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Sample records for blood lead concentrations

  1. Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A

    2013-11-01

    Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. PMID:24119336

  2. Maternal blood lead concentration, diet during pregnancy, and anthropometry predict neonatal blood lead in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D.; Gomez, Marta; Ravenscroft, Julia; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aydermir, Aida; Samelson, Renee

    2003-01-01

    To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead (NBPb) levels were low (geometric mean = 1.58 micro g/dL), and none had elevated blood lead. More than 50% of the mothers had intakes below the recommended diet...

  3. Association of prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations with criminal arrests in early adulthood.

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    John Paul Wright

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.85 for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.88-1.29 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03-1.57 for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 microg/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.88-2.03 for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1

  4. Lead concentrations in blood and milk from periparturient dairy heifers seven months after an episode of acute lead toxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galey, F.D.; Slenning, B.D.; Anderson, M.L.; Breneman, P.C.; Littlefield, E.S.; Melton, L.A.; Tracy, M.L. (California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Toxicology Laboratory, University of California, Davis (USA))

    1990-07-01

    In September 1988, 100 of 300 yearling dairy heifers developed blindness, tachypnea, foaming at the mouth, chewing, and facial fasciculations. Twenty-five animals died. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed based on the clinical signs and the presence of excessive concentrations of lead in whole blood, liver, kidney, and rumen contents of affected animals. The source of the lead was sudan grass silage that had been contaminated by soil that contained up to 77,000 mg/kg of lead. Lead concentrations were determined approximately 7 months after the acute episode of lead toxicosis. Whole blood and milk samples were obtained from heifers and a group of control cows 2 weeks prior to (blood only), at the time of, and 2 and 4 weeks after freshening. No lead was found in any of the milk samples (detection limit = 0.055 mg/liter). Animals that had been severely affected by lead toxicosis experienced a transient increase in whole blood lead concentrations at freshening that was not high enough to be considered toxic. No similar increases in blood lead were observed for control cows or heifers that had experienced milder toxicosis. These findings suggest that at parturition lead is mobilized into the blood of cattle previously exposed to excessive lead.

  5. Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.

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    Jianghong Liu

    Full Text Available Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ and school performance.Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3-5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language] when children were age 8-10 years.Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD = 2.64. For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n = 105 had ≥10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n = 185 had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n = 1051 had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥8 µg/dL scored 2-3 points lower in IQ and 5-6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8-10 and ≥10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ≥10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3-5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8-10 years (Chinese, β = -3.54, 95%CI = -6.46, -0.63; Math, β = -4.63, 95%CI = -7.86, -1.40; English, β = -4.66, 95%CI = -8.09, -1.23. IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance.Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8-10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries.

  6. Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ and School Performance in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jianghong Liu; Linda Li; Yingjie Wang; Chonghuai Yan; Xianchen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. Participants and Methods Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3–5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assesse...

  7. Changes in blood lead concentrations in women in Wales 1972-82.

    OpenAIRE

    Elwood, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Blood lead concentrations, estimated in epidemiological surveys of adult women in Wales, have shown a fall of over 30% since 1972. During the same period the amount of lead in petrol has changed little but general traffic flow has steadily increased; there has been no change in the amount of lead in water.

  8. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children

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    Mohammad Reza Keramati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional anaemia among children. Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in children of Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on children between 1 year and 10 years, in Imam Reza teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Indeed during complete blood count (CBC, we measured iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC by colorimetric methods, ferritin by radioimmune assay and blood lead concentration by atomic absorption method. Results were analysed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS (version 11.5, using statistical tests including independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman′s test and analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson′s or Spearman′s correlation coefficient. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212 μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159 μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713. We also did not find any correlation between blood lead concentration and haemoglobin, ferritin, iron, TIBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, white blood cells (WBC and platelets. Conclusion: Based on these results, no correlation was found between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in the children. Because all children had lead intoxication, further studies in highly polluted and a comparison with a low polluted area are necessary to make a general conclusion.

  9. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Keramati; Lida Manavifar; Zahra Badiee; Mohammad Hadi Sadeghian; Hamid Farhangi; Mahdi Balali Mood

    2013-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional anaemia among children. Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in children of Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on children between 1 year and 10 years, in Imam Reza teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Indeed...

  10. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  11. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

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    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  12. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

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    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos. PMID:27038476

  13. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environm...

  14. Relationship between lead concentration in the air and blood lead levels of people living and working in the center of a city (Frankfurt blood lead study). II. Correlations and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinn, W.

    1981-01-01

    The correlation analysis of the relationship between blood lead levels and lead-in-air concentrations measured in three winter periods showed a highly significant association despite a generally loose dependence of the variables. The regression equations statistically yield results which compare convincingly with ones obtained from model calculations based on studies of metabolism and respiratory physiology. The correlation between the observed changes in blood lead and the initial absolute values of blood lead concentration demonstrates with high statistical centainty that the higher the initial level, the greater was the observed change.

  15. Elevation of blood lead concentration by continement in the rhesus monkey

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    Bushnell, P.J.; Shelton, S.E.; Bowman, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Rhesus monkeys were exposed to lead (Pb) acetate under various regimens during the first 12 months of life. At 30 months of age, these animals and unexposed controls were confined to an unfamiliar experimental chamber for one week. Serum cortisol concentration and Pb concentration in whole blood (PbB) were measured prior to, during, and after this confinement. Cortisol concentrations rose 60 to 90% within 2 hours of confinement, and declined to baseline levels after 98 hours of confinement. Mean baseline PbB levels reflected the state of clearance of the previously-ingested lead, rose 25 to 35% within 2 hours of confinement, and reached mean maximum levels as much as 100% above baseline after 98 hours of confinement. The data are discussed in terms of hormonal mobilization of Pb stored in bone, and subgest: (1) that this storage is multicompartmental; (2) that more than one process is probably involved in its mobilization; (3) that cortisol probably does not directly affect PbB levels; and (4) stress should be considered a potential factor in determining the PbB in studies of Pb metabolism.

