associations between elevated BP, particularly systolic BP, and poor outcome, some also report that very low BP (systolic <130 mmHg) and large reductions in systolic BP are associated with poor outcomes in AIS. However, despite these associations, the observed U- or J-shaped relationship between BP and outcome in these patients may not be causally related. Patients with more severe strokes may have a more prominent autonomic response and later lower BP as their condition worsens, often pre-terminally. Fortunately, substantial progress has been made in recent years with new evidence arising from well-conducted randomized trials. This review outlines new evidence and recommendations for clinical practice over BP management in AIS. PMID:26041479

  6. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

  7. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  8. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  9. Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... the time, you're at risk. Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults (in mmHg, or millimeters of ...

  10. Blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow in the rat during infusion of biogenic amines. Influence of a supralethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of biogenic amines (noradrenaline, dopamine), infused at different concentration into the aorta of the urethane anesthetized control and irradiated rats for 2 min., was followed on the basis of systemic blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow. The mesenteric blood flow was measured by means of an electromagnetic flow meter. The changes observed i.e. after dopamine an increase in pressure and flow, after noradrenaline an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow with an increase after infusion had been stopped, correspond to those obtained in larger animals. In many, but not in all cases, the response is proportional to the log of the concentration of the amine infused. Irradiation with 2 kR, i.e. a dose which causes the animals to die from the gastrointestinal syndrome after 3 days modified the response to dopamine and noradrenaline. The changes are, for noradrenaline, a greater pressure and a lower flow responses and for dopamine a greater pressure response at low and middle doses

  11. Buffering blood pressure fluctuations by respiratory sinus arrhythmia may in fact enhance them: a theoretical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Buchner, Teodor; Gielerak, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Using a three-compartment model of blood pressure dynamics, we analyze theoretically the short term cardiovascular variability: how the respiratory-related blood pressure fluctuations are buffered by appropriate heart rate changes: i.e. the respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The buffering is shown to be crucially dependent on the time delay between the stimulus (such as e.g. the inspiration onset) and the application of the control (the moment in time when the efferent response is delivered to the heart). This theoretical analysis shows that the buffering mechanism is effective only in the upright position of the body. It explains a paradoxical effect of enhancement of the blood pressure fluctuations by an ineffective control. Such a phenomenon was observed experimentally. Using the basis of the model, we discuss the blood pressure variability and heart rate variability under such clinical conditions as the states of expressed adrenergic drive and the tilt-test during the parasympathetic blockade or fixed rate atr...

  12. Childhood Blood Pressure Trends and Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure: The NHANES experience 1988–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, Bernard; Cook, Nancy R.; Daniels, Stephen; Falkner, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in children makes it plausible that prevalence rates of elevated blood pressure are increasing over time. Yet, previous literature is inconsistent due to small sample sizes. Also, it is unclear whether adjusting for risk factors can explain longitudinal trends in prevalence of elevated blood pressure. Thus, we analyzed a population-based sample of 3,248 children in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994) and 8,388 children in continuous N...

  13. A large blood pressure-raising effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, M.; Chavoshan, B.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    In experimental animals, systemic administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors causes large increases in blood pressure that are in part sympathetically mediated. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which these conclusions can be extrapolated to humans. In healthy normotensive humans, we measured blood pressure in response to two NOS inhibitors, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the latter of which recently became available for use in humans. The major new findings are 3-fold. First, L-NAME produced robust increases in blood pressure that were more than 2 times larger than those previously reported in humans with L-NMMA and approximated those seen in experimental animals. L-NAME (4 mg/kg) raised mean arterial pressure by 24+/-2 mm Hg (n=27, P<0.001), whereas in subjects who received both inhibitors, a 12-fold higher dose of L-NMMA (50 mg/kg) raised mean arterial pressure by 15+/-2 mm Hg (n=4, P<0.05 vs L-NAME). Second, the L-NAME-induced increases in blood pressure were caused specifically by NOS inhibition because they were reversed by L-arginine (200 mg/kg, n=12) but not D-arginine (200 mg/kg, n=6) and because NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (4 mg/kg, n=5) had no effect on blood pressure. Third, in humans, there is an important sympathetic component to the blood pressure-raising effect of NOS inhibition. alpha-Adrenergic blockade with phentolamine (0.2 mg/kg, n=9) attenuated the L-NAME-induced increase in blood pressure by 40% (P<0.05). From these data, we conclude that pharmacological inhibition of NOS causes large increases in blood pressure that are in part sympathetically mediated in humans as well as experimental animals.

  14. 10.5.Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920274 The effect of lowered pressure onthe diastolic ventricular function after anti-hypertension treatment.CAI Bohin (蔡伯林),etal.Ruijin Hosp,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ,200025.Chin J Cardiol 1991;19(6):366-368.

  15. Robust linear parameter-varying control of blood pressure using vasoactive drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luspay, Tamas; Grigoriadis, Karolos

    2015-10-01

    Resuscitation of emergency care patients requires fast restoration of blood pressure to a target value to achieve hemodynamic stability and vital organ perfusion. A robust control design methodology is presented in this paper for regulating the blood pressure of hypotensive patients by means of the closed-loop administration of vasoactive drugs. To this end, a dynamic first-order delay model is utilised to describe the vasoactive drug response with varying parameters that represent intra-patient and inter-patient variability. The proposed framework consists of two components: first, an online model parameter estimation is carried out using a multiple-model extended Kalman-filter. Second, the estimated model parameters are used for continuously scheduling a robust linear parameter-varying (LPV) controller. The closed-loop behaviour is characterised by parameter-varying dynamic weights designed to regulate the mean arterial pressure to a target value. Experimental data of blood pressure response of anesthetised pigs to phenylephrine injection are used for validating the LPV blood pressure models. Simulation studies are provided to validate the online model estimation and the LPV blood pressure control using phenylephrine drug injection models representing patients showing sensitive, nominal and insensitive response to the drug.

  16. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R.; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; K Rampersad; Reyes, D.; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any i...

  17. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit;

    2006-01-01

    , aged 20 to 46 years, interpolated diameter estimates for the central retinal artery (CRAE), the central retinal vein (CRVE), and the artery-to-vein diameter ratio (AVR) were assessed by analysis of digital gray-scale fundus photographs of right eyes. RESULTS: The heritability was 70% (95% CI: 54...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...... and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters and the...

  18. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure, pl

  19. Propagation of Nonlinear Pressure Waves in Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Elgarayhi, A.; E. K. El-Shewy; MAHMOUD, ABEER A.; Elhakem, Ali A.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of weakly nonlinear pressure waves in a fluid-filled elastic tube has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for small but finite amplitude. The effect of the final inner radius of the tube on the basic properties of the soliton wave was discussed. Moreover, the conditions of stability and the soliton existence via the potential and the corresponding phase portrait were computed. The applicability of the ...

  20. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE WITH AGE IN SALT-SENSITIVE TEENAGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Zhi-quan Liu; Jian-jun Mu; Xi-han Fu; Jun Yang; Bao-lin Gao; Xiao-hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing.Methods Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood pressure was followed up. Blood pressure changes in salt-sensitive teenagers were compared to that of non-salt sensitive teenagers over five years.Results After 5 years, the repetition rate of salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading is 92.7%. In teenagers with salt sensitivity on the baseline, both the systolic blood pressure increments and increment rates were much higher than non-salt sensitive teenagers (12.7±12.1 mmHg vs. 2.8±5.2 mmHg, P< 0.01; 12.2%± 12.0% vs. 2.5% ±4.4%, P< 0.001,respectively). There was a similar trend for diastolic blood pressure (8.4 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. 3.7 ± 6.4 mmHg, P = 0.052; 13.2% ±10.6 % vs. 6.8%± 10.1%, P = 0.053, respectively).Conclusions Salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading showed good reproducibility. Blood pressure increments with age were much higher in salt-sensitive teenagers than non-salt sensitive teenagers, especially in terms of systolic blood pressure.

  1. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  2. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  3. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  4. Effect of calcium entry blockers on blood pressure and vasoconstrictor responses to alpha-1 adrenoceptor stimulation in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate whether vascular alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonism plays a role in the antihypertensive effect of verapamil, tiapamil, and nifedipine, we studied their potencies to inhibit K(+)-induced 45Ca2+ influx in rat isolated aorta and [3H]prazosin binding in rat brain membranes in vitro as well as their antihypertensive effect and functional alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in vivo. Tiapamil proved 70 times less potent than verapamil in inhibiting calcium influx, but was equipotent in displacing [3H]prazosin. Nifedipine proved 10 times more potent than verapamil as calcium channel blocker but displayed negligible affinity for alpha-1 adrenoceptors in vitro. In conscious SHR, the three calcium channel blockers dose-dependently reduced mean arterial pressure after oral administration. Only at maximal anti-hypertensive doses, the increases in diastolic pressure to intravenous injection of the selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist cirazoline were temporarily suppressed by nifedipine, verapamil, and tiapamil. No relationship existed between the relative potencies as calcium channel blocker and affinities for alpha-1 adrenoceptor binding sites in vitro with functional vascular alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade in vivo. The data do not support the hypothesis that vascular alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade plays a significant role in the anti-hypertensive effect of verapamil and related calcium channel blockers

  5. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senn Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Objective Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Outcome Primary outcome: Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries. Methods/Design Randomised controlled study. Population: 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system. Expected results/conclusion The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range ≤ 140/≤ 90 mmHg, yellow: blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467

  6. Resposta da pressão arterial ao esforço em adolescentes: influência do sobrepeso e obesidade Blood pressure response to physical exertion in adolescents: influence of overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carletti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A resposta aguda da pressão arterial ao esforço tem sido utilizada como indicador de risco para o desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial. Os fatores associados com essa resposta precisam ser esclarecidos a fim de se intervir na prevenção da doença hipertensiva. OBJETIVO: Descrever o comportamento das variáveis cardiovasculares ao esforço agudo em adolescentes com excesso de peso, por meio de teste cardiopulmonar. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 104 adolescentes (56 meninos e 48 meninas, divididos nos grupos de sobrepeso/obesos (GSO e eutróficos (GE. Foram aferidas variáveis antropométricas (peso, estatura e IMC, de composição corporal (dobra cutânea e variáveis hemodinâmicas de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD e freqüência cardíaca (FC, no repouso e no esforço máximo do teste cardiopulmonar. RESULTADOS: No grupo masculino, identificaram-se maiores valores de pressão arterial sistólica de repouso para o GSO, quando comparados com o GE (113 ± 13 vs 106 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0,009, a PAS pré-exercício (120 ± 14 vs 109 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0,003 e de PAS na carga máxima de trabalho (156 ± 20 vs 146 ± 14 mmHg; p = 0,03. No grupo feminino, apenas a PAS pré-exercício foi superior no grupo de sobrepeso, quando isso foi comparado com as eutróficas (114 ± 11 vs 106 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0,009. CONCLUSÃO: A resposta pressórica durante o exercício foi mais exacerbada em adolescentes obesos quando comparada com àquela obtida em eutróficos, o que indica maior reatividade ao estresse físico.BACKGROUND: The acute blood pressure response to physical exertion has been used as an indicator of the risk of developing hypertension. The factors associated with this response need to be clarified for timely intervention in preventing hypertensive disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the response of cardiovascular variables to acute physical exertion in overweight adolescents using cardiopulmonary exercise testing

