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Sample records for blood meal identification

  1. Molecular Identification of Vertebrate and Hemoparasite DNA Within Mosquito Blood Meals From Eastern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jefferson A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of

  2. Molecular identification of vertebrate and hemoparasite DNA within mosquito blood meals from eastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Joseph O; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2013-11-01

    To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of vector

  3. MALDI-TOF MS identification of Anopheles gambiae Giles blood meal crushed on Whatman filter papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niare, Sirama; Almeras, Lionel; Tandina, Fatalmoudou; Yssouf, Amina; Bacar, Affane; Toilibou, Ali; Doumbo, Ogobara; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Identification of the source of mosquito blood meals is an important component for disease control and surveillance. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as an effective tool for mosquito blood meal identification, using the abdomens of freshly engorged mosquitoes. In the field, mosquito abdomens are crushed on Whatman filter papers to determine the host feeding patterns by identifying the origin of their blood meals. The aim of this study was to test whether crushing engorged mosquito abdomens on Whatman filter papers was compatible with MALDI-TOF MS for mosquito blood meal identification. Both laboratory reared and field collected mosquitoes were tested. Sixty Anopheles gambiae Giles were experimentally engorged on the blood of six distinct vertebrate hosts (human, sheep, rabbit, dog, chicken and rat). The engorged mosquito abdomens were crushed on Whatman filter papers for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. 150 Whatman filter papers, with mosquitoes engorged on cow and goat blood, were preserved. A total of 77 engorged mosquito abdomens collected in the Comoros Islands and crushed on Whatman filter papers were tested with MALDI-TOF MS. The MS profiles generated from mosquito engorged abdomens crushed on Whatman filter papers exhibited high reproducibility according to the original host blood. The blood meal host was correctly identified from mosquito abdomens crushed on Whatman filter papers by MALDI-TOF MS. The MS spectra obtained after storage were stable regardless of the room temperature and whether or not they were frozen. The MS profiles were reproducible for up to three months. For the Comoros samples, 70/77 quality MS spectra were obtained and matched with human blood spectra. This was confirmed by molecular tools. The results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS could identify mosquito blood meals from Whatman filter papers collected in the field during entomological surveys. The

  4. Biotin/avidin sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Culicidae mosquito blood meal identification

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    A. M. Marassá

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of mosquitoes Culicidae host feeding patterns is basic to understand the roles of different species and to indicate their importance in the epidemiology of arthropod-borne diseases. A laboratory assay was developed aiming at standardizing the biotin-avidin sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which was unprecedented for mosquito blood meal identification. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA activity was evaluated by the detection of titers on each sample of the 28 blood-fed Culex quinquefasciatus. In light of the high sensitivity that the technique permits, by means of small quantities of specific antibodies commercially provided and phosphatase substrate which reinforces additional dilutions, human and rat blood meals were readily identified in all laboratory-raised Culex quinquefasciatus tested. The assay was effective to detect human blood meal dilutions up to 1:4,096, which enables the technique to be applied in field studies. Additionally, the present results indicate a significant difference between the detection patterns recorded from human blood meal which corroborate the results of host feeding patterns.

  5. Molecular identification of blood meal sources of ticks (Acari, Ixodidae using cytochrome b gene as a genetic marker

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    Ernieenor Faraliana Che Lah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood meal analysis (BMA from ticks allows for the identification of natural hosts of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae. The aim of this study is to identify the blood meal sources of field collected on-host ticks using PCR analysis. DNA of four genera of ticks was isolated and their cytochrome b (Cyt b gene was amplified to identify host blood meals. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on data of Cyt b sequences using Neighbor Joining (NJ and Maximum Parsimony (MP analysis using MEGA 5.05 for the clustering of hosts of tick species. Twenty out of 27 samples showed maximum similarity (99% with GenBank sequences through a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST while 7 samples only showed a similarity range of between 91–98%. The phylogenetic trees showed that the blood meal samples were derived from small rodents (Leopoldamys sabanus, Rattus tiomanicus and Sundamys muelleri, shrews (Tupaia glis and mammals (Tapirus indicus and Prionailurus bengalensis, supported by 82–88% bootstrap values. In this study, Cyt b gene as a molecular target produced reliable results and was very significant for the effective identification of ticks’ blood meal. The assay can be used as a tool for identifying unknown blood meals of field collected on-host ticks.

  6. Molecular identification of blood meal sources of ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) using cytochrome b gene as a genetic marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Lah, Ernieenor Faraliana; Yaakop, Salmah; Ahamad, Mariana; Md Nor, Shukor

    2015-01-01

    Blood meal analysis (BMA) from ticks allows for the identification of natural hosts of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The aim of this study is to identify the blood meal sources of field collected on-host ticks using PCR analysis. DNA of four genera of ticks was isolated and their cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene was amplified to identify host blood meals. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on data of Cyt b sequences using Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) analysis using MEGA 5.05 for the clustering of hosts of tick species. Twenty out of 27 samples showed maximum similarity (99%) with GenBank sequences through a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) while 7 samples only showed a similarity range of between 91-98%. The phylogenetic trees showed that the blood meal samples were derived from small rodents (Leopoldamyssabanus, Rattustiomanicus and Sundamysmuelleri), shrews (Tupaiaglis) and mammals (Tapirusindicus and Prionailurusbengalensis), supported by 82-88% bootstrap values. In this study, Cyt b gene as a molecular target produced reliable results and was very significant for the effective identification of ticks' blood meal. The assay can be used as a tool for identifying unknown blood meals of field collected on-host ticks.

  7. Identification of blood meal sources in the main African malaria mosquito vector by MALDI-TOF MS.

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    Niare, Sirama; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Dieme, Constentin; Doumbo, Ogobara; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Almeras, Lionel

    2016-02-13

    The identification of blood meal sources in malaria vectors is critical to better understanding host/vector interactions and malaria epidemiology and control. Currently, the identification of mosquito blood meal origins is based on time-consuming and costly techniques such as precipitin tests, ELISA and molecular tools. Although these tools have been validated to identify the blood meal and trophic preferences of female Anopheles mosquitoes, they present several limitations. Recently, matrix-assisted, laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was successfully used as a quick and accurate tool for arthropod identification, including mosquitoes. The aim of the present work was to test whether MALDI-TOF MS could also be applied to identification of blood meal sources from engorged mosquitoes. Abdomen proteins extracted from Anopheles gambiae (stricto sensu, S molecular form) that were either unengorged or artificially engorged on seven distinct types of vertebrate blood (human, horse, sheep, rabbit, mouse, rat, dog) were submitted for MALDI-TOF MS. The comparison of mass spectrometry (MS) spectra from mosquito abdomens collected 1 h post-feeding, were able to discriminate blood meal origins. Moreover, using Aedes albopictus specimens, abdominal protein MS spectra from engorged mosquitoes were found specific to host blood source and independent of the mosquito species. A sequential analysis revealed stability of mosquito abdominal protein spectra up to 24 h post-feeding. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS could determine feeding patterns of freshly engorged mosquitoes up to 24 h post-blood meal. The MALDI-TOF MS technique appears to be an efficient tool for large epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne diseases and outbreak source identification.

  8. Identification of Blood Meal Sources in Aedes vexans and Culex quinquefasciatus in Bernalillo County, New Mexico

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    Greenberg, Jacob A.; Lujan, Daniel A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Wearing, Helen J.; Hofkin, Bruce V.

    2013-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes vexans Meigen are two of the most abundant mosquitoes in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, USA. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based methodology was used to identify the sources of blood meals taken by these two species. Ae. vexans was found to take a large proportion of its meals from mammals. Although less specific in terms of its blood meal preferences, Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to feed more commonly on birds. The results for Ae. vexans are similar to those reported for this species in other parts of their geographic range. Cx. quinquefasciatus appears to be more variable in terms of its host feeding under different environmental or seasonal circumstances. The implications of these results for arbovirus transmission are discussed. PMID:24224615

  9. Blood meal identification and feeding habits of uranotaenia species collected in the ryukyu archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako

    2014-09-01

    To know the blood meal in the stomach of Uranotaenia species, blood-fed mosquitoes were collected by 4 methods at different sites in the mountain forest of 3 islands, Amamioshima, Okinawajima, and Iriomotejima in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan from 2005 to 2012. One hundred twenty-four blood-fed Uranotaenia mosquitoes of 7 species (Ur. jacksoni, nivipleura, ohamai, yaeyamana, annandalei, lateralis, and macfarlanei) were collected. The collection rates are 0.26, 0.6, 0.31, and 0.66 by black light trap, black light blue with dry ice trap, frog call trap, and sweeping net, respectively. The blood meals of 107 females (86.3%) were successfully identified by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. All Uranotaenia species fed on cold-blooded animals, especially amphibians (99.1%), and notably on frogs. They would feed readily on available frogs in a given region having no close connection with the breeding (calling) season of each frog. They also fed on reptiles (0.9%), but not on warm-blooded animals.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL.

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    Tanure, Aline; Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

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    Aline TANURE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1% and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%. Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6% in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  13. Blood meal identification and parasite detection in laboratory-fed and field-captured Lutzomyia longipalpis by PCR using FTA databasing paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant’Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Jones, Nathaniel G.; Hindley, Jonathan A.; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F.; Dillon, Rod J.; Cavalcante, Reginaldo R.; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis takes blood from a variety of wild and domestic animals and transmits Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis. Blood meal identification in sand flies has depended largely on serological methods but a new protocol described here uses filter-based technology to stabilise and store blood meal DNA, allowing subsequent PCR identification of blood meal sources, as well as parasite detection, in blood-fed sand flies. This technique revealed that 53.6% of field-collected sand flies captured in the back yards of houses in Teresina (Brazil) had fed on chickens. The potential applications of this technique in epidemiological studies and strategic planning for leishmaniasis control programmes are discussed. PMID:18606150

  14. Blood meal identification and parasite detection in laboratory-fed and field-captured Lutzomyia longipalpis by PCR using FTA databasing paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Jones, Nathaniel G; Hindley, Jonathan A; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F; Dillon, Rod J; Cavalcante, Reginaldo R; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A

    2008-09-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis takes blood from a variety of wild and domestic animals and transmits Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis. Blood meal identification in sand flies has depended largely on serological methods but a new protocol described here uses filter-based technology to stabilise and store blood meal DNA, allowing subsequent PCR identification of blood meal sources, as well as parasite detection, in blood-fed sand flies. This technique revealed that 53.6% of field-collected sand flies captured in the back yards of houses in Teresina (Brazil) had fed on chickens. The potential applications of this technique in epidemiological studies and strategic planning for leishmaniasis control programmes are discussed.

  15. Blood Meal Identification of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Specimens Belong to Culex pipiens Complex that were Collected from Kayseri Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Seval; Yıldırım, Alparslan; Düzlü, Önder; Çiloğlu, Arif; Önder, Zuhal; İnci, Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the host preferences in blood meal of specimens belonging to Culex pipiens complex. A total of 1284 female mosquitos were morphologically examined, and genomic DNA isolations were individually performed on 376 (28.4%) specimens that were determined to be Cx. pipiens complex. PCR was performed with primers to specifically amplify the avian and mammalian mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-cytb) gene region. Amplicons were cloned, and the obtained plasmids were sequenced to determine host species. Of 376 specimens, 148 (39.4%) were positive for the avian and/or mammalian blood meal. Among the positive specimens, 43, 98, and seven were determined to be positive for only mammalian, avian, and both avian and mammalian blood, respectively. Avian host preference in blood meal of the specimens belonging to Cx. pipiens was found to be significant. Of 15 avian blood positive isolates, nine, three, two, and one were designated as blood meal from avian species in Passeriformes, Accipitriformes, Columbiformes, and Strigiformes orders, respectively. While six, four, three, and two out of 15 mammalian blood-positive specimens were found to be positive for human, cattle, sheep, and dog blood, respectively. Molecular data regarding the host preferences of the Cx. pipiens species complex in blood meal were revealed for the first time in Turkey with this study.

  16. Identification of blood meals in field captured sand flies by a PCR-RFLP approach based on cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Estela; Gállego, Montserrat; Molina, Ricardo; Abras, Alba; Alcover, M Magdalena; Ballart, Cristina; Fernández, Anna; Jiménez, Maribel

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. Information about blood meal preferences in sand flies is essential to understand the epidemiology of the disease to adopt control measures. In previous studies, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 359bp fragment of the conserved gene cytochrome b (cyt b) and further sequencing were applied in the study of blood meal sources in sand flies collected in the area of a leishmaniasis outbreak in southwest Madrid, Spain, providing significant information about blood meal preferences in the focus. In this work, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) targeting a fragment of 359bp of vertebrate cyt b gene was developed. Restriction endonucleases HaeIII and HinfI generated specific patterns consistent with the blood meal sources found in sand flies. The protocol has been validated with twenty six engorged females collected in the field with CDC traps. Blood meals from nine vertebrates were identified based on PCR-cyt b and sequencing-human, dog, cat, horse, hare, rabbit, sheep, goat and chicken - and mixed blood meals (sheep/human; sheep/goat) - and successfully distinguished by PCR-RFLP. Therefore, this approach is an efficient and reliable alternative method to be applied in entomological surveys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood meal and blood products detection using Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline; Abbas, Ouissam; Taira, Aurélien; Arnould, Quentin; Baeten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) and blood products are not allowed to be used in feed for farmed animal. In contrast, blood meal and blood products of porcine origin are both authorised in aqua feed, whereas only porcine blood products are allowed to be used in feed intended for other non-ruminants. Besides official methods (light microscopy and PCR), complementary methods are developed in order to refine the by-products identification. By-products derived from blood ...

  18. Blood Meal Identification in Field-Captured Sand flies: Comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA Assays

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    N Maleki-Ravasan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: We aimed to develop a PCR-RFLP assay based on available sequences of putative vertebrate hosts to iden­tify blood meals ingested by field female sand fly in the northwest of Iran. In addition, the utility of PCR-RFLP was compared with ELISA as a standard method."nMethods: This experimental study was performed in the Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2006-2007. For PCR-RFLP a set of conserved vertebrate prim­ers were used to amplify a part of the host mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene followed by digestion of the PCR products by Hae III enzyme."nResults: The PCR-RFLP and ELISA assays revealed that 34% and 27% of field-collected sand flies had fed on hu­mans, respectively. Additionally, PCR-RFLP assays could reveal specific host DNA as well as the components of mixed blood meals. Results of PCR-RFLP assay showed that the sand flies had fed on cow (54%, human (10%, dog (4%, human and cow (21%, dog and cow (14%, and human and dog (3%. "nConclusion: The results can provide a novel method for rapid diagnosis of blood meal taken by sandflies. The advan­tages and limitations of PCR and ELISA assays are discussed.

  19. Blood Meal Identification in Field-Captured Sand flies: Comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA Assays

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    Maleki-Ravasan, N; Oshaghi, MA; Javadian, E; Rassi, Y; Sadraei, J; Mohtarami, F

    2009-01-01

    Background We aimed to develop a PCR-RFLP assay based on available sequences of putative vertebrate hosts to identify blood meals ingested by field female sand fly in the northwest of Iran. In addition, the utility of PCR-RFLP was compared with ELISA as a standard method. Methods: This experimental study was performed in the Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2006–2007. For PCR-RFLP a set of conserved vertebrate primers were used to amplify a part of the host mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene followed by digestion of the PCR products by Hae III enzyme. Results: The PCR-RFLP and ELISA assays revealed that 34% and 27% of field-collected sand flies had fed on humans, respectively. Additionally, PCR-RFLP assays could reveal specific host DNA as well as the components of mixed blood meals. Results of PCR-RFLP assay showed that the sand flies had fed on cow (54%), human (10%), dog (4%), human and cow (21%), dog and cow (14%), and human and dog (3%). Conclusion: The results can provide a novel method for rapid diagnosis of blood meal taken by sandflies. The advantages and limitations of PCR and ELISA assays are discussed. PMID:22808367

  20. Blood Meal Identification in Field-Captured Sand flies: Comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki-Ravasan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: We aimed to develop a PCR-RFLP assay based on available sequences of putative vertebrate hosts to iden­tify blood meals ingested by field female sand fly in the northwest of Iran. In addition, the utility of PCR-RFLP was compared with ELISA as a standard method.Methods: This experimental study was performed in the Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2006-2007. For PCR-RFLP a set of conserved vertebrate prim­ers were used to amplify a part of the host mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene followed by digestion of the PCR products by Hae III enzyme.Results: The PCR-RFLP and ELISA assays revealed that 34% and 27% of field-collected sand flies had fed on hu­mans, respectively. Additionally, PCR-RFLP assays could reveal specific host DNA as well as the components of mixed blood meals. Results of PCR-RFLP assay showed that the sand flies had fed on cow (54%, human (10%, dog (4%, human and cow (21%, dog and cow (14%, and human and dog (3%. Conclusion: The results can provide a novel method for rapid diagnosis of blood meal taken by sandflies. The advan­tages and limitations of PCR and ELISA assays are discussed.

  1. Molecular detection of Leishmania parasites and host blood meal identification in wild sand flies from a new endemic rural region, south of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Askari, Mohammad Bagher; Kalantari, Mohsen; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniosis (ZCL) remains the most crucial vector-borne public health disease particularly in endemic rural parts of Iran. The main aim of this study is to identify wild sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), determine their infection rate, and differentiate their host blood meal sources using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Sand fly populations were caught with sticky paper traps from 10 different villages in the county of Darab, Fars province, southern Iran. Following their species identification, they were used in one step PCR to determine their infection with Leishmania spp. parasites. They were then subjected to PCR-RFLP protocol to identify and differentiate their blood meal sources. Two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia comprising 13 species of sand flies were identified in this region. From a total of 150 parous female sand flies, encompassing 4 different medically important species, 7 specimens (4.7%) including 6 Phlebotomus papatasi and 1 Phlebotomus bergeroti were infected with Leishmania major. Molecular data indicated that about 32% of female sand flies fed on man, while nearly 43% fed on rodent and canine hosts. Molecular detection is an efficient way of differentiating the source of blood meals in female sand flies feeding on different vertebrate hosts. It is suggested that P. papatasi is not highly anthropophagic and appears to be an opportunistic feeder on man. This species is, however, the primary vector of ZCL in this region.

  2. Maintenance of host DNA integrity in field-preserved mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) blood meals for identification by DNA barcoding.

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    Reeves, Lawrence E; Holderman, Chris J; Gillett-Kaufman, Jennifer L; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-09-15

    Determination of the interactions between hematophagous arthropods and their hosts is a necessary component to understanding the transmission dynamics of arthropod-vectored pathogens. Current molecular methods to identify hosts of blood-fed arthropods require the preservation of host DNA to serve as an amplification template. During transportation to the laboratory and storage prior to molecular analysis, genetic samples need to be protected from nucleases, and the degradation effects of hydrolysis, oxidation and radiation. Preservation of host DNA contained in field-collected blood-fed specimens has an additional caveat: suspension of the degradative effects of arthropod digestion on host DNA. Unless effective preservation methods are implemented promptly after blood-fed specimens are collected, host DNA will continue to degrade. Preservation methods vary in their efficacy, and need to be selected based on the logistical constraints of the research program. We compared four preservation methods (cold storage at -20 °C, desiccation, ethanol storage of intact mosquito specimens and crushed specimens on filter paper) for field storage of host DNA from blood-fed mosquitoes across a range of storage and post-feeding time periods. The efficacy of these techniques in maintaining host DNA integrity was evaluated using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of a sufficient concentration of intact host DNA templates for blood meal analysis. We applied a logistic regression model to assess the effects of preservation method, storage time and post-feeding time on the binomial response variable, amplification success. Preservation method, storage time and post-feeding time all significantly impacted PCR amplification success. Filter papers and, to a lesser extent, 95 % ethanol, were the most effective methods for the maintenance of host DNA templates. Amplification success of host DNA preserved in cold storage at -20 °C and desiccation was poor. Our data

  3. A method for the identification of guinea pig blood meal in the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans

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    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Lucero, David; Stevens, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Background In a SINE-based PCR assay, a primer set specific for guinea pig genome short interspersed elements DNA was used to test the utility of genomic markers for identifying the source of vertebrate blood meals of Triatoma infestans. Methods The investigation consisted of two assays. In Assay 1, thirty-six insects, collected from the Province of Zudáñez in Chuquisaca, Bolivia were frozen 1–40 hours after feeding, under controlled conditions, on guinea pigs. The species of the vertebrate host was confirmed from dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification. Assay 2 investigated whether the technique worked under field conditions. We analyzed the bloodmeal of 34 insects collected from households and peri-domestic structures from communities where wild and captive guinea pigs occur. After collection, the insects were maintained at room temperature for 2 months without feeding and then analyzed. Results In Assay 1, each of the 36 insects allowed to feed on guinea pig blood tested positive for guinea pig DNA. The guinea pig DNA was reliably identified in as little as 1 hour and up to 40 hours after feeding. For Assay 2, 8 out of the 34 samples (23%) showed positive results with guinea pig specific primers. Conclusion The results in assay 1 demonstrated that DNA from the vertebrate host can be amplified 1–40 hours post feeding from the abdomen of the blood-feeding Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. The results in assay 2 confirmed that the procedure works on insects collected from households and peri-domestic structures and that the source of a blood meal can be determined at least 2 months post feeding. PMID:17222347

  4. Molecular approaches for blood meal analysis and species identification of mosquitoes (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) in rural locations in southern England, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis Miguel; Brugman, Victor Albert; Prosser, Sean Williams John; Weland, Chris; Nikolova, Nadya; Thorne, Leigh; Marco, Mar Fernández DE; Fooks, Anthony Richard; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-04-03

    Thirty-four species of Culicidae are present in the UK, of which 15 have been implicated as potential vectors of arthropod-borne viruses such as West Nile virus. Identification of mosquito feeding preferences is paramount to the understanding of vector-host-pathogen interactions which, in turn, would assist in the control of disease outbreaks. Results are presented on the application of DNA barcoding for vertebrate species identification in blood-fed female mosquitoes in rural locations. Blood-fed females (n = 134) were collected in southern England from rural sites and identified based on morphological criteria. Blood meals from 59 specimens (44%) were identified as feeding on eight hosts: European rabbit, cow, human, barn swallow, dog, great tit, magpie and blackbird. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mtDNA barcoding region and the internal transcribed spacer 2 rDNA region of the specimens morphologically identified as Anopheles maculipennis s.l. revealed the presence of An. atroparvus and An. messeae. A similar analysis of specimens morphologically identified as Culex pipiens/Cx. torrentium showed all specimens to be Cx. pipiens (typical form). This study demonstrates the importance of using molecular techniques to support species-level identification in blood-fed mosquitoes to maximize the information obtained in studies investigating host feeding patterns.

  5. Effects of blood meal, chicken offal meal and fish meal as sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were studied of using combinations or plant protein sources, GNC, Palm Kernel cake, and cotton and seed cake diets, supplementeil with 4 sources of methionine (M) and Lysine (L), synthetic M + L, blood meal + M, fish meal, or chicken offal meal (COM) in 8-Week 3 x 4 factorial experiment with sta11er cockerels ...

  6. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2016-01-01

    Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of Borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 I. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%) I. ricinus individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86%) samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by I. ricinus in Europe, including B. miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to B. burgdorferi sensu lato were identified--B. garinii and B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi, which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  7. Detection of Leishmania DNA and Blood Meal Identification in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Lençois Maranhenses National Park Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira Filho, Adalberto Alves; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário

    2018-02-28

    To elucidate portions of the transmission cycles of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring in the region surrounding the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important tourist center in Brazil, the present study objectives were to determine the rate of natural infection by Leishmania spp. and the blood meal in caught sand flies species in the region. Sand flies were captured over 36 mo in 62 locations of the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão with notifications of disease incidence. Species identification of parasites was performed with internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme. Blood meal identification was performed with cytochrome b (cytb) gene PCR-RFLP using HaeIII and MboI enzyme. The species Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva 1912) presented a positivity rate of 3.7% for Leishmania infantum. Species not considered vectors of this parasite such as Lu. lenti (Mangabeira 1938) and Lu. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939) showed infection rates of 0.6% and 0.9%, respectively. Among the vectors of Leishmania spp. was Lu. whitmani with detection rate of 0.3% for Le. braziliensis and Lu. flaviscutellata (Mangabeira 1942) with a detection rate of 8% for Le. amazonensis. After restriction of amplification product encoding a 359bp sequence of the cytb recognized in as follows: pigs (37.9%); dogs (27.4%); chickens (20.9%); horses (9%), rodents (3.3%), and humans (1.4%). The presence of Leishmania DNA in sand flies fed with human blood and domestic animals in villages with transmission of VL and TL suggests that transmission could be occurring in the locations of the infected patients.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of rodent blood meals confirms host sharing by flea vectors of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Heather A; Stapp, Paul; Cohen, Amybeth

    2010-12-01

    Elucidating feeding relationships between hosts and parasites remains a significant challenge in studies of the ecology of infectious diseases, especially those involving small or cryptic vectors. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a species of conservation importance in the North American Great Plains whose populations are extirpated by plague, a flea-vectored, bacterial disease. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, we determined that fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) associated with prairie dogs feed upon northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), a rodent that has been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of plague in prairie-dog colonies. Our results definitively show that grasshopper mice not only share fleas with prairie dogs during plague epizootics, but also provide them with blood meals, offering a mechanism by which the pathogen, Yersinia pestis, may be transmitted between host species and maintained between epizootics. The lack of identifiable host DNA in a significant fraction of engorged Oropsylla hirsuta collected from animals (47%) and prairie-dog burrows (100%) suggests a rapid rate of digestion and feeding that may facilitate disease transmission during epizootics but also complicate efforts to detect feeding on alternative hosts. Combined with other analytical approaches, e.g., stable isotope analysis, molecular genetic techniques can provide novel insights into host-parasite feeding relationships and improve our understanding of the role of alternative hosts in the transmission and maintenance of disease. © 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Identification of Ixodes ricinus blood meals using an automated protocol with high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) reveals the importance of domestic dogs as larval tick hosts in Italian alpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Margherita; Albonico, Francesca; Rosà, Roberto; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Arnoldi, Daniele; Conterno, Lorenza; Rossi, Chiara; Mortarino, Michele; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Hauffe, Heidi Christine

    2016-12-12

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus L. is the main vector of a variety of zoonotic pathogens, acquired through blood meals taken once per stage from a vertebrate host. Defining the main tick hosts in a given area is important for planning public health interventions; however, until recently, no robust molecular methods existed for blood meal identification from questing ticks. Here we improved the time- and cost-effectiveness of an HRMA protocol for blood meal analysis and used it to identify blood meal sources of sheep tick larvae from Italian alpine forests. Nine hundred questing nymphs were collected using blanket-dragging in 18 extensive forests and 12 forest patches close to rural villages in the Province of Trento. Total DNA was either extracted manually, with the QIAamp DNA Investigator kit, or automatically using the KingFisher™ Flex Magnetic Particle Processors (KingFisher Cell and Tissue DNA Kit). Host DNA was amplified with six independent host group real-time PCR reactions and identified by means of HRMA. Statistical analyses were performed in R to assess the variables important for achieving successful identification and to compare host use in the two types of forest. Automating DNA extraction improved time- and cost-effectiveness of the HRMA protocol, but identification success fell to 22.4% (KingFisher™) from 55.1% (QIAamp), with larval hosts identified in 215 of 848 questing nymphs; 23 mixed blood meals were noted. However, the list of hosts targeted by our primer sets was extended, improving the potential of the method. Host identification to species or genus level was possible for 137 and 102 blood meals, respectively. The most common hosts were Rodentia (28.9%) and, unexpectedly, Carnivora (28.4%), with domestic dogs accounting for 21.3% of all larval blood meals. Overall, Cetartiodactyla species fed 17.2% of larvae. Passeriformes (14.6%) fed a significantly higher proportion of larvae in forest patches (22.3%) than in extensive forest (9.6%), while

  10. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Wodecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] and [i]Borrelia[/i] species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of [i]Borrelia[/i] species, the blood-meal of 325 [i]I. ricinus[/i] ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%[i] I. ricinus[/i] individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86% samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i], red fox ([i]Vulpes vulpes[/i], red deer ([i]Cervus elaphus[/i] and roe deer ([i]Capreolus capreolus[/i]. Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all [i]Borrelia[/i] species transmitted by [i]I. ricinus [/i]in Europe, including [i]B. miyamotoi[/i] and 3 genetic variants of [i]B. garinii[/i]. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato were identified – B. [i]garinii [/i]and B. [i]afzelii[/i], and B. [i]miyamotoi,[/i] which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  11. Blood Meal Analysis of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) forLeishmaniaspp. Identification and Vertebrate Blood Origin, Central Tunisia, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouadi, Kaouther; Bettaieb, Jihene; Bennour, Amira; Salem, Sadok; Ghawar, Wissem; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Khabouchi, Neila; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif

    2018-01-01

    During the time periods of June 2015 and from July to August 2016, sandflies were collected among seven collection sites of the three leishmaniasis endemic villages of Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia. A total of 690 sandflies were captured and identified (380 males and 310 females). Four species belonging to genus Phlebotomus ( Ph. ) and two species belonging to genus Sergentomyia were identified. Leishmania DNA was detected in four out of 310 females (one Ph. sergenti and three Ph. papatasi ). The overall sensitivity of the Prepronociceptin gene detection reached 76%. The concurrent presence of Ph. papatasi and Ph. sergenti vectors, the analysis of blood-meals, together with the detection of L. major in Ph. papatasi , confirms the ultimate conditions for the transmission of the disease in center Tunisia. These results expand the known epidemiological area of distrubtion of leishmaniasis and its vectors in this part of Tunisia, highlighting the need for ongoing entomological and parasitological surveillance.

  12. Analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Jacob A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Hanelt, Ben; Hofkin, Bruce V.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. Mosquitoes were trapped at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. The distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. We found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal....

  13. A molecular marker for the identification of the zoonotic reservoirs of Lyme borreliosis by analysis of the blood meal in its European vector Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, F; Gray, J S

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy of the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b gene as a molecular marker for the discrimination of the reservoir host species of the Lyme borreliosis spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), in its European vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) was determined. Degenerate PCR primers were designed which amplified orthologous regions of the cytochrome b gene in several animal species which act as B. burgdorferi s.l. reservoirs and hosts for I. ricinus. PCR products were amplified and characterized by hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 638-bp PCR product with HaeIII and DdeI revealed unique restriction fragment profiles, which allowed the taxonomic identification of animals to the genus level. A system was devised for the detection of the larval host blood meal from the remnants in unfed nymphal I. ricinus ticks by nested PCR amplification. An inverse correlation was demonstrated between amplicon size and successful PCR amplification of host DNA from the nymphal stage of the tick. The stability of the cytochrome b product as a marker for the identification of the larval host species in the nymphal instar was demonstrated up to 200 days after larval ingestion (approximately 165 days after molting) by reverse line blotting with a host-specific probe. This assay has the potential for the determination of the reservoir hosts of B. burgdorferi s.l. by using extracts from the same individual ticks for both the identification of the host species and the detection of the Lyme borreliosis spirochete. PMID:8899988

  14. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  15. Redescription of Aposycorax chilensis (Tonnoir) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Sycoracinae) with the first identification of a blood meal host for the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curler, Gregory R; Moulton, John K; Madriz, R Isai

    2015-11-24

    Adults of Aposycorax chilensis were collected from several sites during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013. Specimens were swept or aspirated from roadside seeps and found in greatest numbers during the morning hours. DNA was extracted from a recently blood-fed female and was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction using vertebrate-specific 16S primers. An amplicon was obtained and the resulting sequence was found to have over 99% identity with two frogs in the genus Batrachyla, thus establishing this species' preference for amphibian hosts. The diagnosis and description of adult A. chilensis are revised, including the first description of the complete male genital tract. Habitat characteristics for this species and rotation of the male genitalia are discussed.

  16. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biotin-avidin sandwich elisa with specific human isotypes IgG1 and IgG4 for Culicidae mosquito blood meal identification from an epizootic yellow fever area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Marassá

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With a view toward investigating the feeding behavior of Culicidae mosquitoes from an area of epizootic yellow fever transmission in the municipalities of Garruchos and Santo Antônio das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, specimens were collected by aspiration from September 2005 to April 2007. The engorged females were submitted to blood meal identification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total of 142 blood-engorged samples were examined for human or monkey blood through species-specific IgG. Additional tests for specificity utilizing isotypes IgG1 and IgG4 of human monoclonal antibodies showed that only anti-human IgG1 was effective in recognizing blood meals of human origin. The results indicated a significant difference (p = 0.027 in detection patterns in samples of Haemagogus leucocelaenus recorded from human blood meals at Santo Antônio das Missões, which suggests some degree of exposure, since it was an area where epizootic outbreaks have been reported.

  18. Blood Meal Source Characterization Using Illumina Sequencing in the Chagas Disease Vector Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Panamá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Troy J; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Varian, Christina P; Saldaña, Azael; Means, Nicolas; Owens, Darlisha; Calzada, Jose E; Glenn, Travis C

    2017-11-07

    Accurate blood meal identification is critical to understand hematophagous vector-host relationships. This study describes a customizable Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to identify blood meals from Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) triatomines using multiple barcoded primers and existing software to pick operational taxonomic units and match sequences for blood meal identification. We precisely identified all positive control samples using this method and further examined 74 wild-caught R. pallescens samples. With this novel blood meal identification method, we detected 13 vertebrate species in the blood meals, as well as single and multiple blood meals in individual bugs. Our results demonstrate the reliability and descriptive uses of our method. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, ...

  20. Molecular detection of Leishmania DNA and identification of blood meals in wild caught phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Parreira, Ricardo; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Freitas, Ferdinando Bernardino; Afonso, Maria Odete; Campino, Lenea

    2015-03-23

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum which is transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. The main objectives of this study were to (i) detect Leishmania DNA and (ii) identify blood meal sources in wild caught female sand flies in the zoonotic leishmaniasis region of Algarve, Portugal/Southwestern Europe. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and sticky papers. Sand flies were identified morphologically and tested for Leishmania sp. by PCR using ITS-1 as the target sequence. The source of blood meal of the engorged females was determined using the cyt-b sequence. Out of the 4,971 (2,584 males and 2,387 females) collected sand flies, Leishmania DNA was detected by PCR in three females (0.13%), specifically in two specimens identified on the basis of morphological features as Sergentomyia minuta and one as Phlebotomus perniciosus. Haematic preferences, as defined by the analysis of cyt-b DNA amplified from the blood-meals detected in the engorged female specimens, showed that P. perniciosus fed on a wide range of domestic animals while human and lizard DNA was detected in engorged S. minuta. The anthropophilic behavior of S. minuta together with the detection of Leishmania DNA highlights the need to determine the role played by this species in the transmission of Leishmania parasites to humans. In addition, on-going surveillance on Leishmania vectors is crucial as the increased migration and travelling flow elevate the risk of introduction and spread of infections by Leishmania species which are non-endemic.

  1. Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Silva, Jailthon Carlos da; Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Pires e Cruz, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA.

  2. Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Yamashiro Rocha Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1, Bos taurus (1 and Equus caballus (2. Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA.

  3. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.14 Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry...

  4. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal...

  5. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Henni, Leila; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Depaquit, Jérôme; Noël, Philippe; Germain, Adeline; Helder, Remi; Augot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical. The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus) was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens). Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted.

  6. Comparison of vertebrate cytochrome b and prepronociceptin for blood meal analyses in Culicoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eHadj-henni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI or Cytochrome b (Cyt b. The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical.The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens. Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted.

  7. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Henni, Leila; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Depaquit, Jérôme; Noël, Philippe; Germain, Adeline; Helder, Remi; Augot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical. The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus) was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens). Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted. PMID:26664944

  8. Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN PERIDOMICILIARY AREA DURING ASYMPTOMATIC MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST: MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF BLOOD-MEAL SOURCES INDICATES HUMANS AS PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kirchgatter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker. cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen.

  9. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae) in peridomiciliary area during asymptomatic malaria transmission in the Atlantic Forest: molecular identification of blood-meal sources indicates humans as primary intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Alves, Isabel Cristina; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Zampaulo, Robson de Almeida; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker.) cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen.

  10. Bird hosts, blood parasites and their vectors--associations uncovered by molecular analyses of blackfly blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, O; Bensch, S; Malmqvist, B

    2008-03-01

    The level of host specificity of blood-sucking invertebrates may have both ecological and evolutionary implications for the parasites they are transmitting. We used blood meals from wild-caught blackflies for molecular identification of parasites and hosts to examine patterns of host specificity and how these may affect the transmission of avian blood parasites of the genus Leucocytozoon. We found that five different species of ornithophilic blackflies preferred different species of birds when taking their blood meals. Of the blackflies that contained avian blood meals, 62% were infected with Leucocytozoon parasites, consisting of 15 different parasite lineages. For the blackfly species, there was a significant association between the host width (measured as the genetic differentiation between the used hosts) and the genetic similarity of the parasites in their blood meals. The absence of similar parasite in blood meals from blackflies with different host preferences is interpreted as a result of the vector-host associations. The observed associations between blackfly species and host species are therefore likely to hinder parasites to be transmitted between different host-groups, resulting in ecologically driven associations between certain parasite lineages and hosts species.

  11. Differential utilization of blood meal amino acids in mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Miesfeld, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Guoli Zhou, Roger MiesfeldDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Amino acids in the mosquito blood meal have two forms, protein-bound and plasma-free amino acids. To determine if the metabolic fate and flux of these two forms of blood meal amino acids are distinct, we fed mosquitoes eight [14C]-labeled amino acids, seven of which are essential for mosquitoes (leucine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, histidine), and one th...

  12. Multiple blood meals in Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Paolucci Pimenta, Paulo Filemon; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of human malaria in the Amazon. Adult females of this mosquito species require a blood meal to develop eggs, preferring humans to other blood sources. Although gonotrophic concordance has been described as the norm for An. darlingi, here we report An. darlingi female mosquitoes taking two or more blood meals within their first gonotrophic cycle. Only half of field-captured adult females fed one blood meal developed follicles to Christophers' stage V. This outcome is dependent on larval nutrition, as 88% of laboratory-raised well-nourished females completed the first gonotrophic cycle with only one blood meal, while less nourished females needed additional blood meals. Half of the field-captured blood-seeking An. darlingi females had follicles in intermediate (IIIa and IIIb) and final (V) stages of the gonotrophic cycle, supporting the conclusion that An. darlingi blood feed more than once during a gonotrophic cycle. Additionally, we observed females attempting to blood feed a second time during the same day. Additional studies of An. darlingi biting behavior are necessary to accurately estimate Plasmodium sp. entomologic inoculation rates throughout the An. darlingi vast geographical distribution. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Effects of pre-meal and post-meal mild physical exercises on blood glucose level

    OpenAIRE

    中島, 英洋; 吉江, 弘樹; 中澤, 翔太; 赤土, 知佳; 海尻, 真里; 松尾, 加澄美; 吉岡, 由佳里; 吉崎, 結城

    2010-01-01

     The aim of this study is to compare changes in blood glucose level in response to a mild physical exercise for 25 minutes either in the fasted state or 30 minutes after a standardized meal.  Seven healthy university students (2 males and 5 females, 21 years of age) were studied in a crossover design to compare three conditions: no exercise (control), pre-meal and post-meal exercises.  The three trials conducted on separate days consisted of a rest day when the subjects consumed the standardi...

  14. Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith I Keller

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae, is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin. Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed, particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to identify host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins, hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with more

  15. Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Judith I; Ballif, Bryan A; St Clair, Riley M; Vincent, James J; Monroy, M Carlota; Stevens, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin. Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed, particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins, hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with more traditional DNA

  16. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassen Sandra B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential. Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. Methods Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode was applied to identify the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374. The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. Results Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA sequencing from 242 (76% out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The

  17. Effect of a meal on blood pressure in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M; Stout, R W

    1986-01-01

    As post-prandial hypotension may be a cause of falls in older people, blood pressure was measured for one hour following a test meal in 22 elderly patients. There was a small fall in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure but no change in heart rate. Although the changes were small and no symptoms occurred, post-prandial hypotension might be important in elderly patients who had other abnormalities in blood pressure regulation. PMID:3811013

  18. Effect of a meal on blood pressure in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Power, M; Stout, R W

    1986-01-01

    As post-prandial hypotension may be a cause of falls in older people, blood pressure was measured for one hour following a test meal in 22 elderly patients. There was a small fall in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure but no change in heart rate. Although the changes were small and no symptoms occurred, post-prandial hypotension might be important in elderly patients who had other abnormalities in blood pressure regulation.

  19. Analysis of CHIKV in Mosquitoes Infected via Artificial Blood Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Having a mechanism to assess the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne virus is one critical component of understanding the life cycle of these viruses. Laboratory infection systems using artificial blood meals is one valuable approach for monitoring the progress of virus in its mosquito host and evaluating potential points for interruption of the cycle for control purposes. Here, we describe an artificial blood meal system with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and the processing of mosquito tissues and saliva to understand the movement and time course of virus infection in the invertebrate host.

  20. Effects of blood meal as a substitute for fish meal in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the nutritive value of fermented and un-fermented blood meal as a possible protein source for diets of juvenile silver pompano, Trachinotus blochii. The experiments were carried out concurrently in a completely randomized design. A total of 330 fish (10.98 ±0. 5g and ...

  1. The antenna transcriptome changes in mosquito Anopheles sinensis, pre- and post- blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Pei, Di; Li, Jianyong; Jing, Chengyu; Wu, Wenjian; Man, Yahui

    2017-01-01

    Antenna is the main chemosensory organ in mosquitoes. Characterization of the transcriptional changes after blood meal, especially those related to chemoreception, may help to explain mosquito blood sucking behavior and to identify novel targets for mosquito control. Anopheles sinensis is an Asiatic mosquito species which transmits malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, studies on chemosensory biology in female An. sinensis are quite lacking. Here we report a transcriptome analysis of An. sinensis female antennae pre- and post- blood meal. We created six An. sinensis antenna RNA-seq libraries, three from females without blood meal and three from females five hours after a blood meal. Illumina sequencing was conducted to analyze the transcriptome differences between the two groups. In total, the sequenced fragments created 21,643 genes, 1,828 of them were novel. 12,861 of these genes were considered to be expressed (FPKM >1.0) in at least one of the two groups, with 12,159 genes expressed in both groups. 548 genes were differentially expressed in the blood-fed group, with 331 genes up-regulated and 217 genes down-regulated. GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes suggested that there were no statistically over represented GO terms among down-regulated genes in blood-fed mosquitoes, while the enriched GO terms of the up-regulated genes occurred mainly in metabolic process. For the chemosensory gene families, a subtle distinction in the expression levels can be observed according to our statistical analysis. However, the firstly comprehensive identification of these chemosensory gene families in An. sinensis antennae will help to characterize the precise function of these proteins in odor recognition in mosquitoes. This study provides a first global view in the changes of transcript accumulation elicited by blood meal in An. sinensis female antennae.

  2. The antenna transcriptome changes in mosquito Anopheles sinensis, pre- and post- blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available Antenna is the main chemosensory organ in mosquitoes. Characterization of the transcriptional changes after blood meal, especially those related to chemoreception, may help to explain mosquito blood sucking behavior and to identify novel targets for mosquito control. Anopheles sinensis is an Asiatic mosquito species which transmits malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, studies on chemosensory biology in female An. sinensis are quite lacking. Here we report a transcriptome analysis of An. sinensis female antennae pre- and post- blood meal. We created six An. sinensis antenna RNA-seq libraries, three from females without blood meal and three from females five hours after a blood meal. Illumina sequencing was conducted to analyze the transcriptome differences between the two groups. In total, the sequenced fragments created 21,643 genes, 1,828 of them were novel. 12,861 of these genes were considered to be expressed (FPKM >1.0 in at least one of the two groups, with 12,159 genes expressed in both groups. 548 genes were differentially expressed in the blood-fed group, with 331 genes up-regulated and 217 genes down-regulated. GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes suggested that there were no statistically over represented GO terms among down-regulated genes in blood-fed mosquitoes, while the enriched GO terms of the up-regulated genes occurred mainly in metabolic process. For the chemosensory gene families, a subtle distinction in the expression levels can be observed according to our statistical analysis. However, the firstly comprehensive identification of these chemosensory gene families in An. sinensis antennae will help to characterize the precise function of these proteins in odor recognition in mosquitoes. This study provides a first global view in the changes of transcript accumulation elicited by blood meal in An. sinensis female antennae.

  3. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p pea treatment (p pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  4. Tick microbiome and pathogen acquisition altered by host blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Andrea; Kwan, Jessica Y

    2017-03-01

    Lyme disease, a zoonotic disease, is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Diversity of the vector (tick) microbiome can impact pathogen transmission, yet the biotic and abiotic factors that drive microbiome diversity are largely unresolved, especially under natural, field conditions. We describe the microbiome of Ixodes pacificus ticks, the vector for Lyme disease in the western United States, and show a strong impact of host blood meal identity on tick microbiome species richness and composition. Western fence lizards, a host that is refractory to the Lyme disease pathogen, significantly reduces microbiome diversity in ticks relative to ticks that feed on a mammalian reservoir host. Host blood meal-driven reduction of tick microbiome diversity may have lifelong repercussions on I. pacificus vector competency and ultimately disease dynamics.

  5. EFFECT OF DIETARY RAW CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) SEEDS REPLACEMENT GROUNDNUT MEAL, SESAME MEAL ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD CONSTITUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Algam; Kh.A. Abdel Atti; B.M. Dousa; S.M. Elawad; B.A. Atta Elmanan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chickpea seeds on performance and blood constituents of broilers. One hundred and twenty eight unsexed one day old (Ross) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (F0) containing 0% chickpea (control diet), diet (F1) 10% chickpea substitute same levels of sesame meal and groundnuts meal, diet (F2) 10% chickpea substitute from groundnuts meal only and diet (F3) ...

  6. Blood Meal Analysis to Identify Reservoir Hosts for Amblyomma americanum Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, Lisa S.; Storch, Gregory A.; Thach, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to identify wildlife reservoirs for tick-borne pathogens are frequently limited by poor understanding of tick–host interactions and potentially transient infectivity of hosts under natural conditions. To identify reservoir hosts for lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum)–associated pathogens, we used a novel technology. In field-collected ticks, we used PCR to amplify a portion of the 18S rRNA gene in remnant blood meal DNA. Reverse line blot hybridization with host-specific probes was then used to subsequently detect and identify amplified DNA. Although several other taxa of wildlife hosts contribute to tick infection rates, our results confirm that the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a reservoir host for several A. americanum–associated pathogens. Identification of host blood meal frequency and reservoir competence can help in determining human infection rates caused by these pathogens. PMID:20202418

  7. Differential outcomes of Zika virus infection in Aedes aegypti orally challenged with infectious blood meals and infectious protein meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lyons, Amy C; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2017-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures. The latter approach using so-called artificial blood meals is more frequently used since it is readily optimized to maximize viral titer, negates the use of animals and can be used with viruses for which there are no small animal models. Use of artificial blood meals has enabled numerous studies on mosquito infections with a wide variety of viruses; however, as described here, with suitable modification it can also be used to study the interplay between infection, specific blood components, and physiological consequences associated with blood engorgement. For hematophagous female mosquitoes, blood is the primary nutritional source supporting all physiological process including egg development, and also influences neurological processes and behaviors such as host-seeking. Interactions between these blood-driven vector biological processes and arbovirus infection that is mediated via blood engorgement have not yet been specifically studied. This is in part because presentation of virus in whole blood inevitably induces enzymatic digestion processes, hormone driven oogenesis, and other biological changes. In this study, the infection process of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes aegypti was characterized by oral exposure via viral suspension meals within minimally bovine serum albumin complemented medium or within whole blood. The use of bovine serum albumin in infectious meals provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of serum albumin during the process of flavivirus

  8. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.15 Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted...

  9. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  10. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae in central Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darine Slama

    Full Text Available To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%. The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  11. Detecting multiple DNA human profile from a mosquito blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Moura, R R; Brandão, L A C; Crovella, S

    2016-08-26

    Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals. We also determined the effect of blood acquisition time by setting time intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h after the blood meal. STR loci and amelogenin were analyzed, and the results showed that human DNA profiles could be obtained from hematophagous mosquitos at 24 h following the blood meal. It is possible that hematophagous mosquitoes can be used as biological remains at the scene of the crime, and can be used to detect human DNA profiles of up to four individuals.

  12. Effects of blood meal source on the reproduction of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Yost, Samantha A

    2012-06-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were fed blood meals from a live chicken (LC), chicken blood in Alsever's (AC) solution, defibrinated bovine blood (DB), or bovine blood in citrate (CB) and incubated at 28° C. The effects of different blood meal sources were evaluated with respect to rates of blood feeding and reproduction (i.e., fecundity and fertility) over two gonotrophic cycles. Mosquitoes that fed on the first blood meal were subjected to a second blood meal as follows (first blood meal / second blood meal): LC/LC, LC/DB, DB/DB, CB/CB, AC/AC. Fecundity and fertility of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were significantly (P blood; however, fecundity and fertility in different treatment groups varied by gonotrophic cycle. These results contribute to our understanding of the impact of blood meal source on feeding and reproduction in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. The potential impacts of blood meal source on virus transmission experiments are discussed. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas’ disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which hav...