  16. IQ and blood lead from 2 to 7 years of age: are the effects in older children the residual of high blood lead concentrations in 2-year-olds?

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    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N; Ware, James H; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2005-05-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18-30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4-6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20-44 microg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed. PMID:15866769

  17. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  18. Lead levels - blood

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    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  19. Blood Lead Concentration Is Not Altered by High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Herold, Rachel A; Schall, Joan I; Wagner, Julia L; Dougherty, Kelly A; Zemel, Babette S; Rutstein, Richard M; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with HIV. METHODS Subjects with HIV (age 8 to 24 yrs) were randomized to vitamin D3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and followed at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in 25D and whole blood lead concentration. This was a secondary analysis of a larger study of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with HIV. RESULTS In 44 subjects (75% African American), the baseline mean ± SD serum 25D was 48.3 ± 18.6 nmol/L. 50% of subjects had baseline serum 25D 5.0 μg/dL at baseline or during subsequent visits. Whole blood lead and 25D were not correlated at baseline, and were negatively correlated after 12 weeks of supplementation (p= 0.014). Whole blood lead did not differ between those receiving 4000 IU versus 7000 IU of vitamin D3. CONCLUSION High dose vitamin D3 supplementation and the concomitant increased serum 25D did not result in increased whole blood lead concentration in this sample of children and young adults living in a northeastern urban city. PMID:23059649

  20. Determinants of blood lead concentrations to age 5 years in a birth cohort study of children living in the lead smelting city of Port Pirie and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghurst, P.A. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Adelaide (Australia)); Shilu Tong (National Health Education Inst., Beijing (China)); McMichael, A.J. (Univ. of Adelaide (Australia)); Roberton, E.F. (Adelaide Centre for Women' s and Children' s Health (Australia)); Wigg, N.R. (Child Adolescent and Family Health Service, Adelaide (Australia)); Vimpani, G.V. (Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia))

    Sources of variation and some principal determinants of blood lead concentration (PbB) were investigated in a cohort of children, followed to age 5 y, who were born near a lead smelter in Port Pirie, South Australia. The child's age and place of residence were the two variables most strongly predictive of PbB. A sharp increase in PbB occurred between 6 and 15 mo of age and was followed by a peak concentration that occurred at approximately 2 y of age, after which PbB steadily and consistently declined. Irrespective of age, the PbBs in children who lived in Port Pirie were significantly higher than levels identified in children who resided outside the city. There was no significant difference in PbB between boys and girls. Elevated PbB at each specific age was associated mainly with increased lead concentration in the topsoil of the local residential area, employment of the father in the lead industry, parental smoking, and behaviors likely to cause ingestion of dirt. Blood samples taken from children at certain ages and during the warmer months contained more lead than samples obtained during the cooler months. The effects of these determinants on PbB during early childhood were basically consistent in both single and multivariable analyses.

  1. Effects of lead exposure on the concentration of cadmium, selenium and values of morphology in the blood

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    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heavy metals, including cadmium and lead are both environmental and industrial toxins which cause metabolic disorders. Effects of these elements are long lasting and usually take a long time to show themselves. Also of importance is the active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, which is also a source of heavy metals. Heavy metals exhibit nephrotoxic activity, hepatotoxic and neurotoxic, and mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and the level of selenium (Se, and values of morphology of employees of zinc and lead smelter. Material and methods. 334 occupationally exposed males (tested group and 60 males not exposed (control group were involved in the study. The men were between 19 and 62 years of age. The study population lived and/or worked in the industrial region of Upper Silesia. Blood cadmium concentration (Cd-B, blood lead concentration (Pb-B and serum concentrations of Se (Se-S were studied. The level of elements was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The average concentration of each metal in the exposed group was 2.42±2.20 µg/l (Cd-B, 33±9.6 µg/dl (Pb-B and 73.99±20.44 µg/l (Se-S. In the entire study population (exposed and control, a statistically significant negative linear relationship was found between Pb-B and Se-S (r=–0.16, p<0.05. There was no correlation between Cd-B and Se-S, whereas a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between Pb-B and Cd-B (r=0.48, p<0.05. Spearman Rank Correlation analysis showed that in the study population there was observed statistically significant (p<0.05 negative correlation between Se-S in smokers group. Conclusions. Higher concentrations of Cd and Pb were observed in the exposed group compared to the control group. Occupational exposure to cadmium and lead may be a factor lowering the blood Se in the tested group. The most

  2. Correlation Between the Concentration of Lead in the Blood of Dogs and People Living in the Same Environmental Conditions

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    Monkiewicz Jerzy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies, conducted between 2010 and 2012, involved 102 dogs and 505 people from Lower Silesia (LS, 104 dogs and 578 people from the Legnica - Głogów Copper Mining Region (LGCMR, and 101 dogs and 897 people from the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (USIR. A significant positive correlation between blood lead concentration (BLC in dogs and people living in the same environment was found. Moreover, the data revealed an increase in BLC in dogs and people with the progressive aging of the body. The highest average BLC in dogs and humans were reported in the LGCMR followed by USIR and LS.