  7. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni...... than 0.0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  8. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  9. 白藜芦醇对卵巢切除大鼠动脉血压及升压反应的影响%Effects of resveratrol on arterial blood pressure and pressor response in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红芳; 姚向荣; 郑天珍; 李伟; 贾忠健

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the mechanism of cardiovascular protection by investigating the effect of resveratrol and 17β-estradiol on blood pressure and pressor response in ovariectomized rats.We selected female mature Wistar rats weighing 214.07±4.85 g that underwent a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX rats). Sham-operated animals (SHAM rats) were used as controls. One weeks after surgery, the OVX animals received daily subcutaneous injection of resveratrol (RES, 0.4 mg/kg), 17β-estradiol (EST,1 mg/kg) or equivalent volumes of sesame oil for 21 days, the resting arterial blood pressure and pressor responses of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ , 0.01 mg/kg), noradrenaline (NA, 0.01 mg/kg) and adrenaline (Adr,0.016 mg/kg) were detected and the carotid sinus baroreflex was also measured. In OVX rats, systolic pressure (SP), diastolic pressure (DP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) significantly increased, but after treatment with RES and EST for 21 days, the blood pressure decreased and almost changed into the level of SHAM rat. Pressor responses of Ang Ⅱ, NA and Adr in SP, DP and MAP were significantly reduced in OVX rats and after treatment with RES and EST, the pressor responses of Ang Ⅱ and NA resumed in varying degrees but for Adr there was no marked change in RES treated OVX rats. The sensitivity of carotid sinus baroreflex significantly decreased in OVX rats, that is to say, changes of SP, DP and MAP were less than SHAM rats. After administration RES and EST, the sensitivity of carotid sinus baroreflex recovered in different degrees. The results indicate that, similar as 17β-estradiol, resveratrol can chronically decrease arterial blood pressure, recover pressor responses of Ang Ⅱ, NA, and the sensitivity of carotid sinus baroreflex in OVX rats and that these effects may be related to its cardiovascular protective effect.%选用雌性Wistar大鼠,体重214.07±4.85 g,于双侧卵巢切除后分别皮下注射白藜芦醇RES(0.4 mg/kg)和17β-雌二醇EST(1 mg

  10. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Dua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blood pressure and anthropometric measurements are important for evaluating the health of children, adolescents as well as adults. Aim: The aim is to study the blood pressure and body dimensions and to find out the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the people belonging to the Punjabi community, residing in Roshanara area and Jaina building in Delhi, for the past 20 years and aged 18-50 years. The men were engaged in transport business and women were mainly housewives. Results: Mean values of all the measurements, that is, height, weight, upper arm circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were higher among males as compared with females, except skinfold thicknesses. Body mass index (BMI and fat percentage was found to be higher among females as compared with males. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI, fat percentage, and blood pressure both SBP as well as DBP. Odds ratio showed that overweight/obese subjects were more likely to have hypertension than those with normal BMI. Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension among overweight/obese suggested an early clinical detection of prehypertension and intervention including life style modification, particularly weight management.

  11. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, C E C; Penna, T J P; Argollo de Menezes, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea, s/n, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Soares, P P S [Instituto Biomedico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Prof. Hernani Melo n. 101, 24210-130, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcio@mail.if.uff.br

    2009-10-15

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  12. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  13. Pathology influences blood pressure change following vagal stimulation in an animal intubation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The haemodynamic response to critical care intubation is influenced by the use of sedation and relaxant drugs and the activation of the vagal reflex. It has been hypothesized that different disease states may have a contrasting effect on the cardiovascular response to vagal stimulation. Our objective was to determine whether the blood pressure response to vagal stimulation was modified by endotoxaemia or hypovolaemia. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were anaesthetised with urethane before tracheotomy. The exposed left Vagus nerve of randomised groups of control (n = 11, endotoxin (n = 11, 1 mg/kg, hypovolaemia 40% (n = 8 and hypovolaemia 20% (n = 8 rabbits were subjected to 10 Hz pulsed electrical stimulations of 25 s duration every 15 min. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded from a catheter in the right carotid artery connected to an iWorx monitor. Serum catecholamines were measured every 30 min using reverse-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography. The change in blood pressure after vagal stimulation was compared to controls for one hour after the first death in the experimental groups. RESULTS: 29% of the rabbits died in the hypovolaemia 40% group and 27% in the endotoxin group. One rabbit died in the hypovolaemia 40% group before vagal stimulation and was excluded. Following electrical stimulation of the Vagus nerve there was a fall in blood pressure in control rabbits. Blood pressure was conserved in the hypovolaemic rabbits compared to controls (p<0.01. For the endotoxaemic rabbits, there was a non-significant trend for the mean blood pressure to decrease more than the controls. Serum catecholamines were significantly raised in both the hypovolaemic and endotoxaemic rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: Pathology may contribute to modifications in blood pressure when vagal activation occurs. Patients who are either already vasoconstricted, or not vasoplegic, may be less at risk from intubation-related vagally mediated

  14. Reaction of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow to infusion of biogenic amines in normal and supralethally x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responss of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow were recorded during infusion of biogenic amines (noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine) to control and x-irradiated rats (first and third days after 2 kR x irradiation). Responses to different doses of the amines were evaluated, and the results obtained correspond to those seen in other species (e.g., an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow after dopamine, an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow after serotonin, a decrease in pressure and flow after acetylcholine, and a decrease in flow after serotonin, a decrease in pressure and flow after acetylcholine, and a decrease in pressure and an increase in flow after histamine). Irradiated animals are more responsive to pressure-raising agents, in particular to noradrenaline. They also have an altered dose-pressure response curve for dopamine

  15. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  16. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy. PMID:22868529

  17. Alcohol intake and blood pressure: a systematic review implementing a Mendelian randomization approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Chen; George Davey Smith; Harbord, Roger M.; Lewis, Sarah J

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a common medical condition that affects nearly a third of US and UK adults. Hypertension has no symptoms but can lead to heart attacks or strokes. It is diagnosed by measuring blood pressure—the force that blood moving around the body exerts on the inside of large blood vessels. Blood pressure is highest when the heart is pumping out blood (systolic pressure) and lowest when it is filling up with blood (diastolic pressure). No...

  18. Smooth-muscle BMAL1 participates in blood pressure circadian rhythm regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongwen; Su, Wen; Liu, Shu; Zhao, Guogang; Esser, Karyn; Schroder, Elizabeth A; Lefta, Mellani; Stauss, Harald M; Guo, Zhenheng; Gong, Ming Cui

    2015-01-01

    As the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has long been considered the primary regulator of blood pressure circadian rhythm; however, this dogma has been challenged by the discovery that each of the clock genes present in the SCN is also expressed and functions in peripheral tissues. The involvement and contribution of these peripheral clock genes in the circadian rhythm of blood pressure remains uncertain. Here, we demonstrate that selective deletion of the circadian clock transcriptional activator aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (Bmal1) from smooth muscle, but not from cardiomyocytes, compromised blood pressure circadian rhythm and decreased blood pressure without affecting SCN-controlled locomotor activity in murine models. In mesenteric arteries, BMAL1 bound to the promoter of and activated the transcription of Rho-kinase 2 (Rock2), and Bmal1 deletion abolished the time-of-day variations in response to agonist-induced vasoconstriction, myosin phosphorylation, and ROCK2 activation. Together, these data indicate that peripheral inputs contribute to the daily control of vasoconstriction and blood pressure and suggest that clock gene expression outside of the SCN should be further evaluated to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms of diseases involving blood pressure circadian rhythm disruption. PMID:25485682

  19. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: → We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. → This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. → Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  20. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    OpenAIRE

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either su...

  1. The effects of blood pressure reduction and of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events according to baseline blood pressure : meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichow, Sebastien; Zanchetti, Alberto; Turnbull, Fiona; Barzi, Federica; Ninomiya, Toshiaru; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, Hisatomi; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background The benefits of reducing blood pressure are well established, but there remains uncertainty about whether the magnitude of the effect varies with the initial blood pressure level. The objective was to compare the risk reductions achieved by different blood pressure-lowering regimens among

  2. Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Greve, Anders M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present hypothesis-generating study, we investigated whether spontaneous blood pressure oscillations are suppressed to lower frequencies, and whether abolished oscillations are associated with an adverse outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: We...... retrospectively subjected invasive steady-state blood pressure recordings from 65 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis to spectral analysis. Modified spectral bands were visually identified by plotting spectral power against frequency. RESULTS: Modified middle-frequency and low-frequency (MF' and LF......') oscillations were absent in 9% and 22% of the patients, respectively. In patients in whom spontaneous blood pressure oscillations were preserved, the MF' oscillations occurred at 0.021 Hz (median, interquartile range 0.013-0.030), whereas the LF' oscillations occurred at 0.009 Hz (median, interquartile range 0...

  3. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy...... association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate....

  4. Heritability of Blood Pressure in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saadat

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that life styles and personal interests, aggregate within families suggests that shared environment in addition to shared bioligical factors could play a role in determining the phenotypic similarity of idividuals living in the same household. It is a major concern of cardiovascular epidemiologists to know how much of the familial aggregation of blood pressure is attributable to shared genes and/or shared family environment. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure was examined in a sample representative of the adult population of Shiraz, Fars province, south of Iran. The studied population was the 107 pairs of mother and dauther. Analysis of the data suggest that the genetic heritabilities were estimated to be 0.58,0.30, 0.60 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively.