  14. Detection of Theileria orientalis in mosquito blood meals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Marco, M; Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; Thorne, L; Phipps, L P; Nikolova, N I; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2016-10-15

    Theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. In this study, the utility of xenosurveillance of blood-fed specimens of Culiseta annulata for detecting the presence of piroplasms in livestock was investigated. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected at Elmley National Nature Reserve, Kent, United Kingdom. All specimens were morphologically identified, and DNA barcoding was used to confirm the morphological identification. Both the vertebrate host species and Theileria genome was detected within the bloodmeal by real-time PCR. Sequencing was used to confirm the identity of all amplicons. In total, 105 blood-fed mosquitoes morphologically identified as Cs. annulata were collected. DNA barcoding revealed that 102 specimens were Cs. annulata (99%), while a single specimen was identified as Anopheles messeae. Two specimens could not be identified molecularly due to PCR amplification failure. Blood meal analysis revealed that Cs. annulata fed almost exclusively on cattle at the collection site (n=100). The application of a pan-piroplasm PCR detected 16 positive samples (15.2%) and sequence analysis of the amplicons demonstrated that the piroplasms present in the blood meal belonged to the Theileria orientalis group. This study demonstrates how xenosurveillance can be applied to detecting pathogens in livestock and confirms the presence of Theileria species in livestock from the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of multiple blood meals on gonotrophic dissociation and fecundity in Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female Aedes albopictus blood fed on guinea pig and human hosts produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of eggs (80 and 82/female, respectively) than females fed on chicken (67 eggs/female). Fecundity in mosquitoes that took a double blood meal (chicken and guinea pig), a triple blood meal ...

  16. Effects of fish-meal, cow blood-meal, and sorghum diets on food utilization and growth of cage cultured Sarotherodon niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Ufodike, E.B.C.; Ugwuzor, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    The growth responses and feed utilization of Sarotherodon niloticus held in metal cages in a pond and fed diets containing fish-meal, cow blood-meal or sorghum was studied. Results indicate that the best growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio were obtained with the diet containing 60% fish-meal. The growth performance of fish on 40% fish-meal, and 40% and 60% blood meal were not significantly different, and were quite close to the performance with 60% fish-meal. The growth and f...

  17. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    sequencing from 242 (76%) out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The most common host species was the cow, which constituted 77% of the identified blood meals. The second most numerous host species was the common wood pigeon...

  18. Christophers’ stage durations and effect of interrupted blood meal in the mosquito Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carron A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Christophers’ stages durations and effect of interrupted blood meal were investigated in laboratory to study the gonotrophic cycle of Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771. A first experiment was done with replete females (full blood meal and females with an interrupted blood meal. Females were then regularly dissected, the durations of Christophers’ stages I, II, III, IV, V were up to 8, 8, 32, 8, 48 h, respectively. A second experiment was done with replete females, females with an interrupted blood meal and females with an interrupted blood meal completed 24 h later. Interrupted females matured 21 ± 5 follicles, interrupted-completed females 92 ± 11, and replete females 120 ± 8 follicles.

  19. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    Background and aims Metabolic syndrome (MetS)-features are increasingly seen in childhood. Healthy school meals may help prevent lifestyle diseases from childhood, but well-designed trials are lacking. Aims We investigated the effect of providing school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre...... not affect a composite MetS-score but reduced diastolic blood pressure -0.5 mmHg (95% CI -1.0;-0.0), total cholesterol -0.05 mmol/L (-0.08;-0.02) (P=0.001), HDL cholesterol -0.02 mmol/L (-0.03;-0.00), triglyceride -0.02 mmol/L (-0.04;-0.00) (both P... and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  20. Molecular identification of Plasmodium spp. and blood meal sources of anophelines in environmental reserves on São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Di Santi, Silvia Maria; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-04-26

    Considering the diversity of feeding habits that females of some species of anophelines present, it is important to understand which vertebrates are part of blood food sources and how important is the role of each in the ecoepidemiology of malaria. There are many vector species for Plasmodium spp. in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. In São Luís Island, Anopheles aquasalis is the main vector for human malaria; this species is abundant in areas with primates that are positive for Plasmodium. Anopheles aquasalis has natural exophilic and zoophilic feeding behavior, but in cases of high density and absence of animals, presents quite varied behavior, and feeds on human blood. In this context, the objective of the present study was to identify Plasmodium spp. and the blood meal sources of anophelines in two environmental reserves on São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, using molecular methods. Between June and July 2013, female anophelines were collected in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve, in the municipality of São José de Ribamar, and in the Sítio Mangalho Reserve, located within the Maracanã Environmental Protection Area, in the municipality of São Luís. CDC-type light traps, Shannon traps and protected human bait were used during three consecutive hours in peridomestic and wooded areas. Pools of anophelines were formed using mosquitoes of the same species that had been caught at the same site on the same date. A genus-specific amplification protocol based on the 18S rRNA gene was used for qPCR and cPCR. A total of 416 anophelines were collected, of the following species: An. aquasalis (399), An. mediopunctatus (3), An. shannoni (1), An. nuneztovari (sensu lato) (1), An. goeldii (1), An. evansae (2) and An. (Nyssorhynchus) sp. (9), comprising 54 pools. Two pools were positive for Plasmodium (2/54) based on the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood method, based on a 240 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene, it was found that

  1. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  2. Second-meal effects of pulses on blood glucose and subjective appetite following a standardized meal 2 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p < 0.05). Following the meal, BG was lower after lentils and chickpeas at 150 and 165 min, and AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05).

  3. Evaluation and utilization of blood meal diets by weaner pigs reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects on growth and cost benefits of substituting soybean meal (SBM) with blood meal (BM) in diets of weaner pigs. Possible pathogenic bacteria contamination and nutritional contents of the BM were determined prior to feed formulation. Four weaner diets (A, B, C, and D) were formulated such ...

  4. Cassava Peel – Blood Meal Mixtures in Rabbit Buck Diets: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ash-treated (ATD), parboiled (PAB), and sun-dried (SUD) cassava peel meal combined with blood meal (mixture) in the ratio of 3: 2 on the performance of sixty cross – bred (New Zealand white X Chinchilla) male weaner rabbits. There were ten dietary treatment ...

  5. Host blood meals and chromosomal inversion polymorphism in Anopheles arabiensis in the Baringo District of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnzava, A E; Mutinga, M J; Staak, C

    1994-12-01

    Studies were carried out in the villages of Kapkuikui and Maji-Ndege in the Loboi area of Baringo District, Kenya, to obtain baseline data on species identification of the Anopheles gambiae group, their feeding and resting behavior, and their frequencies of chromosomal inversions. This was carried out towards predicting the effect of introducing permethrin-impregnated cloths or other intervention measures. In this study, Anopheles arabiensis was identified as the only species of the An. gambiae group. This species contained 2 inversions, 2Rb and 3Ra, occurring at frequencies ranging from 55 to 60%, and from 5 to 11%, respectively. There was no evidence for nonrandom mating. Indoor- and outdoor-collected samples were significantly different in respect of inversion 3Ra in one village and in the distribution of the different sources of blood meals in both areas. In these villages, 37% of indoor-resting mosquitoes fed outside before entering houses to rest.

  6. Meal-induced blood pressure fall in patients with isolated morning hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barochiner, Jessica; Alfie, José; Aparicio, Lucas S; Cuffaro, Paula E; Rada, Marcelo A; Morales, Margarita S; Galarza, Carlos R; Marín, Marcos J; Waisman, Gabriel D

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine a possible association between isolated morning hypertension (IMH) and meal-induced blood pressure (BP) fall in adult treated hypertensive patients who underwent home BP measurements. A total of 230 patients were included, median age 73.6, 65.2% women. After adjusting for age, sex, number of antihypertensive drugs, office and home BP levels, the association between IMH and meal-induced BP fall was statistically significant. In conclusion, meal-induced BP fall and IMH detected through home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) are independently associated in hypertensive patients. The therapeutic implications of such observation need to be clarified in large-scale prospective studies.

  7. Effects of meal ingestion on blood pressure and regional hemodynamic responses after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masako Yamaoka; Fujihara, Chizuko; Miura, Akira; Kashima, Hideaki; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the combined effects of consuming a meal during postexercise hypotension (PEH) on hemodynamics. Nine healthy young male subjects performed each of three trials in random order: 1) cycling at 50% of heart rate reserve for 60 min, 2) oral ingestion of a carbohydrate liquid meal (75 g glucose), or 3) carbohydrate ingestion at 40 min after cycling exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and blood flow in the superior mesenteric (SMA), brachial, and popliteal arteries were measured continuously before and after each trial. Regional vascular conductance (VC) was calculated as blood flow/mean arterial pressure. Blood pressure decreased relative to baseline values (P < 0.05) after exercise cessation. Blood flow and VC in the calf and arm increased after exercise, whereas blood flow and VC in the SMA did not. Blood pressure did not change after meal ingestion; however, blood flow and VC significantly decreased in the brachial and popliteal arteries and increased in the SMA for 120 min after the meal (P < 0.05). When the meal was ingested during PEH, blood pressure decreased below PEH levels and remained decreased for 40 min before returning to postexercise levels. The sustained increase in blood flow and VC in the limbs after exercise was reduced to baseline resting levels immediately after the meal, postprandial cardiac output was unchanged by the increased blood flow in the SMA, and total VC and SMA VC increased. Healthy young subjects can suppress severe hypotension by vasoconstriction of the limbs even when carbohydrate is ingested during PEH. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. The evolution of purinergic receptors involved in recognition of a blood meal by hematophagous insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Galun

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Many blood feeders use adenine nucleotides as cues for locating blood meal. Structure-activity relationship of adenine nucleotides as phagostimulants varies between closely-related species of blood feeders. It is suggested that a preexisting diverse pool of nucleotide-binding proteins present in all living cells, serves as a source of receptor proteins for the gustatory receptors involved in blood detection. It is proposed that the selection of any such nucleotide-binding protein is random.

  9. Triatoma sanguisuga blood meals and potential for Chagas disease, Louisiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleckx, Etienne; Suarez, Julianne; Richards, Bethany; Dorn, Patricia L

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate human risk for Chagas disease, we molecularly identified blood meal sources and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among 49 Triatoma sanguisuga kissing bugs in Louisiana, USA. Humans accounted for the second most frequent blood source. Of the bugs that fed on humans, ≈40% were infected with T. cruzi, revealing transmission potential.

  10. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys, and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme, which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting.

  11. Association between meal frequency with anthropometric measures and blood pressure in Iranian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Zeinab; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Zahedi, Hoda; Motlagh, Mohammad E; Ardalan, Gelayol; Shafiee, Gita; Asayesh, Hamid; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-07-08

    This study aimed to assess the association of meal frequency with anthropometric measures and blood pressure in Iranian children and adolescents. In this national survey, 14,880 students with 6-18 years of age were selected by stratified multistage sampling method from urban and rural regions of 30 provinces of Iran. Meal frequency was assessed by a questionnaire prepared based on global school-based student health survey .Physical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The participation rate was 90.6% including 49.24% girls and 75.5% urban residents. Skipping breakfast and dinner were more frequent in girls than in boys (71.6% vs. 64.1%, 91.2% vs. 86.9%, respectively, P0.05). Students who had very low intake and 1 meal per week had more risk of abdominal obesity compared with those who had 3 meals (OR 1.7, CI 95%: 1.3-2.3, and OR 1.6, CI 95%: 1.4-2.0, respectively). An inverse significant association between higher meal frequency and anthropometric indices was observed. Therefore, encouraging children and adolescents for regular meal intake should be considered as a health priority in the pediatric population.

  12. Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2 was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days, the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

  13. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P meal, while creatinine was higher (P meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Effects of meal and incretins in the regulation of splanchnic blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffert, Jukka; Honka, Henri; Teuho, Jarmo; Kauhanen, Saila; Hurme, Saija; Parkkola, Riitta; Oikonen, Vesa; Mari, Andrea; Lindqvist, Andreas; Wierup, Nils; Groop, Leif; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2017-04-01

    Meal ingestion is followed by a redistribution of blood flow (BF) within the splanchnic region contributing to nutrient absorption, insulin secretion and glucose disposal, but factors regulating this phenomenon in humans are poorly known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the organ-specific changes in BF during a mixed-meal and incretin infusions. A non-randomized intervention study of 10 healthy adults to study splanchnic BF regulation was performed. Effects of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) infusions and mixed-meal were tested in 10 healthy, glucose tolerant subjects using PET-MRI multimodal imaging technology. Intestinal and pancreatic BF and blood volume (BV) were measured with 15 O-water and 15 O-carbon monoxide, respectively. Ingestion of a mixed-meal led to an increase in pancreatic and jejunal BF, whereas duodenal BF was unchanged. Infusion of GIP and GLP-1 reduced BF in the pancreas. However, GIP infusion doubled blood flow in the jejunum with no effect of GLP-1. Together, our data suggest that meal ingestion leads to increases in pancreatic BF accompanied by a GIP-mediated increase in jejunal but not duodenal blood flow. © 2017 The authors.

  15. Effects of meal and incretins in the regulation of splanchnic blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Koffert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Meal ingestion is followed by a redistribution of blood flow (BF within the splanchnic region contributing to nutrient absorption, insulin secretion and glucose disposal, but factors regulating this phenomenon in humans are poorly known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the organ-specific changes in BF during a mixed-meal and incretin infusions. Design: A non-randomized intervention study of 10 healthy adults to study splanchnic BF regulation was performed. Methods: Effects of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 infusions and mixed-meal were tested in 10 healthy, glucose tolerant subjects using PET-MRI multimodal imaging technology. Intestinal and pancreatic BF and blood volume (BV were measured with 15O-water and 15O-carbon monoxide, respectively. Results: Ingestion of a mixed-meal led to an increase in pancreatic and jejunal BF, whereas duodenal BF was unchanged. Infusion of GIP and GLP-1 reduced BF in the pancreas. However, GIP infusion doubled blood flow in the jejunum with no effect of GLP-1. Conclusion: Together, our data suggest that meal ingestion leads to increases in pancreatic BF accompanied by a GIP-mediated increase in jejunal but not duodenal blood flow.

  16. Blood biochemical parameters of broilers fed differently thermal processed soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Nahavandinejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A 42-days feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the influences of differently thermal processed soybean meal on the broilers blood biochemical parameters. Materials and methods. A total of 200 male birds of Ross strain were allocated into five different diets formulated using differently heat-treated soybean meals, with ten birds per treatment and per replicate. Diets contained: raw soybean (controls, autoclaved for a short (121°C, 20 min; Aut1 group or medium length period (121°C, 30 min; Aut2 group soybean meal, micro-waved soybean meal (46°C, 540 Watt, 7 min; McW group and browned soybean meal (120°C, 20 min; Brn group. Results. Blood serum metabolites showed that all treated diets presented lower lipid metabolism makers and higher protein metabolism markers. Broilers showed increased final body weight when fed heat-treated meals compared with control. Results suggested that thermal treatments altered the lipid metabolism in broilers that might originate a decrease in abdominal fat deposition. Conclusions. Comparison of the results for all the treated groups showed the Aut2 treatment is the most suitable method for soybean thermal treatment processing; in contrast, the Aut1 treatment had the closest results to the control group.

  17. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas' disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Angela B; Nachman, Ronald J; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which have been shown to play a role in the control of feeding in a variety of insects. In this study, two biostable Aib-containing kinin analogs were tested to see if they interfere with blood-feeding and subsequent development into the next instar. One of the analogs, 1729 (Ac-R[Aib]FF[Aib]WGa), had no effect on the size of the blood meal or on the subsequent molting of the insect into the next instar. This analog also did not interfere with either short-term or long-term diuresis. The second analog, 1728 ([Aib]FF[Aib]WGa), appeared to be an antifeedant. Insects feeding on blood containing this analog (15μM) only consumed 60% of the blood meal taken by insects fed on blood without analog. Insects feeding on blood containing 1728 had a slower rate of rapid diuresis (diuresis in the first 3-5h after feeding) leading to less urine being excreted by 5days post feeding. The consequence of these effects was that insects fed on 1728 did not molt. This data indicates that the biostable Aib-containing analog 1728 disrupts normal growth and development in the blood-feeding insect, R. prolixus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolomics of the tick-Borrelia interaction during the nymphal tick blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxmeier, J Charles; Fleshman, Amy C; Broeckling, Corey D; Prenni, Jessica E; Dolan, Marc C; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Lars

    2017-03-13

    The causal agents of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, are transmitted primarily by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Due to their limited metabolic capacity, spirochetes rely on the tick blood meal for nutrients and metabolic intermediates while residing in the tick vector, competing with the tick for nutrients in the blood meal. Metabolomics is an effective methodology to explore dynamics of spirochete survival and multiplication in tick vectors before transmission to a vertebrate host via tick saliva. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we identified statistically significant differences in the metabolic profile among uninfected I. scapularis nymphal ticks, B. burgdorferi-infected nymphal ticks and B. mayonii-infected nymphal ticks by measuring metabolism every 24 hours over the course of their up to 96 hour blood meals. Specifically, differences in the abundance of purines, amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids during the blood meal among the three groups of nymphal ticks suggest that B. mayonii and B. burgdorferi may have different metabolic capabilities, especially during later stages of nymphal feeding. Understanding mechanisms underlying variable metabolic requirements of different Lyme disease spirochetes within tick vectors could potentially aid development of novel methods to control spirochete transmission.

  20. Meal-induced compositional changes in blood and saliva in persons with bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Astrup, Arne

    2008-01-01

    in controls before and after intake of a meal and whether these changes may be reflected in saliva. Design: Twenty women with bulimia nervosa and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects ate a standardized carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Whole saliva and blood...

  1. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor VII in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Aage K; Bladbjerg, Else M; Hansen, Axel K

    2002-01-01

    In humans, high fat meals cause postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), but human studies have not provided definite evidence for a prothrombotic effect of dietary FVII activation. An animal model would be an attractive way to pursue this question and therefore we tested...

  2. comparison of two blood meal preservation methods for use in elisa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect specimens are primarily preserved in three ways for blood meal. identification (Weitz, 1956; Boreham, ... first group, tsetse were air dried and kept in vials, in the other group the gut contents were smeared on filter papers. .... Bloodmeal identification by direct enzyme-linked immuno- sorbent assay (ELBA), tested on ...

  3. Meal-induced changes in splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake in middle-aged healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L; Søndergaard, Susanne B; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: For decades, the determination of changes in splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake after a meal has been used in the management of patients with suspected chronic intestinal ischaemia. However, little is known about the normal meal-induced responses. The aim of the present study...... was therefore to measure the splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake before and after a standardized meal in a group of middle-aged normal volunteers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake were determined at baseline and after a 3600-kJ mixed meal in 8 healthy women (50-70 years) and 10...... healthy men (52-76 years). Splanchnic blood flow was measured during hepatic vein catheterization by indirect Fick principle with indocyanine green as the indicator. Splanchnic oxygen uptake was calculated from splanchnic blood flow and the arteriovenous oxygen difference. RESULTS: The meal induced...

  4. Blood meal acquisition enhances arbovirus replication in mosquitoes through activation of the GABAergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yibin; Zhang, Rudian; Zhang, Bei; Zhao, Tongyan; Wang, Penghua; Liang, Guodong; Cheng, Gong

    2017-11-02

    Mosquitoes are hematophagous insects that carry-on and transmit many human viruses. However, little information is available regarding the common mechanisms underlying the infection of mosquitoes by these viruses. In this study, we reveal that the hematophagous nature of mosquitoes contributes to arboviral infection after a blood meal, which suppresses antiviral innate immunity by activating the GABAergic pathway. dsRNA-mediated interruption of the GABA signaling and blockage of the GABA A receptor by the specific inhibitors both significantly impaired arbovirus replication. Consistently, inoculation of GABA enhanced arboviral infection, indicating that GABA signaling facilitates the arboviral infection of mosquitoes. The ingestion of blood by mosquitoes resulted in robust GABA production from glutamic acid derived from blood protein digestion. The oral introduction of glutamic acid increased virus acquisition by mosquitoes via activation of the GABAergic system. Our study reveals that blood meals enhance arbovirus replication in mosquitoes through activation of the GABAergic system.

  5. Association between meal intake behavior and blood pressure in Spanish adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, Margarita

    2017-06-05

    Eating frequency has been suggested to modify blood pressure. Yet, the results are inconclusive, possibly because eating frequency, particularly meal intake behavior (MIB), does not differentiate between meals and snacks. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the association between more specific MIBs, like the consumption of the three main meals, the intake of forenoon and afternoon meals and snacking between the regular meals, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP). This cross-sectional study includes 1,314 Spanish adults aged 20-79 years. Data collection occurred during cardiovascular health day events organized in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the independent association between the mentioned MIBs and SBP/DBP, controlling for several confounders in multiples models. After adjusting for sex, age and individual risk factors, having an afternoon meal was associated with lower SBP (ß -3.91, 95% CI [-6.33, -1.49]) and DBP (ß -2.35, 95% CI [-3.76, -0.94]). This association was attenuated when introducing dietary intake and waist circumference in the predictive models (SBP: ß -2.83, 95% CI [-5.25, -0.40]; DBP: ß -1.67, 95% CI [-3.04, -0.31]), although it still remained significant. None of the other investigated MIBs showed any associations with SBP/DBP. This study suggests that SBP/DBP might be reduced by the intake of an afternoon meal. However, population-based prospective studies are needed in order to confirm the consequences of the investigated associations on health.

  6. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Erik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43% and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%. Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when provided in both small and large meals. The same was true for the serum glucose response but only in large meals. Glycemic load was useful in predicting the acute impact on blood glucose and insulin responses within the context of mixed meals.

  7. Effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with blood meal (BM) on biochemical profile of pregnant pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abonyi, Festus Otaka; Machebe, Ndubuisi Samuel; Ezea, Michael Sunday; Eze, James I; Omeke, Benjamin Chigozie; Marire, Benjamin Nwabueze

    2013-04-01

    Twenty-four Large White × Landrace crossbreed primigravid pigs, aged 7.50 to 8.00 months weighing between 86.15 and 88.24 kg were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of soya bean meal (SBM) replaced blood meal (BM) diets on serum biochemical profile in gestating pigs. The pigs were randomly allotted to four finisher diets formulated such that BM replaced SBM at 0.0, 50.0, 75.0 and 100.0 %, respectively. The diets were T1 (100.0 % SBM, 0.0 % BM), T2 (50.0 % SBM, 50.0 % BM), T3 (25.0 % SBM, 75.0 % BM) and T4 (0.0 % SBM, 100.0 % BM). Individual animal's daily ration of the test diets was 2.20, 2.00 and 2.50 kg at stages one, two and three of gestation. Blood sampling and analysis for the effects of the test diets on biochemical profile of the experimental animals were carried out prior to conception, at weeks 3, 7 and 11 of gestation, respectively. The result showed no significant (P ≥ 0.05) dietary treatment effects on total protein, albumin, globulin fraction, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea profile of the pigs fed with BM diets when compared to the control fed with 100.0 % SBM. There was however a significant (P ≤ 0.05) variation in these biochemical indices in all the experimental groups at different stages of gestation. It was concluded that BM can replace 100.0 % of SBM in the diets of pregnant pigs in the tropical humid environment without any deleterious effect on their health.

  8. Transient influence of blood meal and natural environment on blacklegged tick bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnik, Christine P; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2018-03-01

    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) spend the majority of their life cycle off host, typically in woodland habitat, but require a blood meal at each of three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) to reach maturity and reproduce. Blood feeding usually lasts for several days each time and as blood is imbibed, a range of known pathogens from the host may also be acquired. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we examined the influence of host blood meal on the internal bacterial community within nymphal blacklegged ticks across host-seeking, feeding, blood meal digestion, and after molting into the adult stage. Results demonstrate bacterial community structuring across host and ticks with 287 taxa found exclusively in ticks, suggesting the field environment plays a significant role in shaping the internal tick microbiome. A decrease in bacterial diversity was noted from unfed nymphs through feeding/digestion and after molting into adults, suggesting that bacterial species are lost during the corresponding physiological changes. The similarity in biochemical pathways across the different tick categories suggests that the loss of bacterial taxa does not mirror a large change in microbial function. Ticks likely lose bacterial taxa after feeding, but continual exposure to bacteria from the field environment counters this loss. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of repeated NeemAzal-treated blood meals on the fitness of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Edson G; Abay, Solomon M; Dahiya, Nisha; Ogboi, Johnbull S; Christophides, George K; Lupidi, Giulio; Chianese, Giuseppina; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Habluetzel, Annette

    2015-02-10

    Herbal remedies are widely used in many malaria endemic countries to treat patients, in particular in the absence of anti-malarial drugs and in some settings to prevent the disease. Herbal medicines may be specifically designed for prophylaxis and/or for blocking malaria transmission to benefit both, the individual consumer and the community at large. Neem represents a good candidate for this purpose due to its inhibitory effects on the parasite stages that cause the clinical manifestations of malaria and on those responsible for infection in the vector. Furthermore, neem secondary metabolites have been shown to interfere with various physiological processes in insect vectors. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of the standardised neem extract NeemAzal on the fitness of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi following repeated exposure to the product through consecutive blood meals on treated mice. Batches of An. stephensi mosquitoes were offered 5 consecutive blood meals on female BALB/c mice treated with NeemAzal at an azadirachtin A concentration of 60, 105 or 150 mg/kg. The blood feeding capacity was estimated by measuring the haematin content of the rectal fluid excreted by the mosquitoes during feeding. The number of eggs laid was estimated by image analysis and their hatchability assessed by direct observations. A dose and frequency dependent impact of NeemAzal treatment on the mosquito feeding capacity, oviposition and egg hatchability was demonstrated. In the 150 mg/kg treatment group, the mosquito feeding capacity was reduced by 50% already at the second blood meal and by 50 to 80% in all treatment groups at the fifth blood meal. Consequently, a 50 - 65% reduction in the number of eggs laid per female mosquito was observed after the fifth blood meal in all treatment groups. Similarly, after the fifth treated blood meal exposure, hatchability was found to be reduced by 62% and 70% in the 105 and 150 mg/kg group respectively. The findings of

  10. Sources of blood meals of sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, assayed with qPCR and 12S cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Lucero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps. Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia.We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens, five for chicken (Gallus gallus and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus, and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica. Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors, and human (14 vectors blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors.We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors.

  11. Sources of Blood Meals of Sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, Assayed with qPCR and 12S Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, David E.; Ribera, Wilma; Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Plaza, Carlos; Gordon, Levi W.; Peña, Reynaldo; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Stevens, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps). Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methodology/Principal Findings We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens), five for chicken (Gallus gallus) and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus), and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors), and human (14 vectors) blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors). Conclusions/Significance We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors. PMID:25474154

  12. Sources of blood meals of sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, assayed with qPCR and 12S cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, David E; Ribera, Wilma; Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Plaza, Carlos; Gordon, Levi W; Peña, Reynaldo; Morrissey, Leslie A; Rizzo, Donna M; Stevens, Lori

    2014-12-01

    In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps). Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens), five for chicken (Gallus gallus) and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus), and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors), and human (14 vectors) blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors). We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors.

  13. A novel pathogenic Mammalian orthoreovirus from diarrheic pigs and Swine blood meal in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmasandra Narayanappa, Athmaram; Sooryanarain, Harini; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Cao, Dianjun; Ammayappan Venkatachalam, Backiyalakshmi; Kambiranda, Devaiah; LeRoith, Tanya; Heffron, Connie Lynn; Lindstrom, Nicole; Hall, Karen; Jobst, Peter; Sexton, Cary; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2015-05-19

    Since May 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea have devastated the U.S. swine industry, causing immense economic losses. Two different swine enteric coronaviruses (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Delta coronavirus) have been isolated from the affected swine population. The disease has been reported from at least 32 states of the United States and other countries, including Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, and Ukraine, with repeated outbreaks in previously infected herds. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from diarrheic feces of piglets from these outbreaks in three states and ring-dried swine blood meal from multiple sources. MRV3 could not be isolated from healthy or pigs that had recovered from epidemic diarrhea from four states. Several MRV3 isolates were obtained from chloroform-extracted pig feces or blood meal in cell cultures or developing chicken embryos. Biological characterization of two representative isolates revealed trypsin resistance and thermostability at 90°C. NextGen sequencing of ultrapurified viruses indicated a strong homology of the S1 segment to mammalian and bat MRV3. Neonatal piglets experimentally infected with these viruses or a chloroform extract of swine blood meal developed severe diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis with 100% mortality within 3 days postinfection. Therefore, the novel porcine MRV3 may contribute to enteric disease along with other swine enteric viruses. The role of MRV3 in the current outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in the United States remains to be determined, but the pathogenic nature of the virus warrants further investigations on its epidemiology and prevalence. Porcine orthoreoviruses causing diarrhea have been reported in China and Korea but not in the United States. We have isolated and characterized two pathogenic reassortant MRV3 isolates from swine fecal samples from porcine epidemic diarrhea outbreaks

  14. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  15. Silencing an Anopheles gambiae Catalase and Sulfhydryl Oxidase Increases Mosquito Mortality After a Blood Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, T.; Brackney, D.E.; Beier, J.C.; Foy, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Catalase is a potent antioxidant, likely involved in post-blood meal homeostasis in mosquitoes. This enzyme breaks down H2O2, preventing the formation of the hydroxyl radical (HO•). Quiescins are newly classified sulfhydryl oxidases that bear a thioredoxin motif at the N-terminal and an ERV1-like portion at the C-terminal. These proteins have a major role in generating disulfides in intra- or extracellular environments, and thus participate in redox reactions. In the search for molecules to serve as targets for novel anti-mosquito strategies, we have silenced a catalase and a putative quiescin/sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX), from the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, through RNA interference (RNAi) experiments. We observed that the survival of catalase- and QSOX-silenced insects was reduced over controls following blood digestion, most likely due to the compromised ability of mosquitoes to scavenge and/or prevent damage caused by blood meal-derived oxidative stress. The higher mortality effect was more accentuated in catalase-silenced mosquitoes, where catalase activity was reduced to low levels. Lipid peroxidation was higher in QSOX-silenced mosquitoes suggesting the involvement of this protein in redox homeostasis following a blood meal. This study points to the potential of molecules involved in antioxidant response and redox metabolism to serve as targets of novel anti-mosquito strategies and offers a screening methodology for finding targetable mosquito molecules. PMID:18454489

  16. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise F; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters. PMID:17996082

  17. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, José; Aguirre, Carolina; Díaz, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i) to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii) to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2) were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43%) and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%). Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g) were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC) over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p < 0.05), however, for the serum glucose response in small meals this was not significant (p = 0.38). Calculated meal glycemic load was associated with 2 and 5 h serum glucose (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) and insulin (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) incremental and total AUC. In fact, when comparing the two meals with similar glycemic load but differing carbohydrate amount and type, very similar serum glucose and insulin responses were found. No differences were observed for serum free-fatty acids and glucagon profile in response to meal glycemic index. Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when

  18. Blood glucose and insulin levels in normal subjects following a meal with and without added sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredger, J; Sheard, C; Marks, V

    1981-09-01

    The fibrous components of sugar beet pulp were investigated to determine whether they would reduce the post-prandial rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels when incorporated into a mixed meal. On two separate occasions six healthy volunteers were given either a control meal (providing 86 g carbohydrate) or an identical meal with the addition of 20 g sugar beet pulp (test meal). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured post-prandially for 3 hours. There was no significant difference between the mean blood glucose of plasma insulin curves at any time after the two meals. Since viscous types of dietary fibers are known to be effective in reducing post-prandial hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia, it would seem that either the physio-chemical nature of the fibre or the procedure employed to extract the sugar renders the particulate fibre inactive.

  19. Leukocytes in a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal reduce transmission of malaria to Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensen, A H; Bolmer-Van de Vegte, M; van Gemert, G J; Eling, W M; Sauerwein, R W

    1997-01-01

    Mosquitoes are infected with Plasmodium falciparum by taking a blood meal from a gametocyte carrier. Since a mosquito takes a volume of 1 to 2 microl, a blood meal may contain 1 x 10(4) to 3 x 10(4) leukocytes (WBC). The majority of WBC are composed of neutrophils which may phagocytose and kill developing gametes inside the mosquito midgut. Phagocytosis was measured in vitro by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay. In the presence of P. falciparum gametes, sera from areas of endemicity had an increased CL response compared to controls. In mosquito membrane feeding experiments some such sera showed a transmission reduction which was related to the presence of viable WBC. The results of this study suggest that phagocytosis of opsonized gametes inside the mosquito midgut occurs and can contribute to a reduction in the transmission of P. falciparum parasites. PMID:9284160

  20. FERMENTED BLOOD MEAL USE FOR TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus GROW-OUT DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the optimal level of fermented blood meal used in grow-out diets for tiger grouper, as an alternative protein source to fish meal. Juvenile tiger grouper, initial weight 31.1 ± 2.1 g, were stocked into 1 m x 1 m x 2 m floating net cages at 20 fish cage-1. The treatment applied was isoprotein and isocaloric diets formulated to contain fermented blood meal (FBM of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% replacement of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to the fish twice a day to satiation for 20 weeks. Based on the Tukey test, the fish fed 0%–15.0% FBM demonstrated similar performance (P>0.05 to those fed the control diet (FBM0 in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed and protein efficiency. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency of the fish fed 22.5%–30.5% FBM were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of the fish fed control diet (FBM0. However, there was a significant culvilinier decliner in overall fish performance with increasing inclusion of FPM and most notable for weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption. Based on regression analysis, the asymptote where fish growth deteriorates as a function of FBM inclusion was determined to be 8.9%. Tiger grouper diets incorporating up to 9% FBM as fish meal replacement had no adverse affects on fish growth and survival.

  1. Engineering blood meal-activated systemic immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoza, Vladimir; Ahmed, Abduelaziz; Cho, Wen-Long; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Raikhel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Progress in molecular genetics makes possible the development of alternative disease control strategies that target the competence of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens. We tested the regulatory region of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene of Aedes aegypti for its ability to express potential antipathogen factors in transgenic mosquitoes. Hermes-mediated transformation was used to integrate a 2.1-kb Vg-promoter fragment driving the expression of the Defensin A (DefA) coding region, one of the major insect immune factors. PCR amplification of genomic DNA and Southern blot analyses, carried out through the ninth generation, showed that the Vg-DefA transgene insertion was stable. The Vg-DefA transgene was strongly activated in the fat body by a blood meal. The mRNA levels reached a maximum at 24-h postblood meal, corresponding to the peak expression time of the endogenous Vg gene. High levels of transgenic defensin were accumulated in the hemolymph of bloodfed female mosquitoes, persisting for 20–22 days after a single blood feeding. Purified transgenic defensin showed antibacterial activity comparable to that of defensin isolated from bacterially challenged control mosquitoes. Thus, we have been able to engineer the genetically stable transgenic mosquito with an element of systemic immunity, which is activated through the blood meal-triggered cascade rather than by infection. This work represents a significant step toward the development of molecular genetic approaches to the control of vector competence in pathogen transmission. PMID:10908672

  2. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal. Subjects/Methods: Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 23 overweight or obese individuals (body mass index ⩾25 kg m−2) performed: walking exercise (90 min) at 1800 h followed by no meal (EX); exercise followed by a meal with LGI carbohydrates (that is, lentils, EX-LGI); exercise followed by a meal with HGI carbohydrates (that is, instant potatoes, white bread, EX-HGI); and a control condition with no exercise or meal. After a 10-h overnight fast, participants were given a standardized high-fat meal. Fat oxidation was estimated before and for 6 h after this meal from respiratory gas measures and TG determined from blood samples. Results: Fat oxidation (mean±s.d.) was higher with EX (6.9±1.7 g h−1) than EX-HGI (6.3±1.6 g h−1; P=0.007) and Control (5.9±1.7 g h−1; P=0.00002), and EX-LGI (6.6±1.7 g h−1) was higher than Control (P=0.002). TG total area under the curve was 18–32% lower with EX and EX-LGI compared with control (P=0.0005 and P=0.0001, respectively) and EX-HGI (P=0.05 and P=0.021, respectively). Conclusions: A meal containing HGI carbohydrates consumed after an evening exercise session cancels the beneficial effect of exercise for stimulating fat oxidation and lowering TG after a subsequent high-fat meal, whereas consuming a post-exercise meal with LGI carbohydrates retains the positive effect of exercise. PMID:27376698

  3. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-07-04

    Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal. Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 23 overweight or obese individuals (body mass index ⩾25 kg m(-2)) performed: walking exercise (90 min) at 1800 h followed by no meal (EX); exercise followed by a meal with LGI carbohydrates (that is, lentils, EX-LGI); exercise followed by a meal with HGI carbohydrates (that is, instant potatoes, white bread, EX-HGI); and a control condition with no exercise or meal. After a 10-h overnight fast, participants were given a standardized high-fat meal. Fat oxidation was estimated before and for 6 h after this meal from respiratory gas measures and TG determined from blood samples. Fat oxidation (mean±s.d.) was higher with EX (6.9±1.7 g h(-1)) than EX-HGI (6.3±1.6 g h(-1); P=0.007) and Control (5.9±1.7 g h(-1); P=0.00002), and EX-LGI (6.6±1.7 g h(-1)) was higher than Control (P=0.002). TG total area under the curve was 18-32% lower with EX and EX-LGI compared with control (P=0.0005 and P=0.0001, respectively) and EX-HGI (P=0.05 and P=0.021, respectively). A meal containing HGI carbohydrates consumed after an evening exercise session cancels the beneficial effect of exercise for stimulating fat oxidation and lowering TG after a subsequent high-fat meal, whereas consuming a post-exercise meal with LGI carbohydrates retains the positive effect of exercise.

  4. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  5. Liver stiffness and portal blood flow modifications induced by a liquid meal consumption: pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Michele; Iannone, Andrea; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Sebastiani, Francesco; Cecere, Onofrio; Berardi, Elsa; Antonica, Gianfranco; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    The correlation between liver stiffness (LS) variations and portal blood flow (PBF) modifications induced by a standardized liquid meal consumption and the clinical relevance of this matter are two aspects not yet fully elucidated. Herein, we evaluated the variations of LS and PBF after a standardized liquid meal intake in patients with chronic liver disease. PBF and LS were determined after an overnight fasting period in 54 patients. They were divided in three groups according to baseline LS (absent, moderate, and severe). They consumed 200 ml of water and a standardized liquid meal (300 Kcal/200 ml) after 60 min. PBF and LS were measured at 30 min after water and liquid meal consumption. In all groups, LS and PBF values significantly increased only after meal consumption. A significant correlation between baseline LS values and post-meal increase of LS was observed. Moreover, higher basal stiffness values were associated to a larger increase of LS variation after meal consumption. The effect of the meal on LS remained statistically significant after multiple regression analysis. A significant correlation between increase of LS and PBF was found in patients with absent and moderate baseline LS. Nine patients (17%) switched from a lower to a higher level of LS after meal consumption. A low calories/low-volume meal is capable of significantly increasing LS regardless of the grade of stiffness, determining a reclassification rate of 17%. In presence of minimal or moderate stiffness, the increase of LS is significantly correlated with the augment of PBF.

  6. A New Method for Forensic DNA Analysis of the Blood Meal in Chagas Disease Vectors Demonstrated Using Triatoma infestans from Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Background Feeding patterns of the vector are important in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, the leading cause of heart disease in Latin America. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite, Trypanasoma cruzi, which is transmitted by blood feeding insects. Historically, feeding behaviours of haematophagous insects have been investigated using serological reactions, which have detection limits in terms of both taxonomic resolution, and quantity and quality of the blood meal. They are labor intensive, require technical expertise, need fresh or frozen samples and antibodies often are either not available commercially or the resources for synthesis and purification are not available. We describe an assay to identify vertebrate blood meal sources, and the parasite T. cruzi using species-specific PCR assays from insect vectors and use the method to provide information regarding three questions: (1) Do domestic and peri-domestic (chicken coop and animal corral) habitats vary in the blood meals detected in the vectors? (2) What is the pattern of multiple blood meals? (3) Does the rate of T. cruzi infection vary among habitats and is it associated with specific blood meal types? Methodology/Principal Findings Assays based on the polymerase chain reaction were evaluated for identification of the blood meal source in the heamatophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. We evaluate a technique to identify 11 potential vertebrate food sources from the complex mixture extracted from the vector's abdomen. We tested the assay on 81 T. infestans specimens collected from the Andean highlands in the department of Chuquisaca, located in central Bolivia, one of the regions in South America where sylvatic T. infestans have been reported. This area is suggested to be the geographic origin of T. infestans and has very high human infection rates that may be related to sylvatic vector populations. Conclusion/Significance The results of the assays revealed that a high percentage of

  7. A new method for forensic DNA analysis of the blood meal in chagas disease vectors demonstrated using Triatoma infestans from Chuquisaca, Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pizarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Feeding patterns of the vector are important in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, the leading cause of heart disease in Latin America. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite, Trypanasoma cruzi, which is transmitted by blood feeding insects. Historically, feeding behaviours of haematophagous insects have been investigated using serological reactions, which have detection limits in terms of both taxonomic resolution, and quantity and quality of the blood meal. They are labor intensive, require technical expertise, need fresh or frozen samples and antibodies often are either not available commercially or the resources for synthesis and purification are not available. We describe an assay to identify vertebrate blood meal sources, and the parasite T. cruzi using species-specific PCR assays from insect vectors and use the method to provide information regarding three questions: (1 Do domestic and peri-domestic (chicken coop and animal corral habitats vary in the blood meals detected in the vectors? (2 What is the pattern of multiple blood meals? (3 Does the rate of T. cruzi infection vary among habitats and is it associated with specific blood meal types? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Assays based on the polymerase chain reaction were evaluated for identification of the blood meal source in the heamatophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. We evaluate a technique to identify 11 potential vertebrate food sources from the complex mixture extracted from the vector's abdomen. We tested the assay on 81 T. infestans specimens collected from the Andean highlands in the department of Chuquisaca, located in central Bolivia, one of the regions in South America where sylvatic T. infestans have been reported. This area is suggested to be the geographic origin of T. infestans and has very high human infection rates that may be related to sylvatic vector populations. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the assays revealed that a

  8. Picky eaters are rare: DNA-based blood meal analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopken, Matthew W; Ryan, Bonnie M; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Piaggio, Antoinette J

    2017-04-04

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) have been implicated in the transmission of a number of parasites and highly pathogenic viruses. In North America, the complete transmission cycles of many of these pathogens need further elucidation. One way to increase our knowledge about the evolution and ecology of Culicoides species and the pathogens they transmit is to document the diversity of vertebrate hosts that Culicoides feed upon. Our objective was to identify the diversity of Culicoides hosts in the United States. We sequenced two vertebrate mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b) from blood-engorged Culicoides to identify Culicoides species and their blood meals. We detected the mitochondrial DNA of 12 host species from seven different Culicoides species from three states. The majority of the identified blood meals were from the C. variipennis species complex in California. The hosts included both mammals and birds. We documented new host records for some of the Culicoides species collected. The majority of the mammalian hosts were large ungulate species but we also detected a lagomorph and a carnivore. The bird species that were detected included house finch and emu; the latter is evidence that the species in the C. variipennis species complex are not strictly mammalophilic. These results demonstrate that Culicoides will feed on multiple classes of vertebrates and may be more opportunistic in regards to host choice than previously thought. This knowledge can help with identification of susceptible host species, pathogen reservoirs, and new vector species which, in turn, will improve disease outbreak risk assessments.

  9. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  10. EFFECT OF BLOOD MEAL ON THE GROWTH AND CARCASS YIELD OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Memon, N.N. Ansari, A.A. Solangil and G. Memon2

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of four levels of blood meal on the growth and carcass yield of broilers. For this purpose, 250 day-old chicks were divided in five groups i.e., A, B, C, D and E. 0, 3, 4, 5 and 6 percent levels of blood meal were mixed in the ration of the five groups respectively. The chicks were reared on the experimental rations for six weeks and data on feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage were recorded. Results revealed highly significant differences (Pblood meal gave best performance in terms of weight gain and carcass yield as compared to all the other groups. Average feed consumption of broilers of five groups was 4033.19, 3960.45, 4127.25, 4147.19 and 4149.19 g. Group B consumed less feed. The average feed conversion ratio was 2.47, 2.12, 2.28, 2.31 and 2.36. Better feed conversion ratio was observed in birds of group B. The average dressing percentage of broiler chicks of five groups was 56.23, 63.41, 61.4J, 60.38 and 57.74 percent. The broiler of group B showed better dressing percentage (63.41. Non-significant differences were observed in weight of edible parts like liver, gizzard and heart. It was concluded that the broilers could be reared economically by using 3% of blood level as an animal protein source in the broiler ration to save economy of producers.

  11. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  12. Disruption of blood meal-responsive serpins prevents Ixodes scapularis from feeding to repletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Mariam; Kim, Tae Kwon; Mulenga, Albert

    2018-03-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are thought to mediate the tick's evasion of the host's serine protease-mediated defense pathways such as inflammation and blood clotting. This study describes characterization and target validation of 11 blood meal-responsive serpins that are associated with nymph and adult Ixodes scapularis tick feeding as revealed by quantitative (q)RT-PCR and RNAi silencing analyses. Given the high number of targets, we used combinatorial (co) RNAi silencing to disrupt candidate serpins in two groups (G): seven highly identical and four non-identical serpins based on amino acid identities, here after called GI and GII respectively. We show that injection of both GI and GII co-dsRNA into unfed nymph and adult I. scapularis ticks triggered suppression of cognate serpin mRNA. We show that disruption of GII, but not GI serpins significantly reduced feeding efficiency of both nymph and adult I. scapularis ticks. Knockdown of GII serpin transcripts caused significant respective mortalities of ≤40 and 71% of nymphal and adult ticks that occurred within 24-48 h of attachment. This is significant, as the observed lethality preceded the tick feeding period when transmission of tick borne pathogens is predominant. We suspect that some of the GII serpins (S9, S17, S19 and S32) play roles in the tick detachment process in that upon detachment, mouthparts of GII co-dsRNA injected were covered with a whitish gel-like tissue that could be the tick cement cone. Normally, ticks do not retain tissue on their mouthparts upon detachment. Furthermore, disruption of GII serpins reduced tick blood meal sizes and the adult tick's ability to convert the blood meal to eggs. We discuss our data with reference to tick feeding physiology and conclude that some of the GII serpins are potential targets for anti-tick vaccine development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Maurício; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Baura, Walter; Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara

    2015-03-01

    The feeding behavior of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector/host interactions and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of sand flies in endemic areas of leishmaniasis in Paraná State through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a prepronociceptin (PNOC) gene fragment and its subsequent DNA sequencing. Moreover, molecular assays were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the PNOC gene amplification. Besides that, a time-course digestion test of the blood using sand flies that fed artificially on BALB/c mice was performed. Of 1263 female sand flies collected in the field, 93 (3.6%) specimens were engorged and 27 allowed efficient amplification of the PNOC gene. These flies had fed on equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa) and canine (Canis lupus familiaris) species. The results also showed that the identification of the blood meal sources of the sand flies using the molecular method was directly linked to the level of digestion of the blood (time-course) and not to the amount of blood that had been ingested or to the presence of inhibitors in the blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins activate prokallikrein postprandially, which might form an important initial event in FVII activation after consumption of high-fat meals....

  15. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, Tuba; Al, Ayhan; Rakıcıoğlu, Neslişah

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL) on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs). Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 , n = 15) and overweight group (BMI = 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 15). Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively). Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low ( P < 0.05). The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group ( P < 0.05). The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  16. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs. Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15 and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05. The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  17. Blood meal induced regulation of the chemosensory gene repertoire in the southern house mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Tanvi; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon Rose

    2017-05-19

    The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and egg laying. In mosquitoes, these gonotrophic behaviors are odor-mediated and regulated following blood feeding. Immediately after a blood meal, female mosquitoes show reduced olfactory responsiveness and flight activity, as they enter a resting state. Insights into antennal chemosensory gene regulation at this time period can provide a foundation to identify targets involved in the state switch between host seeking and resting. This study used quantitative gene expression analyses to explore blood meal induced regulation of chemosensory gene families in the antennae of 6 days post-emergence C. quinquefasciatus females. Improved annotations for multiple chemosensory gene families, and a quantitative differential gene expression analysis between host seeking and 24 h post- blood fed females of the same age, allowed for the detection of transcripts that potentially play a role in the switch from host seeking to resting, in C. quinquefasciatus. The expression profiles of chemosensory genes varied significantly between the two treatments. Annotations for chemosensory gene repertoires in C. quinquefasciatus have been manually curated and corrected for 3' exon choice and transcript length, through sequence and transcriptome analyses. The gene expression analyses identified various molecular components of the peripheral olfactory system in C. quinquefasciatus, including odorant receptors, ionotropic receptors, odorant binding proteins and chemosensory proteins, that are regulated in response to blood feeding, and could be critical for the behavioral switch from host seeking to resting. Functional characterization of these proteins in the future can identify targets essential for the females

  18. Chickpeas suppress postprandial blood glucose concentration, and appetite and reduce energy intake at the next meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Kabir, Yearul

    2017-03-01

    The current study was designed to explore the beneficial properties of chickpeas consumption on suppressing appetite, excessive blood glucose excursions, and energy intake (EI) from a subsequent meal. Two caloric preloaded foods, chickpeas, and white bread were compared to water control, fed to healthy female subjects at equal energy density, volume, and available carbohydrate content in two experiments spanning over 60 and 120 min. Blood glucose was measured by a portable glucometer and satiety by using a visual analogue scale questionnaire at baseline and every 15 up to 60 min in both experiments and then every 30 until 120 min in Experiment 2 after the preloads ingestion. A test meal was served at the end of both experiments to calculate EI and percent energy compensation (%EC). The results suggest a reduction of 29-36% in blood glucose concentration, and 83-98% EC after the chickpeas in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively compared to white bread. The average appetite showed a positive association with EI. We conclude that the consumption of chickpeas is beneficial on glycemic control and may help in body weight management through suppressing appetite and energy intake.