  3. Association of lead concentration in colostrum, maternal and cord blood with newborn weight in polluted vs. non-polluted areas of Iran

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    Golmohammadi T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most important environmental health problems among developing countries with both direct and indirect effects on human life. Lead is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and accumulates in soft and hard tissues. Lead can be excreted in urine, stool, milk, sweat, nails and saliva. During pregnancy and lactation, lead is released from bones into the blood along with Ca2+. The toxic effects of lead on various human tissues have been studied extensively, but few studies have addressed its impact on fetal development during pregnancy. Blood levels of lead are higher in people living in lead-polluted regions. It has been reported that Tehran (central and southern parts is the most problematic city in terms of lead poisoning.Methods: From 86 sets of mothers and newborns in a non-polluted area of rural Rasht, Iran, we examined specimens of maternal blood, cord blood and colostrum (86×3=258 and specimens from 85 sets of mothers and newborns in a polluted area of Tehran, Iran (85×3=255 for lead levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS and analyzed the results by t-test, SPSS, and linear regression.Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of mothers, cord blood of newborns and colostrum were 7.6±4.1, 5.9±3 and 4.2±2.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the non-polluted area and 9.1±8.4, 6.5±5.2 and 5.8±5.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the polluted area. The mean weights of the newborns in non-polluted and polluted areas were 3.2±0.5 kg and 3.2±4.5 kg, respectively.Conclusions: Our data revealed an association between mean concentrations in blood lead of mothers and newborns and between mean concentrations of colostrum lead and newborn blood lead in both areas (p=0.01. There was no association between mean blood lead concentration of mothers with the weight of their newborns (p=0.89.

  4. Effects of sub-lethal and chronic lead concentrations on blood and liver ALA-D activity and hematological parameters in Nile tilapia.

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    Dos Santos, Carlucio Rocha; Cavalcante, Ana Luiza Michel; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lopes, Renato Matos; Mattos, Rita De Cássia Oliveira Da Costa

    2016-07-01

    Liver and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) inhibition by exposure to sub-lethal lead concentrations over time in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated. All three lead concentrations (1mgkg(-1), 10mgkg(-1) and 100mgkg(-1)) significantly inhibited ALA-D activity in blood (319±29.2; 180±14.6 and 172±19µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1) respectively) and liver (302±5.84; 201±41.4 and 93±22.1µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1)) 24h after injection relative to controls (blood: 597±37.0µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1); liver: 376±23.1µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1)). Blood ALA-D was greatly inhibited in all but the highest lead dose. Fish were then exposed to 1mgkg(-1) lead for 9 days, and presented short-term hyperglycemia, decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit values and time-dependent blood ALA-D activity inhibition, corroborating blood ALA-D activity as being more suitable for investigating lead effects, showing dose and time-dependent ALA-D inhibition after lead exposure. The results of the present study also demonstrated that fish size affects blood ALA-D activity, as fish from the 24-h assay, which were slightly smaller (approximately 200g), showed higher ALA-D inhibition in response to lead exposure when compared to the fish from the 9-day assay (approximately 500g). Thus, fish size should always be taken into account both in the field and in laboratory settings, and efforts should be made to obtain uniform fish size samples for biomarker studies.

  5. Effects of sub-lethal and chronic lead concentrations on blood and liver ALA-D activity and hematological parameters in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Carlucio Rocha; Cavalcante, Ana Luiza Michel; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lopes, Renato Matos; Mattos, Rita De Cássia Oliveira Da Costa

    2016-07-01

    Liver and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) inhibition by exposure to sub-lethal lead concentrations over time in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated. All three lead concentrations (1mgkg(-1), 10mgkg(-1) and 100mgkg(-1)) significantly inhibited ALA-D activity in blood (319±29.2; 180±14.6 and 172±19µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1) respectively) and liver (302±5.84; 201±41.4 and 93±22.1µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1)) 24h after injection relative to controls (blood: 597±37.0µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1); liver: 376±23.1µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1)). Blood ALA-D was greatly inhibited in all but the highest lead dose. Fish were then exposed to 1mgkg(-1) lead for 9 days, and presented short-term hyperglycemia, decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit values and time-dependent blood ALA-D activity inhibition, corroborating blood ALA-D activity as being more suitable for investigating lead effects, showing dose and time-dependent ALA-D inhibition after lead exposure. The results of the present study also demonstrated that fish size affects blood ALA-D activity, as fish from the 24-h assay, which were slightly smaller (approximately 200g), showed higher ALA-D inhibition in response to lead exposure when compared to the fish from the 9-day assay (approximately 500g). Thus, fish size should always be taken into account both in the field and in laboratory settings, and efforts should be made to obtain uniform fish size samples for biomarker studies. PMID:27054706

  6. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

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    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Lead Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Análisis de sangre: plomo What It Is A lead test is used to determine the amount of ...

  7. Effects of pollution on lead and cadmium concentration and correlation with biochemical parameters in blood of human population nearby Kosovo thermo power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zeneli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an investigation of lead and cadmium pollution of Kosovo environment as a result of outflow from the coal processing industry. In a comparative study of lead and cadmium concentration in blood of human population of two different environments in Kosovo, one nearby Kosovo Thermo Power Plants, (Obiliq a highly polluted environment and the other that is considered as relatively clean rural environment (Dragash. Analysis has shown that emission of particulate in fly ash from Thermo Power Plants during 2005 has exceeded EU standards by 400-500% and that lead concentration was 18mg kg-1 and cadmium concentration was -1 of ash. A series of determinations of lead and cadmium concentrations in blood of population that lives in this environment, have shown direct effects in biochemical parameters CRE (Creatinin, DB (Direct Bilirubine, TB (Total Bilirubine, AST (Aspartat Aminotransferaza, CK (Creatin Kinaza and CHE (Cholenisteraza in human organism. The results that were achieved in this study showed a significant difference in average lead and cadmium concentration in the blood of the investigated group of peoples that lives in the area near by the Power Plants, from a control group that lives in a rural unpolluted environment. Lead and cadmium has been analyzed in 50 samples taken from persons from industrial zone and 25 samples in controlled group. The level of lead concentration was 23.0-112.1 µg L-1in geometric average 46.05 µg L-1, cadmium concentration was 0.44-6.02 µg L-1 in geometric average of 1.56µg L-1. Controlled group from the rural relatively clean environment showed lead concentration of 6.7-33.8 µg L-1 in geometric avarage 17.76 µg L-1 and cadmium concentration of 0.21-1.8 µg L-1 or in geometric average of 0.73 µg L-1. In conclusion in exposed subjects, pollution from coal burning in Power Plant is very important factor for level of lead and cadmium concentration in blood of tested population.