  5. Algorithmic Summaries of Perioperative Blood Pressure Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toddenroth, Dennis; Ganslandt, Thomas; Drescher, Caroline; Weith, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Schuettler, Juergen; Muenster, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Automated perioperative measurements such as cardiovascular monitoring data are commonly compared to established upper and lower thresholds, but could also allow for more complex interpretations. Analyzing such time series in extensive electronic medical records for research purposes may itself require customized automation, so we developed a set of algorithms for quantifying different aspects of temporal fluctuations. We implemented conventional measures of dispersion, summaries of absolute gradients between successive values, and Poincaré plots. We aggregated the severity and duration of hypotensive episodes by calculating the average area under different mean arterial pressure (MAP) thresholds. We applied these methods to 30,452 de-identified MAP series, and analyzed the similarity between alternative indices via hierarchical clustering. To explore the potential utility of these propositional metrics, we computed their statistical association with presumed complications due to cardiovascular instability. We observed that hierarchical clustering reliably segregated features that had been designed to quantify dissimilar aspects. Summaries of temporary hypotension turned out to be significantly increased among patient subgroups with subsequent signs of a complicated recovery. These associations were even stronger for measures that were specifically geared to capturing short-term MAP variability. These observations suggest the potential capability of our proposed algorithms for quantifying heterogeneous aspects of short-term MAP fluctuations. Future research might also target a wider selection of outcomes and other attributes that may be subject to intraoperative variability. PMID:27577440

  6. The effect of ventricular assist devices on cerebral blood flow and blood pressure fractality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological signals often exhibit self-similar or fractal scaling characteristics which may reflect intrinsic adaptability to their underlying physiological system. This study analysed fractal dynamics of cerebral blood flow in patients supported with ventricular assist devices (VAD) to ascertain if sustained modifications of blood pressure waveform affect cerebral blood flow fractality. Simultaneous recordings of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity using transcranial Doppler were obtained from five cardiogenic shock patients supported by VAD, five matched control patients and five healthy subjects. Computation of a fractal scaling exponent (α) at the low-frequency time scale by detrended fluctuation analysis showed that cerebral blood flow velocity exhibited 1/f fractal scaling in both patient groups (α = 0.95 ± 0.09 and 0.97 ± 0.12, respectively) as well as in the healthy subjects (α = 0.86 ± 0.07). In contrast, fluctuation in blood pressure was similar to non-fractal white noise in both patient groups (α = 0.53 ± 0.11 and 0.52 ± 0.09, respectively) but exhibited 1/f scaling in the healthy subjects (α = 0.87 ± 0.04, P < 0.05 compared with the patient groups). The preservation of fractality in cerebral blood flow of VAD patients suggests that normal cardiac pulsation and central perfusion pressure changes are not the integral sources of cerebral blood flow fractality and that intrinsic vascular properties such as cerebral autoregulation may be involved. However, there is a clear difference in the fractal scaling properties of arterial blood pressure between the cardiogenic shock patients and the healthy subjects

  7. Relationship between children’s and parents’ blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Aswira Nasution

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background A family history of hypertension is a risk factor for hypertension in children. Past studies have reported a significant relationship between elevated blood pressure in children and hypertensive parents. Objective To assess for an association between blood pressure in children and that of their parents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 90 children aged 6-18 years in Baringin Village, Panyabungan, from May to June 2010. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. Classification of hypertension was based on Fourth Task Force Guidelines by measuring blood pressure, height, and weight. We used Student’s T-test to analyze numerical data. Simple linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between blood pressures of children and their parents. Results Of the 90 participants recruited, 24 boys and 17 girls had hypertensive parents. The mean systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and arterial blood pressure (MABP were significantly higher in children with hypertensive parents than in children with normotensive parents [(SBP 116.7 (SD 7.07 vs. 87.1 (SD 13.57 mmHg; P=0.0001, (DBP 77.8 (SD 8.33 vs. 51.8 (SD 11.70 mmHg; P=0.0001, (MABP 90.7 (SD 7.41 vs. 63.6 (12.10 mmHg; P=0.0001]. There was a significant relationship between elevated SBP in boys and their fathers, as indicated by the correlation coefficient (r=0.806; P=0.0001. Conclusion The blood pressure is significantly higher in children with hypertensive parents than in those with normotensive parents. There is a correlation between SBP in boys and that of their fathers. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:202-5.].

  8. Does home blood pressure monitoring improve patient outcomes? A systematic review comparing home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure control and patient outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L; Judd, Eric; Vucovich, Lee A; Shropshire, Toneyell S; Singh, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) on blood pressure (BP) control and patient outcomes. Design A systematic review was conducted. We also appraised the methodological quality of studies. Data sources PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL). Inclusion criteria Randomized control trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, observational studies, and case-control studies published in English from any year to present that describe HBPM and 24-hour ABPM and report on systolic and/or diastolic BP and/or heart attack, stroke, kidney failure and/or all-cause mortality for adult patients. Due to the nature of the question, studies with only untreated patients were not considered. Results Of 1,742 titles and abstractions independently reviewed by two reviewers, 137 studies met predetermined criteria for evaluation. Nineteen studies were identified as relevant and included in the paper. The common themes were that HBPM and ABPM correlated with cardiovascular events and mortality, and targeting HBPM or ABPM resulted in similar outcomes. Associations between BP measurement type and mortality differed by study population. Both the low sensitivity of office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM) to detect optimal BP control by ABPM and the added association of HBPM with cardiovascular mortality supported the routine use of HBPM in clinical practice. There was insufficient data to determine the benefit of using HBPM as a measurement standard for BP control. Conclusion HBPM encourages patient-centered care and improves BP control and patient outcomes. Given the limited number of studies with both HBPM and ABPM, these measurement types should be incorporated into the design of randomized clinical trials within hypertensive populations. PMID:26170715

  9. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217) was...

  10. Secular trends of blood pressure in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been controversy about whether or not radiation exposure plays a major role in advancing age. To preliminarily study this relationship, a statistical analysis was made on blood pressure measurements in a cohort of A-bomb survivors for Adult Health Study carried out during a 22-year period from 1958 through 1980. Systolic blood pressure increased with advancing age in both men and women between 30 and 80 years. During the years 1974 through 1980, it tended to increase in both men and women aged in their thirties and fourties. Diastolic blood pressure for men increased between the ages of 30 and 60 years, and decreased between the ages of 60 and 80 years. It tended to increase from year to year for men. For women, it decreased prior to the 1970's, and thereafter, tended to increase. The parameters, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse pressure, were independent of exposure doses in the subgroups according to age or sex. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed by the...

  12. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF...

  13. Fat induced hypertension in rabbits. Effects of dietary fibre on blood pressure and blood lipid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, P G; Husbands, D R

    1980-04-01

    Rabbits were fed diets containing 200 g.kg-1 coconut oil, palm oil, or safflower oil. Some of the diets also contained 200 g.kg-1 cellulose. The blood pressure was measured daily by a non-invasive technique for the 2 month duration of the experiment. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast at intervals during the experiment and analysed for lipids. Blood pressure was always increased by a fat-enriched diet. This effect was diminished and delayed by adding cellulose to the diets, though cellulose itself had no effect on the blood pressure in the absence of fat. There was a modest negative correlation between fasting serum triglyceride concentration and the blood pressure in animals fed fat enriched diets without added cellulose, but not in animals fed diets containing both fat and cellulose. These results coupled with those of Wright, Burstyn and Gibney may serve partly to explain the observation that vegetarians have lower blood pressures than omnivores, the latter consuming diets which are relatively richer in fats and poorer in fibre than the former. PMID:6253068

  14. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels (≤10 μg/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican–American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican–American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL≥3.50 μg/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL≤0.7 μg/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08–6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  15. Mechanisms of proximal tubule sodium transport regulation that link extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McDonough, Alicia A

    2010-01-01

    One-hundred years ago, Starling articulated the interdependence of renal control of circulating blood volume and effective cardiac performance. During the past 25 years, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the interdependence of blood pressure (BP), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have begun to be revealed. These variables all converge on regulation of renal proximal tubule (PT) sodium transport. The PT reabsorbs...

  16. Relations of blood pressure and head injury to regional cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Jason E; Allen, Allyssa J; Katzel, Leslie I; Wendell, Carrington R; Siegel, Eliot L; Lefkowitz, David; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-06-15

    Hypertension confers increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease. These associations have been attributed, in part, to cerebral hypoperfusion. Here we posit that relations of higher blood pressure to lower levels of cerebral perfusion may be potentiated by a prior head injury. Participants were 87 community-dwelling older adults - 69% men, 90% white, mean age=66.9years, 27.6% with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) defined as a loss of consciousness ≤30min resulting from an injury to the head, and free of major medical (other than hypertension), neurological or psychiatric comorbidities. All engaged in clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Computerized coding of the SPECT images yielded relative ratios of blood flow in left and right cortical and select subcortical regions. Cerebellum served as the denominator. Sex-stratified multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, race, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and depressive symptomatology, revealed significant interactions of blood pressure and head injury to cerebral blood flow in men only. Specifically, among men with a history of head injury, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left orbital (β=-3.21, p=0.024) and left dorsolateral (β=-2.61, p=0.042) prefrontal cortex, and left temporal cortex (β=-3.36, p=0.014); higher diastolic blood pressure was marginally associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (β=-2.79, p=0.051). Results indicate that men with a history of head injury may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of higher blood pressure on cerebral perfusion in left anterior cortical regions, thus potentially enhancing risk for adverse brain and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:27206865

  17. Accuracy of blood pressure monitors available in high street pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Adam; Stevens, Richard; Selwood, Mary; Fleming, Susannah

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of automated blood pressure monitors on sale to the UK general public. We conducted static pressure accuracy testing on all compatible (19 out of 22 available) blood pressure monitors available for sale in pharmacies within the city of Oxford, UK, and tested two devices for accuracy in measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 21 adults. The devices showed good accuracy when measuring static pressure in laboratory bench testing, with the median error per device ranging from -2.2 to +1.2 mmHg; however, the two devices tested performed worse in vivo than in laboratory tests, with median errors as high as 6 mmHg. The monitors showed good accuracy in static pressure testing, with a lack of correlation between monitor price and accuracy. However, higher error rates seen during in-vivo testing of a subset of monitors may indicate that static testing may not be appropriate for routine accuracy assessment of these monitors. PMID:26427055

  18. Chronic changes of hematocrit value alter blood pressure and glomerular filtration in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies in hypertensive humans and animals have shown that increased blood viscosity is in direct relation with essential hypertension. The aim of our studies was to investigate the effects of chronic hematocrit value changes on arterial blood pressure and kidney function in genetically induced hypertension. To this end, we studied the effects of several interventions, designed to increase/decrease hematocrit, on hemodynamic parameters, vascular reactivity, glomerular filtration and renal function curve in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Results of our study show that chronic hematocrit value elevation increases blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance in SHR. On the other hand, chronic hematocrit lowering elucidates blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance decrease followed by cardiac output rising. Both hematocrit value changes significantly reduce vasodilatory vascular response. Hematocrit lowering induces acute renal failure. Sodium excretion is shifted to higher blood pressure values in high hematocrit value animals and opposite - lower blood pressure values in low hematocrit value animals. Repeated transfusions develop salt sensitive malignant hypertension in SHR. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the degree of kidney damage after chronic hematocrit value changes in SHR.

  19. Gastric emptying, postprandial blood pressure, glycaemia and splanchnic flow in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahair, Laurence G; Kimber, Thomas E; Flabouris, Katerina; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine gastric emptying, blood pressure, mesenteric artery blood flow, and blood glucose responses to oral glucose in Parkinson’s disease. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (13 M, 8 F; age 64.2 ± 1.6 years) with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ± 0.1, duration of known disease 6.3 ± 0.9 years) consumed a 75 g glucose drink, labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Gastric emptying was quantified with scintigraphy, blood pressure and heart rate with an automated device, superior mesenteric artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and blood glucose by glucometer for 180 min. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated with cardiovascular reflex tests and upper gastrointestinal symptoms by questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time was 106 ± 9.1 min, gastric emptying was abnormally delayed in 3 subjects (14%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell (P Parkinson’s disease, gastric emptying is related to autonomic dysfunction and a determinant of the glycaemic response to oral glucose.

  20. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: the CoCo trial

    OpenAIRE

    Steurer-Stey, C.; Zoller, M.; Moshinsky, C C; Senn, O; Rosemann, T

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also ...

  1. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    OpenAIRE

    Senn Oliver; Moshinsky Corinne; Zoller Marco; Steurer-Stey Claudia; Rosemann Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulti...