  19. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  20. Blood Meal Utilization as Organic Fe Source for Polka Dot Grouper Cromileptes altivelis Growth Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to examine the use of spray dried cell blood meal as organic Fe source in polka dot grouper (Cromileptes altivelis feed to substitute inorganic Ferosulphate (FeSO4.7H2O. Two treatments were applied, one with FeSO4.7H2O as Fe source and the other with 6% blood meal. Fish with initial length and weight of 6.48 ± 0.16 cm and 5.60±0.25 g was reared at a density of 10 fish/aquarium (40 x 60 x 50 cm3 in a recirculation system for 40 days. Feed was administrated 3 times a day at satiation. The use of organic Fe with 6% blood meal apparently resulted in a lower body Fe content, feed consumption and lipid retention but a higher protein retention and feed efficiency. There was however no significant difference between treatments in growth and survival (P>0.05.   Keywords : Spray dried cell, polka dot grouper, growth, Fe, blood meal   ABSTRAK Penelitian dirancang untuk melihat pemanfaatan tepung darah spray-dried cell (SBC sebagai sumber zat besi organik dalam pakan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis, menggantikan bahan anorganik Ferosulfat (FeSO4.7H2O. Penelitian menggunakan 2 jenis perlakuan yaitu pakan Fe-anorganik dengan sumber Fe dari FeSO4.7H2O dan sumber Fe-organik dari tepung darah 6 %. Panjang awal ikan 6,48±0,16 cm dan bobot awal 5,60±0,25 gr/ekor, kepadatan 10 ekor/akuarium (40x60x50cm3 dalam sistem resirkulasi. Pemeliharaan ikan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian pakan 3 kali sehari  sekenyangnya (at satiation. Parameter uji meliputi kinerja pertumbuhan dan komposisi tubuh ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan Fe-organik dengan 6 % tepung darah sebagai pengganti sumber Fe-anorganik pada kerapu bebek memberikan pengaruh terhadap penurunan kandungan Fe tubuh, konsumsi pakan dan retensi lemak, tetapi laju pertumbuhan harian, panjang relatif dan kelangsungan hidup sama (P>0,05. Penggunaan Fe-organik memberikan pengaruh terhadap peningkatan retensi protein dan efisiensi pakan. Kata kunci : spray-dried cell

  1. The Effect Alfalfa Leaf Meal on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters of Laying Hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nobakht

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM on egg production, egg traits and blood parameters of laying hens with 144 Hy-line (W36 laying hens from 65-75 weeks of age in 4 treatments, 3 replicates and 12 hens in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental groups included: 1 control group, 2 group with 1% of ALM, 3 group with 2% of ALM, 4 group with 3% of ALM. Diets with 2% and 3% increased egg production, reduced the amount of feed intake, improved the feed conversion ratio and reduced the egg production cost (P

  2. Mosquito blood-meal analysis for avian malaria study in wild bird communities: laboratory verification and application to Culex sasai (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2009-10-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to verify molecular techniques of avian malaria parasite detection distinguishing between an infected mosquito (oocysts on midgut wall) and infective mosquito (sporozoites in salivary glands) in parallel with blood-meal identification from individual blood-fed mosquitoes prior to application to field survey for avian malaria. Domestic fowl infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum was exposed to a vector and non-vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens, respectively, to compare the time course of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection for parasite between competent and refractory mosquitoes. DNA of the domestic fowl was detectable for at least 3 days after blood feeding. The PCR-based detection of P. gallinaceum from the abdomen and thorax of A. aegypti corresponded to the microscopic observation of oocysts and sporozoites. Therefore, this PCR-based method was considered useful as one of the criteria to assess developmental stages of Plasmodium spp. in mosquito species collected in the field. We applied the same PCR-based method to 21 blood-fed C. sasai mosquitoes collected in Rinshi-no-mori Park in urban Tokyo, Japan. Of 15 blood meals of C. sasai successfully identified, 86.7% were avian-derived, 13.3% were bovine-derived. Plasmodium DNA was amplified from the abdomen of three C. sasai specimens having an avian blood meal from the Great Tit (Parus major), Pale Thrush (Turdus pallidus), and Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). This is the first field study on host-feeding habits of C. sasai in relation to the potential role as a vector for avian malaria parasites transmitted in the Japanese wild bird community.

  3. Identification of host blood from engorged mosquitoes collected in western Uganda using cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Mary B; Kading, Rebekah C; Mutebi, John-Paul; Lutwama, Julius J; Miller, Barry R

    2013-07-01

    Emerging infectious disease events are frequently caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that are maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arthropod vectors and vertebrate wildlife species, with spillover to humans in areas where human and wildlife populations interface. The greater Congo basin region, including Uganda, has historically been a hot spot for emergence of known and novel arboviruses. Surveillance of arthropod vectors is a critical activity in monitoring and predicting outbreaks of arboviral disease, and identification of blood meals in engorged arthropods collected during surveillance efforts provides insight into the ecology of arboviruses and their vectors. As part of an ongoing arbovirus surveillance project we analyzed blood meals from engorged mosquitoes collected at five sites in western Uganda November 2008-June 2010. We extracted DNA from the dissected and triturated abdomens of engorged mosquito specimens. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced to identify the source of the mosquito host blood. Blood meals were analyzed from 533 engorged mosquito specimens; 440 of these blood meals were successfully identified from 33 mosquito species. Species identifications were made for 285 of the 440 identified specimens with the remainder identified to genus, family, or order. When combined with published arbovirus isolation and serologic survey data, our results suggest possible vector-reservoir relationships for several arboviruses, including Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus.

  4. Feasibility of Using the Mosquito Blood Meal for Rapid and Efficient Human and Animal Virus Surveillance and Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Garver, Lindsey S; Bingham, Karen M; Hang, Jun; Jochim, Ryan C; Davidson, Silas A; Richardson, Jason H; Jarman, Richard G

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito blood meals taken from humans and animals potentially represent a useful source of blood for the detection of blood-borne pathogens. In this feasibility study, Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were fed with blood meals spiked with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and harvested at serial time points. These mosquitoes are not competent vectors, and the virus is not expected to replicate. Ingested blood was spotted on Whatman FTA cards and stored at room temperature. Mosquito abdomens were removed and stored at -80°C. Control blood meal aliquots were stored in vials or applied onto FTA cards. After 4 weeks of storage, the samples were extracted using beadbeating and QIAamp Viral RNA kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, MD). Recovered viral RNA was analyzed by DENV-2 TaqMan RT-PCR assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Overall viral RNA recovery efficiency was 15% from the directly applied dried blood spots and approximately 20% or higher for dried blood spots made by blotting mosquito midgut on FTA cards. Viral RNA in mosquito-ingested blood decreases over time, but remains detectable 24 hours after blood feeding. The viral sequences in FTA-stored specimens can be maintained at room temperature. The strategy has the potential utility in expedited zoonotic virus discovery and blood-borne pathogen surveillance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Environmental and genetic factors determine whether the mosquito Aedes aegypti lays eggs without a blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Cristina V; Smith, Sophia C L; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Short, Katherine; Juneja, Punita; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-04-01

    Some mosquito strains or species are able to lay eggs without taking a blood meal, a trait named autogeny. This may allow populations to persist through times or places where vertebrate hosts are scarce. Autogenous egg production is highly dependent on the environment in some species, but the ideal conditions for its expression in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are unknown. We found that 3.2% of females in a population of Ae. aegypti from Kenya were autogenous. Autogeny was strongly influenced by temperature, with many more eggs laid at 28°C compared with 22°C. Good nutrition in larval stages and feeding on higher concentrations of sugar solution during the adult stage both result in more autogenous eggs being produced. The trait also has a genetic basis, as not all Ae. aegypti genotypes can lay autogenously. We conclude that Ae. aegypti requires a favorable environment and a suitable genotype to be able to lay eggs without a blood meal. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Influence of fermented fish meal supplementation on growth performance, blood metabolites, and fecal microflora of weaning pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Jun Lee

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary supplementation with fermented fish meal on growth performance, blood metabolites, and fecal microflora in weaning pigs. A total of 180 weaned pigs ((Landrace ×Yorkshire × Duroc; with average body weight of 6.0 kg were randomly distributed among three dietary treatments (0, 0.2, and 0.5% fermented fish meal in three replicate pens (20 heads per pen in a completely randomized trial over three weeks. Addition of fermented fish meal to weanling pig diets had a linear effect on average feed intake and a quadratic trend on final body weight, average daily gain, and gain:feed ratio throughout the whole period (but not initial body weight. Hematocrit, monocyte, immunoglobulin G, and blood urea nitrogen levels responded linearly and quadratically with increasing levels of dietary fermented fish meal. Moreover, we found a linear correlation between the diets and lymphocyte and insulin levels among the different dietary treatments. In contrast, red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and glucose levels were not affected by diets with different levels of fermented fish. During the experimental period, diets with 0.2% and 0.5% fermented fish meal showed a reduction in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli populations (but not E. coli populations at week 3 that were linear, quadratic, or both, compared with controls. In particular, there was a significant reduction in S. enterica population when pigs were fed 0.5% fermented fish meal over the period of 3 weeks. Dietary supplementation with 0.2% and 0.5% fermented fish meal can be used as a protein source to improve growth performance and the parameters chosen for the blood profile, which reduces harmful microorganisms in the feces of weanling pigs.

  7. Detection of Urocanase in The Blood of Chickens Chronically Poisoned with Toxic Groundnut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonow, N.

    1965-01-01

    Chickens were fed for up to six weeks a ration containing 30 per cent of toxic groundnut meal and their controls were fed balanced commercial ration for comparable periods. Urocanase activity was determined in the blood and livers of principal and control birds killed after two, four or six weeks on these diets. Urocanase activity was detected in the blood sera of 3 out of the 9 intoxicated birds examined as early as two weeks after the initiation of the feeding trial. By the sixth week, the incidence of urocanase in the serum increased to 5 of 8 intoxicated birds. Liver urocanase concentration was uniform throughout the duration of the experiment when measured in units per gram of hepatic tissue. However, when its activity was expressed on the basis of units per total liver weight, its total activity increased toward the end of the experiment. PMID:14281076

  8. A high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor VII in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M

    2001-01-01

    It is a matter of debate whether postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To clarify this question, an animal model in which consequences of dietary FVII activation can be studied in a more detailed way would be an important...... tool. We studied postprandial FVII activation in seven non-fasting Göttingen minipigs. Intralipid (4 g/kg) was administered through a gastric tube in two fractions at 9.00 a.m. (one-third of total dose) and 10.30 a.m. (two-thirds of total dose). Blood samples were drawn 0.5 h before (baseline) and 2, 3....../l (baseline) to 2.56 mmol/l 5 h postprandially (P meal does not seem...

  9. Partial blood meal, carbohydrate availability, and blood-feeding postponement effects on human host avidity and DEET repellency in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host avidity and DEET repellency were measured in partially blood fed Aedes albopictus (Skuse) provided 10% sucrose in water, water, or neither when access to a human host was postponed for 1 to 72 h after a partial blood meal. Carbohydrate availability and post-feeding time influenced host avidity...

  10. Antibiotic treatment of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus: Influence on Midichloria mitochondrii load following blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Camille; Plantard, Olivier; Serra, Valentina; Pollera, Claudia; Ferrari, Nicola; Cafiso, Alessandra; Sassera, Davide; Bazzocchi, Chiara

    2015-07-01

    Midichloria mitochondrii is the most prevalent symbiont of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, present in 100% of eggs and adult females of wild ticks. This bacterium is intracellular, and is the only known symbiont able to invade the mitochondria of the host cells. However, the role that M. mitochondrii plays in the host metabolism has yet to be elucidated. Multiple lines of evidence indicate the possibility of transmission of this bacterium to the vertebrate host during the tick blood meal. In order to investigate the role of M. mitochondrii in the biology of the tick host, we performed an antibiotic treatment on Ixodes ricinus individuals, with the aim of reducing/eliminating the symbiont, and to potentially observe the dynamic of bacterial infection in the tick host. We microinjected engorged adult females of I. ricinus with tetracycline, and we allowed the resulting larvae to feed on gerbils treated with the same antibiotic. The amount of M. mitochondrii was evaluated at different stages of the experiment using molecular techniques. In addition we evaluated the presence/absence of the symbiont DNA in the blood of gerbils used for the larval feeding. The performed treatments did not allow to eliminate the symbiont population from the host tick, however it allowed to reduce the multiplication that occurs after the larval blood meal. These results open the way for future experiments, using different antibiotic molecules, different administration methods and antibiotic administration on subsequent tick stages, to fulfill the goal of eliminating M. mitochondrii from the host I. ricinus, a major step in our understanding of the impact of this bacterium on ticks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Prior Exercise Lowers Blood Pressure During Simulated Night-Work With Different Meal Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullick, Sarah; Morris, Chris; Jones, Helen; Atkinson, Greg

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Shift-work and a sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for raised blood pressure (BP). Exercise can reduce BP in diurnally-active individuals, but it is unknown whether postexercise hypotension persists when people are active and eating at night. We present the first investigation into the acute effects of exercise on BP monitored during simulated night-work. METHODS Nine normotensive participants, aged 20–42 years, completed at least two crossover trials beginning at 1800 hours. Between 1900 and 2000 hours, participants either rested or exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and then remained awake throughout the night, completing various tasks until 0515 hours. Six participants completed a total of four trials in which they exercised or rested, whereas either one standardized (60 kJ/kg) meal at 2200 hours or two smaller (30 kJ/kg) meals at 2200 and 0200 hours were eaten. Systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and wrist activity were recorded every 30 min. RESULTS Following exercise, MAP was significantly (P < 0.0005) lower throughout the night-shift compared with no prior exercise (95% confidence limits for reduction: 4–7 mm Hg). The postexercise reductions in systolic BP and MAP were not moderated by diet, but the reduction in diastolic BP was slightly greater when only one meal was eaten (P < 0.0005). BP was lower even though wrist activity and HR were significantly higher following exercise (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that prior exercise lowers BP throughout a subsequent 8-h night-shift in healthy individuals within the normotensive range. Therefore, regular low-intensity exercise might moderate the well-known association between shift-work participation and raised BP. PMID:19556971

  12. Impact of meal fatty acid composition on postprandial lipaemia, vascular function and blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Weech, Michelle; Jackson, Kim G; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2018-03-16

    CVD are the leading cause of death in women globally, with ageing associated with progressive endothelial dysfunction and increased CVD risk. Natural menopause is characterised by raised non-fasting TAG concentrations and impairment of vascular function compared with premenopausal women. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased CVD risk after women have transitioned through the menopause are unclear. Dietary fat is an important modifiable risk factor relating to both postprandial lipaemia and vascular reactivity. Meals rich in SFA and MUFA are often associated with greater postprandial TAG responses compared with those containing n-6 PUFA, but studies comparing their effects on vascular function during the postprandial phase are limited, particularly in postmenopausal women. The present review aimed to evaluate the acute effects of test meals rich in SFA, MUFA and n-6 PUFA on postprandial lipaemia, vascular reactivity and other CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women. The systematic search of the literature identified 778 publications. The impact of fat-rich meals on postprandial lipaemia was reported in seven relevant studies, of which meal fat composition was compared in one study described in three papers. An additional study determined the impact of a high-fat meal on vascular reactivity. Although moderately consistent evidence suggests detrimental effects of high-fat meals on postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal (than premenopausal) women, there is insufficient evidence to establish the impact of meals of differing fat composition. Furthermore, there is no robust evidence to conclude the effect of meal fatty acids on vascular function or blood pressure. In conclusion, there is an urgent requirement for suitably powered robust randomised controlled trials to investigate the impact of meal fat composition on postprandial novel and established CVD risk markers in postmenopausal women, an understudied population at increased cardiometabolic risk.

  13. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  14. Effect of Chicken Bone Meal as Phosphorus Supplement on Blood Metabolites in Fattening Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, A.; Muktiani, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chicken bone meal (CBM) as phosphorus supplementon blood metabolites in fattening lambs. The experiment used 16 of 12 months old local male lambs with initial body weight 27.01 ± 1.51 kg. The experiment used a complete randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were T0 (basal ration = native grass + soybean curd waste), T1 (basal ration + 0.49% P Dicalcium phosphate), T2 (basal ration + 0.70% P CBM), T3 (basal ration + 1.39 % P CBM). The results indicated that CBM as phosphorus supplement was significantly different (P<0,05) on P intake, phosphorus and glucose serum and did not different significantly on dry matter intake and alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, CBM is one of requirement organic phosphorus supplement which can be applied on ruminants.

  15. Associative learning of odor with food- or blood-meal by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Rains, Glen C.; Allan, Sandy A.; Sanford, Michelle R.; Lewis, W. Joe

    2006-11-01

    The ability of many insects to learn has been documented. However, a limited number of studies examining associative learning in medically important arthropods has been published. Investigations into the associative learning capabilities of Culex quinquefasciatus Say were conducted by adapting methods commonly used in experiments involving Hymenoptera. Male and female mosquitoes were able to learn a conditioned stimulus that consisted of an odor not normally encountered in nature (synthetic strawberry or vanilla extracts) in association with an unconditioned stimulus consisting of either a sugar (males and females) or blood (females) meal. Such information could lead to a better understanding of the ability of mosquitoes to locate and select host and food resources in nature.

  16. ACUTE EFFECT OF A SINGLE HIGH-FAT MEAL ON FOREARM BLOOD FLOW, BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN HEALTHY MALE ASIANS AND CAUSASIANS: A PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Chumjit; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Shavlik, David; Remigio, Wilton; Montgomery, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that ingestion of a single high-fat (HF) meal causes postprandial lipemia and produces a reduced brachial artery blood flow response to vascular occlusion in Caucasians. However, the forearm BF response to occlusion in Caucasian and Asian populations after a single HF meal has not been compared. Eleven healthy male Asians, mean age 26.4 (±4.2) years, height 174.2 (±7.4) cm, and weight 73.8 (±5.7) kg and eight Caucasians, mean age 26.8 (±4.6) years, height 182.9 (±5.9) cm, and weight 82.8 (±4.8) kg were studied. A randomized cross-over study design was used with a HF (50.1 g total fat) or low-fat (LF) (5.1 g total fat) test meal 1 week apart. Forearm blood flow was measured over a 2-minute period following a 4-minute occlusion (FBFO) at 2 and 4 hours following ingestion of a test meal. This study found that FBFO was significantly attenuated in Asians (19.3%; p=0.09) compared to Caucasians after the ingestion of a HF meal. When comparing LF vs HF meals in Asians, the FBFO were 336.9 ml/100 ml tissue/minute and 240.8 ml/100 ml tissue/minute, respectively (p=0.02), whereas in Caucasians, the FBFO were 344.8 ml/100 ml tissue/minute and 287.4 ml/100 ml tissue/minute, respectively. It appears Asians have a more sensitive response to a single HF meal which may be explained, in part, by genotypic variation. These findings suggest that a single HF meal may contribute to the detrimental effects on vascular health in Asian males and raises speculation regarding the cumulative impact of a chronic HF diet in this population. PMID:20578534

  17. Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes alters blood meal excretion and delays oviposition without affecting trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta de Oliveira, Sofia; Dantas de Oliveira, Caroline; Viana Sant'Anna, Mauricio Roberto; Carneiro Dutra, Heverton Leandro; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Blood feeding in Aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the Zika and dengue viruses. Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. Yet while Wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. To that end, we examined the effects of wMel Wolbachia infection in Ae. aegypti, on survival post-blood feeding, blood meal excretion, rate of oviposition, expression levels of key genes involved in oogenesis, and activity levels of trypsin blood digestion enzymes. We observed that wMel infection altered the rate and duration of blood meal excretion, delayed the onset of oviposition and was associated with a greater number of eggs being laid later. wMel-infected Ae. aegypti also had lower levels of key yolk protein precursor genes necessary for oogenesis. However, all of these effects occurred without a change in trypsin activity. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection may disrupt normal metabolic processes associated with blood feeding and reproduction in Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...

  19. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...... polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). RESULTS: The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under...

  20. Requested meals versus scheduled meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario CiampoliniPreventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Scheduled meals are considered to be equivalent to those requested by the infant (null hypothesis. In adults, we have found high blood glucose before scheduled meals and low blood glucose after recognition of validated initial hunger. Low preprandial blood glucose is associated with a decrease in energy intake and body weight both in adults who are overtly overweight and in those who are of normal weight with insulin resistance (hidden overweight. In this study, we investigated the validity of the null hypothesis between scheduled and requested meals in 2-year-old infants with chronic nonspecific diarrhea.Methods: We trained a "recognizing request" meal pattern in 70 mother-infant pairs. The trained meal pattern consisted of administering food after a first request that we validated by blood glucose measurement in the hospital laboratory. Using a 7-day food diary, mothers reported preprandial blood glucose measurements for their infants three times a day. We assessed mean preprandial blood glucose, daily energy intake, days with diarrhea, blood parameters, and anthropometry before training and 4 months after training, and compared the results with measurements in 73 randomly selected untrained controls.Results: In the trained group, there was a decrease in mean blood glucose from 86.9 ± 9.4 mg/dL to 76.4 ± 6.7 mg/dL (P < 0.0001, as well as a decrease in energy intake and days with diarrhea in comparison with control infants who maintained scheduled meals. Only two of 21 infants who had a mean blood glucose lower than 81.2 mg/dL at recruitment showed a statistically significant decrease in mean blood glucose, whereas 36 of 49 infants above this cutoff level showed a statistically significant decrease after training (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Requested meals are associated with low preprandial blood

  1. Identification of specific bovine blood biomarkers with a non-targeted approach using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrenier, M C; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Veys, P; Saegerman, C; Raes, M; Baeten, V

    2016-12-15

    Animal by-products are valuable protein sources in animal nutrition. Among them are blood products and blood meal, which are used as high-quality material for their beneficial effects on growth and health. Within the framework of the feed ban relaxation, the development of complementary methods in order to refine the identification of processed animal proteins remains challenging. The aim of this study was to identify specific biomarkers that would allow the detection of bovine blood products and processed animal proteins using tandem mass spectrometry. Seventeen biomarkers were identified: nine peptides for bovine plasma powder; seven peptides for bovine haemoglobin powder, including six peptides for bovine blood meal; and one peptide for porcine blood. They were not detected in several commercial compound feed or feed materials, such as blood by-products of other animal origins, milk-derived products and fish meal. These biomarkers could be used for developing a species-specific and blood-specific detection method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relative nutritive value of irradiated spray-dried blood powder and heat-sterilized blood meal as measured in combination with whey protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, T.E.H.; Nourse, L.D.; Siebrits, F.K.; Hastings, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of processing blood meal in which nutritive value of the protein is preserved is described, since appreciable losses occur in the nutritive value of the protein when prepared by heat sterilization with drying at atmospheric pressure in steam jacketed vessels. Blood was spray dried and irradiated at an intensity of 10 kGy. Collectively the heat of spray drying and irradiation was effective in killing both the virus plaque-forming units and the bacteria, thus producing a commercially acceptable sterile product of higher nutritive value. The relative nutritive values (RNV) of 50:50 protein were 0,56 for whey protein concentrate plus heat-sterilized blood meal and 0.90 for whey protein concentrate plus irradiated spray-dried blood powder. Whey protein concentrate used as a control has a RNV of 1,0

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells after a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Meal with Orange Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Daniela F S; Carvalho, Paulo C; Brasili, Elisa; Rogero, Marcelo M; Hassimotto, Neuza A; Diedrich, Jolene K; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Lajolo, Franco M

    2017-11-03

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in the physiopathology of insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A single high-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) meal induces an increase in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Previous studies have shown that orange juice is able to prevent this response by inhibiting toll like receptors (TLR) expression and endotoxemia. Our goal was to study the proteome response in PBMC after the consumption of a HFHC meal consumed with water, orange juice or an isocaloric beverage (water with glucose). Twelve healthy individuals completed the protocol in a crossover design, and blood samples were obtained before and 1, 3, and 5 h after consumption. Proteomic profile, glucose, insulin, lipid and cytokines levels were investigated. The glycemic and insulinemic response was higher when the meal was consumed with glucose, while there was no difference in the response between water and orange juice. Proteome analysis in PBMC was carried out using TMT ten-plex. A total of 3813 proteins, originating from 15 662 peptides were identified. Three proteins showed significantly altered expression in the three treatments: apolipoprotein A-II, ceruloplasmin and hemopexin. When the HFHC meal was consumed with water there was an increase in some inflammatory pathways such as the Fc-gamma receptor dependent phagocytosis and the complement cascade, but the immune system as a whole was not significantly altered. However, when the meal was consumed with glucose, the immune system was up regulated. Among the pathways induced after 3 h were those of the adaptive immune system and cytokine signaling. Five hours after the meal, pathways of the complement cascade and classical antibody mediated complement activation were up regulated. When the meal was consumed with orange juice there was an up regulation of proteins involved in signal transduction, DNA replication and cell cycle. The

  4. Whole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation

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    Janine A. Higgins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect.

  5. The fat body transcriptomes of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, pre- and post- blood meal.

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    David P Price

    Full Text Available The fat body is the main organ of intermediary metabolism in insects and the principal source of hemolymph proteins. As part of our ongoing efforts to understand mosquito fat body physiology and to identify novel targets for insect control, we have conducted a transcriptome analysis of the fat body of Aedes aegypti before and in response to blood feeding.We created two fat body non-normalized EST libraries, one from mosquito fat bodies non-blood fed (NBF and another from mosquitoes 24 hrs post-blood meal (PBM. 454 pyrosequencing of the non-normalized libraries resulted in 204,578 useable reads from the NBF sample and 323,474 useable reads from the PBM sample. Alignment of reads to the existing reference Ae. aegypti transcript libraries for analysis of differential expression between NBF and PBM samples revealed 116,912 and 115,051 matches, respectively. De novo assembly of the reads from the NBF sample resulted in 15,456 contigs, and assembly of the reads from the PBM sample resulted in 15,010 contigs. Collectively, 123 novel transcripts were identified within these contigs. Prominently expressed transcripts in the NBF fat body library were represented by transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins. Thirty-five point four percent of all reads in the PBM library were represented by transcripts that encode yolk proteins. The most highly expressed were transcripts encoding members of the cathepsin b, vitellogenin, vitellogenic carboxypeptidase, and vitelline membrane protein families.The two fat body transcriptomes were considerably different from each other in terms of transcript expression in terms of abundances of transcripts and genes expressed. They reflect the physiological shift of the pre-feeding fat body from a resting state to vitellogenic gene expression after feeding.

  6. Uncomplicated human type 2 diabetes is associated with meal-induced blood pressure lowering and cardiac output increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Mark M; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tushuizen, Maarten E; Kwa, Kelly A A; Karemaker, John M; van Raalte, Daniël H; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-12-01

    Since many type 2 diabetes patients experience postprandial hypotension, the aim of this study was to unravel meal-related changes in systemic hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ANS)-balance. Forty-two age-matched males (15 type 2 diabetes; 12 metabolic syndrome; 15 controls) without overt autonomic neuropathy received a standardized high-fat mixed meal after an overnight fast. Hemodynamic variables were measured by finger plethysmography. Fourier analysis was used to calculate the low-/high-frequency (LF/HF)-ratio, a marker of autonomic nervous system-balance, and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS). Following the meal, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased in type 2 diabetes patients only, paralleled by a significant decrement in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and an increase in cardiac index. All groups showed an increase in postprandial heart rate. Controls, but not metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes patients, showed a meal-related increase in LF/HF-ratio. When combining all study subjects, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was inversely correlated with changes in DBP, SVR, LF/HF-ratio and BRS. Based on these data, we hypothesize that in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance hampers adequate meal-induced sympathetic activation, leading to a decrease in SVR and resulting in a postprandial drop in DBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar) of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

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    Stone, Chris M; Jackson, Bryan T; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and ...

  8. Acute toxicity of experimental fertilizers made of blood meal, spent coffee ground and biomass ash

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    Ciesielczuk Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of research on the acute toxicity of a fertilizer formulas made of spent coffee ground (SCG with addition of ash from low-temperature combustion of biomass or ash with an admixture of magnesium sulphate and blood meal. The experimental fertilizer formulas included also rape oil used as a plasticizer for controlling the nutrients release from the fertiliser. Mustard (Sinapis alba L., oats (Avena sativa sp. L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. and cress (Lepidium sativum L. were used as test plants species in the experiment. The toxicity tests were performed using a standard procedure of 72 h with the use of Phytotoxkit microbiotest and fertilizer application of 2.5; 5 and 10% (v/v. The obtained results indicated an increase of acute toxicity for all tested plant species, proportionally to the applied doses of the fertilizer. During the 72 h period, the strongest inhibition of seedling growth was recorded in samples consisting of 10% of the tested fertilizers, particularly when they showed considerable level of salinity or low pH values. From the tested plant species, cress (Lepidium sativum L. turned out to be the most sensitive to the applied fertilizers, the least was cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. for which only a small inhibition of root system growth was observed. The inhibited growth of roots could be attributed to a reduced oxygen access and excessive salinity of the substratum caused by the applied additives.

  9. Blood Meal Preference of Some Anopheline Mosquitoes in Command and Non-command Areas of Rajasthan, India

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    Kailash Kumar Swami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken to compare the entomological situation by analyzing the bloodmeal of mosquitoes of canal irrigated and non-irrigated areas of Bikaner in order to explore scientific information onthe vector biology and malaria burden profile and to plan proper strategies for malaria control and eradication.Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected and the abdomen of the blood fed females were crushed on a filter paperfor blood meal analysis and subjected to precipitin test.Results: The blood meal analysis showed that Anopheles subpictus had a preference towards cattle blood, An.culicifacies and An. stephensi preferred human blood, while, An. annularis was noted to feed only on bovine blood.Conclusion: Although An. annularis, has been recently reported from the area, was found to feed exclusively onbovine blood, earlier reports suggest that this species is a vector of malaria and therefore preventive measuresshould be taken well in advance before this species gets established in the area.

  10. Triatomine bugs, their microbiota and Trypanosoma cruzi: asymmetric responses of bacteria to an infected blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sebastián; Villavicencio, Bianca; Correia, Nathália; Costa, Jane; Haag, Karen L

    2016-12-09

    Triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) are vectors of the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The study of triatomine gut microbiota has gained relevance in the last years due to its possible role in vector competence and prospective use in control strategies. The objective of this study is to examine changes in the gut microbiota composition of triatomines in response to a T. cruzi-infected blood meal and identifying key factors determining those changes. We sampled colony-reared individuals from six triatomine vectors (Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. infestans, T. juazeirensis and T. sherlocki) comparing experimentally T. cruzi strain 0354-challenged and non-challenged insects. The microbiota of gut and gonad tissues was characterized using high throughput sequencing of region V3-V4 of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The triatomine microbiota had a low intra-individual diversity, and a high inter-individual variation within the same host species. Arsenophonous appeared as the dominant triatomine bacterial symbiont in our study (59% of the total 16S coverage), but there were significant differences in the distribution of bacterial genera among vectors. In Rhodnius prolixus the dominant symbiont was Pectobacterium. Trypanosoma cruzi-challenge significantly affects microbiota composition, with challenged vectors harbouring a significantly more diverse bacterial community, both in the gut and the gonads. Our results show that blood-feeding with T. cruzi epimastigotes strongly affects microbiota composition in a species-specific manner. We suggest that triatomine-adapted enterobacteria such as Arsenophonus could be used as stable vectors for genetic transformation of triatomine bugs and control of Chagas disease.

  11. STUDY ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO OF LABEO ROHITA FED ON SOYBEAN MEAL, BLOOD MEAL AND CORN GLUTEN 60%

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    M. Saeed, M. Salim and U. Noreen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A seven weeks study was conducted to find out the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR for Labeo rohita fingerlings fed on reference and three test diets; test diet-1 (soybean meal, test diet-2 (blood meal, test diet-3 (corn gluten 60%. All the diets were iso-nitrogenous (30% crude protein and iso-caloric (2700 kcal/kg. Fish were fed on 4% of wet body weight daily. Average body weight gain by Labeo rohita was highest for test diet-3 (10.1875  0.8839g, followed by test diet-2 (9.9762  0.859g, test diet-1 (8.83  1.442g and reference diet (9.390  0.9226g. The best FCR value was (2.3167  0.872 for test diet-3, followed by test diet-1 (3.4636  0.697, test diet-3 (5.00  1.2728 and reference diet (3.927  0.1862.

  12. Age and prior blood feeding of Anopheles gambiae influences their susceptibility and gene expression patterns to ivermectin-containing blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jonathan A; Alout, Haoues; Meyers, Jacob I; Stenglein, Mark D; Dabiré, Roch K; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Burton, Timothy A; Kuklinski, Wojtek S; Black, William C; Foy, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Ivermectin has been proposed as a novel malaria transmission control tool based on its insecticidal properties and unique route of acquisition through human blood. To maximize ivermectin's effect and identify potential resistance/tolerance mechanisms, it is important to understand its effect on mosquito physiology and potential to shift mosquito population age-structure. We therefore investigated ivermectin susceptibility and gene expression changes in several age groups of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The effect of aging on ivermectin susceptibility was analyzed in three age groups (2, 6, and 14-days) of colonized female Anopheles gambiaemosquitoes using standard survivorship assays. Gene expression patterns were then analyzed by transcriptome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. RT-qPCR was used to validate transcriptional changes and also to examine expression in a different, colonized strain and in wild mosquitoes, both of which blood fed naturally on an ivermectin-treated person. Mosquitoes of different ages and blood meal history died at different frequencies after ingesting ivermectin. Mortality was lowest in 2-day old mosquitoes exposed on their first blood meal and highest in 6-day old mosquitoes exposed on their second blood meal. Twenty-four hours following ivermectin ingestion, 101 and 187 genes were differentially-expressed relative to control blood-fed, in 2 and 6-day groups, respectively. Transcription patterns of select genes were similar in membrane-fed, colonized, and naturally-fed wild vectors. Transcripts from several unexpected functional classes were highly up-regulated, including Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) genes, peritrophic matrix-associated genes, and immune-response genes, and these exhibited different transcription patterns between age groups, which may explain the observed susceptibility differences. Niemann-Pick Type 2 genes were the most highly up-regulated transcripts after ivermectin ingestion (up to 160 fold) and

  13. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Moosa Salehi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed before and after the investigation for fasting blood sugar (FBS, two-hour post-prandial glucose (2hPP, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, and molondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. Results: HbA1c (P=0.00 and body mass index (BMI (P=0.04 values decreased significantly in the 6 isocaloric meal pattern compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in fasting serum glucose (P=0.09, insulin (P=0.65, total cholesterol (P=0.32, LDL-C (P=0.43, HDL-C (P=0.40 cholesterol, triglyceride (P=0.40, MDA (P=0.13 and 2hPP serum glucose (P=0.30 concentrations between the 6 isocaloric meal and tradition meal pattern. Conclusion: Six isocaloric meal pattern in comparison with the current meal pattern led to weight loss and improved glycemic control. Serum lipid profile and MDA did not change significantly. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201205179780N1

  14. The effect of a single blood meal on the phenotypic expression of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

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    Coetzee Maureen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in southern Africa. Vector control relies on the use of insecticide chemicals to significantly reduce the number of malaria vectors by targeting that portion of the female population that takes blood meals and subsequently rests indoors. It has been suggested that the intake of a blood meal may assist female mosquitoes to tolerate higher doses of insecticide through vigour tolerance. It is hypothesized that during the process of blood digestion, detoxification mechanisms required for the neutralizing of harmful components in the blood meal may also confer an increased ability to tolerate insecticide intoxication through increased enzyme regulation. Methods Bottle bioassays using a range of concentrations of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin were performed on pyrethroid susceptible and resistant laboratory strains of An. funestus in order to detect differences in insecticide susceptibility following a single blood meal. Based on these results, a discriminating dosage was identified (double the lowest dosage that resulted in 100% mortality of the susceptible strain. Blood-fed and unfed females drawn from the resistant strain of An. funestus were then assayed against this discriminating dose, and the percentage mortality for each sample was scored and compared. Results In the insecticide dose response assays neither the fully susceptible nor the resistant strain of An. funestus showed any significant difference in insecticide susceptibility following a blood meal, regardless of the stage of blood meal digestion. A significant increase in the level of resistance was however detected in the resistant An. funestus strain following a single blood meal, based on exposure to a discriminating dose of permethrin. Conclusion The fully susceptible An. funestus strain did not show any significant alteration in susceptibility to insecticide following a blood meal suggesting that vigour

  15. The effect of a single blood meal on the phenotypic expression of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillings, Belinda L; Coetzee, Maureen; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Brooke, Basil D

    2008-01-01

    Background Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in southern Africa. Vector control relies on the use of insecticide chemicals to significantly reduce the number of malaria vectors by targeting that portion of the female population that takes blood meals and subsequently rests indoors. It has been suggested that the intake of a blood meal may assist female mosquitoes to tolerate higher doses of insecticide through vigour tolerance. It is hypothesized that during the process of blood digestion, detoxification mechanisms required for the neutralizing of harmful components in the blood meal may also confer an increased ability to tolerate insecticide intoxication through increased enzyme regulation. Methods Bottle bioassays using a range of concentrations of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin were performed on pyrethroid susceptible and resistant laboratory strains of An. funestus in order to detect differences in insecticide susceptibility following a single blood meal. Based on these results, a discriminating dosage was identified (double the lowest dosage that resulted in 100% mortality of the susceptible strain). Blood-fed and unfed females drawn from the resistant strain of An. funestus were then assayed against this discriminating dose, and the percentage mortality for each sample was scored and compared. Results In the insecticide dose response assays neither the fully susceptible nor the resistant strain of An. funestus showed any significant difference in insecticide susceptibility following a blood meal, regardless of the stage of blood meal digestion. A significant increase in the level of resistance was however detected in the resistant An. funestus strain following a single blood meal, based on exposure to a discriminating dose of permethrin. Conclusion The fully susceptible An. funestus strain did not show any significant alteration in susceptibility to insecticide following a blood meal suggesting that vigour tolerance through increased body

  16. Postprandial Insulin and Triglycerides after Different Breakfast Meal Challenges: Use of Finger Stick Capillary Dried Blood Spots to Study Postprandial Dysmetabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Sonia; Groves, Margaret N.; Zava, David T.; Kapur, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Background High levels of insulin and lipids following a meal are recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis. Monitoring such risk factors in the general population is hampered by the inconvenience of venipuncture blood collection, particularly for both premeal and postmeal analyses. This study examined insulin and triglyceride levels in dried blood spots (DBSs) collected after different breakfast meal challenges to assess the potential of this method for risk assessment. Methods Glucose levels were measured using a glucose meter, and insulin and triglycerides were determined in DBS samples collected from 19 healthy volunteers before and at four time points up to 2.5 h after consuming each of five typical breakfast meals varying in nutritional composition. Results At 2 h, glucose was within normal postprandial values (<140 mg/dl) for all meals; significantly lower glucose was seen after meal 2 (the lowest carbohydrate content) compared to the other meals. Insulin returned to normal fasting levels (<15 μIU/ml) in significantly more subjects (90%) after meal 2 and significantly fewer subjects (31%) after meal 4 (highest carbohydrate content) than the other meals. Triglycerides were elevated to a similar extent in all subjects, with no significant differences between meals; levels were still rising at 2.5 h. Conclusions Subjects were able to collect blood spots with minimum disruption to their normal daily activities. Relative ease of collection, analyte stability in dried blood, and the close correlation with serum levels that we have previously demonstrated makes DBS a convenient and simple tool for assessing the individual impact of different diets on postprandial dysmetabolism. PMID:20307382

  17. Effect of expeller extracted canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Schuh, K; Woyengo, T A; Sands, J S; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of increasing levels of expeller extracted canola meal (EECM) in diets for growing pigs on performance, gastrointestinal tract weight, thyroid gland weights, blood plasma concentration of triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content in blood, and hematocrit. Four diets were fed to 48 pigs (19.9 ± 1.60 kg initial BW) in 24 pens (6 pens per diet) for 4 wk in a completely randomized design. The diets were a control corn-soybean meal basal diet and 3 additional diets produced by replacing 33, 66, or 100% of soybean meal with EECM to achieve inclusion levels of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Diets were formulated to be similar in NE and nutrient composition and to meet nutrient requirements for pigs. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water for the duration of the study. Feed intake and BW of pigs were determined on a weekly basis, whereas organ weights and blood parameters were determined at the end of the study. Average daily feed intake linearly decreased ( = 0.001) whereas ADG tended to linearly decline ( = 0.084) with increasing levels of EECM in the diet. The G:F was not affected ( > 0.10) by the dietary level of EECM. Thyroid weight and serum triiodothyronine linearly increased ( = 0.031) whereas serum tetraiodothyronine was linearly reduced ( = 0.001) with increasing inclusion of EECM. Other blood parameters and organ weights were not affected by increasing inclusion of EECM. The analyzed concentration of glucosinolates in the EECM used in this study was 9.27 μmol/g, with values in the diets ranging from 1.02 to 2.75 μmol/g for the lowest to highest inclusion levels, respectively. The increased thyroid weight and changes in thyroid hormones indicate that glucosinolates present in EECM adversely affected performance of growing pigs.

  18. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Leanne; McQuaid, Siobhán E.; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N.; Fielding, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over 24 h. We traced the fate of fatty acids using equal amounts of [U-13C]linoleate, [U-13C]oleate, and [U-13C]palmitate given in a test breakfast meal in 12 healthy subjects. There was a tendency for differences in the concentrations of the tracers in plasma chylomicron-triacylglycerol (TG) (oleate > palmitate > linoleate). This pattern remained in plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG (P ≤ 0.01 and P ≤ 0.02 for [U-13C]oleate vs. both [U-13C]palmitate and [U-13C]linoleate for NEFA and VLDL-TG, respectively). There was significantly more [U-13C]linoleate than the other two tracers in plasma cholesteryl ester and phospholipid (PL). Using the values for isotopic enrichment in the different lipid fractions compared with the test meal, we calculated the contribution of meal fatty acids to the respective fractions. At 24 h, 10% of plasma PL-linoleate originated from the breakfast test meal. This was significantly greater than for oleate and palmitate (both 3 ± 0.3%; P < 0.05). This pattern was also true for erythrocyte PL fatty acids. The marked rapid incorporation of linoleate from a single meal into blood PL fractions may have functional consequences such as maintenance of membrane fluidity and may explain why linoleate is a useful biomarker of dietary intake. PMID:18940935

  19. Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (P<0.05). Acarbose treatment significantly attenuated the decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (P<0.05). The maximal decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving

  20. Seasonal prevalence and blood meal analysis of filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus in coastal areas of Digha, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Syed Afrin; Das, Surajit; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2015-09-01

    Filariasis is one of the major vector-borne diseases causing serious health problem in the tropics and subtropics. The coastal areas of Digha are known to be a filariasis prone region of West Bengal, India. The filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, the established filarial vector in West Bengal, India. The present work was aimed to determine the abundance of different mosquito species; and the frequency, distribution and blood meal analysis of Cx. quinquefasciatus in coastal areas of Digha. During the present study, a total of 11,537 mosquitoes [Cx. quinquefasciatus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles barbirostris, An. annularis, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, Aedes albopictus, and Cx. vishnui (group)] were collected by hand collection method from human habitations and cattlesheds of 10 villages of Digha, West Bengal, India. The seasonal prevalence of Cx. quinquefasciatus was studied. In each season, blood meals of 300 Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from human habitations were analysed during the study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to be the dominant species (88.44% of the total collection) in the study area. It was most frequently found in and around human habitations than cattlesheds. Total man hour density calculation revealed that this species was most prevalent during the rainy season. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus varied with different seasons. Blood meal analysis showed that the filarial vector preferred human blood than that of other animals. This study suggested Cx. quinquefasciatus as the dominant mosquito species in the study area; and the anthropophilic nature of Cx. quinquefasciatus might be the reason of increase in the intensity of filarial transmission in coastal areas of Digha.

  1. Effects of the amount of rice in meals on postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension: a within-subjects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung Tae; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-08-01

    To determine the effect of the amount of rice carbohydrates consumed during mealtime on the extent of decrease in postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension. The incidence of postprandial hypotension is as high as 74% in older people with hypertension. A within-subjects repeated measures design was used. Thirty-nine older people in nursing homes received a full serving and a half-serving of rice on two separate days, in random order blood pressure and heart rate were measured before each meal and every 15 minutes for a total of 120 minutes after each meal. Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the paired t-test with a Bonferroni adjustment using IBM spss version 19.0. The control and intervention conditions yielded significantly different patterns in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Postprandial hypotension was less frequent under the intervention condition; however, decrease in rice intake did not significantly affect heart rate. Reducing the amount of rice intake per meal prevents postprandial blood pressure decreases in the older people. Small and frequent meals with decreased carbohydrate content are recommended to prevent postprandial hypotension and its complications in the older people. Patients, dieticians and caregivers of older patients should be aware of the importance of diet, especially of decreasing the amount of carbohydrate in a meal. Smaller and more frequent meals are recommended for older people to slow gastric emptying. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Hunting, swimming, and worshiping: human cultural practices illuminate the blood meal sources of cave dwelling Chagas vectors (Triatoma dimidiata in Guatemala and Belize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Stevens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations.We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥ 99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog, food animals (pig, sheep/goat, wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species and commensal animals (mouse, rat. Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10 tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals.Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.

  3. Effect of dietary mannan-oligosaccharides from copra meal on intestinal microbes and blood profile of broiler chickens

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    A. N. S. Putri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS is a common prebiotics used as a feed additives. The use of antibiotic can be replaced by MOS to reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria in small intestines of chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of MOS extracted from copra meal on intestinal microbial population and blood profile of broiler chickens. The study was conducted by using 150 day-old male broiler chickens (average body weight 46.00 +  1.41 g. The design of this experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 dietary treatments, 5 replications and 10 birds in each replication. The dietary treatments consisted of control diet (corn-soybean meal diet without supplementation of antibiotic and prebiotic, control + 0.1% antibiotic bambermycin, and control + 0.035% MOS. For the first 4 weeks the birds were fed treatment diets, followed by commercial feed for 2 weeks. The parameters observed in this study were intestinal microbes population and blood profiles. The results showed that the administration of 0,035% MOS increased the lactic acid bacteria (LAB number compared with antibiotics feed (P0.05 with the control group. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria were higher in MOS and antibiotic treatment compared than control group. The supplementation of 0.035% MOS from copra meal in diet increased the level of leucocytes which is important to immune response of broilers and its usage was safe because the level of chicken blood profile were within the normal range.

  4. Testicular histology and blood testosterone levels of male rabbit after given concentrated diets containing calliandra leaf meal and pineapple peels

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    Setyawati, I.; Ermayanti, N. G. A. M.; Suarni, N. M. R.; Narayani, I.; Suaskara, I. B. M.

    2018-03-01

    Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn is one of a highly protein source of forage, however, it is not widely used for non ruminant feed because it contains antinutritional substances in the form of condensed tannin. Tannin can bind proteins, this tannin-protein complexes are difficult to be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, then will be defecated outside the body. To optimize the utilization of calliandra in the diet, pineapple peels were added as a source of protease (bromelain). Beside of waste utilization, it is expected that bromelain can degrade the tannin-protein complexes thereby reducing the negative effects of tannins. This research is a feeding experiment on male rabbit (Lepus sp), five weeks old. The diet formulation is prepared according to the standardized diet of the local rabbit. This experiment used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments i.e. control group which were only given commercial feed (R0), commercial feed contained 15% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R1), commercial feed contained 30% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R2), and commercial feed contained 45% of Calliandra and 30% of pineapple peel (R3). The treatment was done for three months. The results of this study on the reproduction of male rabbits showed that the increase of calliandra leaf meal level in a diet containing 30% of pineapple peels affected the testicular histology, and also decreased the diameter of seminiferous tubule and blood testosterone levels of male rabbits.