  8. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from water.

  9. Predictors of cadmium and lead concentrations in the blood of residents from the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Dedoussis, George; Chrysohoou, Christina; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-10-15

    The Cd and Pb blood contents of healthy adult subjects who are non-occupationally exposed and living in the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece) have not been assessed thus far. Additionally, Greeks rank first among EU27 in terms of smoking habits. To fill the existing gap, we aimed to evaluate the predictors and propose reference values (RVs) of the Cd (CdB) and Pb (PbB) blood concentrations in residents of the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece). Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, educational status and nutritional habits were used as variables, with an emphasis on smoking. CdB and PbB determinations were performed directly by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the appropriate dilution of the samples with Triton-X-100. The RVs of CdB and PbB proposed for the general adult population of the Metropolitan area of Athens, Greece (upper limit of the 95% CI of the 95th percentile of the distribution of values), were 2.3 and 88μgL(-1) (P95: 1.8 and 77μgL(-1); 95% CI (P95): 1.5-2.3 and 70-88μgL(-1)), respectively. Males had a higher median CdB (0.69μgL(-1)) than females (0.55μgL(-1)). Subjects aged <40years had a lower median CdB (0.51μgL(-1)) than the elderly (≥60years; 0.60μgL(-1)). The CdB in smokers (1.2μgL(-1)) was almost threefold higher than in non-smokers (0.46μgL(-1)). The PbB levels were higher in males (31μgL(-1)) than females (20μgL(-1)). Subjects aged <40years had a lower median PbB (17μgL(-1)) than the elderly (≥60years; 32μgL(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the predictor variables for the CdB levels were the standardized beta weight, smoking, age, alcohol consumption, and intake of leafy vegetables, whereas for the PbB levels they were sex and age. PMID:27295597

  10. Lead concentrations in feathers and blood of common blackbirds (Turdus merula) and in earthworms inhabiting unpolluted and moderately polluted urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifler, R; Coeurdassier, M; Morilhat, C; Bernard, N; Faivre, B; Flicoteaux, P; Giraudoux, P; Noël, M; Piotte, P; Rieffel, D; de Vaufleury, A; Badot, P-M

    2006-12-01

    Despite the dramatic decrease of atmospheric lead (Pb) concentrations in urban areas of most industrialised countries, we hypothesised that urban common blackbirds (Turdus merula) may still be contaminated by Pb concentrations of toxicological concern due to transfer from soil through the food chain. We sampled blackbirds and earthworms, one of their main preys, in Besançon, a middle-size city of Eastern France (where atmospheric Pb concentrations decreased from 0.5 microg/m(3) in 1987 to nearly 0 in 2002) and in a rural reference site. Lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of the different functional groups of earthworms (anecic, epigeous and endogeous) and in blood, washed and unwashed outermost tail feathers and breast feathers of blackbirds. Fresh masses and an index of individual body condition were measured in the two blackbird populations as biomarkers of possible toxic effects. Lead concentrations in earthworms did not differ among functional groups but were significantly higher in urban individuals than in rural ones. Concentrations in outermost tail feathers, breast feathers and blood were significantly higher in urban blackbirds (7.75+/-4.50, 3.15+/-1.77 and 0.15+/-0.09 microg/g, respectively) than in rural individuals. In urban blackbirds, concentrations in washed and unwashed outermost tail feathers allowed estimating the external contamination (probably due to deposition of dusts and/or to excretion of the uropygial gland) at 37% of the total Pb concentration of the unwashed feathers. Remaining 63% should be linked to food chain transfer of persistent Pb from urban soils. Among the 23 sampled blackbirds, 4 of them (3 in the urban site and 1 in the rural site) exhibited blood Pb concentrations higher than the benchmark value (0.20 microg/g) related to subclinical and physiological effects in birds. Variations in body condition index were not correlated to Pb concentrations in blackbird tissues. Present results suggest that Pb may still be

  11. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Schmitt, Christopher J; May, Thomas W

    2005-07-01

    The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were

  12. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure. PMID:26519423

  13. Relationship between the lead concentration in hair and occupational exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, T; Dumitru, R.; V. Botha; R. Alexandrescu; Manolescu, N

    1983-01-01

    The lead content of hair in workers occupationally exposed was correlated with the blood lead concentration. Determinations of lead in blood and hair were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in two exposed groups and a control group. A significant correlation was observed between the blood lead and hair lead concentrations, and a regression analysis showed an exponential accumulation of the lead content in hair, simultaneously with the increase of the values in blo...

  14. Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and zinc in blood and fillets of northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-zinc mining: implications for monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C J; Brumbaugh, W G; May, T W

    2009-04-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood

  15. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an additional 12% of the total variation in fillet Cd. Collectively, the results indicate that blood sampling

  16. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K.

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  17. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  18. HAIR LEAD CONCENTRATION IN NAKHLAK LEAD MINERS VERSUS CONTROL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N IZADI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lead poisoning is a major problem in environmental health. Exposure can occur via air, soil, food and water. Occupational exposure is the most common source of lead poisoning in adults. Lead miners are exposed to an additional source of poisoning in long term. Hair analysis may be used to evaluate chronic lead toxicity. This study compare the hair lead concentration in Nakhlak lead miners and Mohammadieh people who live 130 km far from the lead mine. Methods. Hair samples from 24 Nakhlak lead miners and 26 adult men of Mohammadieh village were gathered, washed by detergent and distilled water and dissolved by wet digestion. Lead concentrations of the samples were measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results. There was a significant difference between hair lead concentration of Nakhlak lead miners and Mohammadieh people (P < 0.001. The mean of lead concentrations were 52.43±27.7 µg/g (mean ± SD and 17.32±3.43 µg/g hair of the lead mine workers and the Mohammadieh people, respectively. There was also a significant regression between the number of exposure years and the lead concentration of hair in Nakhlak lead miners (P < 0.001, r=0.8. Discussion. Presence of lead compounds in work environment especially in the air may be an important factor for the difference between hair lead concentration of Nakhlak lead miners and Mohammadieh people. However, the hair lead concentration in Mohammadieh people is also reasonably high. It means that these people are also exposed to lead through the other sources e.g. food, soil, water and air.