  2. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  3. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  4. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  5. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley;

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, but change in blood pressure (BP) over time has not been adequately studied in healthy individuals fully characterized for insulin sensitivity. In the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and...

  6. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  7. On preventive blood pressure self-monitoring at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik

    2015-01-01

    -called Quantified Self). In this article, we explore socio-technical complexities that may occur when introducing preventive health-measurement technologies into older adults’ daily routines and everyday lives. In particular, the original study investigated blood pressure (BP) measurement in non-clinical settings...

  8. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...

  9. Dyslexia and familial high blood pressure: an observational pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    K. Taylor; Stein, J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental learning disability characterised by unexpectedly poor reading and unknown aetiology. One hypothesis proposes excessive platelet activating factor, a potent vasodilator, as a contributor, implying that there should be a negative association between dyslexia and high blood pressure (HBP). Since both conditions have a partial genetic basis, this association may be apparent at the familial level.

  10. Disease Management to Promote Blood Pressure Control Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J.; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert

    2010-01-01

    African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan.

  11. Study, Examinations, and Stress: Blood Pressure Assessments in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of stress associated with higher education and its impact on markers of student health is explored in three experiments looking at blood pressure levels in college students. All participants were full-time undergraduate students of psychology. In Experiment 1, academic fear of failure, assessed using psychometric testing, was found to be…

  12. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  13. Vessel Elasticity Estimation by Normalized Blood Pressure Dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Leinveber, Pavel; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Souček, M.; Kára, T.

    Tel-Aviv : Israel Heart Society, 2008. s. 115. ISBN N. [IDSS 2008 - International Dead Sea Symposium on Cardiac Arrhythmias and Device Therapy /9./. 22.09.2008-24.09.2008, Tel-Aviv] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : hypertension * vessel compliance * blood pressure * dynamic parameters Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  14. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  15. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maximum daily sod

  16. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den E.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Homan van der Heide, van der J.J.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maxi

  17. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  18. Genes influencing circadian differences in blood pressure in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Campain, Anna E; Davern, Pamela J; Yang, Yee Hwa J; Head, Geoffrey A; Morris, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a common multifactorial heritable condition in which increased sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system is involved in the elevation in blood pressure (BP), as well as the exaggerated morning surge in BP that is a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in hypertensive patients. The Schlager BPH/2J mouse is a genetic model of hypertension in which increased sympathetic outflow from the hypothalamus has an important etiological role in the elevation of BP. Schlager hypertensive mice exhibit a large variation in BP between the active and inactive periods of the day, and also show a morning surge in BP. To investigate the genes responsible for the circadian variation in BP in hypertension, hypothalamic tissue was collected from BPH/2J and normotensive BPN/3J mice at the 'peak' (n = 12) and 'trough' (n = 6) of diurnal BP. Using Affymetrix GeneChip® Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Arrays, validation by quantitative real-time PCR and a statistical method that adjusted for clock genes, we identified 212 hypothalamic genes whose expression differed between 'peak' and 'trough' BP in the hypertensive strain. These included genes with known roles in BP regulation, such as vasopressin, oxytocin and thyrotropin releasing hormone, as well as genes not recognized previously as regulators of BP, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19, hypocretin and zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16. Gene ontology analysis showed an enrichment of terms for inflammatory response, mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, structural constituent of ribosome, amongst others. In conclusion, we have identified genes whose expression differs between the peak and trough of 24-hour circadian BP in BPH/2J mice, pointing to mechanisms responsible for diurnal variation in BP. The findings may assist in the elucidation of the mechanism for the morning surge in BP in essential hypertension. PMID:21541337

  19. Reaction of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow to an infusion of biogenic amines in rats: Influence of irradiation and alpha blockers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of systemic blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow to an infusion of different biogenic amines was determined in controls and in lethally (8 Gy) X-irradiated rats. The influence of the alpha blocker phenoxybenzamine on these reactions was also investigated. Changes in blood pressure and flow response similar to, but less marked than, those seen earlier after a supralethal (20 Gy) exposure were detected 3 and 8 days after irradiation. These observations as well as the consequences of alpha blockade suggest that the reactivity of alpha receptors in blood vessels is reduced after irradiation, and that the function of the heart is impaired. (orig.)

  20. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP...... immigrants to Denmark exhibit a lower 24-h ABP than Danes. In young Afghans, PRA is less sensitive to changes in salt intake, while PNA is higher and may reflect their lower systolic blood pressure and/or arterial pulse pressure. Whether these hormonal differences can explain the lower 24-h ABP in Afghans...... 3-day high (250 mmol per 24-h) salt intake were in addition instituted in subgroups of the young groups (n = 18). RESULTS: Young and middle-aged Afghans exhibited a lower 24-h mean arterial pressure (24-h MAP) than the same respective age groups of Danes (83 ± 1 versus 90 ± 1 mm Hg, P<0·05, and 89...

  1. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J;

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... active and lowest during the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  2. Non-Invasive Estimation of Systolic Blood Pressure and Diastolic Blood Pressure Using Photoplethysmograph Components

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Incheol; Jun, Sukhwan; Um, Daeja; Oh, Joonghwan; Yoon, Hyungro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive optical technology that detects changes in blood volume in the vascular system. This study aimed to investigate the possibilities of monitoring the cardiovascular system status by using PPG. Materials and Methods Forced hemodynamic changes were induced using cardiac stimulants; dopamine and epinephrine, and PPG components were recorded by a noninvasive method at the peripheral blood vessels. The results were compared among 6 dogs. Endotrache...

  3. Cardiac contractility, central haemodynamics and blood pressure regulation during semistarvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A

    1991-01-01

    pressure (BP) declined. The fall in BP was caused by the reduction in cardiac output as the total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Finally, the decline in total blood volume was not significant. These findings together with a reduction in heart rate indicated that a reduced sympathetic tone via......Eight obese patients were studied before and after 2 weeks of treatment by a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Cardiac output and central blood volume (pulmonary blood volume and left atrial volume) were determined by indicator dilution (125I-albumin) and radionuclide angiocardiography (first pass and...... equilibrium technique by [99Tcm]red blood cells). Cardiac output decreased concomitantly with the reduction in oxygen uptake as the calculated systemic arteriovenous difference of oxygen was unaltered. There were no significant decreases in left ventricular contractility indices, i.e. the ejection fraction...

  4. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  5. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  6. P2Y2 receptor activation decreases blood pressure and increases renal Na+ excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Rieg, Timo; Gerasimova, Maria; Boyer, José L.; Insel, Paul A.; Vallon, Volker

    2011-01-01

    ATP and UTP are endogenous agonists of P2Y2/4 receptors. To define the in vivo effects of P2Y2 receptor activation on blood pressure and urinary excretion, we compared the response to INS45973, a P2Y2/4 receptor agonist and UTP analog, in wild-type (WT) and P2Y2 receptor knockout (P2Y2−/−) mice. INS45973 was administered intravenously as a bolus injection or continuous infusion to determine effects on blood pressure and renal function, respectively. Within seconds, bolus application of INS459...

  7. A real time, wearable ECG and continous blood pressure monitoring system for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, David M D; Colunas, Marcio F M; Marques, Fabio A Ferreira; Fernandes, Jose M; Cunha, Joao P Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study of stress and fatigue among First Responders is a major step in mitigating this public health problem. Blood pressure, heart rate variability and fatigue related arrhythmia are three of the main "windows" to study stress and fatigue. In this paper we present a wearable medical device, capable of acquiring an electrocardiogram and estimating blood pressure in real time, through a pulse wave transit time approach. The system is based on an existent certified wearable medical device called "Vital Jacket" and is aimed to become a tool to allow cardiologists in studying stress and fatigue among first response professionals. PMID:22255923

  8. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang;

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among...... PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17-84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions...... multivariate model estimated (1) high genetic correlations for DBP with SBP (0.87), PP with SBP (0.75); (2) low-moderate genetic correlations between PP and DBP (0.32), each BP component and BMI (0.24-0.37); (3) moderate unique environmental correlation for PP with SBP (0.68) and SBP with DBP (0.63); (4) there...

  9. Synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reduction of blood pressure and blood pressure variability in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping HAN; Zheng-xu CHU; Fu-ming SHEN; He-hui XIE; Ding-feng SU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reducing both blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Seventy animals were randomly divided into seven groups. The doses were 5 and 10 nig/kg for nitrendipine, 10 and 20 mg/kg for hydrochlorothiazide and 10+5, 20+10 mg/kg, respectively, for the combination of these two drugs and 0.8% carboxym-ethylcellulose as control. The drugs were given via a catheter of gastric fistula. BP was then continuously recorded for 5 h from 1 h before drug administration to the end of 4th hour after drug administration, in conscious and freely moving rats. Results: The effects on both BP and BPV reduction of the combination of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine were greater than the single drug in SHR. The two drugs possessed an obvious synergism on both systolic blood pressure (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.23 with large dose) and systolic blood pressure variability reduction (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.39 with large dose) in SHR.Conclusion: The present work clearly demonstrated that there was a synergistic effect between hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine in lowering and stabilizing BP in SHR.

  10. Blood Pressure Lowering Medication, Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability, and Cognitive Function in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; de Craen, Anton J M; Muller, Majon; Sabayan, Behnam; Stott, David; Ford, Ian; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J Wouter; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with cognitive impairment. We assessed to what extent the association between BP variability and cognitive impairment is mediated by the association of BP lowering medication (BPLM) with both BP variability and cognition. ME...

  11. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  12. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Borade; Gauri Shashank Kadam; Gayatri Bhide; Ram Dhongade

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screene...

  13. Hypertension, blood pressure, cognition and cerebral blood flow in the cohort of "Men born 1914"

    OpenAIRE

    Reinprecht, Faina

    2006-01-01

    "Men born 1914" is a population based cohort study of the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease. Five hundred men, born 1914, were examined at the age of 68 and 185 of them were re-examined at 81 years of age. Examination included a medical and a psychological investigation, ultrasonographic measurement of carotid arteries, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, regional cerebral blood flow, and cardiovascular risk factors. It is well known that hypertension plays a major et...

  14. Influence of stimulus frequency, amplitude and blood pressure on signal change in fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the influence of frequency and amplitude of a stimulus and the effect of blood pressure on signal intensity changes in functional MRI. Methods: Somatosensory stimulation of five (normotonic/hypotonic) anesthetized rats was performed with different stimulus frequencies and amplitudes. Measurements were performed with a 2.4 Tesla experimental scanner using a gradient-echo (GE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Results: The highest signal change was found at a frequency of 3 Hz and a stimulation amplitude of ten times the threshold value. A decrease of blood pressure to half the normotonic value gave rise to a decrease of the neuronal response of about 17%. Conclusion: Optimization of the stimulation frequency and stimulation amplitude maximizes signal changes in functional MRI of the somatosensory cortex. Even with a standardized paradigm, variations in measured neuronal activity may occur when blood pressure changes cannot be compensated by autoregulation. (orig.)