  5. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

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    Stone Chris M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net. In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar sources, female An. gambiae appear to prefer a nearby human source of blood

  6. Influence of blood meal and mating in reproduction patterns of Triatoma brasiliensis females (Hemiptera: Reduviidae under laboratory conditions

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    Natália Faria Daflon-Teixeira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of blood meal and mating on Triatoma brasiliensis (Neiva female fecundity, fertility, life-span and the preoviposition period were investigated under laboratory conditions. Nourishment increased fecundity, fertility and adult lifespan, whereas mating increased fecundity, fertility and decreased the preoviposition period. Females also required more than one mating to reach their full reproductive potential. Results indicate that both nourishment and mating are important in T. brasiliensis proliferation. Such information will help towards developing effective control strategies of this vector of Chagas disease.

  7. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

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    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  8. Malaria vectors and their blood-meal sources in an area of high bed net ownership in the western Kenya highlands.

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    Ndenga, Bryson A; Mulaya, Nicholas L; Musaki, Sandra K; Shiroko, Joan N; Dongus, Stefan; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2016-02-09

    Blood-meal sources of malaria vectors affect their capacity to transmit the disease. Most efficient malaria vectors prefer human hosts. However, with increasing personal protection measures it becomes more difficult for them to find human hosts. Here recent malaria vector blood-meal sources in western Kenya highlands were investigated. Adult mosquitoes resting indoors, outdoors and exiting through windows were collected in three study areas within the western Kenya highlands from June 2011 to June 2013. A census of people, livestock and of insecticide-treated nets was done per house. Mosquito blood-meal sources were determined as human, goat, bovine or chicken using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays. Most (86.3 %) households possessed at least one bed net, 57.2 % had domesticated animals and 83.6 % had people sharing houses with livestock at night. Most (94.9 %) unfed malaria vectors were caught exiting through windows. Overall, 53.1 % of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto obtained blood-meals from humans, 26.5 % from goats and 18.4 % from bovines. Single blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. from humans were 26.5 %, 8.2 % from bovines and 2.0 % from goats. Mixed blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. identified included: 24.5 % human/goat, 10.2 % human/bovine, 8.2 % human/bovine/goat and also 8.2 % bovine/goat. One An. arabiensis mosquito obtained blood-meal only from humans. An unusually high frequency of animal and mixed human-animal blood meals in the major malaria vector An. gambiae s.s. was revealed in the western Kenya highlands where bed net coverage is above the WHO target. The shift in blood-meal sources from humans to livestock is most likely the vectors' response to increased bed net coverage and the close location of livestock frequently in the same house as people at night. Livestock-targeted interventions should be considered under these circumstances to address residual malaria transmission.

  9. The effectiveness of dietary sunflower meal and exogenous enzyme on growth, digestive enzymes, carcass traits, and blood chemistry of broilers.

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    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Attia, Adel I; Ibrahim, Zenat A; Mahmoud, Reda A; El-Sayed, Sabry A

    2017-05-01

    High costs of conventional protein feed sources including soybean meal (SBM) generated the need for finding other alternatives. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of graded replacements of SBM by sunflower seed meal (SFM) with or without enzyme supplementation on growth performance, digestive enzymes, carcass traits, and blood profile of broiler chickens. A total of 240 unsexed 1-week-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups of 30 chicks each in five replicates each of six chicks in a factorial design (4 × 2) arrangement, including four levels of SFM (0, 25, 50, and 75% replacing SBM) and two levels of enzyme (0- or 0.1-g/kg diet) supplementation. Performance traits including feed conversion ratio, body weight, and weight gain were significantly (P enzyme supplementation in broiler diet during the experiment. However, feed intake of broiler chicks was decreased with enzyme supplementation (P enzymes (protease and amylase) were significantly (P enzyme inclusion in diets, respectively. The activities of protease and amylase were improved with SFM diet supplemented with 0.1 g/kg enzyme in comparison with those with the un-supplemented diet. The evaluated carcass traits were not statistically (P > 0.05) influenced by feeding SFM meal or enzyme addition. Biochemical blood parameters were significantly (P enzyme, or their interaction in broiler diets, except for globulin that was not affected by dietary enzyme. It is concluded that increasing SFM level in the diet up to 50% replacing SBM with the supplementation of enzyme improved the growth performance and enhanced positively carcass traits as well as the activity of digestive enzymes in broiler chickens.

  10. A de novo transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Asian tiger mosquitoes Aedes albopictus: insights into diuresis, detoxification, and blood meal processing

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    Carlos J. Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In adult female mosquitoes, the renal (Malpighian tubules play an important role in the post-prandial diuresis, which removes excess ions and water from the hemolymph of mosquitoes following a blood meal. After the post-prandial diuresis, the roles that Malpighian tubules play in the processing of blood meals are not well described. Methods. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing (paired-end RNA sequencing and physiological/biochemical assays in adult female Asian tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus to generate molecular and functional insights into the Malpighian tubules and how they may contribute to blood meal processing (3–24 h after blood ingestion. Results/Discussion. Using RNA sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the first de novo transcriptome of Malpighian tubules from non-blood-fed (NBF and blood-fed (BF mosquitoes. We identified a total of 8,232 non-redundant transcripts. The Malpighian tubules of NBF mosquitoes were characterized by the expression of transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis (e.g., ion transporters, water channels, V-type H+-ATPase subunits, xenobiotic detoxification (e.g., cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and purine metabolism (e.g., xanthine dehydrogenase. We also detected the expression of transcripts encoding sodium calcium exchangers, G protein coupled-receptors, and septate junctional proteins not previously described in mosquito Malpighian tubules. Within 24 h after a blood meal, transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis exhibited a general downregulation, whereas those associated with xenobiotic detoxification and purine catabolism exhibited a general upregulation, suggesting a reinvestment of the Malpighian tubules’ molecular resources from diuresis to detoxification. Physiological and biochemical assays were conducted in mosquitoes and isolated

  11. A de novo transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Asian tiger mosquitoes Aedes albopictus: insights into diuresis, detoxification, and blood meal processing.

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    Esquivel, Carlos J; Cassone, Bryan J; Piermarini, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In adult female mosquitoes, the renal (Malpighian) tubules play an important role in the post-prandial diuresis, which removes excess ions and water from the hemolymph of mosquitoes following a blood meal. After the post-prandial diuresis, the roles that Malpighian tubules play in the processing of blood meals are not well described. Methods. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing (paired-end RNA sequencing) and physiological/biochemical assays in adult female Asian tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus) to generate molecular and functional insights into the Malpighian tubules and how they may contribute to blood meal processing (3-24 h after blood ingestion). Results/Discussion. Using RNA sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the first de novo transcriptome of Malpighian tubules from non-blood-fed (NBF) and blood-fed (BF) mosquitoes. We identified a total of 8,232 non-redundant transcripts. The Malpighian tubules of NBF mosquitoes were characterized by the expression of transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis (e.g., ion transporters, water channels, V-type H(+)-ATPase subunits), xenobiotic detoxification (e.g., cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters), and purine metabolism (e.g., xanthine dehydrogenase). We also detected the expression of transcripts encoding sodium calcium exchangers, G protein coupled-receptors, and septate junctional proteins not previously described in mosquito Malpighian tubules. Within 24 h after a blood meal, transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis exhibited a general downregulation, whereas those associated with xenobiotic detoxification and purine catabolism exhibited a general upregulation, suggesting a reinvestment of the Malpighian tubules' molecular resources from diuresis to detoxification. Physiological and biochemical assays were conducted in mosquitoes and isolated Malpighian tubules

  12. Characterization of a blood-meal-responsive proton-dependent amino acid transporter in the disease vector, Aedes aegypti

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    Evans, Amy M.; Aimanova, Karlygash G.; Gill, Sarjeet S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary After anautogenous mosquitoes ingest the required blood meal, proteins in it are rapidly cleaved, yielding a large pool of amino acids. Transport of these amino acids into gut epithelial cells and their subsequent translocation into other tissues is critical for oogenesis and other physiological processes. We have identified a proton amino acid transporter (PAT) in Aedes aegypti (AaePAT1, AAEL007191) which facilitates this transport and is expressed in epithelial cell membranes of larval caecae and the adult midgut. AaePAT1 encodes a 475 amino acid protein showing high similarity to Anopheles gambiae AGAP009896, Culex pipiens CPIJ011438 and Drosophila melanogaster CG7888. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the transport kinetics showed AaePAT1 is a low affinity transporter with low substrate specificity, having Km and Vmax values of about 7.2 mmol l–1 and 69 pmol oocyte–1 min–1, respectively, for glutamine. A number of other amino acids are also transported by this PAT. In female adult midgut, AaePAT1 transcript levels were induced after ingestion of a blood meal. PMID:19801431

  13. The relationship between wing length, blood meal volume, and fecundity for seven colonies of Anopheles species housed at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

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    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Pantuwattana, Kanchana; Tawong, Jaruwan; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; McCardle, Patrick W

    2015-12-01

    Established colonies of Anopheles campestris, Anopheles cracens, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles minimus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles sinensis are maintained at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS). Females were provided blood meals on human blood containing citrate as an anticoagulant using an artificial membrane feeder. The mean wing length, used as an estimate of body size, for each species was compared to blood-feeding duration (time), blood meal volume, and numbers of eggs oviposited. Except for An. campestris and An. cracens, there were significant interspecies differences in wing length. The mean blood meal volumes (mm(3)) of An. kleini and An. sinensis were significantly higher than the other 5 species. For all species, the ratios of unfed females weights/blood meal volumes were similar (range: 0.76-0.88), except for An. kleini (1.08) and An. cracens (0.52), that were significantly higher and lower, respectively. Adult females were allowed to feed undisturbed for 1, 3, and 5min intervals before blood feeding was interrupted. Except for An. campestris and An. sawadwongporni, the number of eggs oviposited were significantly higher for females that fed for 3min when compared to those that only fed for 1min. This information is critical to better understand the biology of colonized Anopheles spp. and their role in the transmission of malaria parasites as they relate to the relative size of adult females, mean volumes of blood of engorged females for each of the anopheline species, and the effect of blood feeding duration on specific blood meal volumes and fecundity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Blood Meal Enhances Innexin mRNA Expression in the Midgut, Malpighian Tubules, and Ovaries of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

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    Travis L. Calkins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause diseases of medical and veterinary importance. Female mosquitoes transmit these pathogens while taking a blood meal, which most species require to produce eggs. The period after a blood meal is a time of extreme physiological change that requires rapid coordination of specific tissues. Gap junctions (GJ are intercellular channels that aid in the coordination of cells within tissues via the direct transfer of certain small molecules and ions between cells. Evolutionarily distinct groups of proteins form the gap junctions of vertebrate and invertebrate animals (connexins and innexins, respectively. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes possess six genes encoding innexins: inx1, inx2, inx3, inx4, inx7, and inx8. The goal of this study was to identify potential roles of innexins in the physiology of mosquitoes after a blood meal by using qPCR to quantify their mRNA expression in adult females at 3 h and 24 h post-blood meal (PBM relative to non-blood-fed controls. We found that at 24 h PBM, expression levels of inx2, inx3, and inx4 mRNAs increased; inx2 was the most highly upregulated innexin in key tissues associated with blood-meal digestion and egg production (i.e., the midgut and ovaries, respectively. However, knocking down inx2 mRNA levels by over 75% via RNA interference had no significant effect on fecundity. Altogether, our results suggest that a blood meal influences the molecular expression of innexins in mosquitoes, but their specific physiological roles remain to be elucidated.

  15. A Blood Meal Enhances Innexin mRNA Expression in the Midgut, Malpighian Tubules, and Ovaries of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti.

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    Calkins, Travis L; Piermarini, Peter M

    2017-11-06

    Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause diseases of medical and veterinary importance. Female mosquitoes transmit these pathogens while taking a blood meal, which most species require to produce eggs. The period after a blood meal is a time of extreme physiological change that requires rapid coordination of specific tissues. Gap junctions (GJ) are intercellular channels that aid in the coordination of cells within tissues via the direct transfer of certain small molecules and ions between cells. Evolutionarily distinct groups of proteins form the gap junctions of vertebrate and invertebrate animals (connexins and innexins, respectively). Aedes aegypti mosquitoes possess six genes encoding innexins: inx1 , inx2 , inx3 , inx4 , inx7 , and inx8 . The goal of this study was to identify potential roles of innexins in the physiology of mosquitoes after a blood meal by using qPCR to quantify their mRNA expression in adult females at 3 h and 24 h post-blood meal (PBM) relative to non-blood-fed controls. We found that at 24 h PBM, expression levels of inx2 , inx3 , and inx4 mRNAs increased; inx2 was the most highly upregulated innexin in key tissues associated with blood-meal digestion and egg production (i.e., the midgut and ovaries, respectively). However, knocking down inx2 mRNA levels by over 75% via RNA interference had no significant effect on fecundity. Altogether, our results suggest that a blood meal influences the molecular expression of innexins in mosquitoes, but their specific physiological roles remain to be elucidated.

  16. The antioxidant role of xanthurenic acid in the Aedes aegypti midgut during digestion of a blood meal.

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    Vitor L A Lima

    Full Text Available In the midgut of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever, an intense release of heme and iron takes place during the digestion of a blood meal. Here, we demonstrated via chromatography, light absorption and mass spectrometry that xanthurenic acid (XA, a product of the oxidative metabolism of tryptophan, is produced in the digestive apparatus after the ingestion of a blood meal and reaches milimolar levels after 24 h, the period of maximal digestive activity. XA formation does not occur in the White Eye (WE strain, which lacks kynurenine hydroxylase and accumulates kynurenic acid. The formation of XA can be diminished by feeding the insect with 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[4-(3-nitrophenylthiazol-2-yl] benzenesulfonamide (Ro-61-8048, an inhibitor of XA biosynthesis. Moreover, XA inhibits the phospholipid oxidation induced by heme or iron. A major fraction of this antioxidant activity is due to the capacity of XA to bind both heme and iron, which occurs at a slightly alkaline pH (7.5-8.0, a condition found in the insect midgut. The midgut epithelial cells of the WE mosquito has a marked increase in occurrence of cell death, which is reversed to levels similar to the wild type mosquitoes by feeding the insects with blood supplemented with XA, confirming the protective role of this molecule. Collectively, these results suggest a new role for XA as a heme and iron chelator that provides protection as an antioxidant and may help these animals adapt to a blood feeding habit.

  17. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

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    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  18. Nonparametric Identification of Glucose-Insulin Process in IDDM Patient with Multi-meal Disturbance

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    Bhattacharjee, A.; Sutradhar, A.

    2012-12-01

    Modern close loop control for blood glucose level in a diabetic patient necessarily uses an explicit model of the process. A fixed parameter full order or reduced order model does not characterize the inter-patient and intra-patient parameter variability. This paper deals with a frequency domain nonparametric identification of the nonlinear glucose-insulin process in an insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patient that captures the process dynamics in presence of uncertainties and parameter variations. An online frequency domain kernel estimation method has been proposed that uses the input-output data from the 19th order first principle model of the patient in intravenous route. Volterra equations up to second order kernels with extended input vector for a Hammerstein model are solved online by adaptive recursive least square (ARLS) algorithm. The frequency domain kernels are estimated using the harmonic excitation input data sequence from the virtual patient model. A short filter memory length of M = 2 was found sufficient to yield acceptable accuracy with lesser computation time. The nonparametric models are useful for closed loop control, where the frequency domain kernels can be directly used as the transfer function. The validation results show good fit both in frequency and time domain responses with nominal patient as well as with parameter variations.

  19. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR IN HYBRID FISH (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON WHEAT BRAN, RICE BROKEN AND BLOOD MEAL

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    UM-E-KALSOOM, M. SALIM, T. SHAHZADI AND A. BARLAS1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of wheat bran, rice broken and blood meal were evaluated in hybrid fish Catla catla x Labeo rohita. Two replicates for each treatment (ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fish fingerlings twice a day. The fish gained higher body weight (1.60 ± 0.14g on wheat bran, followed by rice broken (1.51 ± 0.07g and blood meal (1.24 ± 0.09g. The body weight of fish on wheat bran and rice broken was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those fed blood meal, while the difference between the former two groups was non significant. The total length obtained by the fish averaged 5.06 ± 0.03, 5.05 ± 0.09 and 4.96 ± 0.32 cm on wheat bran, rice broken and blood meal, respectively, the difference being non significant. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was highest (poorest on blood meal (1.68 ± 0.96, followed by that of rice broken (1.64 ± 0.64 and wheat bran (1.59 ± 0.71. The FCR value for wheat bran was significantly better than that for rice broken and blood meal. It was concluded that efficacy of wheat bran was better for the growth of hybrid fish and this supported the inclusion of this ingredient in the diet of hybrids.

  20. Blood meal sources of wild and domestic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Bolivia: connectivity between cycles of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Buitrago, Rosio; Bosseno, Marie-France; Depickère, Stéphanie; Waleckx, Etienne; Salas, Renata; Aliaga, Claudia; Barnabé, Christian; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2016-04-18

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. Its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted through the contaminated faeces of blood-sucking insects called triatomines. Triatoma infestans is the main vector in various countries in South America and recently, several foci of wild populations of this species have been described in Bolivia and other countries. These wild populations are suspected of affecting the success of insecticide control campaigns being carried out in South America. To assess the risk that these T. infestans populations pose to human health, it is helpful to determine blood meal sources. In the present work, blood meals were identified in various Bolivian wild T. infestans populations and in three specific areas, in both wild and intra-peridomestic populations to assess the links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. PCR-HDA and sequencing of Cytb gene were used to identify these blood meal sources. Fourteen vertebrate species were identified as wild blood meal sources. Of those, the most prevalent species were two Andean endemic rodents, Octodontomys gliroides (36%) and Galea musteloides (30%), while humans were the third most prevalent source (18.7%). Of 163 blood meals from peridomestic areas, more than half were chickens, and the others were generally domestic animals or humans. Interestingly, blood from wild animals was identified in triatomines captured in the peridomestic and domestic environment, and blood from domestic animals was found in triatomines captured in the wild, revealing links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. The current study suggests that wild T. infestans attack humans in the wild, but is also able to bite humans in domestic settings before going back to its natural environment. These results support the risk to human health posed by wild populations of T. infestans.

  1. Supplementation of Mangosteen Pericarp Meal and Vitamin E on Egg Quality and Blood Profile of Laying Hens

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    R. K. Rusli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the supplementation effects of mangosteen pericarp meal (MPM and vitamin E (VE in the diets on the egg quality and blood profile of laying hens. This research used 160 laying hens of Lohman strains 24 weeks of age. The observation was conducted for 11 weeks. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications (10 birds each was used in this experiment. The treatments consisted of R0 (control diet, R1 (R0 + 1 g MPM/kg ration, R2 (R0 + 2 g MPM/kg ration and R3 (R0 + 200 mg VE/kg ration. Variables measured were egg quality, yolk cholesterol, and blood profiles. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA and any significant difference between the treatment means were further tested by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of 1 g MPM/kg ration in the diet significantly (P0.05 egg quality (except shell thickness, blood cholesterol, and HDL, respectively. In conclusion, supplementation of 1 g MPM/kg in the diet of laying hens could decrease blood triglycerides.

  2. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    ) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained......is unclear whether postprandial blood glucose or insulin exerts a regulatory function in short-term appetite regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of meta-analysis, the role of blood glucose and insulin in short-term appetite sensation and energy intake (EI......). The only association involving blood glucose was the multivariate IPD analysis showing an inverse association between blood glucose and El in ALL (P=0 center dot 032). Our results suggest that insulin, but not glucose, is associated with short-term appetite regulation in healthy participants...

  3. Blood meal analysis and virus detection in blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomiah, Joel; Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel; Mutai, Collins; Mireji, Paul O; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Ken J; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the blood meals. Blood meals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for viruses using Vero cells and RT-PCR. DNA was also extracted and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified by PCR. Purified amplicons were sequenced and queried in GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) to identify the putative blood meal sources. The predominant species in Garissa were Aedes ochraceus, (n=561, 76%) and Ae. mcintoshi, (n=176, 24%), and Mansonia uniformis, (n=24, 72.7%) in Baringo. Ae. ochraceus fed on goats (37.6%), cattle (16.4%), donkeys (10.7%), sheep (5.9%), and humans (5.3%). Ae. mcintoshi fed on the same animals in almost equal proportions. RVFV was isolated from Ae. ochraceus that had fed on sheep (4), goats (3), human (1), cattle (1), and unidentified host (1), with infection and dissemination rates of 1.8% (10/561) and 50% (5/10), respectively, and 0.56% (1/176) and 100% (1/1) in Ae. mcintoshi. In Baringo, Ma. uniformis fed on sheep (38%), frogs (13%), duikers (8%), cattle (4%), goats (4%), and unidentified hosts (29%), with infection and dissemination rates of 25% (6/24) and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. Ndumu virus (NDUV) was also isolated from Ae. ochraceus with infection and dissemination rates of 2.3% (13/561) and 76.9% (10/13), and Ae. mcintoshi, 2.8% (5/176) and 80% (4/5), respectively. Ten of the infected Ae. ochraceus had fed on goats, sheep (1), and unidentified hosts (2), and Ae. mcintoshi on goats (3), camel (1), and donkey (1). This study has demonstrated that RVFV and NDUV were concurrently circulating during the outbreak, and sheep and goats were the main amplifiers of these viruses respectively.

  4. Transcriptomic evidence for a dramatic functional transition of the malpighian tubules after a blood meal in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus.

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    Carlos J Esquivel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of a vertebrate blood meal by adult female mosquitoes is necessary for their reproduction, but it also presents significant physiological challenges to mosquito osmoregulation and metabolism. The renal (Malpighian tubules of mosquitoes play critical roles in the initial processing of the blood meal by excreting excess water and salts that are ingested. However, it is unclear how the tubules contribute to the metabolism and excretion of wastes (e.g., heme, ammonia produced during the digestion of blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used RNA-Seq to examine global changes in transcript expression in the Malpighian tubules of the highly-invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus during the first 24 h after consuming a blood meal. We found progressive, global changes in the transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules isolated from mosquitoes at 3 h, 12 h, and 24 h after a blood meal. Notably, a DAVID functional cluster analysis of the differentially-expressed transcripts revealed 1 a down-regulation of transcripts associated with oxidative metabolism, active transport, and mRNA translation, and 2 an up-regulation of transcripts associated with antioxidants and detoxification, proteolytic activity, amino-acid metabolism, and cytoskeletal dynamics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that blood feeding elicits a functional transition of the epithelium from one specializing in active transepithelial fluid secretion (e.g., diuresis to one specializing in detoxification and metabolic waste excretion. Our findings provide the first insights into the putative roles of mosquito Malpighian tubules in the chronic processing of blood meals.

  5. A highly stable blood meal alternative for rearing Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Ted; Peterson, Chelsea; Ortega, Corrie; Preston, Sarah R; Paton, Christopher; Williams, Jessica; Guy, Amy; Omodei, Gavin; Johnson, Brian; Williams, Helen; O'Neill, Scott L; Ritchie, Scott A; Dobson, Stephen L; Madan, Damian

    2017-12-01

    We investigated alternatives to whole blood for blood feeding of mosquitoes with a focus on improved stability and compatibility with mass rearing programs. In contrast to whole blood, an artificial blood diet of ATP-supplemented plasma was effective in maintaining mosquito populations and was compatible with storage for extended periods refrigerated, frozen, and as a lyophilized powder. The plasma ATP diet supported rearing of both Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. It was also effective in rearing Wolbachia-infected Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting compatibility with vector control efforts.

  6. A highly stable blood meal alternative for rearing Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Baughman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated alternatives to whole blood for blood feeding of mosquitoes with a focus on improved stability and compatibility with mass rearing programs. In contrast to whole blood, an artificial blood diet of ATP-supplemented plasma was effective in maintaining mosquito populations and was compatible with storage for extended periods refrigerated, frozen, and as a lyophilized powder. The plasma ATP diet supported rearing of both Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. It was also effective in rearing Wolbachia-infected Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting compatibility with vector control efforts.

  7. Influence of the blood meal source on the biology of Meccus picturatus Usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Martínez-Ibarra José Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, time-lapse between presenting the blood meal and beginning of feeding, feeding time, postfeed defecation delay,life time, mortality and fecundity for each stage of Meccus picturatus, life-cycle were evaluated and compared in two cohorts of M. picturatus fed on hens or rabbits. The hatching rate observed for each of the two studied groups of eggs was 78.1% (n = 2298 on the group fed on hens and 82.1% (n = 2704 on that fed on rabbits, and the average time of hatching was 20 days. Mean time-lapse for beginning feeding was under 3 min in nymphal stages and postfeed defecation delay was under 10 min in all stages, in both cohorts. Mean feeding time was significantly (P 0.05 differences were recorded among the average times from NI to adult in the cohort fed on hens (196.8 ± 15.8 days and the average time in the cohort fed on rabbits (189.5 ± 22.9. The average span in days for each stage fed on hens was not significantly different to the average span for each stage fed on rabbits. The number of blood meals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 6 in both cohorts. The mortality rates were higher on fifth nymphal stage, in both cohorts. No significant (P > 0.05 differences were recorded on mortality rates on most nymphal stages of both cohorts. The average number of eggs laid per female from the cohort fed on hens in a 9-month period was 791.1, whereas the average number of eggs in the cohort fed on rabbits was 928.3.

  8. Cheiloscopy and blood groups: Aid in forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Bushra; Gupta, Devanand

    2014-10-01

    Every person has certain features that make them radically distinct from others. One such feature is lip prints. Lip prints remain the same throughout life and are uninfluenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. Different individuals have specific blood groups according to the various antigen-antibody reactions in their bloodstream. To determine the distribution of different patterns of lip prints among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups. To determine the correlation between respective characteristics of subjects. In this study, lip prints were obtained from 122 subjects (62 males and 60 females), and associated blood-group matching was performed to determine the predominant lip print type and to determine any correlation between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi's classification of type I (complete vertical grooves), type I' (incomplete vertical grooves), type II (forking grooves), type III (intersecting grooves), type IV (reticular grooves), and type V (indeterminate grooves) was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. No correlation was found between lip prints and blood groups. No significant correlation exists between blood group and lip prints. Lip prints play a vital role in identification because they are unique.

  9. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  10. Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C K; Liu, Y; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of 2 high-protein canola meals (canola meal A [CMA]: 45.69% CP and canola meal B [CMB]: 46.97% CP) and a conventional canola meal (CM-CV: 35.10% CP) on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood parameters of weanling pigs. Inclusion rates of canola meal (CM) in the diets were 10, 20, 30, or 40% for CMA and CM-CV, whereas inclusions were 10, 20, or 30% for CMB. A control diet containing no CM was also formulated. Therefore, 12 diets were used in this experiment. A total of 420 pigs (initial BW: 9.8 ± 1.1 kg) were divided into 3 blocks and randomly allotted to 1 of the 12 diets with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 4 or 5 pigs per pen. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and at the conclusion of the experiment, 1 pig in each pen was euthanized to allow measurements of organ weights, collection of blood, and collection of the third and fourth metacarpals from the left foot. Results indicate that ADFI was linearly (P ash percentage in the metacarpals. Inclusion of CMA or CM-CV linearly (P < 0.05) decreased concentrations of serum triiodothyronine, and the inclusion of CMA also linearly (P < 0.05) decreased serum thyroxine concentrations. No differences were observed for complete blood counts or blood urea nitrogen if CM was added to the diets. In conclusion, up to 20% high-protein CM or CM-CV may be included in diets for weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning without reducing growth performance or negatively affecting organ, bone, or blood parameters. In some instances, it may also be possible to use greater inclusion rates.

  11. The Potential Use of Forensic DNA Methods Applied to Sand Fly Blood Meal Analysis to Identify the Infection Reservoirs of Anthroponotic Visceral Leishmaniasis.

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    Ehud Inbar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian sub-continent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as kala azar, is a fatal form of leishmaniasis caused by the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. VL is prevalent in northeast India where it is believed to have an exclusive anthroponotic transmission cycle. There are four distinct cohorts of L. donovani exposed individuals who can potentially serve as infection reservoirs: patients with active disease, cured VL cases, patients with post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL, and asymptomatic individuals. The relative contribution of each group to sustaining the transmission cycle of VL is not known.To answer this critical epidemiological question, we have addressed the feasibility of an approach that would use forensic DNA methods to recover human DNA profiles from the blood meals of infected sand flies that would then be matched to reference DNA sampled from individuals living or working in the vicinity of the sand fly collections. We found that the ability to obtain readable human DNA fingerprints from sand flies depended entirely on the size of the blood meal and the kinetics of its digestion. Useable profiles were obtained from most flies within the first 24 hours post blood meal (PBM, with a sharp decline at 48 hours and no readable profiles at 72 hours. This early time frame necessitated development of a sensitive, nested-PCR method compatible with detecting L. donovani within a fresh, 24 hours blood meal in flies fed on infected hamsters.Our findings establish the feasibility of the forensic DNA method to directly trace the human source of an infected blood meal, with constraints imposed by the requirement that the flies be recovered for analysis within 24 hours of their infective feed.

  12. The Potential Use of Forensic DNA Methods Applied to Sand Fly Blood Meal Analysis to Identify the Infection Reservoirs of Anthroponotic Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Ehud; Lawyer, Philip; Sacks, David; Podini, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    In the Indian sub-continent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala azar, is a fatal form of leishmaniasis caused by the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. VL is prevalent in northeast India where it is believed to have an exclusive anthroponotic transmission cycle. There are four distinct cohorts of L. donovani exposed individuals who can potentially serve as infection reservoirs: patients with active disease, cured VL cases, patients with post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), and asymptomatic individuals. The relative contribution of each group to sustaining the transmission cycle of VL is not known. To answer this critical epidemiological question, we have addressed the feasibility of an approach that would use forensic DNA methods to recover human DNA profiles from the blood meals of infected sand flies that would then be matched to reference DNA sampled from individuals living or working in the vicinity of the sand fly collections. We found that the ability to obtain readable human DNA fingerprints from sand flies depended entirely on the size of the blood meal and the kinetics of its digestion. Useable profiles were obtained from most flies within the first 24 hours post blood meal (PBM), with a sharp decline at 48 hours and no readable profiles at 72 hours. This early time frame necessitated development of a sensitive, nested-PCR method compatible with detecting L. donovani within a fresh, 24 hours blood meal in flies fed on infected hamsters. Our findings establish the feasibility of the forensic DNA method to directly trace the human source of an infected blood meal, with constraints imposed by the requirement that the flies be recovered for analysis within 24 hours of their infective feed.

  13. A ¤high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor vii in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Larsen, L. F.; Bladbjerg, E.-M.

    2001-01-01

    tool. We studied postprandial FVII activation in seven non-fasting Göttingen minipigs. Intralipid (4 g/kg) was administered through a gastric tube in two fractions at 9.00 a.m. (one-third of total dose) and 10.30 a.m. (two-thirds of total dose). Blood samples were drawn 0.5 h before (baseline) and 2, 3......It is a matter of debate whether postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To clarify this question, an animal model in which consequences of dietary FVII activation can be studied in a more detailed way would be an important...... to activate blood coagulation FVII in minipigs, the pig is apparently not a relevant model for the study of dietary FVII activation and thrombin generation. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Mar...

  14. Determination of Metabolizable Eenergy, Protein Quality and Chemical Composition of Blood Meal for Broiler Chickens and Adult Leghorn Rosters

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    M Ghafoorian Rad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to study metabolizable energy, protein quality and chemical composition of four blood meal (BM samples from local animal rendering plant during 20 days sampling. All experiments were designed in a completely randomized design. The result of first experiment showed that chemical composition averages of BM samples were: DM, 88.43; CP, 77.03; EE, 1.12; Ash, 5.01; Ca, 0.46; P, 0.37 percent. CP and DM percentage of BM samples were significantly different from NRC, 1994. Mean gross energy of the samples was 4193 Kcal/kg. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and Net protein ratio (NPR were assessed using an experiment including 6 treatments, 4 replicates and 7 Ross male broiler chickens in each replicate. PER and NPR varied between 1.21 to 1.38, and 2.18 to 2.41 among BM samples, respectively. PER and NPR values were significantly lower than that of corresponding values in fish meal. In second experiment, the BM samples were substituted at 5 and 10 percent of corn-based diet and nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn was evaluated in adult roosters with total excreta collection assay. AMEn values did not show significant difference among BM samples at tow substitution levels, 5 and 10 % of corn based diet. AMEn values varied from 2504 to 2573 kcal/kg. In third experiment, nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn was determined by Sibbald’s precision-fed assay. This experiment included 5 treatments and 6 replicates in each replicate. Means of TMEn was 2895 kcal/kg in the BM samples that there was not significant difference among BM samples.

  15. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    .03;0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001;0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23;1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4;2.6) mmHg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2;2.0) energy %, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6;12.7) % (all P≤0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep...

  16. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    , 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  17. Blood meal induced regulation of the chemosensory gene repertoire in the southern house mosquito

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taparia, Tanvi; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon Rose

    2017-01-01

    Background: The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and

  18. Anopheles midgut epithelium evades human complement activity by capturing factor H from the blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ayman; Barroso, Marta; Miettinen, Tiera; Meri, Seppo

    2015-02-01

    Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood.

  19. Anopheles midgut epithelium evades human complement activity by capturing factor H from the blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Khattab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood.

  20. Leishmania mortality in sand fly blood meal is not species-specific and does not result from direct effect of proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Myskova, Jitka; Lestinova, Tereza; Janda, Jozef; Volf, Petr

    2018-01-15

    Leishmania development in sand flies is confined to the alimentary tract and is closely connected with blood meal digestion. Previously, it has been published that activities of sand fly midgut proteases are harmful to Leishmania, especially to amastigote-promastigote transition forms. However, our experiments with various Leishmania-sand fly pairs gave quite opposite results. We evaluated the effect of semi-digested midgut content on different life stages of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major in vitro. Various morphological forms of parasites, including macrophage-derived amastigotes and transition forms, were incubated 2 h with midguts dissected at various intervals (6-72 h) post-blood meal or with commercially available proteinase, and their viability was determined using flow cytometry. In parallel, using amastigote-initiated experimental infections, we compared development of L. donovani in sand flies that are either susceptible (Phlebotomus argentipes and P. orientalis) or refractory (P. papatasi and Sergentomyia schwetzi) to this parasite. In vitro, sand fly midgut homogenates affected L. major and L. donovani in a similar way; in all sand fly species, the most significant mortality effect was observed by the end of the blood meal digestion process. Surprisingly, the most susceptible Leishmania stages were promastigotes, while mortality of transforming parasites and amastigotes was significantly lower. Parasites were also susceptible to killing by rabbit blood in combination with proteinase, but resistant to proteinase itself. In vivo, L. donovani developed late-stage infections in both natural vectors; in P. argentipes the development was much faster than in P. orientalis. On the other hand, in refractory species P. papatasi and S. schwetzi, promastigotes survived activity of digestive enzymes but were lost during defecation. We demonstrated that Leishmania transition forms are more resistant to the killing effect of semi-digested blood meal than 24

  1. Slugs' last meals: molecular identification of sequestered chloroplasts from different algal origins in Sacoglossa (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike; Wahrmund, Ute; Rüdinger, Mareike; Knoop, Volker

    2010-11-01

    Some sacoglossan sea slugs have become famous for their unique capability to extract and incorporate functional chloroplasts from algal food organisms (mainly Ulvophyceae) into their gut cells. The functional incorporation of the so-called kleptoplasts allows the slugs to rely on photosynthetic products for weeks to months, enabling them to survive long periods of food shortage over most of their life-span. The algal food spectrum providing kleptoplasts as temporary, non-inherited endosymbionts appears to vary among sacoglossan slugs, but detailed knowledge is sketchy or unavailable. Accurate identification of algal donor species, which provide the chloroplasts for long-term retention is of primary importance to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms allowing long-term functionality of the captured chloroplast in the foreign animal cell environment. Whereas some sacoglossans forage on a variety of algal species, (e.g. Elysia crispata and E. viridis) others are more selective. Hence, characterizing the range of functional sacoglossan-chloroplast associations in nature is a prerequisite to understand the basis of this enigmatic endosymbiosis. Here, we present a suitable chloroplast gene (tufA) as a marker, which allows identification of the respective algal kleptoplast donor taxa by analysing DNA from whole animals. This novel approach allows identification of donor algae on genus or even species level, thus providing evidence for the taxonomic range of food organisms. We report molecular evidence that chloroplasts from different algal sources are simultaneously incorporated in some species of Elysia. NeigborNet analyses for species assignments are preferred over tree reconstruction methods because the former allow more reliable statements on species identification via barcoding, or rather visualize alternative allocations not to be seen in the latter. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Composition of Anopheles mosquitoes, their blood-meal hosts, and Plasmodium falciparum infection rates in three islands with disparate bed net coverage in Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogola, Edwin; Villinger, Jandouwe; Mabuka, Danspaid; Omondi, David; Orindi, Benedict; Mutunga, James; Owino, Vincent; Masiga, Daniel K

    2017-09-08

    Small islands serve as potential malaria reservoirs through which new infections might come to the mainland and may be important targets in malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated malaria vector species diversity, blood-meal hosts, Plasmodium infection rates, and long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage on Mageta, Magare and Ngodhe Islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya, a region where extensive vector control is implemented on the mainland. From trapping for six consecutive nights per month (November 2012 to March 2015) using CDC light traps, pyrethrum spray catches and backpack aspiration, 1868 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected. Based on their cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and intergenic spacer region PCR and sequencing, Anopheles gambiae s.l. (68.52%), Anopheles coustani (19.81%) and Anopheles funestus s.l. (11.67%) mosquitoes were differentiated. The mean abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes per building per trap was significantly higher (p blood-fed An. gambiae s.s. (n = 320), Anopheles arabiensis (n = 51), An. funestus s.s. (n = 29), and An. coustani (n = 16), respectively. Based on HRM analysis of vertebrate cytochrome b, 16S rRNA and COI PCR products, humans (72.36%) were the prominent blood-meal hosts of malaria vectors, but 20.91% of blood-meals were from non-human vertebrate hosts. These findings demonstrate high Plasmodium infection rates among the primary malaria vectors An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, as well as in An. coustani for the first time in the region, and that non-human blood-meal sources play an important role in their ecology. Further, the higher Anopheles mosquito abundances on the only low LLIN coverage island of Mageta suggests that high LLIN coverage has been effective in reducing malaria vector populations on Magare and Ngodhe Islands.

  3. The resting sites and blood-meal sources of Anopheles minimus in Taiwan

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    Chen Yung-Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO declared Taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. Therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of Anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies. Methods During a two-year survey, mosquitoes were collected in houses and their surrounding areas and at the bank of larval habitats by backpack aspirators in 17 villages in rural areas of southern and eastern Taiwan for 1 hr. On the same day, blacklight traps were hung downward overnight. Blood-fed mosquito samples were analysed by PCR. Results Of the 195 total households surveyed by backpack aspirators, no Anopheles adults were collected inside the houses, while a single Anopheles minimus and a single Anopheles maculatus were collected outside of the houses. On the same day, 23 An. minimus, two An. maculatus, two Anopheles ludlowae, two Anopheles sinensis, and one Anopheles tessellatus were collected along the bank of larval habitats. In blacklight traps hung outside of the houses in the villages, 69 An. minimus, 62 An. ludlowae, 31 An. sinensis, and 19 An. maculatus were collected. In larval habitats, 98 An. ludlowae, 64 An. minimus, 49 An. sinensis, and 14 An. maculatus were collected. Of a total of 10 blood-fed samples, An. minimus fed on four animals including bovine (60%, dogs (20%, pig (10%, and non-chicken avian (10%. Conclusion Anopheles minimus, an opportunist feeder in Taiwan, was not collected inside the houses, but was found outside of the houses in villages and surrounding larval habitats. Therefore, an outdoor transmission of malaria is likely to occur and, thus, the bed nets, which are favoured for controlling the late biting of An. minimus, should be a very efficient and effective method for those local residents who sleep outdoors. Additionally, space spray of

  4. The resting sites and blood-meal sources of Anopheles minimus in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chun; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Chen, Chen-Fu; Chen, Yung-Chen; Jeng, Chian-Ren

    2008-01-01

    Background The WHO declared Taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. Therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of Anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies. Methods During a two-year survey, mosquitoes were collected in houses and their surrounding areas and at the bank of larval habitats by backpack aspirators in 17 villages in rural areas of southern and eastern Taiwan for 1 hr. On the same day, blacklight traps were hung downward overnight. Blood-fed mosquito samples were analysed by PCR. Results Of the 195 total households surveyed by backpack aspirators, no Anopheles adults were collected inside the houses, while a single Anopheles minimus and a single Anopheles maculatus were collected outside of the houses. On the same day, 23 An. minimus, two An. maculatus, two Anopheles ludlowae, two Anopheles sinensis, and one Anopheles tessellatus were collected along the bank of larval habitats. In blacklight traps hung outside of the houses in the villages, 69 An. minimus, 62 An. ludlowae, 31 An. sinensis, and 19 An. maculatus were collected. In larval habitats, 98 An. ludlowae, 64 An. minimus, 49 An. sinensis, and 14 An. maculatus were collected. Of a total of 10 blood-fed samples, An. minimus fed on four animals including bovine (60%), dogs (20%), pig (10%), and non-chicken avian (10%). Conclusion Anopheles minimus, an opportunist feeder in Taiwan, was not collected inside the houses, but was found outside of the houses in villages and surrounding larval habitats. Therefore, an outdoor transmission of malaria is likely to occur and, thus, the bed nets, which are favoured for controlling the late biting of An. minimus, should be a very efficient and effective method for those local residents who sleep outdoors. Additionally, space spray of insecticides for Anopheles at

  5. Temporal differences in blood meal detection from the midguts of Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Pinto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We used genus/species specific PCRs to determine the temporal persistence of host DNA in Triatoma infestans experimentally fed on blood from six common vertebrate species: humans, domestic dogs, guinea pigs, chickens, mice, and pigs. Twenty third or fourth instar nymphs per animal group were allowed to feed to engorgement, followed by fasting-maintenance in the insectary. At 7, 14, 21, or 28 days post-feeding, the midgut contents from five triatomines per group were tested with the respective PCR assay. DNA from all vertebrate species was detected in at least four of five study nymphs at seven and 14 days post-feeding. DNA of humans, domestic dogs, guinea pigs, pigs, and chickens were more successfully detected (80-100% through day 21, and less successfully (20-100% at day 28. Findings demonstrate that species-specific PCRs can consistently identify feeding sources of T. infestans within two weeks, a biologically relevant time interval.

  6. Effect of rapeseed meal supplementation to gestation diet on reproductive performance, blood profiles and milk composition of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H B; Hong, J S; Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Jang, J C; Jeong, J H; Kim, Y Y

    2018-03-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) in gestation diets on reproductive performance, blood profiles, milk composition of sows, and growth of their progeny. A total of 55 mixed-parity sows (Yorkshire×Landrace; average parity = 3.82) with an initial body weight (BW) of 193.0 kg were used in this experiment. Sows were allotted to one of 5 treatments at breeding based on BW and backfat thickness in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%) in gestation diets. During lactation all sows were fed a common lactation diet with no RSM supplementation. Body weight, backfat thickness, litter size, lactation feed intake, and milk composition of sows, and growth of their progeny were not different among dietary treatments. In blood profiles, a quadratic increase (Quadratic, p<0.05) in serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentration and a linear increase (Linear, p<0.01) in serum thyroxine (T4) concentration were observed at d 110 of gestation as dietary RSM supplementation levels increased. However, serum T3 and T4 concentrations in lactating sows and their piglets were not affected by RSM supplementation of gestation diets. Concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in sows were not influenced by dietary treatments, whereas serum glucose level in sows decreased linearly at d 110 of gestation (Linear, p<0.05) by increasing dietary RSM supplementation in gestation diets. The RSM could be supplemented to gestation diets up to 12% with no detrimental effects on reproductive performance and growth of their progeny. However, increasing supplementation levels of RSM in gestation diets may increase serum T3 and T4 concentrations and decrease serum glucose concentration of sows in late gestation.

  7. High-resolution melting (HRM of the cytochrome B gene: a powerful approach to identify blood-meal sources in Chagas disease Vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Peña

    Full Text Available Methods to determine blood-meal sources of hematophagous Triatominae bugs (Chagas disease vectors are serological or based on PCR employing species-specific primers or heteroduplex analysis, but these are expensive, inaccurate, or problematic when the insect has fed on more than one species. To solve those problems, we developed a technique based on HRM analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome B (Cyt b. This technique recognized 14 species involved in several ecoepidemiological cycles of the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and it was suitable with DNA extracted from intestinal content and feces 30 days after feeding, revealing a resolution power that can display mixed feedings. Field samples were analyzed showing blood meal sources corresponding to domestic, peridomiciliary and sylvatic cycles. The technique only requires a single pair of primers that amplify the Cyt b gene in vertebrates and no other standardization, making it quick, easy, relatively inexpensive, and highly accurate.

  8. High-Resolution Melting (HRM) of the Cytochrome B Gene: A Powerful Approach to Identify Blood-Meal Sources in Chagas Disease Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Victor H.; Fernández, Geysson J.; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés M.; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana M.; Cantillo, Omar; Triana-Chávez, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Methods to determine blood-meal sources of hematophagous Triatominae bugs (Chagas disease vectors) are serological or based on PCR employing species-specific primers or heteroduplex analysis, but these are expensive, inaccurate, or problematic when the insect has fed on more than one species. To solve those problems, we developed a technique based on HRM analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome B (Cyt b). This technique recognized 14 species involved in several ecoepidemiological cycles of the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and it was suitable with DNA extracted from intestinal content and feces 30 days after feeding, revealing a resolution power that can display mixed feedings. Field samples were analyzed showing blood meal sources corresponding to domestic, peridomiciliary and sylvatic cycles. The technique only requires a single pair of primers that amplify the Cyt b gene in vertebrates and no other standardization, making it quick, easy, relatively inexpensive, and highly accurate. PMID:22389739

  9. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Zinser, Margaret; Ramberg, Frank; Willott, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile viru...

  10. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Zinser

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile virus vectors.

  11. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Margaret; Ramberg, Frank; Willott, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile virus vectors. PMID:15861236

  12. In-vessel co-composting of horse stable bedding waste and blood meal at different C/N ratios: process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Zhao, Zhenyong; Karthikeyana, Obuli P; Yu, Shuk Man; Law, Alex C W; Chung, Patricia C P

    2012-12-01

    Abattoir blood meal is rich in nitrogen and its potential as a co-composting material for horse stable bedding waste was evaluated at two C/N ratios -32 (LBM, low blood meal) and 16 (HBM, high blood meal) - to improve the nutrient contents of the final compost. The mix was composted for 7 days in a 10 tonne/day in-vessel composter and cured aerobically. After 56 days ofcomposting, the ammoniacal-N, CO2 evolution rate and C/N ratio of both LBM and HBM were within the guideline values; however, delayed decomposition and lower seed germination index were observed with HBM. In addition, HBM resulted in 84% loss of the initial ammoniacal-N. Almost similar organic decompositions, 62.4% and 59.6% with LBM and HBM, respectively, were achieved. However, a stable compost product can be obtained within 6-7 weeks with LBM, whereas >8 weeks were required for HBM composting. Therefore, co-composting at the C/N ratio of 32 is recommended to achieve odour-free and faster composting.

  13. Determination of the foraging behaviour and blood meal source of malaria vector mosquitoes in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka using a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Denipitiya, Thanuja; Hapugoda, Menaka; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2016-04-26

    Studies of host preference patterns in blood-feeding anopheline mosquitoes are crucial to incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from five selected sentinel sites in Trincomalee District during June-September 2011. Each blood-fed mosquito was processed on filter papers. DNA was extracted using the dried blood meal protocol of the QIAmp DNA mini kit. A multiplexed, real-time PCR assay targeting eight animals was developed for two panels to identify the host meal of Anopheles. Human blood index (HBI), forage ratio (FR) and host feeding index (HFI) were calculated. A total of 280 field-caught, freshly engorged female mosquitoes belonging to 12 anopheline species were analysed. The overall HBI and HFI in the present study were low indicating that humans were not the preferred host for the tested anopheline species. Nevertheless, a small proportion engorged Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pseudojamesi, and Anopheles barbumbrosus contained human blood. The presence of human blood in mosquito species indicates the possibility of them transmitting malaria. Further studies on vector competence are needed to determine the role of each of the above anopheline species as efficient vectors of malaria.