  19. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  20. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air concentr

  1. Detection and Analysis of Children's Blood Lead Concentration in Mianyang from 2010 to 2012%绵阳市2010-2012年儿童血铅检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳; 闫晓玲; 陈志

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解绵阳市儿童血铅水平,为儿童铅中毒防治提供科学依据。方法采用原子吸收光谱法对到绵阳市中心医院532名0~14岁儿童的静脉血进行检测分析。结果儿童血铅均值为36.92μg/L,铅中毒率为2.07%。男性儿童和女性儿童的血铅均值分别为37.67μg/L和35.81μg/L。0~3岁组、4~6岁组和7~12岁组血铅均值分别为33.62μg/L、35.65μg/L 、38.39μg/L,中毒率分别为1.49%、1.98%和2.28%,血铅水平和中毒率随着年龄增长均有增高趋势,但差异无统计学意义。结论绵阳市儿童血铅浓度底于全国平均水平,铅中毒率较底。%Objective To understand the children's blood lead concentration in Mianyang and provide scientific measures for preventing children lead poisoning. Methods 542 children's venous bloods of aged from 0 to 14 years old were col ected and detected by atomic absorption spectrometry method. Results the geometric means of blood lead levels of children was 36.92μg/L, blood lead poisoning rates was 2.07%. The average blood lead in boys and girls was 37.67μg/L and 35.81μg/L respectively.The average blood lead in 0~3 years group, 4~6 years group, 7~12 years group was 33.62μg/L, 35.65μg/L, and 38.39μg/L; the lead poisoning rates in the three groups was 1.49%、1.98% and 2.28% respectively. The blood lead levels and the lead poisoning rate increased with age, while there is not significant dif erence in these groups. Conclusions The blood lead levels and the lead poisoning rate in Mianyang was relatively lower than the national average.

  2. 厦门市婴儿至学龄前儿童血铅检测结果与分析%Detection and analysis of lead concentrations in the blood of children in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金虎; 杨玲玲; 张易进

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide the scientific guidance for the prevention of lead poisoning in the children ,the lead concentra‐tions in the blood of children in Xiamen are investigated .Methods 11 271 cases of outpatients with the age of 0 -10 years old in maternity and child care hospital were surveyed randomly .The lead concentrations in the blood of these children were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer .Results From 2010 to 2013 ,the whole blood lead levels of 11 271 children was detected .The mean blood lead levels was 51 .0 μg/L .The boy lead poisoning rate was higher than girls in different age groups ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05) .Both the above indices increased gradually with the increase of age in the range of 1-6 years old ,and the mean blood lead levels reached its peak in preschool age ,the mean blood lead did not increased in school‐age children ,and the lead poisoning rate showed the downward trend .Conclusion The lead poisoning rate of children in Xiamen is close to the average level of other cities ,however ,the blood lead level tends to increase with the increase of age .The effect of lead pollu‐tion on physical health of children shall be paid more attention to nowadays .%目的:了解厦门市儿童血铅水平分布状况,为预防儿童铅中毒提供依据。方法随机选择厦门妇幼保健院门诊就诊的儿童,年龄0~10岁,采用原子吸收石墨炉法测定全血血铅值。结果2010~2013年间共有11271例儿童检测全血血铅水平,血铅均值为51.0μg/L。不同年龄组的男童铅中毒率高于女童,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。在1~6岁期间,随着年龄增加血铅均值逐渐上升,并在学龄前期达到高峰,之后的学龄期儿童均值不再增高,但血铅中毒率始终呈现逐渐下降的趋势。结论厦门市儿童铅中毒率接近国内其他城市平均水平,但学龄前儿童血铅的均值水平

  3. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  4. Impacts of traffic-induced lead emissions on air, soil and blood lead levels in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashisho, Z; El-Fadel, M

    2004-01-01

    Lead is a purely toxic heavy metal which induces a wide variety of adverse physiologic effects. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 8,000 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, traffic-induced emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitute more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas where no phase-out activities have been adopted. Gasoline lead content and traffic volume are strongly correlated with concentrations of lead in various environmental media. In the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline remains the predominant grade in many countries. This paper assesses the status of lead pollution from the combustion of leaded gasoline in Beirut based on field measurements of lead in air and roadside dust of urban and rural/suburban areas and recent data on soil and blood lead levels. Average atmospheric lead concentrations was about 1.86 microg m(-3) at urban locations and 0.147 microg m(-3) at suburban locations. The analysis of roadside dust revealed an average lead level of 353 microg g(-1) along urban streets and 125 microg g(-1) along rural/suburban roads. Blood lead levels were also relatively high in comparison to countries where leaded gasoline has been phased-out.

  5. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: Clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.L.; Landrigan, P.J.; Barbour, A.G.; Cox, D.H.; Folland, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of 160 lead exposed workers at a secondary lead smelter, a small scrap smelter, and a lead chemicals facility to investigate dose response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects. The levels of blood lead ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 micromoles/liter (micromol/l). In 70 workers, 44 percent of the total number, clinical evidence of toxic exposure was detected including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anemia in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. At blood lead levels below 1.93 micromol/l no toxicity was detected. However, 13 percent of those workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 micromol/l had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. In 5 percent of the workers with lead levels of 1.93 to 2.85 micromol/l, anemia was noted. Anemia was also noted in 14 percent with levels between 2.90 and 3.81 micromol/l and in 36 percent with levels over 3.86 micromol/l. In long term lead workers elevated BUN occurred. All but three workers with elevated BUN had at least 4 years of occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation therapy. Eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability.