  15. Does home blood pressure monitoring improve patient outcomes? A systematic review comparing home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure control and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breaux-Shropshire TL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tonya L Breaux-Shropshire,1,2 Eric Judd,1 Lee A Vucovich,3 Toneyell S Shropshire,4 Sonal Singh5 1Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Veterans Administration, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Lister Hill Library, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Physical Therapy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Objective: Our objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM on blood pressure (BP control and patient outcomes. Design: A systematic review was conducted. We also appraised the methodological quality of studies. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL. Inclusion criteria: Randomized control trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, observational studies, and case-control studies published in English from any year to present that describe HBPM and 24-hour ABPM and report on systolic and/or diastolic BP and/or heart attack, stroke, kidney failure and/or all-cause mortality for adult patients. Due to the nature of the question, studies with only untreated patients were not considered. Results: Of 1,742 titles and abstractions independently reviewed by two reviewers, 137 studies met predetermined criteria for evaluation. Nineteen studies were identified as relevant and included in the paper. The common themes were that HBPM and ABPM correlated with cardiovascular events and mortality, and targeting HBPM or ABPM resulted in similar outcomes. Associations between BP measurement type and mortality differed by study population. Both the low sensitivity of office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM to detect optimal BP control by ABPM and the

  16. Effects of Metoprolol and Nebivolol on Exercise Blood Pressure in Patients with Mild Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ugur Yazici

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We planned to compare the impact of two beta blockers, metoprolol and nebivolol, on arterial blood pressure during exercise in patients with mild hypertension. Methods. A total of 60 patients (13 males, 47 females; mean age: years were enrolled in the present study. The patients were randomly selected to receive either nebivolol 5 mg/day ( or metoprolol 50 mg/day ( for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8th week, each of the patients received exercise stress test according to Bruce protocol and their blood pressures were remeasured after rest, exercise, and recovery. Results. Blood pressures were determined to be similar between metoprolol and nebivolol groups during rest, exercise, and recovery periods. Metoprolol and nebivolol achieved similar reductions in blood pressures during rest and exercise. However, five patients in nebivolol group and four patients in metoprolol group developed exaggerated BP response to exercise but the difference between metoprolol and nebivolol was not meaningful (. Conclusion. The results of the present study showed that metoprolol and nebivolol established comparable effects on the control of blood pressures during exercise in the patients with mild hypertensions.

  17. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson S. Cavalcante

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, participated in this study. Each individual took 750mg/day of caffeine (250mg tid, over a period of seven days. The effects on blood pressure were analyzed through the pressor test with handgrip, and platelet aggregation was analyzed using adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and adrenaline. RESULTS: Diastolic pressure showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake (p<0.05. This effect, however, disappeared in the subsequent days. The platelet aggregation tests did not reveal statistically significant alterations, at any time during the study. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that caffeine increases diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of caffeine intake. This hypertensive effect disappears with chronic use. The absence of alterations in platelet aggregation indicates the need for larger randomized studies.

  18. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  19. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  20. Blood Pressure Standards for Shiraz (Southern Iran School Children in Relation to Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad-Taghi Ayatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims at providing local reference values for blood pressure by height and determining distribution pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6.5-11.5 elementary school children for the first time in Shiraz (Southern Iran.Methods: Height, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured with standard methods in 2270 healthy school children (1174 boys, 1096 girls who were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2003-2004 academic years. We produced blood pressure percentiles by height percentiles using Healy-Rasbash-Yang method.Findings: The blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic tends to increase with age, but after adjusting the measurements for height, no significant correlation was found between either systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure and age (r=-0.03 and P=0.15 for systolic blood pressure, r=-0.005 and P=0.8 for diastolic blood pressure. Then systolic and diastolic blood pressure percentile values by age and height percentiles, and blood pressure smoothed centiles by height in 6.5-11.5 years school children were derived.Conclusion: Due to genetic, cultural and environmental differences among populations, it is suggested to use local blood pressure standards in Iran. We produced blood pressure percentiles by height instead of age because it seems that it would lead to better evaluation for real hypertensive diagnosis.

  1. Measurement of digital blood pressure after local cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    A double-inlet plastic cuff was designed for local cooling and systolic blood pressure measurement on the middle phalanx of the fingers. With a tourniquet on the proximal phalanx of one finger, cooling for 5 min made the digital artery temperature equal the skin temperature. The difference between...... the systolic pressure in a control finger and in the cooled finger give the reopening pressure in the digital arteries. At 30, 25, 20, 15, and 10 degrees C, respectively the percent decrease of the finger pressure was 0.2 (0.2), 1.5 (2.5), 8.5 (3.7), 11.4 (3.4), and 15.3 (3.1) in normal young women...

  2. CYP17A1 and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Stress in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Mariel Van Woudenberg; Jean Shin; Manon Bernard; Catriona Syme; Michal Abrahamowicz; Gabriel Leonard; Michel Perron; Louis Richer; Suzanna Veillette; Daniel Gaudet; Tomas Paus; Zdenka Pausova

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents who exhibit exaggerated blood pressure (BP) reactivity to physical and mental challenges are at increased risk of developing hypertension in adulthood. BP at rest and in response to challenges is higher in males than females, beginning in early adolescence. CYP17A1 is one of the well-established gene loci of adult hypertension. Here, we investigated whether this gene locus is associated with elevated BP at rest and in response to physical (active standing) and mental (math stress)...

  3. Signal quality measures for unsupervised blood pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate systolic and diastolic pressure estimation, using automated blood pressure measurement, is difficult to achieve when the transduced signals are contaminated with noise or interference, such as movement artifact. This study presents an algorithm for automated signal quality assessment in blood pressure measurement by determining the feasibility of accurately detecting systolic and diastolic pressures when corrupted with various levels of movement artifact. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to a manually annotated reference scoring (RS). Based on visual representations and audible playback of Korotkoff sounds, the creation of the RS involved two experts identifying sections of the recorded sounds and annotating sections of noise contamination. The experts determined the systolic and diastolic pressure in 100 recorded Korotkoff sound recordings, using a simultaneous electrocardiograph as a reference signal. The recorded Korotkoff sounds were acquired from 25 healthy subjects (16 men and 9 women) with a total of four measurements per subject. Two of these measurements contained purposely induced noise artifact caused by subject movement. Morphological changes in the cuff pressure signal and the width of the Korotkoff pulse were extracted features which were believed to be correlated with the noise presence in the recorded Korotkoff sounds. Verification of reliable Korotkoff pulses was also performed using extracted features from the oscillometric waveform as recorded from the inflatable cuff. The time between an identified noise section and a verified Korotkoff pulse was the key feature used to determine the validity of possible systolic and diastolic pressures in noise contaminated Korotkoff sounds. The performance of the algorithm was assessed based on the ability to: verify if a signal was contaminated with any noise; the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this noise classification, and the systolic and diastolic pressure

  4. Estimating blood pressure using Windkessel model on Photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anirban Dutta; Banerjee, Rohan; Sinha, Aniruddha; Kundu, Shaswati

    2014-01-01

    Simple and non-invasive methods to estimate vital signs are very important for preventive healthcare. In this paper, we present a methodology to estimate Blood Pressure (BP) using Photoplethysmography (PPG). Instead of directly relating systolic and diastolic BP values with PPG features, our proposed methodology initially maps PPG features with some person specific intermediate latent parameters and later derives BP values from them. The 2-Element Windkessel model has been considered in the current context to estimate total peripheral resistance and arterial compliance of a person using PPG features, followed by linear regression for simulating arterial blood pressure. Experimental results, performed on a standard hospital dataset yielded absolute errors of 0.78±13.1 mmHg and 0.59 ± 10.23 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP values respectively. Results also indicate that the methodology is more robust than the standard methodologies that directly estimate BP values from PPG signal. PMID:25571008

  5. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J;

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  6. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure. PMID:23198422

  7. Predictors of nonadherence with blood pressure regimens in hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kauric-Klein Z

    2013-01-01

    Zorica Kauric-KleinCollege of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USABackground: Hypertension is very poorly controlled in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Demographic and psychosocial predictors of nonadherence with blood pressure (BP) regimens in HD have not been investigated. A study of 118 HD patients from six outpatient HD units was conducted to determine the relationship between demographic/psychosocial factors and adherence with BP-related regimens, ie, fluid restriction, BP me...

  8. Effects of Citrus sinensis juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Sedigheh; keshvari, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Citrus sinensis juice (CSJ) is a rich source of dietary flavonoids which reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine the effects of four-week intake of natural and commercial orange (Citrus sinensis) juice on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. METHODS In this single-blind randomized crossover study, 22 healthy subjects (age: 18-59 years old) were included and randomly divided into two groups of 11. Group A consumed commercial CSJ during the firs...

  9. MEASUREMENTS OF THE BLOOD CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMengcai; GuZhong; HangWenjing; ZhongQuan; TangFuyong

    1990-01-01

    Describe some new fully automatic instruments for the measurements of the blood capillary pressure (Pcap) and arterial elastic properties in human fingers using a photoelectric plethysmographic technique, With these instruments, the value of Pcap was in good agreement with those reported by other investigators, the arterial elastic properties in human fingers have been successfully measured. The measurements of Pcap and arterial elasticity are now required in clinics because they provide useful and important information for evaluating vascular haemodynamics.

  10. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  11. Aggressive blood pressure control for chronic kidney disease unmasks moyamoya!

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, T. Keefe; Halabi, Carmen M.; Siefken, Philp; Karmarkar, Swati; Leonard, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive crises in children or adolescents are rare, but chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for occurrence. Vesicoureteral reflux nephropathy is a common cause of pediatric renal failure and is associated with hypertension. Aggressive blood pressure (BP) control has been shown to delay progression of CKD and treatment is targeted for the 50th percentile for height when compared with a target below the 90th percentile for the general pediatric hypertensive patient. We pres...

  12. Wearable Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Linea Research Corporation has developed a wearable noninvasive monitor that provides continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements in extreme environments. Designed to monitor the physiological effects of astronauts' prolonged exposure to reduced-gravity environments as well as the effectiveness of various countermeasures, the device offers wireless connectivity to allow transfer of both real-time and historical data. It can be modified to monitor the health status of astronaut crew members during extravehicular missions.

  13. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, par...

  14. Management of high blood pressure in peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTA) is a promoter of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in association with other atherosclerotic risk factors factors. Systolic HTA is the most frequently noted form in such disease, secondary to marked increase in large artery siffness. The existence of PAD confers on the hypertensive patient a very high cardiovascular (CV) risk, requiring an intensive global therapeutical approach. Treating HTA is one of such beneficial actions. The optimal blood pressure (BP) to...

  15. De-stiffening drug therapy and blood pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Safar, Michel E.

    2010-01-01

    Michel E SafarParis-Descartes University, Faculty of Medicine, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, AP-HP, Diagnosis Center, Paris, FranceAbstract: In hypertensive subjects, cardiovascular risk reduction is critically related to the decrease of systolic blood pressure (SBP). De-stiffening therapy means that, in a controlled therapeutic trial of long duration, a selective reduction of SBP has been obtained in the studied group by comparison with the control group, and that this SBP reduction is due ...