  14. Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace] ×Duroc with an initial body weight (BW 29.94±0.06 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12% in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05 of BW and average daily gain (ADG were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08. Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01 by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05. Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08 at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09. Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9

  15. Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H B; Jeong, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y; Kwon, H; Kim, Y Y

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace] ×Duroc) with an initial body weight (BW) 29.94±0.06 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12%) in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05) of BW and average daily gain (ADG) were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F) tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08). Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01) by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05). Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08) at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09). Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9% (3.07

  16. Production traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acids of meat and tallow in response to the partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in organic lambs' feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Antunović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the production traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acids of meat and tallow in response to the partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in lambs' feed. The research was conducted on 30 Merinolandschaf lambs of 90 days' age over 30 days. Lambs were fed with feed mixture (1000 g day−1 lamb−1. In the control group protein supplement was soybean meal (SC, while in the experimental groups soybean meal was partially replaced with 13 % peas (P13 and 26 % peas (P26. In the haematological parameters of lambs' blood, concentrations of minerals (Ca, P, Mg and Fe and biochemical parameters (urea, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulins, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, β-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids as well as enzyme activity (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and CK were determined. After slaughter, carcass development was measured. Samples of m. semimembranosus and tallow were taken in which concentrations of fatty acids were analysed. Values of meat pH and colour were taken 45 min 24 h post mortem, and water-holding capacity was calculated. By analysing the production properties of lamb, we found that slaughtering characteristics of lamb carcasses, haematological and most of the biochemical indicators did not differ. Urea concentrations were reduced in the blood of lambs in P13 and P26. Concentration of C18:2 n-6 increased in tallow of lambs of group SC compared to group P26 of lambs. The above-mentioned results indicate the possibility of partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in lambs' diets in organic farming without changes in production.

  17. Digestibility Study and Nutrient Re-evaluation in Clarias gariepinus Fed Blood Meal-Rumen Digesta Blend Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bola M. LAWAL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient utilization and digestibility of blood meal-bovine rumen digesta blend diet (BMBRD fed to Clarias gariepinus burchell (1822 was assessed using 60 C. gariepinus juveniles with a view to confirming the digestibility and suitability of the BMBRD blend inclusion level in the diet of C. gariepinus for sustainable clariid production. Two set of three iso-nitrogenous experimental diets containing 35% crude protein were formulated with 0%, 25% and 50% BMBRD inclusion level to substitute the fishmeal component which was the primary protein source. The first set of experimental diet was designed to monitor the growth performance and feed utilization was fed fortnightly in duplicate to C. gariepinus juveniles, stocked in glass aquaria (60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm at 4% of the body weight in two instalments daily for 10 weeks, while the second experimental diet with 0.5% chromic oxide (Cr2O3 inclusion (as a digestibility marker was prepared and fed to the fish for 7 days to determine to digestibility of the different BMBRD included diets. The obtained results showed that the fish fed 25% BMBRD included diet had significantly higher (p < 0.05 growth performance and feed utilization indices than the other experimental diets. Similar to observation in the growth performance and feed utilization indices, the fish fed BMBRD included diets had significantly higher (p < 0.05 protein and energy digestibilities than the fish fed 0% BMBRD (control diet and the study confirmed that fishmeal can be partially replaced up to 25% BMBRD blend in C. gariepinus diet for optimum growth performance and feed utilization.

  18. Blood meal-derived heme decreases ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and allows proliferation of intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Henrique M Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bacteria in the midgut of mosquitoes antagonizes infectious agents, such as Dengue and Plasmodium, acting as a negative factor in the vectorial competence of the mosquito. Therefore, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of midgut microbiota could help in the development of new tools to reduce transmission. We hypothesized that toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by epithelial cells control bacterial growth in the midgut of Aedes aegypti, the vector of Yellow fever and Dengue viruses. We show that ROS are continuously present in the midgut of sugar-fed (SF mosquitoes and a blood-meal immediately decreased ROS through a mechanism involving heme-mediated activation of PKC. This event occurred in parallel with an expansion of gut bacteria. Treatment of sugar-fed mosquitoes with increased concentrations of heme led to a dose dependent decrease in ROS levels and a consequent increase in midgut endogenous bacteria. In addition, gene silencing of dual oxidase (Duox reduced ROS levels and also increased gut flora. Using a model of bacterial oral infection in the gut, we show that the absence of ROS resulted in decreased mosquito resistance to infection, increased midgut epithelial damage, transcriptional modulation of immune-related genes and mortality. As heme is a pro-oxidant molecule released in large amounts upon hemoglobin degradation, oxidative killing of bacteria in the gut would represent a burden to the insect, thereby creating an extra oxidative challenge to the mosquito. We propose that a controlled decrease in ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti is an adaptation to compensate for the ingestion of heme.

  19. mRNA profiling for the identification of blood-Results of a collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Cordula; Hanson, E; Bär, W

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative exercise on mRNA profiling for the identification of blood was organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP). Seven blood samples and one blood dilution series were analyzed by the participating laboratories for the reportedly blood-specific markers HBB, SPTB and PBGD, usi...

  20. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  1. Weight loss moderately affects the mixed meal challenge response of the plasma metabolome and transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in abdominally obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Joris, Peter J; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Esser, Diederik; Afman, Lydia; Hankemeier, Thomas; Jacobs, Doris M; Mihaleva, Velitchka V; Kersten, Sander; van Duynhoven, John; Boekschoten, Mark V

    2018-01-01

    The response to dietary challenges has been proposed as a more accurate measure of metabolic health than static measurements performed in the fasted state. This has prompted many groups to explore the potential of dietary challenge tests for assessment of diet and lifestyle induced shifts in metabolic phenotype. We examined whether the response to a mixed-meal challenge could provide a readout for a weight loss (WL)-induced phenotype shift in abdominally obese male subjects. The underlying assumption of a mixed meal challenge is that it triggers all aspects of phenotypic flexibility and provokes a more prolonged insulin response, possibly allowing for better differentiation between individuals. Abdominally obese men (n = 29, BMI = 30.3 ± 2.4 kg/m 2 ) received a mixed-meal challenge prior to and after an 8-week WL or no-WL control intervention. Lean subjects (n = 15, BMI = 23.0 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) only received the mixed meal challenge at baseline to have a benchmark for WL-induced phenotype shifts. Levels of several plasma metabolites were significantly different between lean and abdominally obese at baseline as well as during postprandial metabolic responses. Genes related to oxidative phosphorylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were expressed at higher levels in abdominally obese subjects as compared to lean subjects at fasting, which was partially reverted after WL. The impact of WL on the postprandial response was modest, both at the metabolic and gene expression level in PBMCs. We conclude that mixed-meal challenges are not necessarily superior to measurements in the fasted state to assess metabolic health. Furthermore, the mechanisms accounting for the observed differences between lean and abdominally obese in the fasted state are different from those underlying the dissimilarity observed during the postprandial response.

  2. Effects of milk thistle meal on performance, ileal bacterial enumeration, jejunal morphology and blood lipid peroxidation in laying hens fed diets with different levels of metabolizable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Jabali, N S; Mahdavi, A H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sedghi, M; Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of milk thistle meal on performance, blood biochemical indices, ileal bacterial counts and intestinal histology in laying hens fed diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy. A total number of 200 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) were randomly assigned to eight experimental treatments with five cage replicates of five birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of four levels of milk thistle meal (0%, 15%, 30% and 60%) and two levels of AME n (11.09 and 12.34 MJ/kg) fed over a period of 80 days. In vitro studies revealed that the total phenolic component of milk thistle meal was 470.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of the sample, and its antioxidant activity for inhibiting the 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrichydrazyl free radical and reducing ferric ions was about 21% higher than that of butylated hydroxyltoluene (p < .05). Diets containing high level of AME n led to improved egg production (p < .05), egg weight (p < .05), egg mass (p < .01) and feed conversion ratio (p < .01). In addition, offering diets containing high energy significantly enhanced (p < .01) serum triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as jejunal villus height. Dietary supplementation of 3% milk thistle meal resulted in the best feed conversion ratio (p < .05), reduction of ileal Escherichia coli enumeration (p < .01) and an enhancement in the villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (p < .05). Furthermore, feeding incremental levels of this meal led to remarkable decrease in serum cholesterol, triglyceride and MDA (p < .01) concentrations while significant increase in blood high-density lipoprotein content and goblet cell numbers (p < .05). The present findings indicate that milk thistle meal with high antioxidant and antibacterial properties in laying hen diets may improve health indices and productive performance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. A mass spectrometry method for sensitive, specific and simultaneous detection of bovine blood meal, blood products and milk products in compound feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrenier, M C; Planque, M; Dieu, M; Veys, P; Saegerman, C; Gillard, N; Baeten, V

    2018-04-15

    Feed sustainability is one of the biggest challenges for the next few years. Solutions have to be found that take feed quality and safety into account. Animal by-products are one valuable source of proteins. However, since the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, their use has been strictly regulated. The objective of this study was to propose a routine, sensitive and specific method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of blood-derived products and milk powder in feed. Contaminated aquafeeds were analysed in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the method. This new method meets both selectivity and sensitivity (0.1% (w/w)) requirements imposed by the European Commission for animal proteins detection methods. It offers an innovative and complementary solution for the simultaneously identification of authorised and unauthorised animal by-products such as processed animal proteins (PAPs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new whole mitochondrial genome qPCR (WMG-qPCR) with SYBR Green®to identify phlebotomine sand fly blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Caroline Moura; Magalhães, Rafaela Damasceno; Romcy, Kalil Andrade Mubarac; Freitas, Jeferson Lucas Sousa; Melo, Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso; Rodon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Melo, Luciana Magalhães

    2017-04-30

    Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-feeding insects of marked medical and veterinary significance. Investigations on the biology of these insects hold great importance for both ecological and epidemiological purposes. The present work describes a new approach for real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green ® , named WMG-qPCR, to identify phlebotomine blood meals. The novelty of the assay was to design primers based on the Whole Mitochondrial Genome (WMG) of the potential hosts (human, dog, cat, brown rat and chicken) aiming to amplify through qPCR the regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which are less conserved among all species. Initially, the best method for mtDNA extraction to be applied in WMG-qPCR was determined. Afterwards, amplification specificities were accessed by cross-reaction assays with mtDNA samples from all animal species, besides phlebotomine DNA. Finally, the selected primers were also tested for their limit of DNA detection through standard curves constructed by serial dilution of blood DNA obtained for each target animal species. The WMG-qPCR was able to detect as low as 10pL of blood, equivalent to 26, 84, 130, and 320fg DNA of cat, human, dog and rat, respectively. The assay was also capable to amplify as low as 5pL of chicken blood (5pg DNA). In conclusion, WMG-qPCR seems to be a promising tool to identify phlebotomine blood meals, with high species-specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, as no supplementary techniques are required, this new approach presents minimized costs and simplified technical-training requirements for execution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary Ximenia caffra kernel meal on blood and liver metabolic substrate content and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivandi, E; Moyo, D; Dangarembizi, R; Erlwanger, K

    2016-06-01

    We investigated (at the University of the Witwatersrand: GPS coordinates 26°10' 52.96″S; 28°2' 33.61″E) the effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with Ximenia caffra kernel meal (XCKM) as a dietary protein source on blood and liver metabolic substrates content, serum markers of liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Five diets with similar energy and protein content were formulated (D1-D5) where XCKM replaced SBM on a crude protein basis at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Forty weanling male SD rats were randomly assigned to diets D1-D5, fed for 37 days and weighed twice weekly. The rats were then fasted overnight, and fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations were determined from tail-vein-drawn blood. Immediately thereafter, the rats were euthanised and blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Serum was used to assay for markers of the general health profile. Livers were removed and weighed, and samples were used to determine lipid and glycogen content. Rats fed D4 (75% substitution level) had significantly lower (p  0.05) fasting blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations, liver glycogen and lipid content. Additionally, it had no effect (p > 0.05) on serum activity/concentration of surrogate markers of liver (alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and urea, total bilirubin, globulin and albumin concentrations) and kidney (phosphorus, calcium and creatinine concentrations) function and the general clinical biochemistry of the rats. Defatted XCKM could substitute SBM in rat diets without compromising blood glucose and cholesterol homeostasis, liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Life cycle and vectorial competence of Triatoma williami (Galvão, Souza e Lima, 1965) under the influence of different blood meal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Rosaline Rocha; Gomes, Letícia Pinho; Peres Câmara, Thaís; Arrais-Silva, Wagner Welber

    2015-09-01

    Triatoma williami is naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, the ethiological agent of Chagas disease, the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in South and Central America.The possibility of domiciliation of T. williami increases the risk of human T. cruzi vetorial transmission. Despite this, there is a lack of data demonstrating the bionomic aspects, the vectorial competence or the natural ecotope and the wild hosts of T. williami. This study describes for the first time the life cycle of T. williami under the influence of two blood meal sources and also evaluates the vectorial potential of the species. The development of two groups of hundred triatomines was followed over the nymphal stages and adulthood. Each group was exposed to a sole blood meal source, mammalian or bird. The average egg-to-adult development time in both groups was similar, except by shorter stages of N3 and N4 in triatomines fed on mammals. The group fed on birds needed more blood feedings to suffer the ecdysis and had higher cumulative mortality in the nymphal stages. Although the observed delay at defecation of adults after feeding, our results suggest that T. williami in the third and fifth nymphal stages may be good vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of dietary inclusion of untreated or heat-treated Jatropha meal on productive and reproductive performances and biochemical blood parameters of laying Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; El-Sayed, S A A; Fowler, J

    2017-08-01

    Jatropha meal (JM) has been characterized as a potential animal feedstuff due to its high crude protein content and high levels of essential amino acids. However, it contains anti-nutritive and toxic compounds that may hinder its use. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a dietary inclusion of raw Jatropha meal (RJM) and heat-treated Jatropha meal on the growth and production of laying Japanese quail using productive, reproductive, and biochemical blood parameters. A total number of 180 mature Japanese quail at 2 months of age (120 females and 60 males) was randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: control (0% JM); 3.5% RJM; 3.5% JM heated in an oven at 100°C for 24 h (JM24); and 3.5% JM heated in oven at 100°C for 48 h (JM48). After 8 wk on treatment diets, the inclusion of RJM to quail diets reduced (P quail diets led to significant decrease (P Japanese quail diets without detrimental effects on production, reproductive performance, and health status. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Production parameters, carcass development and blood parameters of the broiler chick fed diets which include rapeseed, flax, grape and buckthorn meals

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    Petru Alexandru Vlaicu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was performed on 75, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 3 groups (C, E1 and E2 to test new feeding solutions for broilers using oil industry by-products. In the starter phase (0-10 days, all chicks received a conventional compound feed. In the other two stages (growing, finishing, compared to the conventional diet given to the C group, the diet formulations of the experimental groups included different proportions, depending on the phase of development, rapeseeds meal and grape pomace (E1 and flaxseeds meal and buckthorn meal (E2. The compound feed for group E2 had significantly (P≤0.05 higher ω-3 PUFA concentrations than groups C and E1. Six blood samples/group were collected in the end of the feeding trial, used for biochemical and haematological determinations. Six chicks/group were slaughtered on day 42, to measure carcass and internal organs development. The feed intake and gains were monitored throughout the experimental period (10-42 days. At 42 days, E2 broiler chicks had significantly (P≤0.05 lower body weight than C broiler chicks. Serum glycaemia, cholesterol and trygliceride concentrations were significantly (P≤0.05 lower in E2 chicks than in C chicks, by 17.94 %, 25.70 % and 42.05%, respectively.

  9. Uncomplicated human type 2 diabetes is associated with meal-induced blood pressure lowering and cardiac output increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Mark M.; Muskiet, Marcel H. A.; Tushuizen, Maarten E.; Kwa, Kelly A. A.; Karemaker, John M.; van Raalte, Daniël H.; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Since many type 2 diabetes patients experience postprandial hypotension, the aim of this study was to unravel meal-related changes in systemic hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ANS)-balance. Forty-two age-matched males (15 type 2 diabetes; 12 metabolic syndrome; 15 controls) without overt

  10. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Salehi; Asma Kazemi; Jafar Hasan Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day) on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identi...

  11. Stair climbing/descending exercise for a short time decreases blood glucose levels after a meal in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroto; Igaki, Makoto; Hatanaka, Yuki; Komatsu, Motoaki; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Miki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Taiga; Takaishi, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether stair climbing-descending exercise (ST-EX), a convenient method to increase physical activity in daily life, for a short period would acutely improve the postprandial blood glucose (BG) response in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). 16 people with T2D (age 65.4±1.1 years) participated in 2 separate sessions. After an overnight fast, each participant consumed a test meal and then kept resting for 180 min, except when performing each 3 min bout of ST-EX at 60 and 120 min after the meal (ST-EX session), or kept resting for 180 min (REST session). ST-EX comprised 6 continuous repetitions of climbing to the second floor (21 steps) at a rate of 80-110 steps/min followed by walking down slowly to the first floor at a free step rate. The BG at 60 min after the meal during the ST-EX session (immediately before the first ST-EX) did not differ from that during the REST session, but analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between time and treatment (p<0.01). The BG at 150 min after the meal (30 min after the second ST-EX) was significantly lower than that during the REST session (p<0.01). The area under the curve was also 18% lower during the ST-EX session than during the REST session (p<0.05). The heart rate and blood lactate levels indicated that the actual intensity of ST-EX was 'hard'. In contrast, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) indicated that the overall intensity of ST-EX was 'moderate' because of decreased RPE scores during descent. The present findings suggest that performing 3 min ST-EX 60 and 120 min after a meal may be a useful strategy to accelerate the decrease in postprandial BG levels in people with T2D.

  12. Changes in oxygen content and acid-base balance in arterial and portal blood in response to the dietary electrolyte balance in pigs during a 9-h period after a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.; Schulze, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two dietary electrolyte balance (dEB, Na K - Cl-) levels on arterial and portal blood oxygen content, blood pH, and acid-base status in pigs was studied during a 9-h period after a meal, using a crossover experimental design. The dEB levels were established by changing the Cl- level in

  13. Meal Fatty Acids Have Differential Effects on Postprandial Blood Pressure and Biomarkers of Endothelial Function but Not Vascular Reactivity in Postmenopausal Women in the Randomized Controlled Dietary Intervention and VAScular function (DIVAS)-2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Weech, Michelle; Jackson, Kim G; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2018-03-01

    Elevated postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are important independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women. However, the effects of meal fat composition on postprandial lipemia and vascular function in postmenopausal women are unknown. This study investigated the impact of sequential meals rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on postprandial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; primary outcome measure), vascular function, and associated CVD risk biomarkers (secondary outcomes) in postmenopausal women. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, postprandial study was conducted in 32 postmenopausal women [mean ± SEM ages: 58 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m2): 25.9 ± 0.7]. After fasting overnight, participants consumed high-fat meals at breakfast (0 min; 50 g fat, containing 33-36 g SFAs, MUFAs, or n-6 PUFAs) and lunch (330 min; 30 g fat, containing 19-20 g SFAs, MUFAs, or n-6 PUFAs), on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected before breakfast and regularly after the meals for 480 min, with specific time points selected for measuring vascular function and blood pressure. Postprandial FMD, laser Doppler imaging, and digital volume pulse responses were not different after consuming the test fats. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for diastolic blood pressure was lower after the MUFA-rich meals than after the SFA-rich meals (mean ± SEM: -2.3 ± 0.3 compared with -1.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg × 450 min × 103; P = 0.009), with a similar trend for systolic blood pressure (P = 0.012). This corresponded to a lower iAUC for the plasma nitrite response after the SFA-rich meals than after the MUFA-rich meals (-1.23 ± 0.7 compared with -0.17 ± 0.4 μmol/L × 420 min P = 0.010). The soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) time-course profile, AUC, and iAUC were lower after the n-6 PUFA-rich meals

  14. Digestibilidade aparente das farinhas de peixe nacional e importada e das farinhas de sangue tostada e spray-dried, pela tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L. Apparent digestibility by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L. of Brazilian-made meal, imported fish meal and toasted and spray-dried blood meals

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    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente das farinhas de peixe importada e nacional e, das farinhas de sangue spray-dried e tostada. Confeccionaram-se cinco rações marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio, sendo uma referência (semi-purificada e as demais contendo os ingredientes teste. Os peixes (peso médio de 100±10g foram mantidos em cinco tanques-rede de 250 L, em uma densidade de 15 peixes/aquário onde, receberam ração à vontade das 8:00 às 17:00 horas. Posteriormente, foram transferidos para cinco tanques de 300L para coleta de fezes, onde permaneciam até a manhã do dia seguinte. Obtiveram-se os seguintes CDA, respectivamente, para as farinhas de peixe importada e nacional e para as farinhas de sangue spray-dried e tostada: 50,19%; 52,10%; 82,47% e 53,36% para a matéria seca; 80,57%; 71,44%; 97,33% e 50,69% para a proteína bruta; 90,68%; 92,80%; 52,22% e 89,36% para o extrato etéreo e 58,09%; 40,20%; 74,97% e 57,97% para a energia bruta. Concluiu-se que a farinha de sangue spray-dried e ambas as farinhas de peixe podem ser recomendadas como fonte protéica de origem animal e que a farinha de sangue tostada não deve ser utilizada em rações para tilápia do Nilo.Apparent digestibility in Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10g of imported fish meal, Brazilian-made fish meal, spray-dried blood meal and toasted blood meal was evaluated. While a semi-purified diet was prepared as control, four other diets containing about 35% of control diet and 65% of assay ingredients were prepared, using 0.10% of chromic oxide as indicator. Juveniles of Nile tilapia were randomly stocked in groups of fifty in circular cages. They were maintained for 8:00 to 17:00 p.m. in 250L-tanks and fed all day long. Later they were transferred to tanks 300L-tanks, appropriated for feces collection, in which they spent all night. Apparent digestibility coefficient of the ingredient was based on percentage of chromic oxide found in diets and feces and on nutrient

  15. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-11-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture. These data indicate that the bioactivity of garlic is multifaceted and includes activation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis, and xenobiotic metabolism in humans and Mono Mac 6 cells. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293591. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Results: The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture. Conclusion: These data indicate that the bioactivity of garlic is multifaceted and includes activation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis, and xenobiotic metabolism in humans and Mono Mac 6 cells. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293591. PMID:26423732

  17. Postprandial blood glucose response to a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated with insulin lispro mix 50 or human insulin mix 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Li, G; Li, Y; Guo, X; Yuan, G; Gong, Q; Yan, L; Zheng, Y; Zhang, J

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) excursion following a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated twice daily with human insulin mix 50 vs. insulin lispro mix 50 (LM50). Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, open-label, crossover comparison of two insulin treatments for two 12-week treatment periods in 120 Chinese patients. One- and 2-h PPBG and excursion values were obtained following a standardised test meal. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin dose, rate of hypoglycaemia and safety data were obtained. A crossover analysis using SAS Proc MIXED was employed. Results Mean 2-h PPBG excursion decreased from 6.32 ± 3.07 mmol/l at baseline to 3.47 ± 2.97 mmol/l at end-point in the LM50 group, and from 6.31 ± 2.88 at baseline to 5.02 ± 3.32 mmol/l at end-point in the human insulin mix 50 group (p < 0.001). Two-hour PPBG (p = 0.004) and 1-h PPBG excursion (p < 0.001) were significantly lower with LM50 as compared with human insulin mix 50. Both treatment groups were equivalent for HbA1c control, 1-h PPBG and insulin dose requirements. Mean FBG was higher with LM50 than with human insulin mix 50 (p = 0.023). The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and hypoglycaemia rate per 30 days were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions Insulin lispro mix 50 provided better postprandial glycaemic control compared with human insulin mix 50 while providing the convenience of injecting immediately before meals. Both treatments were generally well tolerated by all randomly assigned patients. PMID:18657196

  18. Effect of supplementation with urea, blood meal, and rumen-protected methionine on growth performance of Holstein heifers grazing kikuyu pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Armando; Mendoza, German David; Garcìa-Bojalil, Carlos; Barcena, Ricardo; Ramos, Jesus A; Crosby, Maria M; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Lara, Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Supplements with corn grain, molasses cane, and different nitrogen sources were evaluated in 16 growing Hosltein heifers [227 ± 33 kg body weight (BW)] grazing kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pasture in a 10-ha sward (rotational grazing with electric fences) during 90 days in the summer season. The nitrogen sources were urea (U); urea and blood meal (U+BM); and urea, blood meal, and rumen-protected methionine (U+BM +RPM). Heifers were randomly assigned to four experimental supplements defined as follows: control (no supplementation), U, U+BM, and U+BM +RPM. Two kilograms (as fed) of supplement was offered daily. The final BW of heifers fed U+BM +RPM was higher (Pheifers not supplemented. The total and average daily weight gain of heifers supplemented with U+BM +RPM were higher than heifers not supplemented or supplemented with U and U+BM (Pdaily gain of heifers supplemented with U and U+BM were higher than heifers not supplemented (Pheifers supplemented with U, U+BM, and U+BM +RPM were higher than heifers not supplemented (Pheifers grazing kikuyu pasture.

  19. Optimization of mosquito egg production under mass rearing setting: effects of cage volume, blood meal source and adult population density for the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamai, Wadaka; Bimbile-Somda, Nanwintoum S; Maiga, Hamidou; Juarez, José Guillermo; Muosa, Zaynab A I; Ali, Adel Barakat; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2017-01-24

    Anopheles arabiensis is one of the major malaria vectors that put millions of people in endemic countries at risk. Mass-rearing of this mosquito is crucial for strategies that use sterile insect technique to suppress vector populations. The sterile insect technique (SIT) package for this mosquito species is being developed by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for An. arabiensis, the question of whether the egg production by females would be affected by the size of the adult holding cages, the source of the blood meal and the total number of pupae that could be loaded into the cages was addressed and finally the impact of adding additional pupae to the cage daily to maintain adult numbers on egg productivity assessed. Mass production cages of two different volumes, two different sources of blood meal (bovine and porcine) and two different population densities (cages originally loaded with either 15,000 or 20,000 pupae) were tested and evaluated on the basis of eggs produced/cage or per female. Males and females pupae with a ratio of 1:1 were added to the cages at day 1 and 2 of pupation. The emerging adults had constant access to 5% sugar solution and blood fed via the Hemotek membrane feeding system. Eggs were collected either twice a week or daily. A generalized linear model was used to identify factors which gave significantly higher egg production. Neither cage volume nor blood meal source affected egg production per cage or per female. However, increasing population density to 20,000 pupae had a negative effect on eggs produced per cage and per female. Although high density negatively impacted egg production, adding 1000 daily additional pupae compensating for daily mortality resulted in a substantial increase in egg production. Moreover, in all tests the first and the third egg batches collected were significantly higher than others eggs batches

  20. Phlebotomine sand fly survey in the focus of leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain (2012-2014): seasonal dynamics, Leishmania infantum infection rates and blood meal preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Estela; Jiménez, Maribel; Hernández, Sonia; Martín-Martín, Inés; Molina, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P. perniciosus. Entomological surveys were done from June to October 2012-2014 in 4 stations located close to the affected area. Twenty sticky traps (ST) and two CDC light traps (LT) were monthly placed during two consecutive days in every station. LT were replaced every morning. Sand fly infection rates were determined by dissecting females collected with LT. Molecular procedures applied to study blood meal preferences and to detect L. infantum were performed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the outbreak. A total of 45,127 specimens belonging to 4 sand fly species were collected: P. perniciosus (75.34%), Sergentomyia minuta (24.65%), Phlebotomus sergenti (0.005%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (0.005%). No Phlebotomus ariasi were captured. From 3203 P. perniciosus female dissected, 117 were infected with flagellates (3.7%). Furthermore, 13.31% and 7.78% of blood-fed and unfed female sand flies, respectively, were found infected with L. infantum by PCR. The highest rates of infected P. perniciosus were detected at the end of the transmission periods. Regarding to blood meal preferences, hares and rabbits were preferred, although human, cat and dog blood were also found. This entomological study highlights the exceptional nature of the Leishmania outbreak occurring in southwestern Madrid, Spain. It is confirmed that P. perniciosus is the only vector in the affected area

  1. No difference in acute effects of supplemental v. dietary calcium on blood pressure and microvascular function in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal: a cross-over randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Leal, Priscila Mansur; Antunes, Vanessa Parada; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that supplemental Ca (SC) increases the risk of cardiovascular events, whereas dietary Ca (DC) decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. Although frequently consumed with meals, it remains unclear whether Ca can mitigate or aggravate the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal on cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SC or DC on blood pressure (BP) and microvascular function (MVF) in the postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (2908 kJ (695 kcal); 48 % fat): high DC (HDCM; 547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (LCM; 42 mg DC). BP was continuously evaluated from 15 min before to 120 min after meals by digital photoplethysmography. Before and 120 min after meals, participants underwent evaluation of serum Ca and microvascular flow after postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) by laser speckle contrast imaging. Ionised serum Ca rose significantly only after HSCM. Systolic BP increased after the three meals, whereas diastolic BP increased after LCM and HDCM. Hyperaemia peak, hyperaemia amplitude and AUC evaluated after PORH decreased with LCM. After HDCM, there was a reduction in hyperaemia peak and hyperaemia amplitude, whereas HSCM decreased only hyperaemia peak. However, comparative analyses of the effects of three test meals on serum Ca, BP and MVF revealed no significant meal×time interaction. This study suggests that in obese women SC and DC do not interfere with the effects of a high-fat meal on BP and MVF.

  2. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Fast and reliable identification from agar plates and blood cultures.

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    Laura Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS is a reliable method for bacteria identification. Some databases used for this purpose lack reference profiles for Brucella species, which is still an important pathogen in wide areas around the world. We report the creation of profiles for MALDI-TOF Biotyper 2.0 database (Bruker Daltonics, Germany and their usefulness for identifying brucellae from culture plates and blood cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We created MALDI Biotyper 2.0 profiles for type strains belonging to B. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3; B. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9; B. suis, B. canis, B ceti and B. pinnipedialis. Then, 131 clinical isolates grown on plate cultures were used in triplicate to check identification. Identification at genus level was always correct, although in most cases the three replicates reported different identification at species level. Simulated blood cultures were performed with type strains belonging to the main human pathogenic species (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis, and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles.

  3. Effects of liquid oil vs. oleogel co-ingested with a carbohydrate-rich meal on human blood triglycerides, glucose, insulin and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sze-Yen; Wan-Yi Peh, Elaine; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-01-25

    We examined the differences in how coconut oil in a liquid or oleogel form affects blood triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and appetite when co-ingested with a carbohydrate-rich meal. This was a randomised, controlled, crossover study where eligible participants attended a screening visit where baseline demographics were measured. On test days, participants arrived at the laboratory after an overnight fast of 10 hours. Upon arrival, cannulation of the antecubital vein was performed and fasting capillary blood glucose, plasma insulin and triglyceride levels, and appetite sensations were measured. Following that, orange juice and rice porridge alone (control), or with 22.25 g of coconut oil (CO) or 25 g of coconut oleogel (CG) (22.25 g coconut oil + 2.75 g ethylcellulose to form an oleogel) was consumed. Subsequently, capillary blood glucose and plasma insulin and triglyceride levels were measured at fixed intervals for 6 hours. Appetite sensations were also measured using visual analog scales every 30 minutes. Sixteen healthy young adult males completed the study (age = 27 ± 6 years, weight = 65.5 ± 5.5 kg, BMI = 21.9 ± 1.7 kg m -2 ). After test meals, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and appetite sensations changed significantly (time effects, p < 0.001). Significant time × treatment effects were found only in postprandial glucose (p = 0.015) and triglyceride (p = 0.001) changes. CO reduced the peak of the glucose response, and increased the incremental area under the curve for postprandial triglycerides. CG produced outcomes comparable to those of the control treatment. Appetite sensations did not differ between all treatments. The gelling of coconut oil with ethylcellulose into an oleogel form reversed its effects on postprandial glucose and triglycerides.

  4. Relationships between the responses of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in blood plasma containing apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100 to a fat-containing meal in normolipidemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeman, B O; Kotite, L; Todd, K M; Havel, R J

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 (chylomicrons) and apo B-100 (very low density lipoproteins) was measured in blood plasma of healthy young men after an ordinary meal containing one-third of daily energy and fat. Plasma obtained in the postabsorptive state and at intervals up to 12 hr after the meal was subjected to immunoaffinity chromatography against a monoclonal antibody to apo B-100 that does not bind apo B-48 and a minor fraction of apo B-100 rich in apo E. Measurements of the concentrations of components of the total and unbound triglyceride-rich lipoproteins separated from plasma by ultracentrifugation showed that about 80% of the increase in lipoprotein particle number was in very low density lipoproteins containing apo B-100 and only 20% was in chylomicrons containing apo B-48 that carry dietary fat from the intestine. The maximal increments and the average concentrations of apo B-48 and B-100 during the 12 hr were highly correlated (r2 = 0.80), suggesting that preferential clearance of chylomicron triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase leads to accumulation of hepatogenous very low density lipoproteins during the alimentary period. The composition of the bulk of very low density lipoproteins that were bound to the monoclonal antibody changed little and these particles contained about 90% of the cholesterol and most of the apo E that accumulated in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The predominant accumulation of very low density lipoprotein rather than chylomicron particles after ingestion of ordinary meals is relevant to the potential atherogenicity of postprandial lipoproteins. PMID:8446630

  5. Growth performance, blood profiles and carcass traits of Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) fed two different insect larvae meals (Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponte, Rosa; Nizza, Sandra; Bovera, Fulvia; De Riu, Nicola; Fliegerova, Katerina; Lombardi, Pietro; Vassalotti, Giuseppe; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Nizza, Antonino; Moniello, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of two insect meals (from Hermetia illucens, HI and Tenebrio molitor, TM larvae) on productive performance and blood profiles of Barbary partridge, ninety, seven days old partridges were divided into 5 groups (6 replicates, 3 partridges/replicate). Up to 64d, the groups fed 5 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control fed a corn-soybean meal diet (SBM group); in TM25 and TM50 groups the 25 and 50% of SBM proteins were substituted by the protein from TM, respectively; in HI25 and HI50 groups the 25 and 50% of SBM were substituted by the protein from HI, respectively. The birds fed TM25 and both the HI levels reached a higher (P<0.01) live weight at 64d than the control. Considering the entire experimental period the TM groups had a more favorable FCR than SBM. The carcass weights of all the insect groups were higher (P<0.01) than the control. The weight of the full digestive tract in SBM group was the highest (P<0.01). The caecal weight, the intestinal and caecal length were the highest (P<0.01) in the SBM group. The SBM group the highest value of albumin/globulin (P<0.01) and creatinine (P<0.05). TM seems to be more effective than HI in improving FCR. The reduced albumin/globulin ratio in the insect meal fed groups could be ascribed to the chitin content and this result was not affected by the amount of chitin intake, suggesting that also the lowest values are able to express their potential effects in partridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne; McQuaid, Siobh?n E.; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N.; Fielding, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over 24 h. We traced the fate of fatty acids using equal amounts of [U-13C]linoleate, [U-13C]oleate, and [U-13C]palmitate given in a test breakfast meal in 12 healthy subjects. There wa...

  7. Comparative effectiveness of a portion-controlled meal replacement program for weight loss in adults with and without diabetes/high blood sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C D; Kiel, J R; Mitola, A H; Arterburn, L M

    2017-07-10

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2) may be less successful at achieving therapeutic weight loss than their counterparts without diabetes. This study compares weight loss in a cohort of adults with DM2 or high blood sugar (D/HBS) to a cohort of adults without D/HBS. All were overweight/obese and following a reduced or low-calorie commercial weight-loss program incorporating meal replacements (MRs) and one-on-one behavioral support. Demographic, weight, body composition, anthropometric, pulse and blood pressure data were collected as part of systematic retrospective chart review studies. Differences between cohorts by D/HBS status were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-tests and mixed model regression. A total of 816 charts were included (125 with self-reported D/HBS). The cohort with D/HBS had more males (40.8 vs 25.6%), higher BMI (39.0 vs 36.3 kg m - 2 ) and was older (56 vs 48 years). Among clients continuing on program, the cohorts with and without D/HBS lost, on average, 5.6 vs 5.8 kg (NS) (5.0 vs 5.6%; P=0.005) of baseline weight at 4 weeks, 11.0 vs 11.6 kg (NS) (9.9 vs 11.1%; P=0.027) at 12 weeks and 16.3 vs 17.1 kg (13.9 vs 15.7%; NS) at 24 weeks, respectively. In a mixed model regression controlling for baseline weight, gender and meal plan, and an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in weight loss between the cohorts at any time point. Over 70% in both cohorts lost ⩾5% of their baseline weight by the final visit on their originally assigned meal plan. Both cohorts had significant reductions from baseline in body fat, blood pressure, pulse and abdominal circumference. Adults who were overweight/obese and with D/HBS following a commercial weight-loss program incorporating MRs and one-on-one behavioral support achieved therapeutic weight loss. The program was equally effective for weight loss and reductions in cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with and without D/HBS.

  8. Detection of Leishmania DNA and blood meal sources in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in western of Spain: Update on distribution and risk factors associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Barriga, D; Parreira, R; Maia, C; Afonso, M O; Blanco-Ciudad, J; Serrano, F J; Pérez-Martín, J E; Gómez-Gordo, L; Campino, L; Reina, D; Frontera, E

    2016-12-01

    Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is present in Mediterranean countries, with high prevalence in areas of the center and south of Spain. However, in some regions such as Extremadura (in southwest of Spain), data has not been updated since 1997. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about the distribution of phlebotomine sand fly species in western of Spain (Extremadura region), (ii) to determine risk factors for the presence of sand fly vectors and (iii) to detect Leishmania DNA and identify blood meal sources in wild caught females. During 2012-2013, sand flies were surveyed using CDC miniature light-traps in 13 of 20 counties in Extremadura. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania DNA by kDNA, ITS-1 and cyt-B. In addition, blood meals origins were analyzed by a PCR based in vertebrate cyt b gene. A total of 1083 sand flies of both gender were captured and identified. Five species were collected, Phlebotomus perniciosus (60.76%), Sergentomyia minuta (29.92%), P. ariasi (7.11%), P. papatasi (1.48%) and P. sergenti (0.74%). The last three species constitute the first report in Badajoz, the most southern province of Extremadura region. Leishmania DNA was detected in three out of 435 females (one P. pernicious and two S. minuta). Characterization of obtained DNA sequences by phylogenetic analyses revealed close relatedness with Leishmania tarentolae in S. minuta and L. infantum in P. perniciosus. Haematic preferences showed a wide range of hosts, namely: swine, humans, sheep, rabbits, horses, donkeys and turkeys. The simultaneous presence of P. perniciosus and P. ariasi vectors, the analysis of blood meals, together with the detection of L. infantum and in S. minuta of L. tarentolae, confirms the ideal conditions for the transmission of this parasitosis in the western of Spain. These results improve the epidemiological knowledge of leishmaniosis and its vectors in this part of Spain

  9. [The identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on textiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, A V; Shabalina, A E; Rassinskaya, L A

    Thus article was designed to report a few cases of the identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on the clothes and other textiles. The data presented give evidence that barbiturates are capable of persisting in dry blood stains during rather a long period. The authors emphasize the necessity of mandatory control investigations to avoid obtaining the false positive results.

  10. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  11. Results of soy-based meal replacement formula on weight, anthropometry, serum lipids & blood pressure during a 40-week clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heo Moonseong

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the intermediate-term health outcomes associated with a soy-based meal replacement, and to compare the weight loss efficacy of two distinct patterns of caloric restriction. Methods Ninety overweight/obese (28 2 adults received a single session of dietary counseling and were randomized to either 12 weeks at 1200 kcal/day, 16 weeks at 1500 kcal/d and 12 weeks at 1800 kcal/d (i.e., the 12/15/18 diet group, or 28 weeks at 1500 kcal/d and 12 weeks at 1800 kcal/d (i.e., the 15/18 diet group. Weight, body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipid concentrations were measured at 4-week intervals throughout the 40-week trial. Results Subjects in both treatments showed statistically significant improvements in outcomes. A regression model for weight change suggests that subjects with larger baseline weights tended to lose more weight and subjects in the 12/15/18 group tended to experience, on average, an additional 0.9 kg of weight loss compared with subjects in the 15/18 group. Conclusion Both treatments using the soy-based meal replacement program were associated with significant and comparable weight loss and improvements on selected health variables.

  12. Results of soy-based meal replacement formula on weight, anthropometry, serum lipids & blood pressure during a 40-week clinical weight loss trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kevin R; Yang, Dongyan; Gadbury, Gary L; Heshka, Stanley; Schwartz, Linda G; Murugesan, Radha; Kraker, Jennifer L; Heo, Moonseong; Heymsfield, Steven B; Allison, David B

    2003-01-01

    Background To evaluate the intermediate-term health outcomes associated with a soy-based meal replacement, and to compare the weight loss efficacy of two distinct patterns of caloric restriction. Methods Ninety overweight/obese (28 < BMI ≤ 41 kg/m2) adults received a single session of dietary counseling and were randomized to either 12 weeks at 1200 kcal/day, 16 weeks at 1500 kcal/d and 12 weeks at 1800 kcal/d (i.e., the 12/15/18 diet group), or 28 weeks at 1500 kcal/d and 12 weeks at 1800 kcal/d (i.e., the 15/18 diet group). Weight, body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipid concentrations were measured at 4-week intervals throughout the 40-week trial. Results Subjects in both treatments showed statistically significant improvements in outcomes. A regression model for weight change suggests that subjects with larger baseline weights tended to lose more weight and subjects in the 12/15/18 group tended to experience, on average, an additional 0.9 kg of weight loss compared with subjects in the 15/18 group. Conclusion Both treatments using the soy-based meal replacement program were associated with significant and comparable weight loss and improvements on selected health variables. PMID:14624699

  13. Effects of meal preparation training on body weight, glycemia, and blood pressure: results of a phase 2 trial in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Kaberi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modest reductions in weight and small increases in step- related activity (e.g., walking can improve glycemic and blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2. We examined changes in these parameters following training in time- efficient preparation of balanced, low- energy meals combined with pedometer- based step count monitoring. Methods Seventy- two adults with DM2 were enrolled in a 24- week program (i.e., 15 three- hour group sessions. They prepared meals under a chef’s supervision, and discussed eating behaviours/nutrition with a registered dietitian. They maintained a record of pedometer- assessed step counts. We evaluated changes from baseline to 24 weeks in terms of weight, step counts, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, glycemic control, blood pressure, and eating control ability (Weight Efficacy Lifestyle WEL Questionnaire. 53 participants (73.6% completed assessments. Results There were improvements in eating control (11.2 point WEL score change, 95% CI 4.7 to 17.8, step counts (mean change 869 steps/day, 95% CI 198 to 1,540, weight (mean change −2.2%; 95% CI −3.6 to −0.8, and HbA1c (mean change −0.3% HbA1c, 95% CI −0.6 to −0.1, as well as suggestion of systolic blood pressure reduction (mean change −3.5 mm Hg, 95% CI −7.8 to 0.9. Findings were not attributable to medication changes. In linear regression models (adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, insulin use, season, a −2.5% weight change was associated with a −0.3% HbA1c change (95% CI −0.4 to −0.2 and a −3.5% systolic blood pressure change (95% CI −5.5 to −1.4. Conclusions In this ‘proof of concept’ study, persistence with the program led to improvements in eating and physical activity habits, glycemia reductions, and suggestion of blood pressure lowering effects. The strategy thus merits further study and development to expand the range of options for vascular risk reduction in DM2.

  14. Effects of meal preparation training on body weight, glycemia, and blood pressure: results of a phase 2 trial in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Hajna, Samantha; Joseph, Lawrence; Da Costa, Deborah; Christopoulos, Stavroula; Gougeon, Rejeanne

    2012-10-17

    Modest reductions in weight and small increases in step- related activity (e.g., walking) can improve glycemic and blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We examined changes in these parameters following training in time- efficient preparation of balanced, low- energy meals combined with pedometer- based step count monitoring. Seventy- two adults with DM2 were enrolled in a 24- week program (i.e., 15 three- hour group sessions). They prepared meals under a chef's supervision, and discussed eating behaviours/nutrition with a registered dietitian. They maintained a record of pedometer- assessed step counts. We evaluated changes from baseline to 24 weeks in terms of weight, step counts, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, glycemic control), blood pressure, and eating control ability (Weight Efficacy Lifestyle WEL Questionnaire). 53 participants (73.6%) completed assessments. There were improvements in eating control (11.2 point WEL score change, 95% CI 4.7 to 17.8), step counts (mean change 869 steps/day, 95% CI 198 to 1,540), weight (mean change -2.2%; 95% CI -3.6 to -0.8), and HbA1c (mean change -0.3% HbA1c, 95% CI -0.6 to -0.1), as well as suggestion of systolic blood pressure reduction (mean change -3.5 mm Hg, 95% CI -7.8 to 0.9). Findings were not attributable to medication changes. In linear regression models (adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, insulin use, season), a -2.5% weight change was associated with a -0.3% HbA1c change (95% CI -0.4 to -0.2) and a -3.5% systolic blood pressure change (95% CI -5.5 to -1.4). In this 'proof of concept' study, persistence with the program led to improvements in eating and physical activity habits, glycemia reductions, and suggestion of blood pressure lowering effects. The strategy thus merits further study and development to expand the range of options for vascular risk reduction in DM2.

  15. Preventive and treatment effects of a hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) meal protein hydrolysate against high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    This work determined the ability of hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH)-containing diets to attenuate elevated blood pressure (hypertension) development in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Effects of diets on plasma levels of renin and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in the SHRs were also determined. Defatted hemp seed protein meal was hydrolyzed using simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion with pepsin followed by pancreatin, and the resulting HMH used as a source of antihypertensive peptides. The HMH was substituted for casein at 0.5 and 1.0% levels and fed to young growing rats for 8 weeks (preventive phase) or adult rats for 4 weeks (treatment phase). Feeding of young growing SHRs with HMH resulted in attenuation of the normal increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with an average value of ~120 mmHg when compared to the casein-only group of rats (control) with a maximum of 158 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Feeding adult rats (SBP ~145 mmHg) with same diets during a 4-week period led to significant (p < 0.05) reduction in SBP to ~119 mmHg in comparison with 150 mmHg for the control rats. Plasma ACE activity was significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed (0.047-0.059 U/mL) in HMH-fed rats when compared to control rats (0.123 U/mL). Plasma renin level was also decreased for HMH-fed rats (0.040-0.054 μg/mL) when compared to control rats that were fed only with casein (0.151 μg/mL). The results suggest that HMH with strong hypotensive effects in SHRs could be used as a therapeutic agent for both the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  16. Growth performance, blood health, antioxidant status and immune response in red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed Aspergillus oryzae fermented rapeseed meal (RM-Koji).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou, Serge; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Dawood, Mahmoud A O; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Olivier, Adissin; Zaineldin, Amr I

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary substitution of fishmeal by graded levels of a blend composed of Aspergillus oryzae fermented rapeseed meal [0% (RM0), 25% (RM25), 50% (RM50), 75% (RM75) and 100% (RM100)] on growth performance, haemato-immunological responses and antioxidative status of Pagrus major (average weight 5.5 ± 0.02 g). After 56 days, growth performances were significantly improved in fish fed RM25 diet compared to control (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, up to 50% replacement of fishmeal did not affect growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, protein apparent digestibility, protease activity, fish somatic indices and survival compared to control. While blood hematocrit and plasma protein were significantly enhanced in groups fed RM0 and RM25 diets, most of the hematological parameters did not change through the trial except glutamic pyruvate transaminase which was significantly increased in RM75 and RM100 groups and blood cholesterol which was gradually decreased with the increasing level of the blend. Interestingly, feeding fish with RM25 and RM50 diets significantly showed enhanced lysozyme, bactericidal and peroxidase activities and fish fed the same diets showed high resistance against oxidative stress (biological antioxidant potential and reactive oxygen metabolites). Additionally, catalase activity and tolerance against low salinity seawater were higher in fish fed RM25 diet. These findings suggested that, at a moderate level (25% and 50%), substitution of fishmeal by the fermented rapeseed meal promoted growth, nutrient utilization, and exerted immune responses and anti-oxidative effects in red sea bream. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Giantsis, Ioannis A; Demir, Samiye; Bon, Marie Claude

    2016-06-01

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) along the outskirts of the city in areas of increased canine leishmania transmission. Six sand fly species (Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus tobbi, Phlebotomus simici, Plebotomus papatasi, Sergentomya minuta and Sergentomya dentata) were identified using both classical and molecular techniques. DNA barcodes were characterized for the first time for two (P. simici and S. dentata) of the six recorded species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the COI gene sequences confirmed the grouping of P. tobbi, P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi (subgenus Larrousius) and the monophyly of P. simici (subgenus Adlerius). By far the most prevalent species was P. perfiliewi, followed by P. simici and P. tobbi. The largest populations of sand flies were collected from animal facilities, followed by residential areas and open agricultural fields. Peak activity of sand flies overall occurred mid-August to mid-September and then declined sharply in October. Blood meal analysis showed that P. perfiliewi and P. simici feed preferentially on humans (88% & 95%, respectively) but also feed on chickens and goats. When designing a control strategy to alleviate sand fly nuisance in the region of Thessaloniki the following conclusions can be reached from this study: a) August and September are high risk months due to increased sand fly activity levels, b) animal facilities within or adjacent to urban settlements are high risk areas and may act as a maintenance and amplification foci for the vector as well as the parasite, and c) the abundance, ubiquity and feeding behavior of P. perfiliewi and P. simici establishes them as potentially important vectors of Leishmania in the region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of the crime scene for detection and identification of blood stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, G. J.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Aalders, M. C. G.