  6. 脐血铅浓度与新生儿端粒长度的相关性%A correlation study of umbilical cord blood lead concentrations and neonatal telomere length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳芳; 曲宝明; 刘文东; 马海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究脐血铅浓度与新生儿端粒长度的相关性。方法收集2010年7月~2013年4月青岛市市立医院产科孕期无急慢性疾病的足月顺产儿脐血78例,原子吸收光谱法测定脐血铅浓度,测得脐血铅浓度在11~89µg/L范围。将78例脐血分成A、B、C三组:A组脐血铅浓度<30µg/L,共28例,B组脐血铅浓度30~60µg/L,共38例,C组脐血铅浓度>60µg/L,共12例。采用全血提取基因组法提取脐血DNA,荧光定量PCR法测基因组DNA的端粒长度。各组间比较采用单因素方差分析,两两比较采用q检验,相关性采用Spearman相关性研究。结果A组端粒长度为:1.152±0.716,B组端粒长度为0.614±0.407,C组端粒长度为0.546±0.339,从A组到C组端粒长度逐渐缩短,且差异有统计学意义(F=4.895,P<0.05)。B组端粒长度低于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),C组端粒长度低于A组端粒长度,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。B、C两组之间的差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05)。三组端粒长度与脐血铅浓度呈负相关(r=-0.461,P<0.01)。结论脐血铅可导致新生儿端粒长度的缩短,且随脐血铅浓度的升高,新生儿端粒长度进行性缩短,端粒长度缩短影响细胞分裂,决定细胞寿命。%Objective To study the correlation of umbilical cord blood lead concentrations and neonatal telomere length. Methods We collected 78 cases of umbilical cord blood from term infants whose gestation was without acute or chronic disease from Qingdao Municipal Hospital between July of 2010 to April of 2013.We used atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the concentration of umbilical cord blood lead. The umbilical cord blood lead concentrations measured range was between 11 and 89 µg/L. The 78 cases of umbilical cord blood was divided into three groups:A,B,and C.Umbilical cord blood lead concentrations for group A was 60 µg/L (n=12).To

  7. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  8. Determination of lead in whole blood: Comparison of the LeadCare blood lead testing system with zeeman longitudinal electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the efficiency of blood lead level analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and the portable LeadCare Blood lead testing system (LCS). Recoveries of two added lead concentrations of 22 and 42 μg/dL ranged from 102.4 to 105.5% for LCS and from 96.3 to 97.2% for GFAAS. Measurement of a certified sample (Certified Danish Whole Blood) at a blood lead concentration of 26.2 μg/dL gave within- and between-run coefficients of variation which were both approximately 8% by LCS and 2% by GFAAS. Comparison of the tested method (LCS) versus GFAAS from analysis of 76 samples of blood lead collected from workers in different industrial sectors showed imperfect overall correlation (r = 0.95). The LCS is quite suitable for screening purposes, but requires the use of non-frozen blood collected less than 24 h before. Conservative threshold values should be applied when using the LCS for initial screening in the field. (orig.)

  9. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Lead, hemoglobin, zinc protoporphyrin and ferritin concentrations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondó Patrícia H C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of blood lead and hemoglobin, zinc protoporphyrin, and ferritin concentrations in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 136 anemic and non-anemic children from two rural villages near a lead smelter in Adrianópolis, Southern Brazil, from July to September 2001. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed to exclude children with hemoglobin variants and thalassemia syndromes associated with anemia. Lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; hemoglobin by automated cell counting; zinc protoporphyrin by hematofluorometry; ferritin by chemiluminescence. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and the c² test were used to assess the significance of the differences between the variables investigated in anemic and non-anemic children. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed using two models for anemic and non-anemic children respectively. RESULTS: Lead was negatively associated to hemoglobin (p<0.017 in the first model, and in the second model lead was positively associated to zinc protoporphyrin (p<0.004 after controlling for ferritin, age, sex, and per capita income. There was an inverse association between hemoglobin and blood lead in anemic children. It was not possible to confirm if anemic children had iron deficiency anemia or subclinical infection, considering that the majority (90.4% had normal ferritin. CONCLUSIONS: The study detected a relationship between anemia and elevated blood lead concentrations. Further epidemiological studies are necessary to investigate the impact of iron nutritional interventions as an attempt to decrease blood lead in children.

  11. Distribution of lead-203 in human peripheral blood in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vitro experiments using 203Pb were performed to identify the lead binding components in human peripheral blood. The distribution of lead in plasma, in the red cell membrane, and within the red cell was also investigated. Studies of the distribution of 203Pb in the whole blood showed that at a lead concentration of 2.45 μmol/l (50 μg/100 ml) about 94% of lead had been incorporated by the erythrocytes and 6% remained in the plasma. After extraction of lipid by a methanol/chloroform mixture, about 75% of the lead was found to be associated with the protein fraction. The lipid contained about 21% of the 203Pb, the remainder being in the aqueous plasma. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of blood plasma showed that almost 90% of the 203Pb was present in the albumin fraction; the remainder was likely to be associated with high molecular weight globulins. Several binding sites were identified on the erythrocyte membrane. The high molecular weight component, about 130 000-230 000, was the most important 203Pb binding site. Chemical modification of membrane proteins suggested that the carboxyl groups are the major ligand responsible for most of the lead binding. SH groups of the membrane may have a minor role, but amino groups did not appear to affect the lead binding. The binding of lead to erythrocytes was not confined to membranes, over 80% of lead in blood penetrates into erythrocytes and binds to intracellular components. Gel chromatography of the haemolysate showed that over 90% of the 203Pb was attached to the haemoglobin molecule. (author)

  12. Peripheral blood signatures of lead exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G LaBreche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.

  13. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety.

  14. An Examination of Blood Lead Levels in Thai Nielloware Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Decharat, Somsiri; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers' hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Methods Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were determin...