  16. Blood pressure and dementia in the very old

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhenchao

    1998-01-01

    Blood Pressure and Dementia in the Very Old. An epidemiologic study There is a considerable public health interest in the vascular causes of dementia because they are potentially treatable and preventable. A number of vascular factors may be associated with dementia. Hypertension is supposed to be the most powerful vascular risk factor for dementia because of its contribution to cerebrovascular disease. However, there have only been a few population-based studies about the ...

  17. Different effects of tocolytic medication on blood pressure and blood pressure amplification

    OpenAIRE

    FABRY, ISABELLE; Paepe, Peter; Kips, Jan; Vermeersch, Sebastian; van Bortel, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of tocolysis has been discussed extensively. Beta-2 adrenoceptor agonistic drugs like ritodrine have been the reference tocolytic drugs in most countries. Cardiovascular side-effects are frequent. Atosiban, a newer tocolytic drug, is a competitive antagonist of oxytocin and has fewer cardiovascular side effects. Although large studies exist, there is mainly subjective reporting of adverse reactions with a focus on blood ...

  18. Pressure passive cerebral blood flow and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in experimental fetal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Tweed, W A;

    1979-01-01

    mean arterial blood pressure in the fetuses by blood withdrawal or infusion in this state, CBF was measured at different perfusion pressures (mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) minus central venous pressure (CVP)). A passive flow/pressure relationship--loss of autoregulation--was found, with hyperemia...... reaching CBF values up to 6 times normal at normal MABP of about 60 to 70 mmHg, and severe ischemia reaching CBF values close to zero in large cortical areas at MABP of 30 mmHg. CVP remained essentially unchanged at 10--15 mmHg. The severe and prolonged asphyxia rendered the blood-brain barrier leaky to...

  19. Ouabain induces cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing JIANG; Yan-ping REN; Zhuo-ren L(U)

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the ouabain's effects on cardiac remodeling in rats. Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ouabain. Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was recorded weekly. After 4 and 6 weeks, echocardiography were performed,hemodynamic parameters were measured by invasive cardiac catheterization,changes in cardiac ultrastructure were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, the collagen fraction of the left ventricle was assessed with Picrosirius red stain, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the mRNA level of myosin heavy chain-α and-β in the left ventricle. Results: Having been treated with ouabain for 4 weeks, there was no significant difference in the mean SBP of the two groups.However, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial ultrastructure deterioration,and extracellular matrix remodeling were induced by ouabain treatment; meanwhile,cardiac systolic and diastolic performance were both worsened. Moreover, the cardiac MHC-β mRNA was upregulated by ouabain treatment, whereas MHC-αmRNA was downregulated. After 4 weeks, the mean SBP in the ouabain group began to increase and was significantly higher than that in control group after 6 weeks (P<0.01); the rats' cardiac structure and function were worsened.Conclusion: These results suggested that ouabain induces alterations in cardiac structure and function, and the effects happened before the increase of blood pressure. The results indicated that ouabain induced cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure.

  20. Epidemiology of hypertension as a public health problem: an overview as background for evaluation of blood lead-blood pressure relationship.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyroler, H A

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the epidemiology of blood pressure is presented as background for the International Symposium of Blood Lead-Blood Pressure Relationships. The correlates of blood pressure distributions in populations are varied and numerous. They have to be considered as either potential confounders or modifiers of any blood pressure-blood lead relationship detected. The relation of blood pressure to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality emphasizes the importance of detecting and elucidating a...

  1. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal). PMID:27214089

  2. Higher blood pressure among Inuit migrants in Denmark than among the Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Lumholt, P;

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of blood pressure among the Inuit have given inconsistent results and studies comparing Inuit migrants with those living in traditional Inuit areas are absent. The purpose of the study was to compare the blood pressure of the Inuit in Greenland with that of Inuit...... adjusted blood pressures were 117/72 mm Hg in Greenland and 127/81 mm Hg among the migrants (p<0.001). In both populations, blood pressure increased with age and body mass index, and was higher among men and non-smokers. In Greenland, blood pressure increased with the level of school education. The...... blood pressure of the two populations while the difference for diastolic blood pressure was much less than for those with less education. CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure was lower among the Inuit in Greenland than among the Inuit migrants in Denmark but the difference was absent (systolic pressure) or...

  3. Ambulatory blood pressure response to triple therapy with an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB, calcium-channel blocker (CCB, and HCTZ versus dual therapy with an ARB and HCTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duprez D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Duprez1, Keith Ferdinand2, Das Purkayastha3, Rita Samuel3, Richard Wright41University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2Atlanta Clinical Research Centers, Atlanta, GA, 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, 4Pacific Heart Institute, Santa Monica, CA, USABackground: Stage 2 hypertension often requires combination antihypertensive therapy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is a useful tool for assessing antihypertensive drugs and their combinations.Objective: To compare the effect of a moderate dose of angiotensin receptor blocker/calcium channel blocker (ARB/CCB combined with a diuretic versus a maximal dose of ARB with a diuretic on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and other derived ambulatory blood pressure (ABP parameters.Methods: The EXforge As compared to Losartan Treatment ABPM substudy was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-control, forced-titration study of patients with Stage 2 hypertension that compared the efficacy of initial treatment with valsartan/amlodipine 160/5 mg (n = 48 or losartan 100 mg (n = 36. At week 3, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 25 mg was added in both treatment groups. ABP was measured at baseline and at week 6. Additionaly, 24-hour ABP, nighttime (10 pm to 6 am and daytime (6 am to 10 pm ABP, and ABP load (percentage of readings above 140/90 mmHg were determined.Results: Eighty-four patients (48 ARB/CCB/HCTZ, 36 ARB/HCTZ had ABPM at baseline and at week 6. Reductions of systolic/diastolic ABP were greater in the ARB/CCB/HCTZ group than in the ARB/HCTZ group for 24-hour mean ABP (–22.0/–13.3 versus –17.4/–8.1 mmHg, as well as nighttime ABP (–22.2/–13.3 versus –16.2/–7.4 mmHg, daytime ABP (–21.9/–13.0 versus –18.1/–8.6 mmHg, ABP in the last 4 hours of the dosing period (–21.5/–13.5 versus –17.0/–7.7 mmHg, and ABP load (21.7%/12.8% versus 30.8%/20.0%.Conclusion: Initiating antihypertensive treatment with moderate doses of ARB

  4. Farnesoid X receptor agonist CDCA reduces blood pressure and regulates vascular tone in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyu; Li, Jing; Weng, Xu; Lan, Xiaofang; Chi, Xiangbo

    2015-07-01

    The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays an essential role in lipid homeostasis and glucose metabolism. However, whether or not FXR can prevent rise in blood pressure remains unknown. Here, we investigate the possibility of using chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a natural ligand of FXR, to attenuate elevated blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were treated with CDCA (30 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with vehicle control, CDCA attenuated rise in blood pressure in SHR. In addition, CDCA improved vasorelaxation and diminished the contractile response to endothelin-1 (ET-1) in mesenteric arteries from SHR. CDCA also stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, repressed ET-1 levels, and inhibited NF-κB activities in mesenteric arteries of the SHR. Overall, we showed that CDCA treatment reduces systolic blood pressure, improves vascular relaxation, and inhibits vasoconstriction activity in SHR. The repressed ET-1 level, the raised eNOS expression, and the ameliorated inflammation in mesenteric arteries could be responsible for the vasorelaxant and hypotensive effect of CDCA. These findings support a potential role for FXR as a regulator in vascular activities and in the development of treatment for hypertension. PMID:26188398

  5. Blood Pressure-Lowering Mechanisms of the DASH Dietary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential blood pressure- (BP- lowering mechanisms of the DASH dietary pattern were measured in 20 unmedicated hypertensive adults in a controlled feeding study. At screening, participants averaged 44.3±7.8 years, BMI 33.9±6.6 Kg/m2, and BP 144.2±9.38/88.5±6.03 mmHg. All consumed a control diet for one week, then were randomized to control or DASH for another two weeks (week one and two. With DASH, but not controls, SBP fell by 10.65±12.89 (=0.023 and 9.60±11.23 (=0.039 mmHg and DBP by 5.95±8.01 (=0.069 and 8.60±9.13 mmHg (=0.011 at the end of week one and two, respectively. Univariate regressions showed that changes in urinary sodium/potassium ratio (=1.99 and plasma renin activity (=−15.78 and percent change in plasma nitrite after hyperemia were associated with SBP changes at week one (all <0.05. Plasma nitrite following hyperemia showed a treatment effect (=0.014 and increased at week two (=0.001. Pulse wave velocity decreased over time with DASH (trend =0.019, and reached significance at week two (=0.026. This response may be mediated by an improvement in upregulation of nitric oxide bioavailability. Early natriuresis and reductions in oxidative stress cannot be ruled out. Future studies are needed to verify these findings, assess the possibility of earlier effects, and examine other potential mediators.

  6. Blood Pressure Characteristics in Moderate to Severe Renal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyou Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients has been extensively studied, but few investigations have attempted to relate ABPM with CKD stages. The objectives of this article were to compare ABPM parameters for the diagnosis and treatment determination of CKD with daytime clinic blood pressure (BP measurements. We also investigated BP and renal injury in combined hypertension and CKD. We supposed ABPM was important in combined hypertension and CKD. Methods: We compared ABPM in hypertension patients, including 152 patients with combined hypertension and CKD. Patients with combined hypertension and CKD were grouped according to severity into stages 1 through 3 (Stage 1-3 and stages 4 and 5 (Stage 4-5. Results: In the Stage 4-5 group, systolic BP (SBP (daytime, nighttime and 24 h mean, diastolic BP (DBP, pulse pressure and SBP standard deviations (SD (daytime and 24 h were higher. SBP and DBP loads were significantly higher in the Stage 4-5 group. The nighttime load was higher than the daytime load. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was higher and heart rates (HR were faster in the Stage 4-5 group. Conclusions: BP load should be a component employed in ABPM to determine cardiovascular risk stratification. MAP and HR might be associated with risk to develop end-stage renal disease.

  7. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom;

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk.......1%. In conclusion, the IDACO observations support the concept that BP variability adds to risk stratification, but above all highlight that 24-h ambulatory BP level remains the main predictor to be considered in clinical practice....

  8. Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Wang; Li-Jian Liang; Xiong-Qing Huang; Xiao-Yu Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of low central venous pressure (LCVP) on blood loss during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: By the method of sealed envelope,50 HCC patients were randomized into LCVP group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). In LCVP group,CVP was maintained at 2-4 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 90 mmHg by manipulation of the patient's posture and administration of drugs during hepatectomy, while in control group hepatectomy was performed routinely without lowering CVP. The patients'preoperative conditions, volume of blood loss during hepatectomy, volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' preoperative conditions, maximal tumor dimension, pattern of hepatectomy, duration of vascular occlusion, operationtime, weight of resected liver tissues, incidence of post-operative complications, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups. LCVP group had a markedly lower volume of total intraoperative blood loss and blood loss during hepatectomy than the control group, being 903.9±180.8 mL vs 2 329.4±2 538.4(W=495.5, P<0.01) and 672.4±429.9 mL vs1 662.6± 1932.1 (W=543.5, P<0.01). There were no remarkable differences in the pre-resection and post-resection blood losses between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened in LCVP group as compared with the control group, being 16.3±6.8 d vs21.5 ± 8.6 d (W= 532.5, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LCVP is easily achievable in technique.Maintenance of CVP≤4 mmHg can help reduce blood loss during hepatectomy, shorten the length of hospital stay, and has no detrimental effects on hepatic or renal function.