    2013-05-01

    Blood stains are an important source of information in forensic investigations. Extraction of DNA may lead to the identification of victims or suspects, while the blood stain pattern may reveal useful information for the reconstruction of a crime. Consequently, techniques for the detection and identification of blood stains are ideally non-destructive in order not to hamper both DNA and the blood stain pattern analysis. Currently, forensic investigators mainly detect and identify blood stains using chemical or optical methods, which are often either destructive or subject to human interpretation. We demonstrated the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging of the crime scene to detect and identify blood stains remotely. Blood stains outside the human body comprise the main chromophores oxy-hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hemichrome. Consequently, the reflectance spectra of blood stains are influenced by the composite of the optical properties of the individual chromophores and the substrate. Using the coefficient of determination between a non-linear least squares multi-component fit and the measured spectra blood stains were successfully distinguished from other substances visually resembling blood (e.g. ketchup, red wine and lip stick) with a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 85 %. The practical applicability of this technique was demonstrated at a mock crime scene, where blood stains were successfully identified automatically.

  19. LMI Based Robust Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetes Patient with Daily Multi-meal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Sutradhar, A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper illustrates the design of a robust output feedback H ∞ controller for the nonlinear glucose-insulin (GI) process in a type-1 diabetes patient to deliver insulin through intravenous infusion device. The H ∞ design specification have been realized using the concept of linear matrix inequality (LMI) and the LMI approach has been used to quadratically stabilize the GI process via output feedback H ∞ controller. The controller has been designed on the basis of full 19th order linearized state-space model generated from the modified Sorensen's nonlinear model of GI process. The resulting controller has been tested with the nonlinear patient model (the modified Sorensen's model) in presence of patient parameter variations and other uncertainty conditions. The performance of the controller was assessed in terms of its ability to track the normoglycemic set point of 81 mg/dl with a typical multi-meal disturbance throughout a day that yields robust performance and noise rejection.

  20. The speed and metabolic cost of digesting a blood meal depends on temperature in a major disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Boardman, Leigh; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Kleynhans, Elsje; Terblanche, John S

    2016-06-15

    The energetics of processing a meal is crucial for understanding energy budgets of animals in the wild. Given that digestion and its associated costs may be dependent on environmental conditions, it is necessary to obtain a better understanding of these costs under diverse conditions and identify resulting behavioural or physiological trade-offs. This study examines the speed and metabolic costs - in cumulative, absolute and relative energetic terms - of processing a bloodmeal for a major zoonotic disease vector, the tsetse fly Glossina brevipalpis, across a range of ecologically relevant temperatures (25, 30 and 35°C). Respirometry showed that flies used less energy digesting meals faster at higher temperatures but that their starvation tolerance was reduced, supporting the prediction that warmer temperatures are optimal for bloodmeal digestion while cooler temperatures should be preferred for unfed or post-absorptive flies. (13)C-Breath testing revealed that the flies oxidized dietary glucose and amino acids within the first couple of hours of feeding and overall oxidized more dietary nutrients at the cooler temperatures, supporting the premise that warmer digestion temperatures are preferred because they maximize speed and minimize costs. An independent test of these predictions using a thermal gradient confirmed that recently fed flies selected warmer temperatures and then selected cooler temperatures as they became post-absorptive, presumably to maximize starvation resistance. Collectively these results suggest there are at least two thermal optima in a given population at any time and flies switch dynamically between optima throughout feeding cycles. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Incorporating freeze-dried strawberry powder into a high-fat meal does not alter postprandial vascular function or blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Gaugler, Trent L; Lambert, Joshua D; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-02-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism-an exaggerated spike in triglycerides, glucose, and insulin-increases cardiovascular disease risk by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may blunt these effects when they are incorporated into a high-fat, calorie-dense meal. Strawberries are a rich source of polyphenols, but there is little research on their postprandial effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 40 g freeze-dried strawberry powder (∼1 lb. or 0.45 kg fresh strawberries) to a high-fat (50 g total fat) meal on postprandial vascular function, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and insulin responses. Healthy, overweight or obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 31 ± 0.5] adults (mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 2 y; 17 men and 13 women) consumed a control meal and a strawberry meal in a randomized crossover design. Testing sessions were separated by ≥1 wk for men and ∼1 mo for women to control for hormonal variations. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after the meal. Central blood pressure and arterial stiffness indexes were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 h postmeal with the use of pulse waveform analysis. There were no significant differences between the strawberry and control meals for any outcomes. Consumption of either meal significantly decreased the augmentation index at 2 and 4 h (P < 0.002) and significantly increased triglycerides, insulin, and glucose at all time points (P < 0.001) relative to baseline. The strawberry intervention did not alter vascular function or attenuate postprandial metabolic derangements in triglycerides, glucose, or insulin relative to the control meal. Additional research is needed to clarify whether strawberries or other polyphenol-rich interventions improve postprandial responses, and future studies should take into account the acute meal-induced improvements in measures of vascular function. This trial was registered

  2. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  3. The effect of a diet education with six iso-caloric meals on the body weight and blood glucose of diabetes type 2 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salehi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Diabetes should not only be sought through drug administration; diet is also a part of its treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a diet with six meals having equal calories on the body weight and blood glucose on diabetes type 2 patients. This research is an Experimental study conducted in 2009 on 181 patients with diabetes. The patients visited the IDSF (Iranian Diabetes Society of Fars weekly and the patients to be studied were randomly divided into two groups of 85 and 96 patients, respectively. The participants were repeatedly requested to consume their calculated calorie in six equal parts. The average age in the Experimental and Control groups were 51.2 ± 13.3 and 53.1 ± 9.4, respectively. The mean body weight and fasting blood glucose at the beginning of the study in Experimental and Control groups were 66.3 ± 9.4 and 69.1 ± 11.1 kg, 198.9 ± 35.1, and 199.8 ± 39.1 mg.dL-1, respectively. At the end of the study, however, the values were 63.5 ± 7.5 and 66.98 ± 9 kg, 139.5 ± 34.6 and 164.2 ± 22.1 mg.dL-1, respectively. Only the mean fasting blood glucose at the end of the study revealed a significant difference (p-value = 0.001. The results show that educating those afflicted with Diabetes Type 2 aiming at changing their diet can greatly help them manage their blood glucose.

  4. Effects of Posture and Meal Volume on Gastric Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Oral Glucose Tolerance, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Debreceni, Tamara L; Burgstad, Carly M; Wishart, Judith M; Bellon, Max; Rayner, Chris K; Wittert, Gary A; Horowitz, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of posture and drink volume on gastric/pouch emptying (G/PE), intestinal transit, hormones, absorption, glycaemia, blood pressure and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms after gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)). Ten RYGB subjects were studied on four occasions in randomized order (sitting vs. supine posture; 50 vs. 150 ml of labelled water mixed with 3 g 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) and 50 g glucose). G/PE, caecal arrival time (CAT), blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY), 3-OMG, blood pressure, heart rate and GI symptoms were assessed over 240 min. Controls were ten volunteers with no medical condition or previous abdominal surgery, who were studied with the 150-ml drink in the sitting position. Compared to controls, PE (P < 0.001) and CAT (P < 0.001) were substantially more rapid in RYGB subjects. In RYGB, PE was more rapid in the sitting position (2.5 ± 0.7 vs. 16.6 ± 5.3 min, P = 0.02) and tends to be faster after 150 ml than the 50-ml drinks (9.5 ± 2.9 vs. 14.0 ± 3.5 min, P = 0.16). The sitting position and larger volume drinks were associated with greater releases of insulin, GLP-1 and PYY, as well as more hypotension (P < 0.01), tachycardia (P < 0.01) and postprandial symptoms (P < 0.001). Pouch emptying, blood pressure and GI symptoms after RYGB are dependent on both posture and meal volume.

  5. Sex-specific and blood meal-induced proteins of Anopheles gambiae midguts: analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

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    Laurent-Winter C

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa. The mosquito midgut constitutes a barrier that the parasite must cross if it is to develop and be transmitted. Despite the central role of the mosquito midgut in the host/parasite interaction, little is known about its protein composition. Characterisation of An. gambiae midgut proteins may identify the proteins that render An. gambiae receptive to the malaria parasite. Methods We carried out two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of An. gambiae midgut proteins and compared protein profiles for midguts from males, sugar-fed females and females fed on human blood. Results Very few differences were detected between male and female mosquitoes for the approximately 375 silver-stained proteins. Male midguts contained ten proteins not detected in sugar-fed or blood-fed females, which are therefore probably involved in male-specific functions; conversely, female midguts contained twenty-three proteins absent from male midguts. Eight of these proteins were specific to sugar-fed females, and another ten, to blood-fed females. Conclusion Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins found only in blood-fed female midguts, together with data from the recent sequencing of the An. gambiae genome, should make it possible to determine the role of these proteins in blood digestion or parasite receptivity.

  6. Sex-specific and blood meal-induced proteins of Anopheles gambiae midguts: analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévot, GI; Laurent-Winter, C; Rodhain, F; Bourgouin, C

    2003-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa. The mosquito midgut constitutes a barrier that the parasite must cross if it is to develop and be transmitted. Despite the central role of the mosquito midgut in the host/parasite interaction, little is known about its protein composition. Characterisation of An. gambiae midgut proteins may identify the proteins that render An. gambiae receptive to the malaria parasite. Methods We carried out two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of An. gambiae midgut proteins and compared protein profiles for midguts from males, sugar-fed females and females fed on human blood. Results Very few differences were detected between male and female mosquitoes for the approximately 375 silver-stained proteins. Male midguts contained ten proteins not detected in sugar-fed or blood-fed females, which are therefore probably involved in male-specific functions; conversely, female midguts contained twenty-three proteins absent from male midguts. Eight of these proteins were specific to sugar-fed females, and another ten, to blood-fed females. Conclusion Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins found only in blood-fed female midguts, together with data from the recent sequencing of the An. gambiae genome, should make it possible to determine the role of these proteins in blood digestion or parasite receptivity. PMID:12605724

  7. Effects of an induced molt using cassava meal on body weight loss, blood physiology, ovarian regression, and postmolt egg production in late-phase laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongruttananun, N; Kochagate, P; Poonpan, K; Yu-Nun, N; Aungsakul, J; Sopa, N

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of an induced molt using cassava meal on body weight, blood physiology, ovary, and postmolt performance in late-phase (74 wk old) H&N Brown laying hens. Hens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 90 birds each: 1) Controls withno induced molt (CONT); 2) molted by full feeding with cassava meal for 3 wk (FP3); and 3) molted by full feeding with cassava meal for 4 wk (FP4). Groups 2 and 3 were fed a pullet developer diet for 3 wk following treatment. During the molt period, the birds were exposed to an 8L:16D photoperiod and had access to drinking water at all times. Thereafter, all hens were fed a layer diet (17%CP), and exposed to a 16L:8D photoperiod, and production performance was measured for 16 wk. The molt treatments resulted in total cessation of egg production within 2 wk following feeding the molt diet. BW loss of birds in the FP4 treatment was approximately 30.13%, which was significantly higher than those in the FP3 treatment (25.23%). At the termination of feeding the molt diet, an increase in hematocrit values was observed for the FP3 and FP4 treatments compared to the CONT treatment. Conversely, lower values of serum estradiol, progesterone, ionized Ca and phosphorus concentrations were found for the 2 molted treatments. Ovary weight, number of follicles, and oviduct weight and length of the FP3 and FP4 treatments were diminished as compared to the CONT treatment. No consistent differences were observed between the molted treatments. Significant (P < 0.05) improvements in postmolt feed efficiency, egg production, Haugh units, shell weight, shell thickness, shell breaking strength, and mortality rate were observed for the FP4 treatment. An improvement in those performances, except for feed efficiency and egg production, was also found for the FP3 treatment. It was concluded that feeding the cassava molt diet for 4 wk could induce molt in laying hens effectively, and produce optimum postmolt productive

  8. Identification of Genetic on Blood Serum Protein of Prolific Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiyono; Ondho, Y. S.; Setiatin, E. T.; Sutopo; Laily, A. N.; Prasetyowati, D. E.; Noviani, F.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to identify the genetic specification of blood plasma protein in ewes that are prolific. The material of study of local sheep in Bawen and Jambu Sub-district of Semarang Regency is 132 which is determined by purposive sampling that have been give lambing three times. Ewes were divided into three groups that always has a single child (L1), ever had twins (L2) and twins more than two (LM2). Blood sampling was performed using dispossible syringe in jugular vein as much as 5 ml per ewe. Blood plasma was analyzed by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis-Thin Layer (PAGETLE) method in Biochemistry Laboratory of Veterinary Faculty of Gadjah Mada University. Data analysis is using descriptive statistics and the laws of equilibrium Hardy-Weberg. The research parameters were comparison type of ewes and frequency genetic of protein of blood serum. The results showed that the parent comparisons of L1, L2 and LM2 were 66 (50.00%), 49 (37.12%) and 17 (12.88%), respectively. The frequency genes haven a high propensity to relationship of prolificacy nature parent are Pal2, AlbB, CPF, TFB, PTFS and AmlB on pointes, 67.65, 55.88, 91.17, 70.59, 79.41 and 91.18%. Conclusion the mostly LM2 ewes have genotypes Pal1Pal2, AlbBAlbC, CpFCpF, TfATfB, PtfSPtfS and AmlBAmlB whit frequency are 52.94%, 52.94%, 88.24, 47.06, 64.71 and 88.24% respectively.

  9. Prompt cytomolecular identification of chromosome aberration in irradiated blood cells

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    Seyed Akbar Moosavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: understanding the genomic alteration induced by ionizing radiation still remains to be a methodological challenge in genetic field. The energy released from this type of radiation can potentially causes structural and numerical alterations in lymphocytes, which in turn converts them into abnormal tumor cells. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with specific type of hematological malignancies are determinant factors in evaluation of radiation dose and its potential in harming the body. None the less early detection of chromosomal aberration (CA is crucial in prognosis and selection of therapy for the people exposed to irradiations. The aim of this study was to explore a swift and accurate genetic test that identifies CAs in radiologist exposed to X-rays. In addition synergistic effect of other clastogens in irradiated workers was also evaluated. Material and methods: thirty four heparinized blood samples were obtained from radiology workers exposed to X-rays. Blood samples were cultured in RPMI 1640 and F-10 Medias with and without PHA stimulation. Lymphocytes were harvested, separated and arrested at metaphase and their chromosomes were analyzed by solid and G-Banding techniques. Lymphocytic CA was also analyzed through whole chromosome painting FISH. Results: of the 37 blood sample from workers, 60% had various structural aberrations in which both the frequency and type of CAs were intensified among tobacco smokers. Conclusion: the results did not show any significant differences between the genders but other carcinogen like smoking can significantly increases the rate of CAs

  10. Rapid Identification of Microorganisms by FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Panel Improves Clinical Management in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Stephen T J; Drew, Richard J; Hardiman, Fiona; Pizer, Barry; Riordan, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Blood cultures are a common investigation for children admitted to hospital. In routine practice, it takes at least 24 hours to identify an organism as a contaminant or clinically significant. FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Panel (FA-BCIP) is a multiplex polymerase chain reaction that can detect 24 pathogens within 1 hour. We assessed whether results from FA-BCIP lead to changes in clinical management in a tertiary referral paediatric hospital. We prospectively studied children having blood cultures taken at our tertiary children's hospital. Blood cultures were monitored and organisms identified using standard methods. FA-BCIP was performed when growth was initially detected in first positive blood cultures per episode, between January 1 and June 30, 2014. Assessment of whether the FA-BCIP result altered clinical management was made, specifically focused on antimicrobial stewardship and length of stay. FA-BCIP was done on 117 positive blood cultures; 74 (63%) grew clinically significant organisms, 43 (37%) grew contaminants. FA-BCIP results were judged to alter clinical management in 63 of the 117 episodes (54%). Antimicrobials were started/altered in 23 (19%) episodes and de-escalated/withheld/stopped in 29 (25%) episodes. Ten children were discharged from hospital earlier, which saved a cumulative total of 14 bed days. Rapid identification of microorganisms in pediatric blood cultures by FA-BCIP, led to changes in clinical management for half of the episodes. This improved antimicrobial stewardship and allowed early discharge from hospital for 10% of children. Future studies should focus on how best to use this technology in a cost-effective manner.

  11. Validity of direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility of microrganisms from bottles of blood culture

    OpenAIRE

    Carmela Mazzone; Maria Luisa Laterza; Lucio Tauro

    2009-01-01

    The blood culture is a very important laboratory test: if bacteremia or sepsis are suspected, the diagnosis of the pathogen and antibiotic therapy may be achieved making use of it. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility test carried out directly from the bottle may give important information in a shorter time. The introduction of the automatic instrumentation has improved the discovering of pathogens in the blood, however the elapsing time between the positive detection and the microbio...

  12. Desempenho da tilápia-do-Nilo arraçoada com dietas contendo farinha de sangue bovino atomizado ou convencional = Performance of nile tilapia fed with spray-dried or vat-dries bovine blood meal

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    Willian Vicente Narváez-Solarte

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho e os índices de rendimento da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentada com níveis crescentes de farinha de sangue atomizado (FSA ou de farinha de sangue convencional (FSC em dietas formuladas com base em aminoácidos digestíveis. Foram utilizados 252 alevinos, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial (2 x 4 + 1, duas classes de farinha de sangue com quatro níveis de inclusão de cada farinha na dieta, e uma dieta-controle, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma dieta-controle à base de farelo de soja, contendo 34% de proteína digestível (PD e 3.200 kcal de energia digestível kg-1 (ED, mais quatro rações formuladas com FSA e quatro rações com FSC, com inclusões de 5, 10, 15 e 20% de cada farinha na ração, mantendo-se os níveis de PD, ED, fósforo, cálcio, lisina, metionina, treonina e triptofano idênticos aos da dieta-controle. Concluiu-se que é possível utilizar até 15% da FSC em rações para tilápia-do-Nilo na fase de 5 a 150 g de peso vivo.The study evaluated the performance and carcass composition index of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diets containing increasing levels of spray-dried blood meal (SDBM and vat-dried blood meal (VDBM and formulated based on digestible amino acids. Two hundred and fifty-two fingerlings were distributed in a completelyrandomized design, in a (2 x 4 + 1 factorial model, two types of blood meal with four levels of each blood meal in the diet, and a control diet (without blood meal, with four replications. The treatments consisted of soybean meal-based control diet, with 34%digestible protein (DP and 3,200 kcal of digestible energy kg-1 (DE, plus four diets formulated with SDBM and four diets with VDBM, containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of each meal in feed, maintaining identical DP, DE, phosphorus, calcium, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan levels as those of the control diet. The

  13. Noncontact blood species identification method based on spatially resolved near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The inspection and identification of whole blood are crucially significant for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. In our previous research, we proved Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectroscopy method was potential for noninvasively identifying three blood species, including macaque, human and mouse, with samples measured in the cuvettes. However, in open sampling cases, inspectors may be endangered by virulence factors in blood samples. In this paper, we explored the noncontact measurement for classification, with blood samples measured in the vacuum blood vessels. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy was used to improve the prediction accuracy. Results showed that the prediction accuracy of the model built with nine detection points was more than 90% in identification between all five species, including chicken, goat, macaque, pig and rat, far better than the performance of the model built with single-point spectra. The results fully supported the idea that spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy method can improve the prediction ability, and demonstrated the feasibility of this method for noncontact blood species identification in practical applications.

  14. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  16. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C

    2016-08-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm), osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1) and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS) of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA) required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi.

  17. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks.

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    Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm, osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1 and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi.

  18. Sex identification of polar bears from blood and tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Garner, G.W.; Cronin, M.A.; Patton, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be adversely affected by hunting and other human perturbations because of low population densities and low reproduction rates. The sustainable take of adult females may be as low as 1.5% of the population. Females and accompanying young are most vulnerable to hunting, and hunters have not consistently reported the sex composition of the harvest, therefore a method to confirm the sexes of polar bears harvested in Alaska is needed. Evidence of the sex of harvested animals is often not available, but blood or other tissue samples often are. We extracted DNA from tissue and blood samples, and amplified segments of zinc finger (ZFX and ZFY) genes from both X and Y chromosomes with the polymerase chain reaction. Digestion of amplified portions of the X chromosome with the restriction enzyme HaeIII resulted in subdivision of the original amplified segment into four smaller fragments. Digestion with HaeIII did not subdivide the original segment amplified from the Y chromosome. The differing fragment sizes produced patterns in gel electrophoresis that distinguished samples from male and female bears 100% of the time. This technique is applicable to the investigation of many wildlife management and research questions.

  19. Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes

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    Deborah Foote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the peak timing of postprandial blood glucose level (PBGL of two breakfasts with different glycemic index (GI in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Ten women with diet-controlled GDM who were between 30 and 32 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. They consumed two carbohydrate controlled, macronutrient matched bread-based breakfasts with different GI (low vs. high on two separate occasions in a random order after an overnight fast. PBGLs were assessed using a portable blood analyser. Subjects were asked to indicate their satiety rating at each blood sample collection. Overall the consumption of a high GI breakfast resulted in a greater rise in PBGL (mean ± SEM peak PBGL: low GI 6.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L vs. high GI 8.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L; p < 0.001 and an earlier peak PBGL time (16.9 ± 4.9 min earlier; p = 0.015, with high variability in PBGL time between subjects. There was no significant difference in subjective satiety throughout the test period. In conclusion, the low GI breakfast produced lower postprandial glycemia, and the peak PBGL occurred closer to the time recommended for PBGL monitoring (i.e., 1 h postprandial in GDM than a macronutrient matched high GI breakfast.

  20. Impact of the blood meal on humoral immunity and microbiota in the gut of female Culicoides sonorensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayduch, Dana; Erram, Dinesh; Lee, Matthew B; Zurek, Ludek; Saski, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Although Culicoides sonorensis is an important vector of orbiviruses causing significant disease in domestic and wild ruminants in the USA, little is known about factors contributing to midge vector competence. In other vectors such as mosquitoes, interactions among the humoral immune response, microbiota, and ingested pathogens within the vector gut directly impact pathogen survival and therefore vectoring potential. We recently described components of the humoral immune response in the reference transcriptome for adult female C. sonorensis and analysed their temporal expression profiles across several dietary states (unfed, blood, or sugar fed). Blood feeding altered the transcription of several humoral immune components of the Immune deficiency (Imd), dual‑oxidase (DUOX), and Janus Kinase and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. Genes for immune effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides, were in particular highly induced. Since blood feeding also stimulated proliferation and diversification of bacterial populations colonising the gut of female midges, we infer that changes in immune gene expression were a result of fluctuations in gut microbiota. Thus, diet can indirectly (via microbiota) impact gut immune status and therefore should be carefully considered in subsequent studies assessing vector competence in biting midges.

  1. Molecular DNA identification of blood sources fed on, for Culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae collected in the Songkhla province, southern Thailand

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    Theerakamol Pengsakul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Culicine mosquitoes are medically important vectors. Therefore, mosquito control measures are a crucial strategy to interrupt disease transmission. Collection of data on mosquito feeding patterns is crucial for developing an effective vector control strategy. The objective of this study was to use molecular biology methods to identify the sources of DNA in mosquito blood meals. The DNA from blood meals in the mosquito stomachs was extracted and amplified with multiplex PCR, using specific primer sets based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, to identify the DNA sources among human, pig, goat, dog, cow, and chicken. Among the 297 mosquito samples collected in the Songkhla province of Thailand, in Aedes spp. mosquitoes the percentages positive for human, dog, pig, chicken, cow, a mixture of 2 vertebrate DNAs, or of 3, and negative (no identified DNA were 61.90, 2.38, 2.38, 0.60, 0.60, 4.18, 1.20 and 26.79% respectively. In Culex spp. blood meals the rank order was different: fractions positive for chicken, human, dog, cow, goat, pig, a mixture of 2 or 3 vertebrate DNAs, and negative were 40.83, 10.00, 5.00, 4.17, 1.67, 0.83, 8.32, 3.32 and 25.83% respectively. This study shows that feeding behaviors of the two species differ, with most Aedes spp. blood meals containing human blood, while Culex spp. had primarily consumed chicken blood. An improved understanding of the feeding behaviors of mosquitoes could contribute to new, more effective strategies for the control of mosquito populations.

  2. Konsentrasi Asam Lemak Terbang dan Glukosa Darah Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE ON THIN-TAILED SHEEP GIVEN WITH TANINE-PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraliah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of tannin-protected protein source feed to livestock productivitybased on its influence on methane production, Volatile fatty acids (VFA production, and blood glucose inthe use of tannin-protected protein on complete feed in thin-tailed ram. The study uses thin-tailed ramaged about 8 months, as many as 16 rams with body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg. The researchusesa completerandomized design(CRD withfour treatmentsandfourreplications. The treatments areP0:15% soybeanmeals without tannin protection in complete feed, P1:15% soybean meals with 0.5% tannin protection incomplete feed, P2:15% soybean meals with 1% tannin protection in complete feed and P3:15% soybeanmeals with 1.5% tannin protection in complete feed. The results indicates that administration of tanninsin soybean meal in complete feed showed significant effect (P <0.05 on blood glucose, the production ofpropionic acid in the 3rd hour, but the VFA production at hour 0, hour 6, as well as methane productionshowed no significant effect (P> 0.05. The conclusion is that 15% protected soybean meal with 1% oftannin in the complete feed is able to contribute to the proportion of propionate and contribute to increasedblood glucose on a thin-tailed ram but can not to reduce methane production.

  3. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  4. Validity of direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility of microrganisms from bottles of blood culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mazzone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The blood culture is a very important laboratory test: if bacteremia or sepsis are suspected, the diagnosis of the pathogen and antibiotic therapy may be achieved making use of it. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility test carried out directly from the bottle may give important information in a shorter time. The introduction of the automatic instrumentation has improved the discovering of pathogens in the blood, however the elapsing time between the positive detection and the microbiological report is still along.The aim of our work was to verify the validity of the direct use of blood culture broth in which growth of microorganisms has been detected, which could reduce the response time of the bacteremia diagnosis. During the period February - July 2009, a total of 150 blood cultures were analysed:we compared the results obtained both by direct method and by reference method. 20 Gram positive microrganisms and 13 Gram negative microrganisms were respectively isolated and identified. The identification of Gram-negative and Gram-positive microrganisms showed an agreement of 100% between the direct and the reference method. For antibiotic susceptibility tests, among the Gram positive has reported 1.3% very major error, 2.9% major error and 1.4% minor error, while the Gram negative, respectivety 0.3%, 1.4%, 0%. The use of direct identification and susceptibility testing from positive blood cultures, can improve the response time and better efficiency in diagnostic procedures.

  5. Reducing time to identification of aerobic bacteria and fastidious micro-organisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-12-01

    Rapid and early identification of micro-organisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 h of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with five drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification. Ninety-nine percentage of aerobic bacteria were correctly identified from 600 monomicrobial-positive blood cultures. This procedure allowed obtaining the correct identification of fastidious pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae that need complex nutritional and environmental requirements in order to grow. Compared to the traditional pathogen identification from blood cultures that takes over 24 h, the reliability of results, rapid performance and suitability of this protocol allowed a more rapid administration of optimal antimicrobial treatment in the patients. Bloodstream infections are serious conditions with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Rapid identification of pathogens and appropriate antimicrobial therapy have a key role for successful patient outcome. In this work, we developed a rapid, simplified, accurate, and efficient method, reaching 99 % identification of aerobic bacteria from monomicrobial-positive blood cultures by using early growth on enriched medium, direct transfer to target plate without additional procedures, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and SARAMIS database. The application of this protocol allows to anticipate appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  6. Screening of leaf meals as feed supplements in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein content (26.3%) followed by Gliricidia leaf meal (22.9%) and Stylosanthes leaf meal (19.5%). All the four diets (A – D) were formulated with maize flour, soybean, fish meal, blood meal and the respective leaf meals and crude protein content ranged from 30.57 – 36.42 %. The diets were distributed randomly to twelve ...

  7. Identification of human pathogens isolated from blood using microarray hybridisation and signal pattern recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presterl Elisabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogen identification in clinical routine is based on the cultivation of microbes with subsequent morphological and physiological characterisation lasting at least 24 hours. However, early and accurate identification is a crucial requisite for fast and optimally targeted antimicrobial treatment. Molecular biology based techniques allow fast identification, however discrimination of very closely related species remains still difficult. Results A molecular approach is presented for the rapid identification of pathogens combining PCR amplification with microarray detection. The DNA chip comprises oligonucleotide capture probes for 25 different pathogens including Gram positive cocci, the most frequently encountered genera of Enterobacteriaceae, non-fermenter and clinical relevant Candida species. The observed detection limits varied from 10 cells (e.g. E. coli to 105 cells (S. aureus per mL artificially spiked blood. Thus the current low sensitivity for some species still represents a barrier for clinical application. Successful discrimination of closely related species was achieved by a signal pattern recognition approach based on the k-nearest-neighbour method. A prototype software providing this statistical evaluation was developed, allowing correct identification in 100 % of the cases at the genus and in 96.7 % at the species level (n = 241. Conclusion The newly developed molecular assay can be carried out within 6 hours in a research laboratory from pathogen isolation to species identification. From our results we conclude that DNA microarrays can be a useful tool for rapid identification of closely related pathogens particularly when the protocols are adapted to the special clinical scenarios.

  8. Interactions between levels of heat-treated soybean meal and prilled fat on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Mirzaei, M; Jahani-Moghadam, M; Soltani, A; Mahjoubi, E; Patton, R A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the interaction of RUP and fat levels on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Forty 3-d-old calves (20 females and 20 males) with a starting BW of 40.6 ± 2.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within sex treatments were: (1) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); (2) low RUP and high fat (LRUP-HF); (3) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); and high RUP and high fat (HRUP-HF). Low-RUP starter contained 21.5%, whereas high RUP starter contained 34.3% RUP as % of CP, whereas low fat starter contained 2.9% and high starter contained 5.8% crude fat based on DM. Isonitrogenous levels in the starter grain were maintained by replacing solvent soybean meal with heat treated soybean meal while fat levels were increased by the addition of prilled fatty acids. Calves were housed individually and had ad libitum access to water and calf starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age but remained in the study until d 70 for final measurements. Overall, there was no interaction between RUP and fat levels for measured variables. Starter intake tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for calves fed low fat starter during the postweaning period, although over the whole experiment and during the preweaning period, differences in starter intake were not different. Although there were no differences for most VFA concentrations, the molar proportion of butyrate tended ( < 0.08) to be greater in the rumen of calves fed low-fat starter compared to those fed high-fat starter. Serum total protein was lower ( < 0.05) and serum cholesterol was greater ( < 0.01) for calves fed high-fat starter by d 65 of life. The concentration of alanine aminotransferase was also lower ( < 0.05) for calves fed high-fat starter compared to those fed low-fat starter on d 65, and these levels tended to increase with the addition of RUP ( < 0.07). In conclusion, no effects were attributable to

  9. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  10. Profile of GenMark's ePlex® blood culture identification fungal pathogen panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubon, Danièle; Dard, Céline; Garnaud, Cécile; Cornet, Muriel

    2018-02-01

    Fungemia presents high morbi-mortality and thus rapid microbiological diagnosis may contribute to appropriate patient management. In the last decade, kits based on molecular technologies have become available and health care institutes are increasingly facing critical investment choices. Although all these tools aim to achieve rapid fungal detection and species identification, they display different inherent characteristics. Areas covered: Considering technologies allowing detection and identification of fungal species in a sepsis context, the market proposes either tests on positive blood culture or tests on patient's whole blood. In this review, the authors describe and compare the ePlex® Blood Culture Identification Fungal Pathogen (BCID-FP) test, a fully automated one-step single-use cartridge assay that has been designed to detect identify frequent or rare but emerging, fungal species, from positive blood culture. A comparison with the competing kits is provided. Expert commentaries: The ePlex BCID-FP test provides a diversified and rather relevant panel. Its easy-to-use cartridges allow flexible use around the clock. Nevertheless, prospective clinical studies assessing the time-to-result benefit on antifungal stewardship and on hospital length of stay are not available yet. New tools aim to benefit clinicians and patients, but they should be accompanied by supervision of result interpretation and adaptation of antifungal stewardship.

  11. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwatapron Sor-suwan

    Full Text Available Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  12. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sor-suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Phumee, Atchara; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Intakhan, Nuchpicha; Chanmol, Wetpisit; Bates, Paul A; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2014-01-01

    Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  13. Flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation modulates growth performance, blood lipids, intestinal fermentation, bile acids, and neutral sterols in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndou, S P; Kiarie, E; Thandapilly, S J; Walsh, M C; Ames, N; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire-Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets-a basal corn-soybean meal-containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls-containing diet (OH)-in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and to contain similar standardized ileal digestible AA contents and meet other nutrient requirements for growing pigs. The experiment lasted for 28 d. Average daily feed intake; ADG; G:F; ATTD of fat, serum lipids, and digesta; and fecal VFA, BA, and NS concentrations were determined. Pigs fed the control or OH had greater final BW ( < 0.001), ADFI ( = 0.005), and ADG ( < 0.001) than FM-fed pigs. The ATTD of fat in the FM was lowest at 70.1% followed by 79.2% in OH and was greatest at 92.4% in the control ( = 0.020). Total serum cholesterol content was 2.25 and 1.99 mmol/L and lower ( < 0.001) in pigs fed FM and OH, respectively, than the 2.36 mmol/L in pigs fed the control. Pigs fed the FM and OH had greater ileal and cecal total VFA ( < 0.001), ileal deoxycholic acid ( < 0.01), and cecal ( < 0.001) and fecal cholesterol ( = 0.002) concentrations than those fed the control. Pigs fed the FM excreted more fecal lithocholic acid ( = 0.002) and ursodeoxycholic acid ( = 0.001) compared with those that consumed the control and OH. The concentrations of coprostanol in cecal digesta ( < 0.001) and feces ( = 0.011) were higher in pigs fed the FM and OH than in pigs fed the control. In conclusion, feeding flaxseed meal and oat hulls induced intestinal fermentation; however, the former depressed

  14. Konsentrasi Asam Lemak Terbang dan Glukosa Darah Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE ON THIN-TAILED SHEEP GIVEN WITH TANINE-PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraliah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of tannin-protected protein source feed to livestock productivitybased on its influence on methane production, Volatile fatty acids (VFA production, and blood glucose inthe use of tannin-protected protein on complete feed in thin-tailed ram. The study uses thin-tailed ramaged about 8 months, as many as 16 rams with body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg. The researchusesa completerandomized design(CRD withfour treatmentsandfourreplications. The treatments areP0:15% soybeanmeals without tannin protection in complete feed, P1:15% soybean meals with 0.5% tannin protection incomplete feed, P2:15% soybean meals with 1% tannin protection in complete feed and P3:15% soybeanmeals with 1.5% tannin protection in complete feed. The results indicates that administration of tanninsin soybean meal in complete feed showed significant effect (P 0.05. The conclusion is that 15% protected soybean meal with 1% oftannin in the complete feed is able to contribute to the proportion of propionate and contribute to increasedblood glucose on a thin-tailed ram but can not to reduce methane production.

  15. Cells identification and counting in blood native state on the basis of digital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubrovski V.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to develop an algorithm for the processing of photo images of native blood samples to determine the concentration of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets without individual separate preparation of cell samples. Materials and Methods. The objects of investigation were the samples of the whole donated blood, diluted 400 times by saline. Special "photo templates", the effect of "highlighting" of leukocytes, which was detect by authors, and the resolution of platelets from leukocytes by the areas of their photo images were suggested for identification of the cells. Results. 80 photo images of native blood solutions were selected for computer processing, while the total number of cells counted was: erythrocytes — 4184, platelets — 292 and leukocytes — 84, total — 4560 blood cells. Comparison of the results achieved with ones obtained by "manual" account or by the device for formed elements counting Sysmex XT-400i gives satisfactory results. Conclusion. It is shown that the accuracy of counting of the native blood cells may be comparable with the accuracy of similar studies by means of smears. At the same time the proposed analysis of native blood simplifies greatly the samples preparation in comparison to smears, permits to move from the detection of blood cells ratios to the determination of their concentrations in the sample.

  16. Seminested PCR for detection and identification of Candida species directly from blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün; Aksu, Burak; Dal, Tuba Demirel; Deniz, Umut; Bilgen, Hülya Selva; Ozek, Eren; Söyletir, Güner

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the performance of a seminested PCR (snPCR) assay carried out directly from overnight incubated blood culture bottles of 50 newborn intensive care unit (NICU) patients with suspected candidemia and compared these, for sensitivity, specificity and reliability with results from blood cultures. All positive blood cultures (n = 17) yielded positive results for snPCR, which detected the same Candida species, as did the yeast isolates of which 13 were C. parapsilosis and 4 were C. albicans. With both assays showing 32 negative samples and one sample positive with snPCR but negative with blood culture, sensitivity and specificity of snPCR were 100% and 97%, respectively. The patient with contradictory results exhibited a positive blood culture one week later yielding the same species as identified by snPCR. These are the first data demonstrating that snPCR from overnight blood culture bottles can be a potential tool for rapid detection and identification of Candida species, allowing follow-up of the "gold standard" blood culturing, as well.

  17. Various levels of copra meal supplementation with β-Mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economical analysis in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce use of main feed ingredient like corn, soy bean meal (SBM and wheat, alternative ingredients has been studied like copra meal (CM. Production amount of CM which has been high makes CM to be an alternative feed stuff. However, low digestibility on AA and low energy content by high fiber content can be an obstacle for using CM. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CM supplementation with β-mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economic analysis in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 100 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc averaging 31.22 ± 2.04 kg body weight were allotted to 5 different treatments by weight and sex in a randomized complete block (RCB design in 5 replicate with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were 1 Control (corn-SBM based diet + 0.1% of β-mannanase (800 IU, 2 CM10 (10% copra meal + 0.1% β-mannanase (800 IU, 3 CM15 (15% copra meal + 0.1% β-mannanase (800 IU, 4 CM20 (20% copra meal + 0.1% β-mannanase (800 IU and 5 CM25 (25% copra meal + 0.1% β-mannanase (800 IU. Four phase feeding program was used: growing I (week 1–3, growing II (week 4–6, finishing I (week 7–9 and finishing II (week 10–12. Results In growth performance, there was no significant difference among treatments during whole experimental period. In growingI phase, G:F ratio tended to increase when CM was increased (P = 0.05, but ADG and ADFI tended to decrease in finishingII phase (linear, P = 0.08. Also, increasing CM reduced ADG (linear, P = 0.02 and feed efficiency (linear, P = 0.08 during the whole finishing period. In blood profiles, BUN was linearly increased as CM increased (linear, P = 0.02 at growingII period. In digestibility trial, there was no significant difference in dry matter, crude fat, crude ash and nitrogen digestibility. However, crude protein digestibility was

  18. Various levels of copra meal supplementation withβ-Mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economical analysis in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Nam, S O; Jeong, J H; Fang, L H; Yoo, H B; Yoo, S H; Hong, J S; Son, S W; Ha, S H; Kim, Y Y

    2017-01-01

    To reduce use of main feed ingredient like corn, soy bean meal (SBM) and wheat, alternative ingredients has been studied like copra meal (CM). Production amount of CM which has been high makes CM to be an alternative feed stuff. However, low digestibility on AA and low energy content by high fiber content can be an obstacle for using CM. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CM supplementation with β -mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economic analysis in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 100 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) averaging 31.22 ± 2.04 kg body weight were allotted to 5 different treatments by weight and sex in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in 5 replicate with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were 1) Control (corn-SBM based diet + 0.1% of β -mannanase (800 IU)), 2) CM10 (10% copra meal + 0.1% β -mannanase (800 IU)), 3) CM15 (15% copra meal + 0.1% β -mannanase (800 IU)), 4) CM20 (20% copra meal + 0.1% β -mannanase (800 IU)) and 5) CM25 (25% copra meal + 0.1% β -mannanase (800 IU)). Four phase feeding program was used: growing I (week 1-3), growing II (week 4-6), finishing I (week 7-9) and finishing II (week 10-12). In growth performance, there was no significant difference among treatments during whole experimental period. In growingI phase, G:F ratio tended to increase when CM was increased (P = 0.05), but ADG and ADFI tended to decrease in finishingII phase (linear, P  = 0.08). Also, increasing CM reduced ADG (linear, P  = 0.02) and feed efficiency (linear, P  = 0.08) during the whole finishing period. In blood profiles, BUN was linearly increased as CM increased (linear, P  = 0.02) at growingII period. In digestibility trial, there was no significant difference in dry matter, crude fat, crude ash and nitrogen digestibility. However, crude protein digestibility was decreased linearly (linear, P

  19. A SURVEY OF RETINA BASED DISEASE IDENTIFICATION USING BLOOD VESSEL SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kuppusamy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The colour retinal photography is one of the most essential features to identify the confirmation of various eye diseases. The iris is primary attribute to authenticate the human. This research work presents the survey and comparison of various blood vessel related feature identification, segmentation, extraction and enhancement methods. Additionally, this study is observed the various databases performance for storing the images and testing in minimal time. This paper is also provides the better performance techniques based on the survey.

  20. Response to Blood Meal in the Fat Body of Anopheles stephensi Using Quantitative Proteomics: Toward New Vector Control Strategies Against Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Mohanty, Ajeet Kumar; Sreenivasamurthy, Sreelakshmi K; Dey, Gourav; Advani, Jayshree; Pinto, Sneha M; Kumar, Ashwani; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-09-01

    Malaria remains a grand challenge for disruptive innovation in global health therapeutics and diagnostics. Anopheles stephensi is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. Vector and transmission control are key focus areas in the fight against malaria, a field of postgenomics research where proteomics can play a substantive role. Moreover, to identify novel strategies to control the vector population, it is necessary to understand the vector life processes at a global and molecular scale. In this context, fat body is a vital organ required for vitellogenesis, vector immunity, vector physiology, and vector-parasite interaction. Given its central role in energy metabolism, vitellogenesis, and immune function, the proteome profile of the fat body and the impact of blood meal (BM) ingestion on the protein abundances of this vital organ have not been investigated so far. Therefore, using a proteomics approach, we identified the proteins expressed in the fat body of An. stephensi and their differential expression in response to BM ingestion. In all, we identified 3,218 proteins in the fat body using high-resolution mass spectrometry, of which 483 were found to be differentially expressed in response to the BM ingestion. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins underscored their role in amino acid metabolism, vitellogenesis, lipid transport, signal peptide processing, mosquito immunity, and oxidation-reduction processes. Interestingly, we identified five novel genes, which were found to be differentially expressed upon BM ingestion. Proteins that exhibited altered expression in the present study are potential targets for vector control strategies and development of transmission blocking vaccines in the fight against malaria.

  1. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    -ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored......This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open...

  2. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  3. White blood cells identification system based on convolutional deep neural learning networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2017-11-16

    White blood cells (WBCs) differential counting yields valued information about human health and disease. The current developed automated cell morphology equipments perform differential count which is based on blood smear image analysis. Previous identification systems for WBCs consist of successive dependent stages; pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. There is a real need to employ deep learning methodologies so that the performance of previous WBCs identification systems can be increased. Classifying small limited datasets through deep learning systems is a major challenge and should be investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel identification system for WBCs based on deep convolutional neural networks. Two methodologies based on transfer learning are followed: transfer learning based on deep activation features and fine-tuning of existed deep networks. Deep acrivation featues are extracted from several pre-trained networks and employed in a traditional identification system. Moreover, a novel end-to-end convolutional deep architecture called "WBCsNet" is proposed and built from scratch. Finally, a limited balanced WBCs dataset classification is performed through the WBCsNet as a pre-trained network. During our experiments, three different public WBCs datasets (2551 images) have been used which contain 5 healthy WBCs types. The overall system accuracy achieved by the proposed WBCsNet is (96.1%) which is more than different transfer learning approaches or even the previous traditional identification system. We also present features visualization for the WBCsNet activation which reflects higher response than the pre-trained activated one. a novel WBCs identification system based on deep learning theory is proposed and a high performance WBCsNet can be employed as a pre-trained network. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Optimal turnaround time for direct identification of microorganisms by mass spectrometry in blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Adrien; Simon, Marc; Goffinet, Pierre; Classen, Jean-François; Hougardy, Nicolas; Pierre, Pascal; Kinzinger, Philippe; Mauel, Etienne; Goffinet, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-11-01

    During the past few years, several studies describing direct identification of bacteria from blood culture using mass spectrometry have been published. These methods cannot, however, be easily integrated into a common laboratory workflow because of the high hands-on time they require. In this paper, we propose a new method of identification with a short hands-on time and a turnaround time shorter than 15min. Positive blood bottles were homogenised and 600μL of blood were transferred to an Eppendorf tube where 600μL of lysis buffer were added. After homogenisation, a centrifugation step of 4min at 10,500g was performed and the supernatant was discarded. The pellet was then washed and loaded in quadruplicate into wells of a Vitek® MS-DS plate. Each well was covered with a saturated matrix solution and a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis was performed. Species were identified using the software Myla 3.2.0-2. We analysed 266 positive blood culture bottles. A microorganism grew in 261 cultures, while five bottles remained sterile after 48h of incubation in subculture. Our method reaches a probability of detection at the species level of 77.8% (203/261) with a positive predictive value of 99.5% (202/203). We developed a new method for the identification of microorganisms using mass spectrometry, directly performed from a positive blood culture. This method has short hands-on time and turnaround time and can easily take place in the workflow of a laboratory, with comparable results in performance with other methods reported in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood meal identification in off-host cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from a plague-endemic region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Borchert, Jeff N; Black, William C; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Boegler, Karen A; Moore, Sean M; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the West Nile region, an established plague focus in northwest Uganda. To determine if C. felis might serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in the West Nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host C. felis that had fed on humans and the proportion that had fed on potentially infectious rodents or shrews. Our findings indicate that cat fleas in human habitations in the West Nile region feed primarily on domesticated species. We conclude that C. felis is unlikely to serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in this region.

  6. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Subset Studies in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Ditte Bang; Søndergaard, H B; Börnsen, L

    2016-01-01

    of suitable reference genes for qPCR studies using different peripheral blood cell subsets (whole blood (WB) cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PBMC subsets (CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, NK cells, monocytes, B cells and dendritic cells) from healthy controls (HC), patients with relapsing......Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) involves the need of a proper standard for normalizing the gene expression data. Different studies have shown the validity of reference genes to vary greatly depending on tissue, cell subsets and experimental context. This study aimed at the identification......-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and interferon-β-treated patients with RRMS (RRMS-IFN-β). Eight candidate reference genes (CASC3, EEF1A1, GAPDH, HPRT1, RPLP0, UBC, UBE2D2 and YWHAZ) were analysed using normfinder and genorm algorithms to identify the most stably expressed genes. We found reference gene...

  7. Automatic identification of the number of food items in a meal using clustering techniques based on the monitoring of swallowing and chewing

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Schuckers, Stephanie; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Fontana, Juan M.; Sazonov, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The number of distinct foods consumed in a meal is of significant clinical concern in the study of obesity and other eating disorders. This paper proposes the use of information contained in chewing and swallowing sequences for meal segmentation by food types. Data collected from experiments of 17 volunteers were analyzed using two different clustering techniques. First, an unsupervised clustering technique, Affinity Propagation (AP), was used to automatically identify the number of segments ...

  8. Biochemical evaluation of Gmelina arborea fruit meal as a swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Gmelina arborea fruits (GAF) meal on haematology and certain biochemical parameters including blood ... regards to blood urea nitrogen, creatinine in blood and urine and uric acids) though not significantly as the dietary inclusion level of raw GAF meal increased.

  9. 16S rRNA gene sequencing in routine identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Knudsen, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    A comparison between conventional identification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a routine setting was performed (n = 127). With sequencing, 89% were identified to the species level, versus 52% with conventional identification. The times...

  10. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Utilizing Radiofrequency Identification Technology to Improve Safety and Management of Blood Bank Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Meadows, Pamela; Hall, Robert S; Hibner, Travis; Deslich, Stacie

    2015-11-01

    The importance of efficiency in the supply chain of perishable products, such as the blood products used in transfusion services, cannot be overstated. Many problems can occur, such as the outdating of products, inventory management issues, patient misidentification, and mistransfusion. The purpose of this article was to identify the benefits and barriers associated with radiofrequency identification (RFID) usage in improving the blood bank supply chain. The methodology for this study was a qualitative literature review following a systematic approach. The review was limited to sources published from 2000 to 2014 in the English language. Sixty-five sources were found, and 56 were used in this research study. According to the finding of the present study, there are numerous benefits and barriers to RFID utilization in blood bank supply chains. RFID technology offers several benefits with regard to blood bank product management, including decreased transfusion errors, reduction of product loss, and more efficient inventory management. Barriers to RFID implementation include the cost associated with system implementation and patient privacy issues. Implementation of an RFID system can be a significant investment. However, when observing the positive impact that such systems may have on transfusion safety and inventory management, the cost associated with RFID systems can easily be justified. RFID in blood bank inventory management is vital to ensuring efficient product inventory management and positive patient outcomes.