  15. A Biomonitoring Study of Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Blood of New York City Adults

    OpenAIRE

    McKelvey, Wendy; Gwynn, R. Charon; Jeffery, Nancy; Kass, Daniel; Thorpe, Lorna E.; Garg, Renu K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the extent of exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury in the New York City (NYC) adult population. Methods We measured blood metal concentrations in a representative sample of 1,811 NYC residents as part of the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004. Results The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 2.73 μg/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.58–2.89]; blood lead concentration was 1.79 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.73–1.86); and blood cadmium concentration was 0.77...

  16. Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration of...... the drug and metabolite ranged from below the limit of quantification to 0.058 mg/kg (median 0.0098 mg/kg). This concentration range, which largely corresponds to published in vivo plasmalevels under therapy, may serve as a reference for judgment of postmortem cases involving risperidone. In one case......, risperidone was judged to be a contributing factor to death, and the sum of concentrations was 0.29 mg/kg. This concentration is of the same order of magnitude as observed for plasma levels in clinical intoxication cases. For the remaining seven cases, the cause of death was unclear. The measurements observed...

  17. The distribution of blood lead levels and job titles among lead-acid battery workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kun-Yu; Shin, Wen-Yi; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2002-07-01

    There were several reports about elevated blood lead levels in lead battery workers. However, their subjects came from only one or several plants. We visited all the 23 registered lead-acid battery plants in Taiwan and collected their health examination records in 1992, the blood lead analyses of which were completed in 3 medical college hospitals. In total, we have obtained 1726 records. The average blood lead concentration was 37.1 ug/dl, and 37% of blood lead levels were more than 40 ug/dl (action level). The overall participation rate for health examination among employees was 69.4%. The participation rates were different among both plant sizes and job titles. Assuming that there was no peculiar variation within the four working zones (plate manufacture jobs, assembly jobs, part-time exposure jobs, and office jobs) in each plant, and that blood lead levels of our samples were stable after deleting newly hired workers, we estimated that the blood lead distributions of 2486 employees in these plants were 63.3%, 26.4%, 9.25% and 1.05% for below 40, 40-59, 60-79, and above 80 ug/dl respectively. We conclude that such an analysis should be performed each year to monitor the effectiveness of occupational hygiene in workplace of lead battery plants.

  18. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  19. Lead and cadmium determinations by atomic absorption technique in biological samples: blood, placenta and umbilical cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the possibility contamination of lead and cadmium in pregnant women living in the mining-smelting city of La Oroya in Peru, lead and cadmium concentrations were assessed in maternal blood (pre-birth), umbilical cord blood and placental tissue. Forty deliveries with normal evolution were evaluated between October 2002 and January 2003. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption on a graphite furnace at the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) laboratories. Results are summarized as follows: a) Mean lead concentrations in maternal blood (MB), umbilical cord blood (UCB) and placental tissue (PT) were 27.23 μg/dL, 18.48 μg/dL and 363.97 μg/100g, respectively; b) Mean cadmium concentrations in MB, UCB and PT were 8.82 μg/dL, 12,0 μg/dL and 104,44 μg/100g, respectively; c) The correlation coefficient between lead concentration in maternal blood and umbilical cord was 0.122; d). The correlation coefficient of cadmium concentration between MB and UCB was 0.223; e). The correlation coefficient of lead concentration between MB and PT was 0.189; f). The correlation coefficient of cadmium concentration between MB and PT was 0.633. Trans-placental transport of lead was 67.84% (27,23 μg/dL in MB vs. 18.48 μg/dL in UCB); whereas in the case of cadmium, the concentration in UC (12,00 μg/dL) was greater than in MB (8.82 μg/dL.). These results could indicate that the placenta acts as a barrier trapping lead and cadmium. This barrier is efficient for lead since the concentration in cord blood is inferior to maternal blood but it is less efficient for cadmium. (author)

  20. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  1. Children's Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Sadler, Richard C; Gonzales, Christopher R; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2016-04-01

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children's average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children's blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. PMID:27023578

  2. Blood glucose concentration in pediatric outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonviboon, W; Kijmahatrakul, W

    1996-04-01

    Blood glucose concentration was measured in 84 pediatric patients who were scheduled for outpatient surgery at Chulalongkorn Hospital. They were allocated into 3 groups according to their ages, group 1:less than 1 year of age, group 2:1 to 5 years of age and group 3:over 5 years. The fasting times were approximately 8-12 hours. All patients received standard general anesthesia under mask. No glucose solution was given during operation. Preoperative mean blood glucose were 91.09 +/- 17.34, 89.55 +/- 18.69 and 82.14 +/- 16.14 mg/dl in group 1, 2 and 3 while the postoperative mean glucose values were 129.07 +/- 37.90, 115.62 +/- 29.63 and 111.53 +/- 23.07 mg/dl respectively. The difference between pre- and post-operative values were statistically significant difference (P postoperative glucose values may be due to stress response from surgery and anesthesia. We would suggest that the parents give the fluid to their children according to our instructions in order to prevent dehydration and hypoglycemia especially in small infants.

  3. 21 CFR 868.1120 - Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration... Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer is a photoelectric device used to measure, in vivo, the oxygen-carrying capacity...

  4. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  5. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05. Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  6. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  7. Postmortem blood ferritin concentrations in sudden infant death syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Worwood, M.; Raha-Chowdhury, R.; Fagan, D G; Moore, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To confirm the observation of extremely high concentrations of ferritin in postmortem serum samples in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS); to examine the factors influencing blood ferritin concentrations postmortem; to determine whether or not these high blood ferritin concentrations are characteristic of SIDS. METHODS--Postmortem samples of cardiac blood were obtained from 58 full term infants who died of SIDS and 14 full-term infants who died of a variety of other causes. Whole blood...

  8. Placental and stillbirth tissue lead concentrations in occupationally exposed women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khera, A.K.; Wibberley, D.G.; Dathan, J.G.