  9. Comparison of non-invasive and invasive blood pressure in aeromedical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, N; Hogg, L A; Corfield, A R; Exton, A D

    2012-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement is an essential physiological measurement for all critically ill patients. Previous work has shown that non-invasive blood pressure is not an accurate reflection of invasive blood pressure measurement. In a transport environment, the effects of motion and vibration may make non-invasive blood pressure less accurate. Consecutive critically ill patients transported by a dedicated aeromedical retrieval and critical care transfer service with simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure measurements were analysed. Two sets of measurements were recorded, first in a hospital environment before departure (pre-flight) and a second during aeromedical transport (in-flight). A total of 56 complete sets of data were analysed. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement (precision) for pre-flight systolic blood pressure were -37.3 mmHg to 30.0 mmHg, and for pre-flight mean arterial pressure -20.5 mmHg to 25.0 mmHg. The limits of agreement for in-flight systolic blood pressure were -40.6 mmHg to 33.1 mmHg, while those for in-flight mean blood pressure in-flight were -23.6 mmHg to 24.6 mmHg. The bias for the four conditions ranged from 0.5 to -3.8 mmHg. There were no significant differences in values between pre-flight and in-flight blood pressure measurements for all categories of blood pressure measurement. Thus, our data show that non-invasive blood pressure is not a precise reflection of invasive intra-arterial blood pressure. Mean blood pressure measured non-invasively may be a better marker of invasive blood pressure than systolic blood pressure. Our data show no evidence of non-invasive blood pressures being less accurate in an aeromedical transport environment. PMID:23033983

  10. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is a Beta-Blocker Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure: Is a Beta-blocker Drug Right for You? What are beta-blockers? Beta-blockers ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  11. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is an ACE Inhibitor Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure: Is an ACE Inhibitor Drug Right for You? What are ACE inhibitors? ACE inhibitors, ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  12. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is a Calcium Channel Blocker Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure: Is a Calcium Channel Blocker Drug Right for You? What are calcium channel blockers? Calcium ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  13. Effects on blood pressure in patients with refractory angina pectoris after enhanced external counterpulsation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondesson, Susanne; Pettersson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Børje Ola Mattias;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive technique that has been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of angina pectoris. Little is known how EECP affects the blood pressure. METHODS: 153 patients with refractory angina were treated with either EECP or retained...... on their pharmacological treatment (reference group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured pre- and post-treatment and at 12 months follow-up. RESULTS: EECP treatment altered the blood pressure in patients with...... refractory angina pectoris. A decrease in the blood pressure was more common in the EECP group compared with the reference group. In the reference group, an increase in the blood pressure was more common. A correlation between a decrease in blood pressure after EECP treatment and a higher baseline MAP, SBP...

  14. Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The effects of vascular rarefaction (the loss of small arteries) on the circulation of blood are studied using a multiscale mathematical model that can predict blood flow and pressure in the systemic and pulmonary arteries. We augmented a model originally developed for the systemic arteries (Olufsen et al. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004) to (a) predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and (b) predict pressure propagation along the small arteries in the vascular beds. The systemic and pulmonary arteries are modelled as separate, bifurcating trees of compliant and tapering vessels. Each tree is divided into two parts representing the `large' and `small' arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the large arteries are predicted using a nonlinear cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube with inflow obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. Each terminal vessel within the network of the large arteries is coupled to a vascular bed of small `resistance' arteries, which are modelled as asymmetric structured trees with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. For the systemic circulation, each structured tree represents a specific vascular bed corresponding to major organs and limbs. For the pulmonary circulation, there are four vascular beds supplied by the interlobar arteries. This manuscript presents the first theoretical calculations of the propagation of the pressure and flow waves along systemic and pulmonary large and small arteries. Results for all networks were in agreement with published observations. Two studies were done with this model. First, we showed how rarefaction can be modelled by pruning the tree of arteries in the microvascular system. This was done by modulating parameters used for designing the structured trees. Results showed that rarefaction leads to increased mean and decreased pulse pressure in the large arteries. Second, we investigated the impact of decreasing vessel

  15. Nurses' knowledge and skill of blood pressure measurement technique in a private hospital setting / Hanette du Toit

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Hanette

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nurses are responsible for the monitoring and assessment of blood pressure in the clinical setting. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that inaccurate measurement technique often leads to the misclassification of large numbers of individuals as hypertensive. The impact of untreated or poorly treated hypertension, due to misclassification of patients, is a major contributor to the overall burden of adult diseases in any population. Accurate measurement of blood pressure relies on...

  16. Maternal smoking and blood pressure in 7.5 to 8 year old offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, R.; Leeson Payne, C; Lister, G.; Lucas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reduced fetal growth in babies born preterm may be associated with reduced later blood pressure, but in children born at term, higher blood pressure. It was hypothesised, therefore, that maternal smoking in pregnancy, associated with reduced fetal growth, programmes later blood pressure differentially according to length of gestation. Six hundred and eighteen children born preterm and now aged 7.5 to 8 years were studied prospectively. Systolic blood pressure in children from smoking compared...

  17. The Interdependence of Nutritional Status and Blood Pressure in Female Students

    OpenAIRE

    Szymelfejnik, Ewa Joanna; Chiba, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The value of blood pressure is affected by a number of factors, nutritional status being of utmost importance. The aim of the study was an assessment of the interdependence between the nutritional status and systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in female students. Material and method : The research included 66 women aged 20.5±0.71, studying in Bydgoszcz. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure was taken. The nutritional status of the students...

  18. Context-aware patient guidance during blood pressure self-measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Puk; Lindahl, Camilla; Schlütter, Jacob Mørup;

    2013-01-01

    The importance of accurate measurement of blood pressure in the screening and management of hypertension during pregnancy is well established. Blood pressure levels can be measured manually by healthcare staff or by using a blood pressure self-measurement device, either at home or in the clinic. In...... blood pressure self-measurement process. Preliminary results indicate that such active and context-aware guidance leads to more reliable measurements by inhibiting non-adherent patient behavior...

  19. Blood pressure lowering effect of a pea protein hydrolysate in hypertensive rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Prairie, Natalie; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Adebiyi, Abayomi P; Tappia, Paramjit S; Aukema, Harold M; Jones, Peter J H; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2011-09-28

    The blood pressure lowering effect of a pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) that contained isolated by membrane ultrafiltration from the thermolysin digest of pea protein isolate (PPI), was examined using different rat models of hypertension as well as hypertensive human subjects. The PPH showed weak in vitro activities against renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) with inhibitory activities of 17 and 19%, respectively, at 1 mg/mL test concentration. Oral administration of the PPH to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight led to a lowering of hourly systolic blood pressure (SBP), with a maximum reduction of 19 mmHg at 4 h. In contrast, orally administered unhydrolyzed PPI had no blood pressure reducing effect in SHR, suggesting that thermolysin hydrolysis may have been responsible for releasing bioactive peptides from the native protein. Oral administration of the PPH to the Han:SPRD-cy rat (a model of chronic kidney disease) over an 8-week period led to 29 and 25 mmHg reductions in SBP and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The PPH-fed rats had lower plasma levels of angiotensin II, the major vasopressor involved in development of hypertension, but there was no effect on plasma activity or renal mRNA levels of ACE. However, renal expression of renin mRNA levels was reduced by approximately 50% in the PPH-fed rats, suggesting that reduced renin may be responsible for the reduced levels of angiotensin II. In a 3-week randomized double blind placebo-controlled crossover human intervention trial (7 volunteers), significant (p<0.05) reductions (over placebo) in SBP of 5 and 6 mmHg were obtained in the second and third weeks, respectively, for the PPH group. Therefore, thermolysin derived bioactive peptides from PPH reduced blood pressure in hypertensive rats and human subjects, likely via effects on the renal angiotensin system. PMID:21854068

  20. Systolic blood pressure and systolic hypertension in adolescence of atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2007-11-01

    Annual medical examinations were conducted during adolescence for the in utero clinical study sample subjects exposed prenatally to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Systolic blood pressure and several anthropometric measurements were recorded during these examinations. For 1014 persons exposed in utero, two types of longitudinal analyses were performed, for a total of 7029 observations (6.93 observations per subject) of systolic blood pressure (continuous data) and systolic hypertension (binary data) for persons aged 9 to 19 years. Body mass index (BMI) and/or body weight were considered in the analyses as potential confounders. For the measurements of systolic blood pressure, the common dose effect was 2.09 mmHg per Gy and was significant (P = 0.017). The dose by trimester interaction was suggestive (P = 0.060). A significant radiation dose effect was found in the second trimester (P = 0.001), with an estimated 4.17 mmHg per Gy, but in the first and third trimesters, radiation dose effects were not significant (P > 0.50). For prevalence of systolic hypertension, the radiation dose effect was significant (P = 0.009); the odds ratio at 1 Gy was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.04], and the dose by trimester interaction was not significant (P = 0.778). The dose response of systolic hypertension had no dose threshold, with a threshold point estimate of 0 Gy (95% CI: <0.0, 1.1 Gy). The dose response for systolic blood pressure was most pronounced in the second trimester, the most active organogenesis period for the organs relevant to blood pressure. PMID:17973553

  1. Nutritional interventions and blood pressure : role of specific micronutrients and other food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van L.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Modest reductions in blood pressure at the population level, as can be achieved by dietary and lifestyle changes, have a large impact on the burden of CVD. Blood pressure is regulated by several physio

  2. Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall ... who’s getting back in control!” For more real-life stories about high blood pressure, visit www.nhlbi. ...

  3. 77 FR 17060 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Beat Down Blood Pressure Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Beat Down Blood Pressure Challenge... years, announces the launch of the Beat Down Blood Pressure Video Challenge. This challenge is an open... consumer e-health tools to manage high blood pressure. Health care providers are also encouraged to...