  12. Meal-stimulated glucagon release is associated with postprandial blood glucose level and does not interfere with glycemic control in children and adolescents with new-onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pörksen, Sven; Nielsen, Lotte B; Kaas, Anne

    2007-01-01

    completed the 12-month follow-up. SETTING: The study was conducted at pediatric outpatient clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed residual beta-cell function (C-peptide), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), blood glucose, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release in response to a 90-min meal......CONTEXT: The role of glucagon in hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes is unresolved, and in vitro studies suggest that increasing blood glucose might stimulate glucagon secretion. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between postprandial glucose and glucagon level during...... stimulation (Boost) at 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. RESULTS: Compound symmetric repeated-measurements models including all three visits showed that postprandial glucagon increased by 17% during follow-up (P = 0.001). Glucagon levels were highly associated with postprandial blood glucose levels because...

  13. Four weeks of near-normalization of blood glucose has no effect on postprandial GLP-1 and GIP secretion, but augments pancreatic B-cell responsiveness to a meal in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, P V; Vilsbøll, T; Zander, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 4 weeks of near-normalization of blood glucose (BG) improves incretin hormone secretion and pancreatic B-cell function during a mixed meal. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Nine patients with Type 2 diabetes in poor glycaemic control......-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) incremental responses were assessed during a mixed meal test. Fasting and postprandial pancreatic B-cell function was determined from calculations of insulin secretion rates in relation to plasma glucose. RESULTS...... the first 30 min after start of the meal (0.28 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.06 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)/mmol l(-1)) and during the following 4 h (0.34 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.56 +/- 0.07 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)/ mmol l(-1)). The B-cell responsiveness to changes in plasma glucose, expressed as the slope of the linear relationship...

  14. PCR identification of bacteria in blood culture does not fit the daily workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumaa, Santra; Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2012-03-01

    We have evaluated the GenoType blood culture assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) for the identification of bacteria in 233 positive blood cultures and assessed its suitability in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. In 68/233 (29.2%) samples, the culture result could not be confirmed by the GenoType assay due to a lack of primers in the test, multiple organisms in the sample, or inconsistency with respect to the identification by culture. Although the GenoType blood culture assay gives satisfactory results for bacteria for which primers are available, there are difficulties in applying the test in the routine microbiology laboratory.

  15. The Clinical Impact of Rapid, Direct MALDI-ToF Identification of Bacteria from Positive Blood Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn French

    Full Text Available Faster identification of bacterial isolates from blood cultures can enable earlier clinical intervention for patients with sepsis. We evaluated the clinical impact of direct identification of micro-organisms from positive blood cultures using MALDI-ToF.Positive blood cultures with organisms seen on Gram stain were included over a four week period. For each patient case, comparison was made between the clinical advice given on day one with only a Gram stain result, and the follow up advice given on day two with the benefit of organism identification. Culture results were then compared with direct MALDI-ToF identification.For 73 of 115 cases (63.5%, direct organism identification was obtained by MALDI-ToF. Of those 73, 70 (95.5% had a result concordant with that of the plate culture. In 28 of the 115 cases (24.3% direct MALDI-ToF identification on day one would have had a clear clinical benefit. In 11 cases it would have helped to identify the potential source of bacteraemia. In 11 cases it would have indicated a different antibiotic regimen on day one, with five patients receiving appropriate antibiotics 24 hours earlier. For 14 cases the blood culture isolate could have been designated as unlikely to be clinically significant.We have demonstrated that organism identification on day one of blood culture positivity can have a direct clinical impact. Faster identification using MALDI-ToF assists the clinician in assessing the significance of a blood culture isolate on day one. It can allow earlier appropriate choice of antimicrobial agent, even in the absence of susceptibility testing, and help narrow down the potential source of infection providing a focus for further investigation in a more timely way than conventional techniques alone.

  16. Microbiota do trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes de colônia alimentadas com sangue e com sangue e sacarose Digestive tract microbiota in female Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae feeding on blood meal and sacarose plus blood meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Pereira de Oliveira

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Há poucos estudos sobre a microbiota do trato digestivo de flebotomíneos, considerando-se que o sangue não é o único alimento ingerido. Os flebotomíneos, tanto os machos como as fêmeas, alimentam-se de açúcares, provenientes de várias fontes, possibilitando a ingestão de microrganismos. As chances de contaminação aumentam nos insetos criados em laboratório e pode interferir no desenvolvimento da Leishmania spp. Foi separado um total de 300 fêmeas, divididas em dois lotes, das quais extraímos o trato digestivo. No lote 1(fêmeas alimentadas com sangue e sacarose das 10 espécies bacterianas isoladas, a família Enterobacteriaceae esteve representada pelos gêneros Serratia, Enterobacter e Yokenella, e o grupo dos não fermentadores pelos gêneros Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter e Stenotrophomonas. No lote 2 (fêmeas alimentadas apenas com sangue das 8 espécies isoladas o grupo dos não fermentadores esteve representado pelos gêneros Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Burkolderia e Pseudomonas, e a família Enterobacteriaceae, pelos gêneros Enterobacter e Serratia.There are very few reports on the microbiota of the digestive tract of sand flies, an important omission considering that blood is not the only meal ingested. Male and female sand flies obtain sugar meals from several sources, thereby increasing their chance of infection with microorganisms. Chances of contamination are higher when insects are bred in the laboratory, and this may affect the development of Leishmania spp. From the digestive tract of 300 sand fly females separated in two groups we isolated 10 species of bacteria in group 1 and 8 species in group 2. In group 1, Enterobacteriaceae of the following genera were identified: Serratia, Enterobacter, and Yokenella and the non-fermenters: Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. In group 2, the Enterobacteriaceae Enterobacter and Serratia were identified as well as the non-fermenters Acinetobacter

  17. Prospective comparison of a PCR assay and a microbiological culture technique for identification of pathogens from blood and non-blood samples in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettig, Runa; Nowak, Andreas; Balau, Veronika; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Usichenko, Taras

    2015-01-01

    Molecular amplification techniques are suggested to be a useful adjunct in early detection of pathogens in septic patients. The aim was to study the feasibility of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to the standard microbiological culture (MC) technique in identification of pathogenic microorganisms from blood and non-blood samples in septic patients. Samples for pathogen identification were taken during febrile septic episodes (SE) in 54 patients with sepsis and analyzed using both MC and PCR. Semi-automated multiplex PCR, provided by Philips Medical Systems, was able to detect nine different pathogens. The accuracy of pathogen identification using PCR vs. MC as well as the time-saving effect of PCR on the potential decision-making process for antimicrobial therapy was evaluated. In a total of 258 samples taken during 87 SE, both methods yielded more pathogens from the non-blood than blood samples (87 % vs. 45 %; p = 0.002). PCR identified more pathogens than MC in the blood samples (98 vs. 21; p technique. In the non-blood samples, PCR was comparable to that of MC.

  18. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ogura

    Full Text Available The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

  19. Performance of the FilmArray® blood culture identification panel utilized by non-expert staff compared with conventional microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance gene detection from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Morgan H; Relich, Ryan F; Davis, Thomas E; Schmitt, Bryan H

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of commercially available rapid platforms for microbial identification from positive blood cultures is useful during periods of, or in laboratories with, limited expert staffing. We compared the results of the FilmArray® BCID Panel performed by non-expert technologists to those of conventional methods for organism identification performed by skilled microbiologists. Within 8 h of signalling positive by a continuous monitoring blood culture system, positive bottles were analysed by the FilmArray BCID Panel. Data from these analyses were compared to standard-of-care testing, which included conventional and automated methods. To gauge the ease of use of the BCID Panel by non-expert staff, technologists unfamiliar with diagnostic bacteriology performed the testing without prior knowledge of the Gram stain results, or even whether organisms were detected. Identifications of 172/200 (86 %) positive blood cultures using the BCID Panel were consistent with identifications provided by standard-of-care methods. Standard-of-care testing identified organisms in 20 positive blood cultures, which were not represented on the BCID Panel. Seven (3.5 %) blood cultures demonstrated a discrepancy between the methods, which could not be attributed to either a lack of representation on the panel or unclear separate detection of organisms in a mixed blood culture of a shared genus or grouping of organisms, e.g. Staphylococcus or Enterobacteriaceae . One (0.5 %) blood culture yielded invalid results on two separate panels, so it was eliminated from the study. The easy-to-use FilmArray® technology shows good correlation with blood culture identification and antibiotic resistance detection performed by conventional methods. This technology may be particularly useful in laboratories with limited staffing or limited technical expertise.

  20. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  1. The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Han, Kyung Ah; Kwon, Hwi Ryun

    2010-01-01

    Background The typical Korean diet includes rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effects of a meal plan using rice bowls of varying sizes on dietary energy intake (EI), body weight (BW), and blood glucose levels. Methods Forty-two obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to use either a 200 mL small rice bowl (SB), a 380 mL regular rice bowl (RB), or to a control group (C). Both intervention groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks and simple instructions for using the assigned bowl were provided. Dietary EI and proportion of macronutrients (PMN) were estimated from 3-day dietary records. Results Reduction of EI was more prominent in the SB group compared to the RB and C group, although EI decreased significantly from baseline in all groups. Carbohydrate and fat intakes of the SB group were decreased greater than those of the RB and C group. However, changes in PMN were not significant across the 3 groups. Reduction of BW and HbA1c levels in the SB group was more prominent compared to the C group. Although, BW and HbA1c were decreased significantly from baseline in both bowl groups. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusion The small rice bowl-based meal plan was effective at reducing EI, BW, and blood glucose levels, and the observed reductions in EI, carbohydrate, and fat intake were greater than those of the regular rice bowl-based meal plan. PMID:21246007

  2. Further studies on the phlebotomine sandflies of the kala-azar endemic lowlands of Humera-Metema (north-west Ethiopia) with observations on their natural blood meal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands) since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary entomological surveys (1996-2005) the results of which are reported here. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps and Phlebotomus females were dissected for Leishmania detection and isolation; freshly fed Phlebotomus females collected were subsequently tested for their blood meal sources using ELISA. All Phlebotomus collections were identified to species. Results During the surveys (1996-2005), a total of 1963 sandflies of six Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. rodhaini and P. alexandri) were recorded from the study areas: the predominant species was P. orientalis in both localities. None of the total 618 P. orientalis females dissected (506 from Metema and 112 from Humera), nor the total 114 females of four other species dissected (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi, P. bergeroti and P. rodhaini) was infected with Leishmania promastigotes. ELISA-based blood meal analysis of 273 fresh fed P. orientalis females collected from Metema revealed a remarkably high bovine blood feeds (92%) with only 2.2% of human blood feeds. Conclusion Based on abundance and other circumstantial evidences (its proven role in Sudan), P. orientalis is the most likely vector of VL in northwest Ethiopia, pending further clarifications. The zoophagic feeding behaviour of P. orientalis detected in the present study could have epidemiological significance, but more investigations are required in this and other behavioural characteristics towards appropriate management of the vector. PMID:20181077

  3. Further studies on the phlebotomine sandflies of the kala-azar endemic lowlands of Humera-Metema (north-west Ethiopia with observations on their natural blood meal sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Asrat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary entomological surveys (1996-2005 the results of which are reported here. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps and Phlebotomus females were dissected for Leishmania detection and isolation; freshly fed Phlebotomus females collected were subsequently tested for their blood meal sources using ELISA. All Phlebotomus collections were identified to species. Results During the surveys (1996-2005, a total of 1963 sandflies of six Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. rodhaini and P. alexandri were recorded from the study areas: the predominant species was P. orientalis in both localities. None of the total 618 P. orientalis females dissected (506 from Metema and 112 from Humera, nor the total 114 females of four other species dissected (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi, P. bergeroti and P. rodhaini was infected with Leishmania promastigotes. ELISA-based blood meal analysis of 273 fresh fed P. orientalis females collected from Metema revealed a remarkably high bovine blood feeds (92% with only 2.2% of human blood feeds. Conclusion Based on abundance and other circumstantial evidences (its proven role in Sudan, P. orientalis is the most likely vector of VL in northwest Ethiopia, pending further clarifications. The zoophagic feeding behaviour of P. orientalis detected in the present study could have epidemiological significance, but more investigations are required in this and other behavioural characteristics towards appropriate management of the vector.

  4. [Analysis of Patients' Irregular Antibody Screening and Identification Results before Blood Transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xu, Huan-Ming; Zhang, Yi; Cui, Ji-Xiang

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the results of irregular antibody screening and identification among patients before blood transfusion, and to investigate the specific distribution of irregular antibodies and the distribution regularity in different diseases. Choosing the patients intended to be transfused in our hospital from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 years, micro-column gel technique was used to screen the irregular antibodies of those receptors and to identify the antibody specificity of the positive specimens. Among 44194 patients, 137 patients were with irregular antibody positive and their positive rate was 0.31%, among them 33 cases were male and accounted for 0.18% in the studied males; the 104 cases were females and accounted for 0.40% in all the studied females. The difference of sex distribution was statistically significant (X2=15.38, Pirregular antibody screening positive patients, patients with transfusion or pregnancy history were 129 cases, and the patients without transfusion or pregnancy history were 8 cases. In the irregular antibody screening positive patients, the main antibody of 54 cases belongs to Rh blood type system, accounting for 39.42%; The main antibody of 37 cases belongs to MNS blood type system, accounting for 27.01%; while the 30 cases belong to Lewis blood type system, accounting for 21.90%. According to the classification of diseases, the irregular antibody screening-positive patients with tumors were ranked in the highest rate at 5.96‰, the secondary hemorrhage of digestive tract and chronic renal failure were ranked at the rate of 3.28‰ and 3.19‰. The difference of positive rates between diseases was statistically significant (χ2=19.33, PIrregular antibody screening before blood transfusion is necessary, which can discover the irregular antibodies of clinical significance, especially for patients with tumors and the other patients with the history of frequent blood transfusions or multiple pregnancies. Antibody screening is a

  5. Advances towards reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany Server, R.; Martens, D.; Jans, K.; Bienstman, P.; Hill, D.

    2016-03-01

    Through further development, integration and validation of micro-nano-bio and biophotonics systems FP7 CanDo is developing an instrument that will permit highly reproducible and reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood for two key societal challenges, early and low cost anti-cancer drug efficacy determination and cancer diagnosis/monitoring. A cellular link between the primary malignant tumour and the peripheral metastases, responsible for 90% of cancerrelated deaths, has been established in the form of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood. Furthermore, the relatively short survival time of CTCs in peripheral blood means that their detection is indicative of tumour progression thereby providing in addition to a prognostic value an evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and early recognition of tumour progression in theranostics. In cancer patients however blood concentrations are very low (=1 CTC/1E9 cells) and current detection strategies are too insensitive, limiting use to prognosis of only those with advanced metastatic cancer. Similarly, problems occur in therapeutics with anti-cancer drug development leading to lengthy and costly trials often preventing access to market. The novel cell separation/Raman analysis technologies plus nucleic acid based molecular characterization of the CanDo platform will provide an accurate CTC count with high throughput and high yield meeting both key societal challenges. Being beyond the state of art it will lead to substantial share gains not just in the high end markets of drug discovery and cancer diagnostics but due to modular technologies also in others. Here we present preliminary DNA hybridization sensing results.

  6. Improved blood culture identification by FilmArray in cultures from regional hospitals compared with teaching hospital cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bzdyl, Nicole; Chua, I-Ly Joanna; Urosevic, Nadezda M; Leung, Michael J; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of bacteria isolated from blood cultures by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now in wide spread use in major centres but is not yet feasible in smaller hospital laboratories. A FilmArray multiplex PCR panel for blood culture isolate identification (BCID) provides an alternative approach to near point-of-care microbial identification in regional hospitals. We assessed the accuracy and time to identification of the BCID FilmArray in a consecutive series of 149 blood cultures from 143 patients in a teaching hospital and smaller regional hospitals, currently identified by direct MALDI-TOF and proprietary molecular methods. The BCID FilmArray contained 18 of 34 species and 20 of 23 species isolated from teaching and regional hospital, respectively. Overall, 85 % of the teaching hospital and 100 % of the regional hospital monomicrobial blood cultures were identified, compared with 60 and 68 %, respectively, for direct MALDI-TOF on the same cultures. There were no incorrect results from blood cultures containing Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterobacteriaceae. The three discrepant results were all in mixed cultures. The mean reduction in time to identification of blood culture isolates was 53 h, which did not include the time required to transport cultures from regional centres to a central laboratory. The overall performance of the BCID FilmArray is stronger in blood cultures from smaller regional hospitals that encounter a narrower range of bacterial species dominated by the commonest species. This approach is more suited to smaller clinical laboratories than the MALDI-TOF direct method.

  7. Same-day identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing on positive blood cultures: a simple and inexpensive procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelegheer, K; Nulens, E

    2017-04-01

    Fast diagnostic tools are becoming a hot topic in microbiology, especially in the case of septic patients. Therefore, we attempted to develop a fast, inexpensive, accurate and easy method to identify bacteria and perform an antibiotic susceptibility test directly on positive blood cultures that could be used in a routine laboratory. A procedure based on centrifugation and washing steps was performed on 110 non-duplicated (including nine seeded) positive blood culture bottles. Direct identification (DID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was conducted on the pellet with the MALDI Biotyper and Phoenix, respectively. Identification (ID) to the species level was correct in 44/45 (97%) cases for Gram-negative bacteria and 44/56 (79%) cases for Gram-positive bacteria. In total, 98.9% of the AST results were identical to the routine laboratory result. No very major errors, four major errors and eight minor errors were detected. A reliable identification and a high AST agreement were obtained from blood cultures seeded with multi-resistant bacteria. We simulated the timeline of DID and demonstrated an identification and AST result within 24 h using Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-positive blood cultures as examples. We developed an easy, fast and cheap method to generate reliable ID and AST results. Moreover, this method may be used to obtain results within 24 h after incubating the blood culture bottles in the microbiology lab.

  8. Multiplex tandem PCR: a novel platform for rapid detection and identification of fungal pathogens from blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna; Sorrell, Tania C; Chen, Sharon; Stanley, Keith; Iredell, Jonathan; Halliday, Catriona

    2008-09-01

    We describe the first development and evaluation of a rapid multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay for the detection and identification of fungi directly from blood culture specimens that have been flagged as positive. The assay uses a short-cycle multiplex amplification, followed by 12 simultaneous PCRs which target the fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 region, elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-alpha), and beta-tubulin genes to identify 11 fungal pathogens: Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis complex, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans complex, Fusarium solani, Fusarium species, and Scedosporium prolificans. The presence or absence of a fungal target was confirmed by melting curve analysis. Identification by MT-PCR correlated with culture-based identification for 44 (100%) patients. No cross-reactivity was detected in 200 blood culture specimens that contained bacteria or in 30 blood cultures without microorganisms. Fungi were correctly identified in five specimens with bacterial coinfection and in blood culture samples that were seeded with a mixture of yeast cells. The MT-PCR assay was able to provide rapid (detection and identification of fungal pathogens directly from blood culture specimens.

  9. Identification and characterization of Daldinia eschscholtzii isolated from skin scrapings, nails, and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Peng Ng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Daldinia eschscholtzii is a filamentous wood-inhabiting endophyte commonly found in woody plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of nine D. eschscholtzii isolates from skin scrapings, nail clippings, and blood. Methods The nine isolates were identified based on colony morphology, light microscopy, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS-based phylogeny. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the fungal isolates was evaluated by the Etest to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results The nine isolates examined were confirmed as D. eschscholtzii. They exhibited typical features of Daldinia sp. on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, with white felty colonies and black-gray coloration on the reverse side. Septate hyphae, branching conidiophore with conidiogenous cells budding from its terminus, and nodulisporium-like conidiophores were observed under the microscope. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nine isolates were clustered within the D. eschscholtzii species complex. All the isolates exhibited low MICs against azole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, as well as amphotericin B, with MIC of less than 1 µg/ml. Discussion Early and definitive identification of D. eschscholtzii is vital to reducing misuse of antimicrobial agents. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization as well as antifungal profiling of D. eschscholtzii provide the basis for future studies on its biology, pathogenicity, and medicinal potential.

  10. Investigation on the application of DNA forensic human identification techniques to detect homologous blood transfusions in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Francesco; Stampella, Alessandra; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2013-06-15

    Homologous blood transfusion is an illicit practice used by athletes to improve the delivery of oxygen to tissues and, as such, it is banned in sports. The current method of detection is based on the flow cytofluorimetric phenotypic identification of red blood cells mismatch of minor blood group antigens between the donor and the recipient. The selectivity of this method to clearly identify transfused samples is related to the number of blood group antigens tested. Despite the fact that several different antigens are investigated, two individuals sharing the expression of the same minor blood group antigens pattern cannot be distinguished. We tested the possibility to use a different approach based on DNA forensic human identification techniques. Analysis of the DNA short tandem repeats (STRs) demonstrated its suitability in detecting mixed whole blood samples simulating homologous blood transfusion in 100% of the samples tested, ensuring the capability of clearly detecting mixed blood cell populations also on samples where the fraction of the minoritary population is as low as 2.5%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodology for Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Microvesicles in Peripheral Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Miller, Virginia M.; Heit, John A.; Owen, Whyte G.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Analyses of circulating cell membrane-derived microvesicles (MV) have come under scrutiny as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of disease. However, methods to isolate, label and quantify MV have been neither systematized nor validated. Objective To determine how pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical factors affect plasma MV counts, markers for cell of origin and expression of procoagulant surface phosphatidylserine. Methods and Results Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers and patients with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes. Effects of blood sample collection, anticoagulant and sample processing to platelet free plasma (PFP), and MV isolation, staining and storage (freeze-thaw) and cytometer design were evaluated with replicate samples from these populations. The key finding is that use of citrate or EDTA anticoagulants decreases or eliminates microvesicles from plasma by inducing adhesion of the microvesicles to platelets or other formed elements. Protease inhibitor anticoagulants, including heparin, preserve MV counts. A centrifugation protocol was developed in which recovery of isolated MV was high with resolution down to the equivalent light scatter of 0.2 micron latex beads. Each procedure was systematically evaluated for its impact on the MV counts and characteristics. Conclusion This study provides a systematic methodology for MV isolation, identification and quantification, essential for development of MV as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of disease. PMID:22075275

  12. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  13. Impact of black soldier fly larval meal on growth performance, apparent digestibility, haematological and blood chemistry indices of guinea fowl starter keets under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P A; Nyameasem, J K; Adu-Aboagye, G A; Affedzie-Obresi, S; Nkegbe, E K; Karbo, N; Murray, F; Leschen, W; Maquart, P -O

    2017-08-01

    In order to assess the impact of larval meal on guinea fowl, six iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were fed to day-old-keets ad libitum till 8 weeks of age. Water was also freely provided. The fishmeal (FM) component of the experimental diets was replaced with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) in the following percentage ratios of 0-100%. Results showed that body weight gain significantly (P  0.05) ME intake and faecal output as well as weight changes of the keets. Digestibility of dry matter and energy were not affected (P > 0.05) by the differences in diet. Organ and haematopoietic integrity were assured regardless of the protein types used as well as levels of inclusion. The results suggest that the replacement of fishmeal with BSFLM in so far as the economics of production is concerned could result in reduced feed cost for starter guinea keet judging from diets that contained 60-100% BSFLM.

  14. Direct common gram-negative bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottles by SELDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Daiwen; Yang, Yongchang; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Hangfeng; Liu, Hua; Yu, Hua; Xie, Chunbao; Zhong, Min; Chen, Liang; Huang, Wenfang

    2014-10-01

    A protein database was constructed and validated with identification rate over 90% for the 4 most common Gram-negative bacteria on agar plates. By protein masses comparison, 120 bacteria of the 4 species from blood culture bottles were identified. The concordance was high (Kappa=0.906) between our method and conventional approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chicken blood provides a suitable meal for the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis and does not inhibit Leishmania development in the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to address the role of chickens as bloodmeal sources for female Lutzomyia longipalpis and to test whether chicken blood is harmful to Leishmania parasite development within the sand flies. Bloodmeal ingestion, excretion of urate, reproduction, fecundity, as well as Leishmania infection and development were compared in sand flies fed on blood from chickens and different mammalian sources. Results Large differences in haemoglobin and protein concentrations in whole blood (dog>human>rabbit> chicken) did not correlate with differences in bloodmeal protein concentrations (dog = chicken>human>rabbit). This indicated that Lu. longipalpis were able to concentrate bloodmeals taken from different hosts using prediuresis and this was confirmed by direct observation. Sand flies fed on chickens or dogs produced significantly more eggs than those fed on human blood. Female Lu. longipalpis retained significantly more urate inside their bodies when fed on chicken blood compared to those fed on rabbit blood. However, when the amounts of urate excreted after feeding were measured, sand flies fed on rabbit blood excreted significantly more than those fed on chicken blood. There was no difference in female longevity after feeding on avian or mammalian blood. Sand flies infected via chicken blood produced Leishmania mexicana infections with a similar developmental pattern but higher overall parasite populations than sand flies infected via rabbit blood. Conclusions The results of this study help to define the role that chickens play in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. The present study using a Lu. longipalpis/L. mexicana model indicates that chickens are suitable hosts to support a Lu. longipalpis population and that chicken blood is likely to support the development of transmissible Leishmania infections in Lu. longipalpis. PMID:20205803

  16. Chicken blood provides a suitable meal for the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis and does not inhibit Leishmania development in the gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcante Reginaldo R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to address the role of chickens as bloodmeal sources for female Lutzomyia longipalpis and to test whether chicken blood is harmful to Leishmania parasite development within the sand flies. Bloodmeal ingestion, excretion of urate, reproduction, fecundity, as well as Leishmania infection and development were compared in sand flies fed on blood from chickens and different mammalian sources. Results Large differences in haemoglobin and protein concentrations in whole blood (dog>human>rabbit> chicken did not correlate with differences in bloodmeal protein concentrations (dog = chicken>human>rabbit. This indicated that Lu. longipalpis were able to concentrate bloodmeals taken from different hosts using prediuresis and this was confirmed by direct observation. Sand flies fed on chickens or dogs produced significantly more eggs than those fed on human blood. Female Lu. longipalpis retained significantly more urate inside their bodies when fed on chicken blood compared to those fed on rabbit blood. However, when the amounts of urate excreted after feeding were measured, sand flies fed on rabbit blood excreted significantly more than those fed on chicken blood. There was no difference in female longevity after feeding on avian or mammalian blood. Sand flies infected via chicken blood produced Leishmania mexicana infections with a similar developmental pattern but higher overall parasite populations than sand flies infected via rabbit blood. Conclusions The results of this study help to define the role that chickens play in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. The present study using a Lu. longipalpis/L. mexicana model indicates that chickens are suitable hosts to support a Lu. longipalpis population and that chicken blood is likely to support the development of transmissible Leishmania infections in Lu. longipalpis.

  17. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...

  18. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  19. Cyclic di-GMP modulates gene expression in Lyme disease spirochetes at the tick-mammal interface to promote spirochete survival during the blood meal and tick-to-mammal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimano, Melissa J; Dunham-Ems, Star; Allard, Anna M; Cassera, Maria B; Kenedy, Melisha; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, couples environmental sensing and gene regulation primarily via the Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system (TCS) and Rrp2/RpoN/RpoS pathways. Beginning with acquisition, we reevaluated the contribution of these pathways to spirochete survival and gene regulation throughout the enzootic cycle. Live imaging of B. burgdorferi caught in the act of being acquired revealed that the absence of RpoS and the consequent derepression of tick-phase genes impart a Stay signal required for midgut colonization. In addition to the behavioral changes brought on by the RpoS-off state, acquisition requires activation of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthesis by the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS; B. burgdorferi lacking either component is destroyed during the blood meal. Prior studies attributed this dramatic phenotype to a metabolic lesion stemming from reduced glycerol uptake and utilization. In a head-to-head comparison, however, the B. burgdorferi Δglp mutant had a markedly greater capacity to survive tick feeding than B. burgdorferi Δhk1 or Δrrp1 mutants, establishing unequivocally that glycerol metabolism is only one component of the protection afforded by c-di-GMP. Data presented herein suggest that the protective response mediated by c-di-GMP is multifactorial, involving chemotactic responses, utilization of alternate substrates for energy generation and intermediary metabolism, and remodeling of the cell envelope as a means of defending spirochetes against threats engendered during the blood meal. Expression profiling of c-di-GMP-regulated genes through the enzootic cycle supports our contention that the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS functions primarily, if not exclusively, in ticks. These data also raise the possibility that c-di-GMP enhances the expression of a subset of RpoS-dependent genes during nymphal transmission. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoieb, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2017-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W.b DNA. PCR products were sequenced; subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences was performed. Out of 300 blood samples, W.b DNA was identified in 48 (16%). Sequencing analysis confirmed PCR results identifying only W.b species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated genetically distinct clusters of W.b among the study population. Study results demonstrated that the semi-nested PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for accurate and rapid detection of W.b infections in nano-epidemics and is applicable for samples collected in the daytime as well as the night time. PCR products sequencing and phylogenitic analysis revealed three different nucleotide sequences variants. Further genetic studies of W.b in Egypt and other endemic areas are needed to distinguish related strains and the various ecological as well as drug effects exerted on them to support W.b elimination.

  1. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  2. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free identification of white blood cell using optical diffraction tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Min-hyeok; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    White blood cells (WBC) have crucial roles in immune systems which defend the host against from disease conditions and harmful invaders. Various WBC subsets have been characterized and reported to be involved in many pathophysiologic conditions. It is crucial to isolate a specific WBC subset to study its pathophysiological roles in diseases. Identification methods for a specific WBC population are rely on invasive approaches, including Wright-Gimesa staining for observing cellular morphologies and fluorescence staining for specific protein markers. While these methods enable precise classification of WBC populations, they could disturb cellular viability or functions. In order to classify WBC populations in a non-invasive manner, we exploited optical diffraction tomography (ODT). ODT is a three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging technique that measures 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions of individual WBCs. To test feasibility of label-free classification of WBC populations using ODT, we measured four subtypes of WBCs, including B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, and natural killer (NK) cell. From measured 3-D RI tomograms of WBCs, we obtain quantitative structural and biochemical information and classify each WBC population using a machine learning algorithm.

  4. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  5. Development of a blood-based molecular biomarker test for identification of schizophrenia before disease onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Chan (Man K.); M.-O. Krebs (M-O); D. Cox; P.C. Guest (Paul); R.H. Yolken; H. Rahmoune (Hassan); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); J. Steiner (Johann); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); D. Niebuhr (David); N. Weber (Natalya); D. Cowan (David); P. Suarez-Pinilla; B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); C. Mam-Lam-Fook; J. Bourgin; R.J. Wenstrup (Richard); R.R. Kaldate; J.D. Cooper (Jason); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractRecent research efforts have progressively shifted towards preventative psychiatry and prognostic identification of individuals before disease onset. We describe the development of a serum biomarker test for the identification of individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia based

  6. A multiplex nested PCR for the detection and identification of Candida species in blood samples of critically ill paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Cleison Ledesma; Okay, Thelma Suely; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo; Ceccon, Maria Esther Jurfest Rivero; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2014-07-21

    Nosocomial candidaemia is associated with high mortality rates in critically ill paediatric patients; thus, the early detection and identification of the infectious agent is crucial for successful medical intervention. The PCR-based techniques have significantly increased the detection of Candida species in bloodstream infections. In this study, a multiplex nested PCR approach was developed for candidaemia detection in neonatal and paediatric intensive care patients. DNA samples from the blood of 54 neonates and children hospitalised in intensive care units with suspected candidaemia were evaluated by multiplex nested PCR with specific primers designed to identify seven Candida species, and the results were compared with those obtained from blood cultures. The multiplex nested PCR had a detection limit of four Candida genomes/mL of blood for all Candida species. Blood cultures were positive in 14.8% of patients, whereas the multiplex nested PCR was positive in 24.0% of patients, including all culture-positive patients. The results obtained with the molecular technique were available within 24 hours, and the assay was able to identify Candida species with 100% of concordance with blood cultures. Additionally, the multiplex nested PCR detected dual candidaemia in three patients. Our proposed PCR method may represent an effective tool for the detection and identification of Candida species in the context of candidaemia diagnosis in children, showing highly sensitive detection and the ability to identify the major species involved in this infection.

  7. Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Li, Tianshui; Kim, Inho

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG), and gain : feed ratio (G:F) from days 29 to 42 and the in overall period, dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility, and fecal Lactobacilli counts, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission. Additionally, at weeks 5 and 6, there was a linear decrease in fecal score with xylanase supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, shifted microbiota by increasing fecal Lactobacillus counts, decreased BUN concentration, fecal score, and fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission in weaning pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  9. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  10. Meals for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Leah R; Smith, Teresa M; Stern, Katherine; Boyd, Lisa Weissenburger-Moser; Rasmussen, Cristy Geno; Schaffer, Kelly; Shuell, Julie; Broussard, Karen; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-12-01

    Innovative approaches to childhood obesity prevention are warranted in early care and education (ECE) settings, since intervening early among youth is recommended to promote and maintain healthy behaviors. The objective of the Meals for Good pilot was to explore feasibility of implementing a food bank-based catering model to ECE programs to provide more nutritious meals, compared to meals brought from home (a parent-prepared model). In 2014-2015, a 12-month project was implemented by a food bank in central Florida in four privately-owned ECE programs. An explanatory sequential design of a mixed-methods evaluation approach was utilized, including a pre-post menu analysis comparing parent-prepared meals to the catered meals, and stakeholder interviews to determine benefits and barriers. The menu analysis of lunches showed daily reductions in calories, fat, and saturated fat, but an increase in sodium in catered meals when compared to parent-prepared meals. Interviews with ECE directors, teachers, parents, and food bank project staff, identified several benefits of the catered meals, including healthfulness of meals, convenience to parents, and the ECE program's ability to market this meal service. Barriers of the catered meals included the increased cost to parents, transportation and delivery logistics, and change from a 5 to a 2-week menu cycle during summer food service. This pilot demonstrated potential feasibility of a food bank-ECE program partnership, by capitalizing on the food bank's existing facilities and culinary programming, and interest in implementing strategies focused on younger children. The food bank has since leveraged lessons learned and expanded to additional ECE programs.

  11. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of blood meal sources of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in rural areas of the northern Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudino Marco Cantanhede Gusmão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The stomach contents of females from the genus Culicoides were studied to determine their blood food sources and the degree of relations established between these insects and their hosts. The specimens were captured by using CDC light traps within the period from March 2009 to February 2010, in two rural towns in the island of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. A total of 930 engorged females were captured, belonging to 12 Culicoides species. Precipitin reaction examination was used, which revealed the blood from 7 different vertebrate types that had been sucked, and the most frequent were: bird (41.9%, rodent (21.2%, dog (15.4%, and human being (7.3%. In double reactions there was a predominance of bird/dog (20% and dog/cat, dog/opossum, bird/rodent, opossum/rodent, and cat/human being (13.3% each. Among the Culicoides species found, C. paucienfuscatus Barbosa, 1947 stood out, because it only sucked blood from birds. The 11 remaining species have sucked blood both from domestic and synanthropic animals, and 4 out of them also sucked human blood. The results allowed us to conclude that C. paucienfuscatus showed specific relations, it was considered as ornithophilous and the other species were generalist. The presence of these animals in a peridomestic environment is a factor that favors the maintenance of Culicoides in rural villages and the presence of human being among the most sucked vertebrates indicates that besides being included in the diet of female Culicoides, it may participate in occasional epidemiological cycles of parasites, due to the eclectic habit of these insects.

  13. Desempenho da tilápia-do-Nilo arraçoada com dietas contendo farinha de sangue bovino atomizado ou convencional - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10736 Performance of nile tilapia fed with spray-dried or vat-dries bovine blood meal - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo do Valle Polycarpo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho e os índices de rendimento da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentada com níveis crescentes de farinha de sangue atomizado (FSA ou de farinha de sangue convencional (FSC em dietas formuladas com base em aminoácidos digestíveis. Foram utilizados 252 alevinos, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial (2 x 4 + 1, duas classes de farinha de sangue com quatro níveis de inclusão de cada farinha na dieta, e uma dieta-controle, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma dieta-controle à base de farelo de soja, contendo 34% de proteína digestível (PD e 3.200 kcal de energia digestível kg-1 (ED, mais quatro rações formuladas com FSA e quatro rações com FSC, com inclusões de 5, 10, 15 e 20% de cada farinha na ração, mantendo-se os níveis de PD, ED, fósforo, cálcio, lisina, metionina, treonina e triptofano idênticos aos da dieta-controle. Concluiu-se que é possível utilizar até 15% da FSC em rações para tilápia-do-Nilo na fase de 5 a 150 g de peso vivo.The study evaluated the performance and carcass composition index of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diets containing increasing levels of spray-dried blood meal (SDBM and vat-dried blood meal (VDBM and formulated based on digestible amino acids. Two hundred and fifty-two fingerlings were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a (2 x 4 + 1 factorial model, two types of blood meal with four levels of each blood meal in the diet, and a control diet (without blood meal, with four replications. The treatments consisted of soybean meal-based control diet, with 34% digestible protein (DP and 3,200 kcal of digestible energy kg-1 (DE, plus four diets formulated with SDBM and four diets with VDBM, containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of each meal in feed, maintaining identical DP, DE, phosphorus, calcium, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan levels as those of the control diet

  14. The timing of meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, JH; Woods, SC; Woods, Stephen C.

    In most individuals, food intake occurs as discrete bouts or meals, and little attention has been paid to the factors that normally determine when meals will occur when food is freely available. On the basis of experiments using rats, the authors suggest that when there are no constraints on

  15. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  16. The effect of replacing soya bean meal with cooked Mucuna sloanei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of cooked Mucuna sloanei meal (CMSM) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood indices of finisher broilers. Mucuna sloanei seeds were processed into meal and analyzed for proximate and phytochemical compositions. The meal was then used to ...

  17. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  18. Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus species-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and gut health in nursery pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Indrakumar, S; Kiarie, E; Kim, I H

    2015-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a spp.-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profile, intestinal histomorphology, and fecal gas emission in piglets fed corn and soybean meal-based diets. The DFM product was based on 1 strain of and 2 strains of and formulated to supply 1.5 × 10 cfu/g of feed. A total of 128 piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.6 kg BW; weaning age: 24 d) were housed in groups (4 pigs/pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts) and fed diets ( = 16) without or with DFM in a 2-phase feeding program: d 0 to 14 (phase I) and 15 to 42 (phase II). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly. At the end of each phase, samples for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine, ATTD, and fecal noxious gas emission were taken. At termination, 12 piglets per treatment were killed to access intestinal tissues for histomorphology. Overall, pigs fed DFM had a greater ( < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. In phase I, pigs fed DFM showed a greater ( < 0.05) ADG and lower ( < 0.05) concentration of BUN and fecal ammonia emission than the control group. In phase II, a greater ( < 0.05) ATTD of nitrogen and longer ( < 0.05) duodenum and jejunum villi were observed in pigs fed the DFM diet compared with the control group. In conclusion, inclusion of DFM improved growth performance and villi length of the duodenum and jejunum in nursery pigs. Furthermore, DFM enhanced protein utilization as demonstrated by increased nitrogen digestibility, lower BUN, and lower fecal ammonia release.

  19. New method using quantitative PCR to follow the tick blood meal and to assess the anti-feeding effect of topical acaricide against Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, J J; Joubert, A; Labuschagné, M; Beugnet, F

    2014-05-01

    A 28-day study was conducted to assess the dynamic of blood feeding by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs treated or not with a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene. Dogs were infested weekly through exposure to ticks in crates for 4h. Ticks were then counted in the crates at 2h and 4h post dog exposure. Ticks were also counted and removed from the dogs at 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and 24h post tick exposure. The inhibition of blood feeding was assessed by both tick quantification and designing and performing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) to detect the canine hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) gene in ticks. The percentage of repellency sensu lato based on the ticks collected in crates at 2h varied from 4.7% at day 28 to 48.3% at day 7. The immediate mortality rate of the ticks expelled at 2h varied from 1.5% at day 21 to 31.7% at day 7. The efficacy calculation showed that the acaricidal combination started to kill ticks in as little as 2h. The average efficacy reached 90.0% at 12h post crate challenges and 100% at 24h post exposure in crates. The inclusion of an internal amplification control was used to ensure that no significant template-derived PCR inhibition (≤ 6.2%) affected the overall results. The reduction of blood feeding was significant at 4h (>80.0%) and >99.0% at 24h post tick exposure in the crate. The high repellency rate and the lethal efficacy of CERTIFECT(®) resulted in significantly fewer live attached ticks, consequently reducing blood intake and fluid exchanges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Reagent deposition for rapid multiplex pathogen identification in human blood culture samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Machado, Ana Manuel; Dufva, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Blood stream infections led to 135,000 deads annually in EU and fast treatment significantly increases the survival rate. This condition is diagnosed by means of blood cultures (19 Mill blood cultures are drawn annually in EU). In this work, a multiplex peptide nucleic acid / fluorescence in...

  1. Avaliação nutricional, em tilápias-do-nilo, de farinhas de sangue bovino obtidas por três métodos de processamento Nutritional evaluation, in Nile-tilapia, of bovine blood meals obtained by three processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Celso Pezzato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se farinhas de sangue obtidas pelos métodos de processamento em tambor, convencional e atomização. As farinhas foram submetidas ao processo de extração e fracionamento da proteína para determinação do perfil do tamanho molecular, que foi comparado ao do sangue bovino in natura. Nas amostras, submetidas ou não ao processo de desengorduramento, foram realizadas análises da digestibilidade in vitro da proteína. Para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes in vivo, foram confeccionadas quatros rações, sendo uma sem farinha de sangue, denominada ração-referência purificada. Para essa etapa, juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo com peso médio inicial de 100,0±5,0 g foram estocados em aquários de 250 L, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e dez peixes/unidade experimental. As rações-teste foram obtidas com a introdução de 30% das farinhas de sangue em estudo. O processamento afetou a estrutura proteica original do sangue in natura em condições de alta temperatura e tempo prolongado, efeito traduzido pela alta proporção de peptídeos de baixo peso molecular e aminoácidos livres, correspondendo a baixos valores de digestibilidade da proteína da farinha de sangue nos testes in vivo e in vitro. A farinha de sangue atomizada e a de tambor são eficientemente utilizadas por tilápias-do-nilo. Na farinha de sangue convencional, a proteína teve valor biológico inferior ao das outras duas farinhas. Na formulação de rações contendo farinha de sangue para tilápias-do-nilo, a isoleucina deve ser considerada o primeiro aminoácido limitante, seguida pela metionina+cistina, arginina e treonina, que foram encontradas em níveis críticos para essa espécie, principalmente na farinha de sangue convencional.Three kinds of blood meal coming from different processing conditions (spray-dried, drum-dried and vat-dried blood meals were evaluated. Protein extraction and fractionation

  2. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben

    2013-01-01

    RNA in the investigated tissues. We expect that the method can also be used for identification of other miRNAs that can be used for identifying other body fluids and tissues. We also expect that the method can be used for identification of body fluids and tissues in practical forensic genetic case work....

  3. Validation of 99mTechnetium-labeled mebrofenin hepatic extraction method to quantify meal-induced splanchnic blood flow responses using a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle Damgaard; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of the total splanchnic blood flow (SBF) using a clinical diagnostic method based on Fick's principle and hepatic extraction of 99mTc-mebrofenin (99mTc-MBF) compared with a paraaminohippuric acid (pAH) dilution method in a porcine model. Another...... aim was to investigate whether enterohepatic cycling of 99mTc-MBF affected the SBF measurement. Five indwelling catheters were placed in each pig (n = 15) in the portal, mesenteric, and hepatic veins, as well as in the aorta and the vena cava. The SBF was measured using both methods. The portal blood...... flow; the intestinal and hepatic oxygen uptake; the net fluxes of oxygen, lactate, and glucose; and the extraction fraction (EF) of 99mTc-MBF were measured before and for 70 min after feeding. The mean baseline SBF was 2,961 ml/min vs. 2,762 ml/min measured by pAH and 99mTc-MBF, respectively...

  4. Lipid profiles of blood serum and fatty acid composition of meat of hybrid duck fed diet supplemented with Noni (Morinda citrifolia fruit meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kurniawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noni fruit is a medicinal plant with biological activity like antioxidant that could potentially be used as a feed additive in poultry. This research investigated the effect of noni fruit powder as feed additive on lipid profiles of blood and meat fatty acid compositions of meat of hybrid duck. One hundred twenty 2-week-old hybrid ducks crossing between Peking and Khaki Campbell duck were subjected. They were randomly allotted to 24 experimental units. Each experimental unit was 70x80x40 cm in size and it was used for 5 ducks up to they reached 56 days of age. Each unit was equipped with waterer and feeder. The ducks were raised on litter-type floor. The basal experimental diet was formulated according to the standards of National Research Council (1994. The method used for this study was experimental with 4 different treatments in 6 replications. The treatments were as follow: P0: basal feed without supplementation of noni fruit powder as control; P1: basal feed + 1 % noni fruit powder; P2: basal feed + 2 % noni fruit powder; P3: basal feed + 3 % noni fruit powder. Data were analyzed by one-way of Completely Randomized Design ANOVA and if there was significant effect followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Result showed that using noni fruit powder as feed additive had no significant effect (P>0.05 on lipid profiles of blood and fatty acid composition of meat.

  5. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV. A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake.

  6. The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay: Rapid, Sensitive and Culture-Independent Identification of Bacteria and Candida in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Richard E.; Peterson, Stephen; Carroll, Karen C.; Zhang, Sean X.; Avornu, Gideon D.; Rounds, Megan A.; Carolan, Heather E.; Toleno, Donna M.; Moore, David; Hall, Thomas A.; Massire, Christian; Richmond, Gregory S.; Gutierrez, Jose R.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J.; Blyn, Lawrence B.

    2016-01-01

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) and sepsis are rising in incidence throughout the developed world. The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms presents increasing challenges to treatment. Surviving BSI is dependent on rapid and accurate identification of causal organisms, and timely application of appropriate antibiotics. Current culture-based methods used to detect and identify agents of BSI are often too slow to impact early therapy and may fail to detect relevant organisms in many positive cases. Existing methods for direct molecular detection of microbial DNA in blood are limited in either sensitivity (likely the result of small sample volumes) or in breadth of coverage, often because the PCR primers and probes used target only a few specific pathogens. There is a clear unmet need for a sensitive molecular assay capable of identifying the diverse bacteria and yeast associated with BSI directly from uncultured whole blood samples. We have developed a method of extracting DNA from larger volumes of whole blood (5 ml per sample), amplifying multiple widely conserved bacterial and fungal genes using a mismatch- and background-tolerant PCR chemistry, and identifying hundreds of diverse organisms from the amplified fragments on the basis of species-specific genetic signatures using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). We describe the analytical characteristics of the IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay and compare its pre-clinical performance to current standard-of-care methods in a collection of prospectively collected blood specimens from patients with symptoms of sepsis. The assay generated matching results in 80% of culture-positive cases (86% when common contaminants were excluded from the analysis), and twice the total number of positive detections. The described method is capable of providing organism identifications directly from uncultured blood in less than 8 hours. Disclaimer: The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay is not available in the United States. PMID:27384540

  7. The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay: Rapid, Sensitive and Culture-Independent Identification of Bacteria and Candida in Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzgar, David; Frinder, Mark W; Rothman, Richard E; Peterson, Stephen; Carroll, Karen C; Zhang, Sean X; Avornu, Gideon D; Rounds, Megan A; Carolan, Heather E; Toleno, Donna M; Moore, David; Hall, Thomas A; Massire, Christian; Richmond, Gregory S; Gutierrez, Jose R; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J; Blyn, Lawrence B

    2016-01-01

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) and sepsis are rising in incidence throughout the developed world. The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms presents increasing challenges to treatment. Surviving BSI is dependent on rapid and accurate identification of causal organisms, and timely application of appropriate antibiotics. Current culture-based methods used to detect and identify agents of BSI are often too slow to impact early therapy and may fail to detect relevant organisms in many positive cases. Existing methods for direct molecular detection of microbial DNA in blood are limited in either sensitivity (likely the result of small sample volumes) or in breadth of coverage, often because the PCR primers and probes used target only a few specific pathogens. There is a clear unmet need for a sensitive molecular assay capable of identifying the diverse bacteria and yeast associated with BSI directly from uncultured whole blood samples. We have developed a method of extracting DNA from larger volumes of whole blood (5 ml per sample), amplifying multiple widely conserved bacterial and fungal genes using a mismatch- and background-tolerant PCR chemistry, and identifying hundreds of diverse organisms from the amplified fragments on the basis of species-specific genetic signatures using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). We describe the analytical characteristics of the IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay and compare its pre-clinical performance to current standard-of-care methods in a collection of prospectively collected blood specimens from patients with symptoms of sepsis. The assay generated matching results in 80% of culture-positive cases (86% when common contaminants were excluded from the analysis), and twice the total number of positive detections. The described method is capable of providing organism identifications directly from uncultured blood in less than 8 hours. The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay is not available in the United States.