  4. Home blood pressure measurement : reproducibility and relationship with left ventricular mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.H.; Beltman, F.W.; Terpstra, W.F.; Smit, A.J.; May, J.F.; de Graeff, P.A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility and relationship with left ventricular mass index of home blood pressure in comparison with ambulatory and office blood pressures. METHODS: We measured home, ambulatory and office blood pressures of 84 previously untreated hypertensive patients, aged 60-74

  5. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920). PMID:25341864

  6. Blood pressure and blood viscosity are not correlated in normal healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Vázquez BY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez1,21Departamento de Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, México D.F., México; 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The relationship between blood viscosity, hematocrit (Hct, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was studied in a healthy population of 91 men and 66 women with an average age of 30.6 ± 8.0 years, from the city of Victoria de Durango (1800 m elevation. In women and men, Hct values were 42.4% ± 2.9% and 47.2% ± 2.3%, blood viscosities were 4.5 ± 0.7 and 6.1 ± 1.0 cP, and MAP was 83.0 ± 6.8 and 88.0 ± 6.1 mmHg, respectively. The correlation between blood viscosity and Hct was linear and positive (r2 = 0.48 and identical to that of previous studies reported in the literature when men and women are taken as a single group. Separating the data by gender yielded positive, linear correlations (r2 = 0.18 and 0.10, respectively with identical slopes, however blood viscosity for men was 1.2 cP greater than in women (P = 0.02. MAP and blood viscosity (and Hct were not statistically associated when men and women were analyzed separately and were weakly positively correlated (r2 = 0.08, P < 0.02 when treated as a group. The present results suggest that studies that show a positive correlation between MAP and blood viscosity (and Hct do not differentiate data according to gender, or involve populations that do not compensate for increased blood viscosity and potentially increased shear stress.Keywords: blood pressure, blood viscosity, hematocrit, gender, endothelial dysfunction

  7. Blood pressure change in Africa: case study from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J S; Owoaje, E E; Rotimi, C N; Cooper, R S

    1999-08-01

    Studies of migrants and comparisons of rural versus urban communities are potentially informative study designs because they allow examination of genetically similar population subgroups exposed to diverse environmental conditions. These designs have been underused in Africa, where recent urbanization has created many situations in which nearby communities of common ethnicity and culture live under different social and economic circumstances. The International Study of Hypertension in Blacks (ICSHIB) conducted several overlapping surveys in Nigeria starting in 1993. These surveys were based primarily in the rural village of Idere and the urban community of Idikan, both inhabited by people defined ethnically as Oyo Yoruba and sharing a common language and culture. Survey teams collected standardized blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and some study participants provided 24-hr urine samples and questionnaire data on psychosocial stress and social integration. Rural and urban groups differed substantially in blood pressure and related characteristics. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg) for participants aged 25 years and older was 7-8% in Idere and 24-27% in Idikan. The distributions of overweight, sodium/potassium ratio, perceived stress, and social integration scores all contributed to lower hypertension risk in Idere. The effects and interactions of these identified risk factors remain poorly understood, even among people who share a common genetic background, similar diet, and many other lifestyle features. Nonetheless, the rural-urban distinction is sufficiently salient to engender a nearly threefold difference in hypertension prevalence. This disparity in disease prevalence demonstrates the sensitivity of human beings to the environmental determinants of disease and provides a sobering example of the difficulty in identifying subtle genetic effects, which can be easily overwhelmed by small differences in

  8. Azilsartan/chlorthalidone combination therapy for blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng JW

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Judy WM ChengMassachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Edarbyclor® is a combined angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB and thiazide-like diuretic (azilsartan and chlorthalidone, and was approved on December 20, 2011 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for hypertension management.Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, tolerability, and role of azilsartan plus chlorthalidone for hypertension management.Methods: Peer-reviewed clinical trials, review articles, and relevant treatment guidelines, were identified from the databases MEDLINE and Current Contents (both 1966 to February 15, 2013, inclusive using search terms “azilsartan”, “chlorthalidone”, “pharmacology”, “pharmacokinetics”, “pharmacodynamics”, “pharmacoeconomics”, and “cost-effectiveness”. The FDA website, as well as manufacturer prescribing information, was also reviewed to identify other relevant information.Results: Azilsartan is a new ARB with high affinity for the angiotensin 1 receptor, approved by the FDA for hypertension management. Unlike other ARBs, azilsartan has no clinical data supporting improvement in cardiovascular outcomes, and is not approved for indications other than hypertension, which a select few other ARBs may be used for (eg, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. Chlorthalidone is a longer acting thiazide-like diuretic that has been demonstrated to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Combination treatment with azilsartan/chlorthalidone is effective for reducing blood pressure. Compared to olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide and azilsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combinations, azilsartan/chlorthalidone appears to be more efficacious for reducing blood pressure.Conclusions: Azilsartan/chlorthalidone can be considered an antihypertensive therapy option in patients for whom combination therapy is required (blood pressure >20 mmHg systolic or

  9. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely...

  10. Non Invasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pauline; Avadhany, Sandhya T.; K.N. Maruthy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non invasive, simple and economical instrument to measure blood pressure in r365-ats is important in cardiovascular research. Methods: Systolic blood pressure measuring instrument was fabricated using a tail cuff, photoplethysmograph, pressure transducer and PC with Biopac Software for recording. Tail cuff was used to occlude the tail artery, photoplethysmograph picked the blood flow pulses in the rat tail and the pressure transducer measured the cuff pressure and converted it int...

  11. Superiority of home blood pressure measurements over office measurements for testing antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaur; Dubroca; Dutrey-Dupagne; Genès; Chatellier; Bouvier-d'Yvoire; Elkik; Ménard

    1998-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on office blood pressure and home blood pressure of placebo and active drug administration. DESIGN: After a 2-week wash-out period, patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension entered a 2-week single-blind placebo period and then a 4-week double-blind period. Patients were randomly assigned to be administered either 2 mg trandolapril once daily or its placebo in a 2:1 proportion. Office blood pressure was measured by a physician at the end of each period, using a mercury sphygmomanometer (mean of three consecutive measurements). Home blood pressure was measured during the last week of each period according to standard procedure carefully taught to each patient by the physician. Compliance was checked by using electronic pill boxes. RESULTS: Data for 34 of the 44 patients who entered the study were eligible for analysis. Baseline systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure were significantly (P = 0.0001/P = 0.0001) higher for office blood pressure (161/101 mmHg) than they were for home blood pressure (145/93 mmHg). There was no statistically significant difference between the placebo and active-treatment groups at baseline. During the single-blind period, blood pressures measured at the office and at home did not change significantly. Office blood pressure decreased by 2.7 +/- 10 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 0.5 +/- 4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure whereas home blood pressure increased by 0.8 +/- 6 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 0.7 +/- 4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. During the double-blind period, office blood pressure fell significantly with trandolapril treatment (systolic by 10.2 +/- 12 mmHg, diastolic by 8.3 +/- 6 mmHg; P = 0.0005/0.0001, versus single-blind placebo period) but this decrease was not significantly different (P = 0.45/0.92) from the fall in members of the placebo group (systolic by 6.9 +/- 9 mmHg, diastolic by 8.0 +/-6 mmHg; P = 0.04/0.002, versus single-blind placebo period

  12. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  13. Blood Pressure Dynamics in Hypertensive Subjects During Tilt Table Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Leinveber, P.; Souček, M.; Kára, T.

    Danvers: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2007, s. 939-942. ISBN 978-1-4244-0787-3. ISSN 1557-170X. [Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society /29./. Lyon (FR), 23.08.2007-26.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : blood pressure * tilt table test * vessel compliance * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  14. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  15. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  16. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  17. Assessing the influence of mechanical ventilation on blood gases and blood pressure in rattlesnakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads F.; Buchanan, Rasmus; Jensen, Heidi M.;

    2015-01-01

    minute(-1) resulted in normocapnia (14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg [1.9 ± 0.4 kPa]), while 15 breaths minute(-1) caused marked hypocapnia (8.2 ± 2.5 mmHg [1.1 ± 0.3 kPa]). Following recovery, blood gases of the four groups were similar from 2 hours. Anesthesia, independent of ventilation was associated......OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of mechanical positive pressure ventilation on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in rattlesnakes during anesthesia and the subsequent recovery period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective...... ventilation at a tidal volume of 30 mL kg(-1) at 1 breath every 90 seconds, 5 breaths minute(-1) , or 15 breaths minute(-1) . Arterial blood was collected from indwelling catheters at 30, 40, and 60 minutes and 2, 6, and 24 hours following induction of anesthesia and analyzed for pH, PaO2 , PaCO2...

  18. Correlation Between Fasting Blood Sugar and Resting Blood Pressure in Teachers Residing in Shiraz, Iran 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aghasadeghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the major cause ofmorbidity and mortality. The knowledge about correlation between the differentrisk factors of CAD provides valuable information for prediction and preventionof the disease in a specific population.The aim of this study was to evaluatethe correlation between fasting blood sugar (FBS and resting blood pressure inteachers residing in Shiraz, IranMethods: A total of 3115 teachers from different educational centers ofShiraz, Iran were interviewed in this cross sectional study. The data obtainedcomprised demographic information including age, sex, and history ofhypertension (HTN, diabetes mellitus (DM, and current use of medications.Other parameters measured were height, weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS andresting blood pressure (BP as well as calculating the body mass index (BMI.Results: Out of all the cases studied, undiagnosed and/or untreated casesof diabetes and hypertension were 1.5% and 15.2% respectively. FBS was higher inthe elderly and in cases with higher BMI, but without any significant differencein relation to sex. The prevalence of HTN was higher in males, in older casesand in those with higher BMI. A significant relationship was observed betweenFBS and resting BP in hypertensive and prehypertensive groups (P < 0.001 ascompared to normotensive subjects.Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between FBS and restingBP in hypertensive and prehypertensive teachers residing in Shiraz,Iran. Theprevalence of neglected DM and HTN in this population was high enough to warrantregular screening.

  19. Associations between Chronic Community Noise Exposure and Blood Pressure at Rest and during Acute Noise and Non-Noise Stressors among Urban School Children in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bang Hyun Kim; Evans, Gary W.; Stephen J. Lepore; Bhaskar Shejwal

    2010-01-01

    The present study builds on prior research that has examined the association between children’s chronic exposure to community noise and resting blood pressure and blood pressure dysregulation during exposure to acute stressors. A novel contribution of the study is that it examines how chronic noise exposure relates to blood pressure responses during exposure to both noise and non-noise acute stressors. The acute noise stressor was recorded street noise and the non-noise stressor was mental ar...

  20. Effects of nitrendipine on blood pressure and blood ciclosporin A level in patients with posttransplant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, M S; Tasdemir, I; Turgan, C; Yasavul, U; Caglar, S

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness and interaction with ciclosporin A (CS-A) nitrendipine, a dihydropyridine derivative calcium entry blocking agent, was used in 16 (13 men, 3 women) hypertensive renal posttransplant patients followed by the Nephrology Department of Hacettepe University Hospital. The patients did not receive any antihypertensive drug for a 7-day period. They were then given 20 mg/day nitrendipine for 3 weeks. At the end of this period, mean (+/- SE) supine blood pressure fell from 163/108 +/- 3.6/1.87 to 141/87 +/- 3.8/2.2 mm Hg (p less than 0.01), while the heart rate was unchanged. 14 of 16 patients achieved full control of blood pressure levels with 20 mg/day nitrendipine, and only 2 patients needed a higher dosage of 30 mg/day (20 + 10 mg). After 3 weeks of treatment no significant variations in blood chemistry or renal functional parameters were noticed. There was also no difference between blood CS-A levels before and after treatment with nitrendipine (218.06 +/- 33 vs. 222.68 +/- 26 ng/ml, p greater than 0.05). We conclude that short-term therapy with nitrendipine in renal post-transplant patients does not appear to be harmful and longer term studies are needed to fully evaluate safety and efficacy of this drug. Because it influences neither blood chemistry nor renal functional parameters and blood CS-A level, it may be preferable to other calcium channel blocking agents in this group of patients. PMID:2662047