  8. The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay: Rapid, Sensitive and Culture-Independent Identification of Bacteria and Candida in Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infection (BSI and sepsis are rising in incidence throughout the developed world. The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms presents increasing challenges to treatment. Surviving BSI is dependent on rapid and accurate identification of causal organisms, and timely application of appropriate antibiotics. Current culture-based methods used to detect and identify agents of BSI are often too slow to impact early therapy and may fail to detect relevant organisms in many positive cases. Existing methods for direct molecular detection of microbial DNA in blood are limited in either sensitivity (likely the result of small sample volumes or in breadth of coverage, often because the PCR primers and probes used target only a few specific pathogens. There is a clear unmet need for a sensitive molecular assay capable of identifying the diverse bacteria and yeast associated with BSI directly from uncultured whole blood samples. We have developed a method of extracting DNA from larger volumes of whole blood (5 ml per sample, amplifying multiple widely conserved bacterial and fungal genes using a mismatch- and background-tolerant PCR chemistry, and identifying hundreds of diverse organisms from the amplified fragments on the basis of species-specific genetic signatures using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS. We describe the analytical characteristics of the IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay and compare its pre-clinical performance to current standard-of-care methods in a collection of prospectively collected blood specimens from patients with symptoms of sepsis. The assay generated matching results in 80% of culture-positive cases (86% when common contaminants were excluded from the analysis, and twice the total number of positive detections. The described method is capable of providing organism identifications directly from uncultured blood in less than 8 hours.The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay is not available in the United States.

  9. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  10. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  11. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  12. Identification of a peripheral blood transcriptional biomarker panel associated with operational renal allograft tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouard, Sophie; Mansfield, Elaine; Braud, Christophe; Li, Li; Giral, Magali; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Baeten, Dominique; Zhang, Meixia; Ashton-Chess, Joanna; Braudeau, Cecile; Hsieh, Frank; Dupont, Alexandre; Pallier, Annaik; Moreau, Anne; Louis, Stephanie; Ruiz, Catherine; Salvatierra, Oscar; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Sarwal, Minnie

    2007-01-01

    Long-term allograft survival generally requires lifelong immunosuppression (IS). Rarely, recipients display spontaneous "operational tolerance" with stable graft function in the absence of IS. The lack of biological markers of this phenomenon precludes identification of potentially tolerant patients

  13. Components of postprandial thermogenesis in relation to meal frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Mercier, I; Nadeau, A

    1993-12-01

    Experiments on dogs have shown that the size of the meal has no effect on the early cephalic postprandial thermogenesis, and that four small meals are more thermogenic than a larger meal with the same total caloric content as the four meals. A study was repeated on human subjects who were fed during alternating weeks either one large meal (653 kcal (1 kcal = 4.1855 kJ)) or four small meals (163 kcal) at 40-min intervals. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio determinations indicated (i) larger overall increase in postprandial thermogenesis with the four meals than with one meal and (ii) an enhancement of glucose utilization with the large meal compared with greater lipid utilization with the four meals. On the basis of indirect evidence from previous investigations it is suggested that the enhanced thermogenesis observed in the four-meal experiment is due to lipid mobilization caused by repeated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system with palatable food. Blood analysis indicated a reduced elevation of plasma glucose in the four-meal experiment. The variations of insulin and C-peptide exactly paralleled those observed for glucose. It is concluded that the increased frequency of feeding significantly reduces insulin secretion in subjects fed a relatively high carbohydrate meal. In addition to this beneficial effect, increasing the number of meals increased thermogenesis and fat utilization.

  14. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juggle those three activities so you keep feeling good. Some things that can make low blood sugar levels more likely to happen are: skipping meals and snacks not eating enough food at a meal or ...

  15. Multiplex Tandem PCR: a Novel Platform for Rapid Detection and Identification of Fungal Pathogens from Blood Culture Specimens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Anna; Sorrell, Tania C.; Chen, Sharon; Stanley, Keith; Iredell, Jonathan; Halliday, Catriona

    2008-01-01

    We describe the first development and evaluation of a rapid multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay for the detection and identification of fungi directly from blood culture specimens that have been flagged as positive. The assay uses a short-cycle multiplex amplification, followed by 12 simultaneous PCRs which target the fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 region, elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), and β-tubulin genes to identify 11 fungal pathogens: Candida albicans, Candida dublin...

  16. Regular meal frequency creates more appropriate insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles compared with irregular meal frequency in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, H R; Taylor, M A; Macdonald, I A

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on circulating lipids, insulin, glucose and uric acid concentrations which are known cardiovascular risk factors. A randomised crossover dietary intervention study. Nottingham, UK--Healthy free-living women. A total of nine lean healthy women aged 18-42 y recruited via advertisement. A randomised crossover trial with two phases of 14 days each. In Phase 1, subjects consumed their normal diet on either 6 occasions per day (regular) or by following a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/day, irregular). In Phase 2, subjects followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-week (wash-out) period. Subjects were asked to come to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. Blood samples were taken for measurement of circulating glucose, lipids, insulin and uric acid concentrations before and for 3 h after consumption of a high-carbohydrate test meal. Fasting glucose and insulin values were not affected by meal frequency, but peak insulin and AUC of insulin responses to the test meal were higher after the irregular compared to the regular eating patterns (P meal frequency was associated with higher fasting total (P meal frequency appears to produce a degree of insulin resistance and higher fasting lipid profiles, which may indicate a deleterious effect on these cardiovascular risk factors. : The Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran.

  17. Forensic identification of blood in the presence of contaminations using Raman microspectroscopy coupled with advanced statistics: effect of sand, dust, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-09-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most common and important types of forensic evidence. However, the ability to characterize a biological stain at a crime scene nondestructively has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we expand the Raman spectroscopic approach for the identification of dry traces of pure body fluids to address the problem of heterogeneous contamination, which can impair the performance of conventional methods. The concept of multidimensional Raman signatures was utilized for the identification of blood in dry traces contaminated with sand, dust, and soil. Multiple Raman spectra were acquired from the samples via automatic scanning, and the contribution of blood was evaluated through the fitting quality using spectroscopic signature components. The spatial mapping technique allowed for detection of "hot spots" dominated by blood contribution. The proposed method has great potential for blood identification in highly contaminated samples. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. COST IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PLASMA IN THE BLOOD BANK OF CIENFUEGOS CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost information is an indispensable tool for planning, monitoring and timely decisions making in the organizations and is one of the most important elements for the internal management and analysis. The accurately knowledge of production and services allows the asses and analysis of the procedures, activities and productions return. The Blood Bank of Cienfuegos is unable to determinate the costs of their individual productions, which are derived from blood drawn and require different processes to obtain the final product. The objective of this work is to establish a procedure for determining the costs of production arising from the blood in the Blood Bank of Cienfuegos; this is achieved by designing and implementing a process costing accounting techniques linking management function of providing elements necessary for decision making. This shows that the currently costing that the entity applies is inadequate because it generates a single cost for all their products when in fact each involves a different cost.

  19. A Variable State Dimension Approach to Meal Detection and Meal Size Estimation: In Silico Evaluation Through Basal-Bolus Insulin Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinyu; Wang, Qian

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop an algorithm that can detect unannounced meals and estimate meal sizes to achieve a robust glucose control. A variable state dimension (VSD) algorithm is developed to detect unannounced meals and estimate meal sizes, where a Kalman filter operates on a quiescent state model when no meal is detected, and switches to a maneuvering state model to estimate meal information once the meal-induced glucose variability is statistically significant. Through evaluation using 30 subjects of the UVa/Padova simulator, a basal-bolus (BB) control using the VSD-estimated meal size for each meal can achieve mean blood glucose (BG) of 142 mg/dl with an average 17.7% of time in hypoglycemia. In terms of 20 Monte-Carlo simulations for each subject over a two-day scenario, where each meal/snack has a probability of 0.5 not to be announced, the BB control using VSD for unannounced meals can achieve an average mean BG of 143 mg/dl with 8% of time in hypoglycemia, in contrast to mean BG of 180 mg/dl with 8% of time in hypoglycemia obtained by BB with missing boluses. Additionally, VSD is able to detect a meal within 45 (±14) min since its start with a 76% success rate and 16% false alarm rate. The addition of VSD to the BB control improves glucose control when meal announcements are missed. The VSD can be used as a complementary tool to detect meal and estimate meal size in absence of a meal announcement.

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  1. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  2. Identification of clinical biomarkers for pre-analytical quality control of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Soon Young; Park, Jae-Sun; Yun, Ji Young; Kil, Han Na; Hong, Won Kyung; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok Ghee

    2013-04-01

    Pre-analytical conditions are key factors in maintaining the high quality of biospecimens. They are necessary for accurate reproducibility of experiments in the field of biomarker discovery as well as achieving optimal specificity of laboratory tests for clinical diagnosis. In research at the National Biobank of Korea, we evaluated the impact of pre-analytical conditions on the stability of biobanked blood samples by measuring biochemical analytes commonly used in clinical laboratory tests. We measured 10 routine laboratory analytes in serum and plasma samples from healthy donors (n = 50) with a chemistry autoanalyzer (Hitachi 7600-110). The analyte measurements were made at different time courses based on delay of blood fractionation, freezing delay of fractionated serum and plasma samples, and at different cycles (0, 1, 3, 6, 9) of freeze-thawing. Statistically significant changes from the reference sample mean were determined using the repeated-measures ANOVA and the significant change limit (SCL). The serum levels of GGT and LDH were changed significantly depending on both the time interval between blood collection and fractionation and the time interval between fractionation and freezing of serum and plasma samples. The glucose level was most sensitive only to the elapsed time between blood collection and centrifugation for blood fractionation. Based on these findings, a simple formula (glucose decrease by 1.387 mg/dL per hour) was derived to estimate the length of time delay after blood collection. In addition, AST, BUN, GGT, and LDH showed sensitive responses to repeated freeze-thaw cycles of serum and plasma samples. These results suggest that GGT and LDH measurements can be used as quality control markers for certain pre-analytical conditions (eg, delayed processing or repeated freeze-thawing) of blood samples which are either directly used in the laboratory tests or stored for future research in the biobank.

  3. Objective identification of sexual risk behavior among blood donors in Croatia: is it reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskulin, Maja; Puntaric, Dinko; Bozikov, Jadranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Ruzman, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of blood donors positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), to identify the patterns of sexual risk behavior responsible for HSV-2 positivity and to assess the reliability of HSV-2 positivity as a marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population. This cross-sectional study included 423 blood donors of both sexes from eastern Croatia. Their blood samples were tested by ELISA IgG test kit for HSV-2 IgG and Western blot. Data on sexual risk behavior were collected by use of an anonymous questionnaire. Western blot testing showed HSV-2 IgG antibodies in 14 of 423 (3.3%) donor blood samples. The most common patterns of sexual risk behavior potentially associated with test positivity were irregular condom use during sexual intercourse with new partners (294/423; 69.5%) and > or = 5 sexual partners during lifetime (213/423; 50.4%). The population of blood donors from eastern Croatia included subgroups of subjects characterized by sexual risk behavior. Study results pointed to a relationship between various forms of sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 positivity, which could therefore serve as a reliable marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population.

  4. A proteomic approach for the rapid, multi-informative and reliable identification of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, E; Cicatiello, P; Deininger, L; Clench, M R; Marino, G; Giardina, P; Langenburg, G; West, A; Marshall, P; Sears, V; Francese, S

    2016-01-07

    Blood evidence is frequently encountered at the scene of violent crimes and can provide valuable intelligence in the forensic investigation of serious offences. Because many of the current enhancement methods used by crime scene investigators are presumptive, the visualisation of blood is not always reliable nor does it bear additional information. In the work presented here, two methods employing a shotgun bottom up proteomic approach for the detection of blood are reported; the developed protocols employ both an in solution digestion method and a recently proposed procedure involving immobilization of trypsin on hydrophobin Vmh2 coated MALDI sample plate. The methods are complementary as whilst one yields more identifiable proteins (as biomolecular signatures), the other is extremely rapid (5 minutes). Additionally, data demonstrate the opportunity to discriminate blood provenance even when two different blood sources are present in a mixture. This approach is also suitable for old bloodstains which had been previously chemically enhanced, as experiments conducted on a 9-year-old bloodstain deposited on a ceramic tile demonstrate.

  5. Hospitality and Institutional Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Strøjer, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    on an experimental design, in which 10 bachelor students in Nutrition and Health organized and participated as both hosts and guests in four self-selected meal events. The events included a Housing Community event, a Children’s Birthday party, an Art Exhibition event and a Family Easter lunch. Based on a semi......Abstract: There is a growing interest in articulating institutional meal serving practices as a hospitality activity involving host and guest interactions. This study aims to qualify institutional hospitality and meal activities by exploring private hospitality events. The study is based...... was transformed into a guest. Information on purpose of the event and other information given in the invitation were part of this process. Furthermore, hospitality activities could be characterized by blurred host-guest relations and by being able to embrace unexpected events as well. The activities were...

  6. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  7. Identification of phosphorylethanolamine in 31P-NMR spectra of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A; Hørder, M; Jacobsen, J P

    1986-10-10

    The 31P-NMR spectrum of intact human peripheral blood lymphocytes contains a large unidentified peak in the phosphomonoester region. The pH dependency of the 31P-NMR chemical shift of this peak in perchloric acid extracts of peripheral blood lymphocytes was recorded. It was compared to the pH dependency of the chemical shift of phosphorylethanolamine, phosphorylcholine, and ribose 5-phosphate in model solutions. An excellent agreement was found between the behavior of phosphorylethanolamine and the unidentified peak. To further substantiate this assignment phosphorylethanolamine was added to extracts and the pH titrations were repeated. The added phosphorylethanolamine gave exactly the same chemical shift as the unidentified peak and no difference was observed with pH titrations. The concentration of phosphorylethanolamine in human peripheral blood lymphocytes was estimated by 31P NMR to be 2.4 mumol/10(9) cells (range 0.9-4.3/10(9) cells, n = 4).

  8. RNA-seq analyses of blood-induced changes in gene expression in the mosquito vector species, Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematophagy is a common trait of insect vectors of disease. Extensive genome-wide transcriptional changes occur in mosquitoes after blood meals, and these are related to digestive and reproductive processes, among others. Studies of these changes are expected to reveal molecular targets for novel vector control and pathogen transmission-blocking strategies. The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae, a vector of Dengue viruses, Yellow Fever Virus (YFV and Chikungunya virus (CV, is the subject of this study to look at genome-wide changes in gene expression following a blood meal. Results Transcriptional changes that follow a blood meal in Ae. aegypti females were explored using RNA-seq technology. Over 30% of more than 18,000 investigated transcripts accumulate differentially in mosquitoes at five hours after a blood meal when compared to those fed only on sugar. Forty transcripts accumulate only in blood-fed mosquitoes. The list of regulated transcripts correlates with an enhancement of digestive activity and a suppression of environmental stimuli perception and innate immunity. The alignment of more than 65 million high-quality short reads to the Ae. aegypti reference genome permitted the refinement of the current annotation of transcript boundaries, as well as the discovery of novel transcripts, exons and splicing variants. Cis-regulatory elements (CRE and cis-regulatory modules (CRM enriched significantly at the 5'end flanking sequences of blood meal-regulated genes were identified. Conclusions This study provides the first global view of the changes in transcript accumulation elicited by a blood meal in Ae. aegypti females. This information permitted the identification of classes of potentially co-regulated genes and a description of biochemical and physiological events that occur immediately after blood feeding. The data presented here serve as a basis for novel vector control and pathogen transmission

  9. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  10. Identification of common blood gene signatures for the diagnosis of renal and cardiac acute allograft rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available To test, whether 10 genes, diagnostic of renal allograft rejection in blood, are able to diagnose and predict cardiac allograft rejection, we analyzed 250 blood samples from heart transplant recipients with and without acute rejection (AR and with cytomegalovirus (CMV infection by QPCR. A QPCR-based logistic regression model was built on 5 of these 10 genes (AR threshold composite score >37%  = AR and tested for AR prediction in an independent set of 109 samples, where it correctly diagnosed AR with 89% accuracy, with no misclassifications for AR ISHLT grade 1b. CMV infection did not confound the AR score. The genes correctly diagnosed AR in a blood sample within 6 months prior to biopsy diagnosis with 80% sensitivity and untreated grade 1b AR episodes had persistently elevated scores until 6 months after biopsy diagnosis. The gene score was also correlated with presence or absence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV irrespective of rejection grade. In conclusion, there is a common transcriptional axis of immunological trafficking in peripheral blood in both renal and cardiac organ transplant rejection, across a diverse recipient age range. A common gene signature, initially identified in the setting of renal transplant rejection, can be utilized serially after cardiac transplantation, to diagnose and predict biopsy confirmed acute heart transplant rejection.

  11. Identification of nine novel loci associated with white blood cell subtypes in a Japanese population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Okada (Yukinori); T. Hirota (Tomomitsu); Y. Kamatani (Yoichiro); A. Takahashi (Atsushi); H. Ohmiya (Hiroko); N. Kumasaka (Natsuhiko); K. Higasa (Koichiro); Y. Yamaguchi-Kabata (Yumi); N. Hosono (Naoya); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); D. Couper (David); N.A. Zakai (Neil); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); D.L. Longo (Dan); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); K. Matsuda (Koichi); T. Tsunoda (Tatsuhiko); M. Kubo (Michiaki); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); M. Tamari (Mayumi); K. Yamamoto (Kazuhiko)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhite blood cells (WBCs) mediate immune systems and consist of various subtypes with distinct roles. Elucidation of the mechanism that regulates the counts of the WBC subtypes would provide useful insights into both the etiology of the immune system and disease pathogenesis. In this

  12. Composição química e aminoacídica e coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos de farinhas de penas e sangue determinados em galos cecectomizados Chemical and amino acid composition and true digestibility coefficients of amino acids of feather and blood meals, determined in cecectomized cocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Eyng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados a composição química e aminoacídica e os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos (CDVaa de farinhas de penas e sangue para aves obtidas de diferentes fornecedores. Utilizaram-se 30 galos cecectomizados distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro farinhas de penas e sangue (farinhas 1, 2, 3 e 4 e um tratamento no qual as aves permaneceram em jejum, seis repetições sendo a unidade experimental composta por um galo. As variações na composição química das farinhas de penas e sangue podem estar relacionadas à falta de padronização no processamento a que são submetidas. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais para as farinhas de penas 1, 2, 3 e 4 são, respectivamente, 75,14 e 68,41; 73,34 e 67,17; 78,99 e 75,41; 78,55 e 73,40%.Chemical and amino acid composition and true digestibility coefficients of amino acids of feather and blood meals for birds from different suppliers were determined. Thirty cecectomized cocks were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 4 different feather and blood meals (meals 1, 2, 3 and 4 and one treatment in which the birds remained fasting, with six replications as the experimental unit composed of one rooster. The variations in the chemical composition of the feather and blood meals can be related to the lack of standardization in the processing to which they are submitted. Mean true digestibility coefficients of essential and non essential amino acid for feather and blood meals 1,2, 3 and 4 are 75.14 and 68.41; 73.34 and 67.17; 78.99 and 75.41; 78.55 and 73.40%, respectively.

  13. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Baby's First Meal Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  14. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana S; Apperson, Michelle; Walker, Wynn L; Tian, Yingfang; Xu, Huichun; Adamczy, Peter; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, Da-Zhi; Ander, Bradley P; Liao, Isaac H; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Turner, Renee J; Jickling, Glen; Lit, Lisa; Sharp, Frank R

    2009-08-05

    Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT), 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS) and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder). The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  15. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Renee J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Methods Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT, 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Results Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder. Conclusion The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  16. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J

    2009-01-01

    and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon......: The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after...... ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon...

  17. Distributional impacts of meal vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Röhryová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze distributional impacts of meal voucher sys- tem in the Czech Republic, especially in the context of income inequality between different income groups. In the first part, we study the features of the Czech meal voucher scheme, relevant legislative framework and offer a comparison of the Czech meal voucher system with other European coun- tries. In the second part, we perform an analysis of the redistributive effects of meal allowances on various income deciles, quant...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You ... m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  1. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  2. The use of Moessbauer technique in the identification of iron phases in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-lArabi, Ibtisam Abdusalam

    2008-03-01

    In this work we used marabou's technique, x-diffraction techniques, and thermal analysis to identify iron phases in a number of different samples such as: prescription medicine used as iron supplement, a blood sample from a healthy person, a blood sample from a person with thalassemia, and a sample from the plant (Jirjeer). In spite of the diminishing amount of iron in all of these samples we were able to identify the phases of iron and their proportions. There were an agreement between the results of x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer on the presence of the compound (FeSO 4 .H 2 O) in the first sample. We calculated the average particle size of this sample to be 0.2 μm. The Moessbauer results of the second sample indicated the presence of two iron phases. One with parameters (ΔΕ Q =1.376 mm/s, δ=-0.17 mm/s) was assigned to oxygenated hemoglobin. The second with parameters (ΔΕ Q =1.371 mm/s, δ=0.41 mm/s) was assigned to non-oxygenated hemoglobin. In the results of the third sample there was no indication of the presence of ferric iron which is the form in which excess iron is stored in the red blood cells of thalassaemic blood. The results of the fourth sample indicated that iron is present in the plant sample in two different sites in the iron-sulfur protein molecule. thermal analysis results helped in determining the temperatures at which there was phase transformation of iron compounds molecule. thermal analysis results helped in determining the temperatures at which there was phase transformation of iron compounds. (author)

  3. Identification of factors contributing to variability in a blood-based gene expression test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Elashoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corus CAD is a clinically validated test based on age, sex, and expression levels of 23 genes in whole blood that provides a score (1-40 points proportional to the likelihood of obstructive coronary disease. Clinical laboratory process variability was examined using whole blood controls across a 24 month period: Intra-batch variability was assessed using sample replicates; inter-batch variability examined as a function of laboratory personnel, equipment, and reagent lots. METHODS/RESULTS: To assess intra-batch variability, five batches of 132 whole blood controls were processed; inter-batch variability was estimated using 895 whole blood control samples. ANOVA was used to examine inter-batch variability at 4 process steps: RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, cDNA addition to assay plates, and qRT-PCR. Operator, machine, and reagent lots were assessed as variables for all stages if possible, for a total of 11 variables. Intra- and inter-batch variations were estimated to be 0.092 and 0.059 Cp units respectively (SD; total laboratory variation was estimated to be 0.11 Cp units (SD. In a regression model including all 11 laboratory variables, assay plate lot and cDNA kit lot contributed the most to variability (p = 0.045; 0.009 respectively. Overall, reagent lots for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and qRT-PCR contributed the most to inter-batch variance (52.3%, followed by operators and machines (18.9% and 9.2% respectively, leaving 19.6% of the variance unexplained. CONCLUSION: Intra-batch variability inherent to the PCR process contributed the most to the overall variability in the study while reagent lot showed the largest contribution to inter-batch variability.

  4. Identification and molecular characterization of Roseomonas genomospecies 5 isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Bello-López

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the first report on the isolation of Roseomonas genomospecies 5 in a UCBU for transplantation, an unusual bacteria isolated from umbilical cord blood, associated with a possible immunosuppression in the donor. Its presence in UCBU can be fatal in immunocompromised patients if it were used for transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC, due to the potential virulence of the strains and the resistance to antimicrobials commonly used.

  5. Interlaboratory comparison of PCR-based identification of Candida and Aspergillus DNA in spiked blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Utz; Buchheidt, Dieter; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Loeffler, Juergen; Lugert, Raimond; Ruhnke, Markus; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    Despite PCR per se being a powerful and sensitive technique, regarding the detection of fungi in patients' blood, no consensus for a standardised PCR protocol yet exists. To complement other ongoing or accomplished studies which tackle this problem, the German Reference Center for Systemic Mycoses conducted an interlaboratory comparison starting with blood samples spiked with fungal cell elements. Altogether, six laboratories using in-house PCR-protocols from Germany and Austria participated in the trial. Blood samples were spiked with vital cells of Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus. Candida was used in the yeast form, whereas Aspergillus cells were either spiked as conidia or as very young germlings, also known as smoo cells. Spiked blood samples contained between 10 and 10 000 cells ml(-1). Depending on the techniques used for fungal cell disruption and DNA-amplification, detection quality was variable between laboratories, but also differed within single laboratories in different trials particularly for samples spiked with less than 100 cells ml(-1). Altogether, at least regarding the detection of A. fumigatus, two of six laboratories showed constant reliable test results also with low fungal cell number spiked samples. Protocols used by these labs do not differ substantially from others. However, as particularities, one protocol included a conventional phenol chloroform extraction during the DNA preparation process and the other included a real time PCR-protocol based on FRET probes. Other laboratory comparisons on the basis of clinical samples should follow to further evaluate the procedures. The difficulties and problems of such trials in general are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Classification of main meal patterns--a latent class approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony; Hodgson, Victoria

    2013-06-28

    more likely to prepare a high variety of dishes. The identification of classes of meal users would enable health communication to be tailored to improve meal patterns. Moreover, the concept of meals may be useful for health promotion, because people may find it easier to change their consumption of meals rather than individual foods.

  7. Identification of heart disease-prone personality using oscillometric blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungah; Shin, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    By using the conventional method of measuring two-points (systolic and diastolic) blood pressure, it is difficult to differentiate a heart disease-prone personality from normals. Recently, an oscillometric method that reflects the personalized trait of blood pressure was developed by one author. By using this new measurement technique, this study intended to test the possibility of differentiating a heart disease-prone personality (type A or type D) from normal people. TPA scale in MMPI-2 and DS14 were used for screening type A and D. Oscillometric waveforms created by the cuff pressure were segmented into window blocks based on a single beat at a minimum, allowing this method to extract maximal top and bottom amplitudes in each window block. Then, a spectrogram using a short-time Fourier transform was applied to discriminate between character types in extracted blood pressure patterns with linear discriminant analysis. Compared to a normal personality, type A and type D personalities displayed a lower frequency response on STFT with maximum negative amplitudes than normals. In particular, the type D personality showed a lower frequency response than the type A personality. These results could provide a new qualitative method for measuring different biological indices between type A or D personalities and normals.

  8. PRICE RISK MANAGEMENT FOR PEANUT MEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ecio de Farias; Turner, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Peanut meal is cross-hedged with soybean meal using peanut meal cash prices and soybean meal futures prices. Hedge rations are obtained for short- vs. long-term data sets. Evaluation indicates positive gains for cross-hedged poultry/peanut producers, and that soybean meal futures can be used as a cross-hedging vehicle for peanut meal.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN BLOOD CULTURES FROM CLINICALLY ILL CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana C O; Attademo, Fernanda F L; Freire, Augusto C B; Sousa, Glaucia P; Luna, Fábia O; Lima, Débora C V; Mota, Rinaldo A; Mendes, Emiko S; Silva, Jean C R

    2017-03-01

    Between September 2001 and March 2013, 62 bacterial cultures (37 aerobic and 25 anaerobic) were performed on 37 blood samples from 23 Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) that were kept in captivity at the Brazilian National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals (CMA) in Pernambuco (CMA-PE) and Alagoas (CMA-AL), Brazil. All of the animals sampled exhibited clinical signs at the time of sampling including abscesses (n = 8), debilitation and anorexia (n = 22), and profound lethargy-moribundity (n = 7). The 4 animals with profound lethargy-moribundity died shortly after sampling of unknown causes. Bacteria were isolated from 15/37 (40.5%) and aerobic blood cultures from 13/23 animals (56.5%). None of the anaerobic cultures were positive. Aeromonas caviae , Aeromonas hydrophila , Aeromonas sp., Escherichia coli , Leclercia adecarboxylata , Pantoea agglomerans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas stutzeri , Pseudomonas sp., Sphingomonas paucimobilis , coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were each found in only one animal; Staphylococcus spp. was found in two; and Vibrio fluvialis in four. Thirteen samples had only one bacteria isolated, one sample had two bacteria, and one sample had three bacteria isolated. Regarding sex, age group, and origin among the manatees examined, 54.5% (6/11) of the females, 58.3% (7/12) of the males, 40% (2/5) of the calves, 66.7% (8/12) of the juveniles, 50% (3/6) of the adults, 55.5% (10/18) at CMA-PE, and 60% (3/5) at CMA-AL were found to be positive for bacterial growth during at least one sampling time. All Antillean manatees were clinically ill. Regarding clinical signs, bacteria were found in 50% (11/22) of blood samples of the animals showing debilitation and anorexia, 1 of 8 (12.5%) of blood samples of the animals showing abscesses, and 3 of 7 (42.9%) of blood samples of the animals showing profound lethargy-moribundity.

  10. Continuous-time interval model identification of blood glucose dynamics for type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchsteiger, Harald; Johansson, Rolf; Renard, Eric; del Re, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    While good physiological models of the glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic patients are well known, their parameterisation is difficult. The high intra-patient variability observed is a further major obstacle. This holds for data-based models too, so that no good patient-specific models are available. Against this background, this paper proposes the use of interval models to cover the different metabolic conditions. The control-oriented models contain a carbohydrate and insulin sensitivity factor to be used for insulin bolus calculators directly. Available clinical measurements were sampled on an irregular schedule which prompts the use of continuous-time identification, also for the direct estimation of the clinically interpretable factors mentioned above. An identification method is derived and applied to real data from 28 diabetic patients. Model estimation was done on a clinical data-set, whereas validation results shown were done on an out-of-clinic, everyday life data-set. The results show that the interval model approach allows a much more regular estimation of the parameters and avoids physiologically incompatible parameter estimates.

  11. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  12. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of tumor bearing dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherger, Matthew; Kisseberth, William; London, Cheryl; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Papenfuss, Tracey L

    2012-10-31

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a recently described population of immune cells that significantly contribute to the immunosuppression seen in cancer patients. MDSCs are one of the most important factors that limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy (e.g. cancer vaccines) and MDSC levels are increased in cancer in multiple species. Identifying and targeting MDSCs is actively being investigated in the field of human oncology and is increasingly being investigated in veterinary oncology. The treatment of canine cancer not only benefits dogs, but is being used for translational studies evaluating and modifying candidate therapies for use in humans. Thus, it is necessary to understand the immune alterations seen in canine cancer patients which, to date, have been relatively limited. This study investigates the use of commercially available canine antibodies to detect an immunosuppressive (CD11b low/CADO48 low) cell population that is increased in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing dogs. Commercially available canine antibodies CD11b and CADO48A were used to evaluate white blood cells from the peripheral blood cells of forty healthy control dogs and forty untreated, tumor-bearing dogs. Tumor-bearing dogs had a statistically significant increase in CD11b low/CADO48A low cells (7.9%) as compared to the control dogs (3.6%). Additionally, sorted CD11b low/CADO48A low generated in vitro suppressed the proliferation of canine lymphocytes. The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying potential canine specific markers for identifying MDSCs in the peripheral blood circulation of dogs. This study demonstrates an increase in a unique CD11b low/CADO48A low cell population in tumor-bearing dogs. This immunophenotype is consistent with described phenotypes of MDSCs in other species (i.e. mice) and utilizes commercially available canine-specific antibodies. Importantly, CD11b low/CADO48A low from a tumor environment suppress the proliferation of lymphocytes

  13. A Proline Racemase Based PCR for Identification of Trypanosoma vivax in Cattle Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikru, Regassa; Hagos, Ashenafi; Rogé, Stijn; Reyna-Bello, Armando; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Merga, Bekana; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax) specific PCR based on the T. vivax proline racemase (TvPRAC) gene. Forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764–783 bp and 983–1002 bp of the gene. To assess its specificity, TvPRAC PCR was conducted on DNA extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: T. vivax from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Venezuela, T. congolense Savannah type, T. brucei brucei, T. evansi, T. equiperdum, T. theileri, Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and from bovine, goat, mouse, camel and human blood. The analytical sensitivity of the TvPRAC PCR was compared with that of the ITS-1 PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP on a dilution series of T. vivax DNA in water. The diagnostic performance of the three PCRs was compared on 411 Ethiopian bovine blood specimens collected in a former study. TvPRAC PCR proved to be fully specific for T. vivax, irrespective of its geographical origin. Its analytical sensitivity was lower than that of ITS-1 PCR. On these bovine specimens, TvPRAC PCR detected 8.3% T. vivax infections while ITS-1 PCR and 18S PCR-RFLP detected respectively 22.6 and 6.1% T. vivax infections. The study demonstrates that a proline racemase based PCR could be used, preferably in combination with ITS-1 PCR, as a species-specific diagnostic test for T. vivax infections worldwide. PMID:24416292

  14. Computational prediction of human salivary proteins from blood circulation and application to diagnostic biomarker identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Wang

    Full Text Available Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva, we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer.

  15. A proline racemase based PCR for identification of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regassa Fikru

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to develop a Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax specific PCR based on the T. vivax proline racemase (TvPRAC gene. Forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764-783 bp and 983-1002 bp of the gene. To assess its specificity, TvPRAC PCR was conducted on DNA extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: T. vivax from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Venezuela, T. congolense Savannah type, T. brucei brucei, T. evansi, T. equiperdum, T. theileri, Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and from bovine, goat, mouse, camel and human blood. The analytical sensitivity of the TvPRAC PCR was compared with that of the ITS-1 PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP on a dilution series of T. vivax DNA in water. The diagnostic performance of the three PCRs was compared on 411 Ethiopian bovine blood specimens collected in a former study. TvPRAC PCR proved to be fully specific for T. vivax, irrespective of its geographical origin. Its analytical sensitivity was lower than that of ITS-1 PCR. On these bovine specimens, TvPRAC PCR detected 8.3% T. vivax infections while ITS-1 PCR and 18S PCR-RFLP detected respectively 22.6 and 6.1% T. vivax infections. The study demonstrates that a proline racemase based PCR could be used, preferably in combination with ITS-1 PCR, as a species-specific diagnostic test for T. vivax infections worldwide.

  16. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: new identification of testicular blood flow and varicocele after treatment with gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Khaleeq; Shahid, Khubaib; Humayun, Hina

    2014-09-01

    To investigate testicular changes in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) after treatment with gonadotropins. Patients with HH were investigated and followed before and after treatment. Urology and andrology clinic of a teaching hospital. Consecutive male patients with diagnosed HH. All patients were treated with gonadotropins during the study period and later. The hormonal status and scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) of patients was recorded before and after treatment. Twenty-six patients with HH (ages 18-43 years) were followed for 8-29 months. After treatment, serum T and secondary sex characters improved in all and spermatogenesis developed in 61.5% of patients. Before treatment, testicular (intraparenchymal blood flow) was undetectable in all and barely detectable in three patients. This improved significantly to 4.53±5.44 and 4.27±4.97 cm/second, respectively, after treatment. Subcapsular arterial flow and testicular size also improved significantly. Similarly, after treatment, transverse epididymal diameter (TED) increased significantly. At baseline, no patient had detectable varicocele on CDUS. After treatment, varicocele was demonstrable in 23% of patients. This finding was further evaluated retrospectively from our 76 HH patient files. None of them had varicocele before treatment, but after treatment 19.73% were found to have varicocele. Patients with HH responded to gonadotropins by improvement in testicular blood flow and increase in TED. In some patients, varicocele was found to develop after treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood-stage malaria vaccines: post-genome strategies for the identification of novel vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntege, Edward H; Takashima, Eizo; Morita, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Hikaru; Ishino, Tomoko; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2017-08-01

    An efficacious malaria vaccine is necessary to advance the current control measures towards malaria elimination. To-date, only RTS,S/AS01, a leading pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine completed phase 3 trials, but with an efficacy of 28-36% in children, and 18-26% in infants, that waned over time. Blood-stage malaria vaccines protect against disease, and are considered effective targets for the logical design of next generation vaccines to improve the RTS,S field efficacy. Therefore, novel blood-stage vaccine candidate discovery efforts are critical, albeit with several challenges including, high polymorphisms in vaccine antigens, poor understanding of targets of naturally protective immunity, and difficulties in the expression of high AT-rich plasmodial proteins. Areas covered: PubMed ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed ) was searched to review the progress and future prospects of malaria vaccine research and development. We focused on post-genome vaccine candidate discovery, malaria vaccine development, sequence diversity, pre-clinical and clinical trials. Expert commentary: Post-genome high-throughput technologies using wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis technology and immuno-profiling with sera from malaria patients with clearly defined outcomes are highlighted to overcome current challenges of malaria vaccine candidate discovery.

  18. Identification of a suitable internal control for fluorescence analysis on canine peripheral blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondato, F; Martini, V; Poggi, A; Rota, A; Comazzi, S; Sulce, M; Bruno, B; Borrelli, A; Miniscalco, B

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of fluorescence intensity (FI) by flow cytometry (FC) is fundamental. FI depends on instrument settings and sample processing procedures: thus, measurements should be done using internal controls with known FI. Commercially available beads-based standards are expensive, thus reducing their usability in the veterinary practice. Cell subsets with stable mean FI (MFI) within the population have been proposed as acceptable surrogates in human medicine. In veterinary medicine, no data exist about stability of antigen expression among different subjects or upon sample storage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MFI variability of main lymphocytes antigens among the lymphoid cells within each subject, among different subjects, and upon 24-h storage, in order to identify the antigen most suitable as stable internal control in MFI analyses. Peripheral blood samples from 18 healthy dogs were analysed by FC within 3h from sampling to assess the expression of CD3, CD5, CD4, CD8, CD21 and cyCD79b using conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Analyses were restricted to the lymphoid population. Fluorescent microbeads were added to each tube, and antigen MFI was calculated as Relative Fluorescence Intensity RFI (CD/beads). Fluorescence histogram CV (fhCV) for each CD was regarded as an index of the variability of expression among lymphocytes within each subject (cell-to-cell variability); whereas the CV of RFI was regarded as an index of inter-subjects variability (dog-to-dog variability). In 11 cases, FC analyses were repeated after 24h storage at 4°C and RFI and CVs of fresh and stored samples were compared to assess variability linked to storage. CD4 was identified as the best antigen to be used as an internal control for MFI analyses in canine peripheral blood samples because of low cell-to-cell and dog-to-dog variability, and optimal stability upon 24-h storage. Blood samples from a second group of 21 healthy dogs were labelled only with CD4, in order

  19. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  20. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that: 1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations. 2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations. 3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin. 4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate. 5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control. The following literature review has been prepared by the authors in support of the aforementioned position statement.

  1. Of men and meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer-Westendorf, J; Siegert, G

    2015-06-01

    Rivaroxaban is increasingly used to treat patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), a potentially life-threatening condition. Because absorption of rivaroxaban decreases from nearly 100% to 66% under fasting conditions, it is recommended that VTE patients take rivaroxaban with a meal. However, this recommendation is based on preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in healthy volunteers. So far, no clinical evidence is available to support this recommendation. We describe a case of a compliant young patient who developed recurrent pulmonary embolism during rivaroxaban treatment. PK studies provided evidence that malabsorption of rivaroxaban 20 mg due to irregular intake of meals during shift work was the leading cause of recurrent pulmonary embolism. When the patient was instructed to take rivaroxaban with a regular meal, peak plasma concentrations increased from 115 to 318 ng mL(-1) (+ 176%). Consequently, the importance of taking rivaroxaban with food may have a greater clinical relevance than data from preclinical PK studies suggest. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Heden, Tim; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order eight obese women completed two, 12 h conditions in which they consumed 1500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4 h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2 h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min ...

  3. Is the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipaemia the same for a moderate-fat meal as it is for a high-fat meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Nicholas M; Eves, Frank F; Blannin, Andrew K

    2011-02-01

    Moderate-intensity exercise can lower the TAG response to a high-fat meal; however, the British diet is moderate in fat, and no study to date has compared the effect of such exercise on responses to high-fat and moderate-fat meals. The present work investigated the effect of brisk walking performed 13 h before intake of both high-fat and moderate-fat meals on postprandial plasma TAG concentrations. Eight inactive, overweight men completed four separate 2 d trials, i.e. rest (Con) or a 90-min treadmill walk (Ex) on the evening of day 1, followed by the ingestion of a moderate-fat (Mod) or high-fat (High) meal on the morning of day 2. High-fat meals contained 66 % of total energy as fat, while the percentage was 35 % for moderate-fat meals; both the meals were, however, isoenergetic. On day 2, venous blood was sampled in the fasted state, 30 and 60 min after ingesting the test meal and then hourly until 6 h post-meal. Exercise reduced plasma TAG concentrations significantly (P postprandial TAG concentrations is just as great, in percentage terms, when the test meal ingested is of a moderate rather than a high fat content.

  4. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse Fagt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  5. Identification of pyrimethamine- and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 1984 and 1998: genotyping of archive blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito-Nakano Yumiko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the geographical distribution of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum is important for the effective treatment of malaria. Drug resistance has previously been inferred mainly from records of clinical resistance. However, clinical resistance is not always consistent with the parasite's genetic resistance. Thus, molecular identification of the parasite's drug resistance is required. In Africa, clinical resistance to pyrimethamine (Pyr and chloroquine (CQ was evident before 1980 but few studies investigating the genetic resistance to these drugs were conducted before the late 1990s. In this study, genotyping of genes involved in resistance to Pyr and CQ was performed using archive blood samples from Africa between 1984 and 1998. Methods Parasite DNA was extracted from P. falciparum-infected blood smears collected from travellers returning to Japan from Africa between 1984 and 1998. Genotypes of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (dhfr and CQ-resistance transporter gene (pfcrt were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Results Genotyping of dhfr and pfcrt was successful in 59 and 80 samples, respectively. One wild-type and seven mutant dhfr genotypes were identified. Three dhfr genotypes lacking the S108N mutation (NRSI, ICSI, IRSI; amino acids at positions 51, 59, 108, and 164 with mutations underlined were highly prevalent before 1994 but reduced after 1995, accompanied by an increase in genotypes with the S108N mutation. The dhfr IRNI genotype was first identified in Nigeria in 1991 in the present samples, and its frequency gradually increased. However, two double mutants (ICNI and NRNI, the latter of which was exclusively found in West Africa, were more frequent than the IRNI genotype. Only two pfcrt genotypes were found, the wild-type and a Southeast Asian type (CVIET; amino acids at positions 72-76 with mutations underlined. The CVIET genotype was already present as early as

  6. HOTAIR role in melanoma progression and its identification in the blood of patients with advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantile, Monica; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Marra, Laura; Aquino, Gabriella; Botti, Chiara; Falcone, Maria Rosaria; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Liguori, Giuseppina; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Franco, Renato; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Botti, Gerardo

    2017-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metastatic progression of melanoma have not been fully defined yet. We have recently shown that an important role in this process is certainly played by HOX genes, whose regulation is under control of particular non-coding RNAs, some of which are present within the HOX locus. HOTAIR is the most studied among them, whose aberrant expression is associated with the metastatic progression of many malignancies. The aim of this study was to verify the role played by HOTAIR in metastatic progression of melanoma and to evaluate the circulating levels of HOTAIR in the blood of patients with metastatic melanoma. A series of melanocytic lesions were selected to evaluate the potential changes in the expression of HOTAIR during the evolution of the disease through in situ and molecular approaches. None of the benign melanocytic lesions showed the presence of HOTAIR. The staining of HOTAIR resulted very weak in the primary pT1 lesions, while it was very strong in all pairs of primary tissues and corresponding metastases. Surprisingly, we found the presence of HOTAIR in some intratumoral lymphocytes, while this positivity decreased in lymphocyte component further away from the tumor. HOTAIR was also detected in the serum of selected metastatic patients. These data allowed us to speculate on the fundamental role played by HOTAIR in tumor evolution of melanoma. Its presence in intratumoral lymphocytes might suggest that its involvement in the modulation of tumor microenvironment and the detection in the serum could be used in the management of melanoma patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification of dietary patterns associated with blood pressure in a sample of overweight Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, S; Charlton, K E; Tapsell, L C; Probst, Y; Ndanuko, R; Batterham, M J

    2016-11-01

    The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet provides strong evidence for an optimal dietary pattern for blood pressure (BP) control; however, investigation at the level of key foods in a dietary pattern is sparse. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary patterns driven by key foods with BP in a sample of obese Australian adults. Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data of 118 participants (45.1±8.4 years, mean BP=124.1±15.8/72.6±9.2 mm Hg) recruited in a weight reduction randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12608000425392). Dietary assessment was by a validated diet history interview. The average of three office BP measurements was taken. Factor analysis extracted dietary patterns and their relation to systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) was analysed using multiple linear regression. Eight dietary patterns were identified based on leading foods: meat and alcohol; seafood; fats; fruits and nuts; legumes; confectionery; sweet foods; and yeast extracts and seasonings. A lower SBP was associated with alignment with the fruit and nuts pattern (β=-4.1 (95% confidence interval -7.5 to -0.7) mm Hg) and with seafood for DBP (β=-2.4 (-4.6 to -0.3) mm Hg). SBP and DBP were higher with yeast extract and seasonings (β=4.3 (1.4-7.3); 2.5 (0.9-4.0) mm Hg, respectively). In obese adults attending for weight loss, dietary patterns that included larger amounts of fruits and nuts and/or seafood were associated with lower BP at baseline, whereas patterns that were characterised by yeast extract and seasonings were associated with higher BP.

  8. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  9. The feed value of toasted Mucuna sloanei meal on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the feed value of toasted Mucuna sloanei meal (TMSM) on the performance, haematology and blood biochemistry of broiler finisher birds. Mucuna sloanei seeds were processed into toasted Mucuna sloanei meal (TMSM) and analyzed for proximate and phytochemical ...

  10. Effects of false yam tuber meals and charcoal on broiler chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the effects of replacing a portion of a commercial broiler feed with false yam tuber meals on broiler growth performance, feed conversion rate (FCR) and blood parameters. Furthermore, wood charcoal was added at various levels to the meals to explore their potential to attenuate toxic effects.

  11. Comparative analysis of Gram's stain, PNA-FISH and Sepsityper with MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of yeast direct from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Rebecca L; Ramnarain, P; Barker, K; Stone, N; Rattenbury, S; McHugh, T D; Kibbler, C C

    2014-10-01

    Fungaemia diagnosis could be improved by reducing the time to identification of yeast from blood cultures. This study aimed to evaluate three rapid methods for the identification of yeast direct from blood cultures; Gram's stain analysis, the AdvanDX Peptide Nucleic Acid in Situ Hybridisation Yeast Traffic Light system (PNA-FISH YTL) and Bruker Sepsityper alongside matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifty blood cultures spiked with a known single yeast strain were analysed by blinded operators experienced in each method. Identifications were compared with MALDI-TOF MS CHROMagar Candida culture and ITS rRNA sequence-based identifications. On first attempt, success rates of 96% (48/50) and 76% (36/50) were achieved using PNA-FISH YTL and Gram's stain respectively. MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated a success rate of 56% (28/50) when applying manufacturer's species log score thresholds and 76% (38/50) using in-house parameters, including lowering the species log score threshold to >1.5. In conclusion, PNA-FISH YTL demonstrated a high success rate successfully identifying yeast commonly encountered in fungaemia. Sepsityper(™) with MALDI-TOF MS was accurate but increased sensitivity is required. Due to the misidentification of commonly encountered yeast Gram's stain analysis demonstrated limited utility in this setting. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. A Journey to Improved Inpatient Glycemic Control by Redesigning Meal Delivery and Insulin Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Martha; Ferguson, Allison; Fields, Willa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to redesign a hospital meal delivery process in order to shorten the time between blood glucose monitoring and corresponding insulin administration and improve glycemic control. This process change redesigned the workflow of the dietary and nursing departments. Modifications included nursing, rather than dietary, delivering meal trays to patients receiving insulin. Dietary marked the appropriate meal trays and phoned each unit prior to arrival on the unit. The process change was trialed on 2 acute care units prior to implementation hospital wide. Elapsed time between blood glucose monitoring and insulin administration was analyzed before and after process change as well as evaluation of glucometrics: percentage of patients with blood glucose between 70 and 180 mg/dL (percent perfect), blood glucose greater than 300 mg/dL (extreme hyperglycemia), and blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL (hypoglycemia). Percent perfect glucose results improved from 45% to 53%, extreme hyperglycemia (blood glucose >300 mg/dL) fell from 11.7% to 5%. Hypoglycemia demonstrated a downward trend line, demonstrating that with improving glycemic control hypoglycemia rates did not increase. Percentage of patients receiving meal insulin within 30 minutes of blood glucose check increased from 35% to 73%. In the hospital, numerous obstacles were present that interfered with on-time meal insulin delivery. Establishing a meal delivery process with the nurse performing the premeal blood glucose check, delivering the meal, and administering the insulin improves