    1980-11-01

    The lead values in maternal and infant blood, in placental tissue, and in stillbirth liver, kidney, and rib- and skull-bones have been determined in samples from the Stoke-on-Trent area. The lead values in antenatal blood and placenta increase with occupational exposure; liver and kidney stillbirth lead values are lower than those of much older children and rib-bone lead values from stillbriths were on average three times as high as those from a control group comprised of cot deaths and early infant deaths from accidental causes.

  9. Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: The use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: ljtsuji@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Wainman, Bruce C. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Martin, Ian D. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sutherland, Celine [Attawapiskat First Nation Health Services, Attawapiskat, Ontario, P0L 1A0 (Canada); Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre [Centre de toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada); Nieboer, Evert [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso N-9037 (Norway)

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p < 0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  11. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  12. Screening children for elevated blood lead - Learnings from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Although it is important that children at risk of developing elevated blood lead receive regular screening, attendance at screening programs is variable. A literature review was undertaken to better understand the factors that affect carers' decisions about whether or not to take their children for blood lead screening. Method: Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Psychinfo) were searched to identify relevant publications, supported by reviewing reference lists of identified articles and searching with internet-based search engines. Results: Thirty-four published studies dealing with blood lead screening rates were identified, of which only seven papers focused specifically on parent's attitudes to blood lead screening. The barriers to and enablers of screening for elevated blood lead levels appear to be similar to those identified for other screening programs. Discussion: It is recommended that attendance at screening be routinely monitored, and that where participation is suboptimal further research be undertaken, in close co-operation with affected communities or sub-groups, to determine how best to encourage screening and to protect children from lead. It is important to minimize stigma and to ensure, as far as possible, that practical barriers such as lack of transport do not restrict access to screening programs

  13. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  14. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  15. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  16. Assessments of blood lead levels in children with febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Nastaran; Izadi, Anahita; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Javadinia, Shima; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Ashouri, Sarvenaz; Asgarian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead elements have an adverse effect on human health. The most important complications of lead poisoning are disorders of nervous system particularly seizure .This study aimed to evaluate the blood lead levels and its association with convulsion in a group of hospitalized febrile children. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 60 hospitalized febrile children with 1- 60 month old participated in the study via non-probability convenience sampling method. All of the infor...

  17. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman Herbert; Shen Xiaoming; Yan Chonghuai; Compher Charlene; McCauley Linda; Liu Jianghong; Pinto-Martin Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb) is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods P...

  18. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  19. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  20. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  1. Lead concentration in soil from an old mining town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead concentration in soils has been measured in Vetagrande, an old mining town located at the state of Zacatecas in Mexico. Eighty nine soils samples were analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence. The lead concentrations were treated with the Kriging method in order to estimate the lead concentration distribution in the studied area. Pb levels in soils were from 8 to 7730 μg kg-1, where 28.1% of soil samples have less than 400 μg kg-1, 71.9% is above 400 μg kg-1 which is the maximum level recommended by the EPA for residential use of soil. Lead concentration measured around public sites represent a risk of lead intake in the population. (author)

  2. Changes in potassium and sodium concentrations in stored blood

    OpenAIRE

    Opoku-Okrah, Clement; Acquah, Benjamin Kojo Safo; Dogbe, Elliot Eli

    2015-01-01

    Potassium is the principal intracellular cation with sodium being the principal extracellular cation. Maintenance of the distribution of potassium and sodium between the intracellular and the extracellular compartments relies on several homeostatic mechanisms. This study analysed the effect of blood storage on the concentrations of potassium and sodium in stored blood and also determine any variations that may exist in their concentrations. 50mls of blood was sampled each from 28 units of eve...

  3. Home blood glucose concentrations in maturity-onset diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Paisey, R B; Bradshaw, P; Hartog, M.

    1980-01-01

    Blood glucose concentrations during normal daily activities were measured in 106 patients with maturity-onset diabetes from capillary blood samples collected on to filter paper. Samples were taken before and two hours after main meals, before going to bed, and, in 51 cases, during the night. Fasting and mid-morning values were closely correlated with the mean values over 24 hours irrespective of the type of anti-diabetic treatment being given. Postprandial blood glucose concentrations remaine...

  4. Formoterol concentrations in blood and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Kasper; Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    We examined urinary and serum concentrations of formoterol in asthmatic and healthy individuals after a single dose of 18 μg inhaled formoterol and after repeated inhaled doses in healthy individuals. Results were evaluated using the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) 2012 threshold for formoterol....

  5. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “Meta-Learning Based Blood Glucose Predictor for DiabeticSmartphone App” by Valeriya Naumova et al. demonstrates how a highly sophisticated glucose prediction model can be ported from a development language running on a PC to a format such that it can be used conveniently by the patients. A unique...... Continuous EEG Monitoring” by Claus Borg Juhl et al. shows how to use EEG signals to predict upcoming hypoglycemic situations in real-time by employing artificial neural networks. The results of a 30-day long clinical study with the implanted device and the developed algorithm are presented. The chapter......-Based Linear Multistep Predictors” by Marzia Cescon et al. uses data-based methods to develop individualized prediction models. The model can be considered as a combination of physiological models to precompute the rate of appearance of injected insulin and ingested carbohydrates in the bloodstream and of data...

  6. Relationship between soil lead and airborne lead concentrations at Springfield, Missouri, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheets, R.W.; Kyger, J.R.; Biagioni, R.N.; Probst, S. [Department of Chemistry, Southwest Missouri State University, 65804 Springfield, MO (United States); Boyer, R.; Barke, K. [Greene County Health Department, 65802 Springfield, MO (United States)

    2001-04-23

    This study tests whether lead deposited to soil from automobiles during past years in a medium-sized US city (population 150000) may present a current health risk. It examines the relationship between current soil lead concentrations at nine locations within the city of Springfield, Missouri, and airborne lead levels measured at the same locations during years (1975-1981) when lead emissions from automobiles were much greater than at present. A strong, significant correlation is found between soil and airborne lead levels at eight of the sites (r=0.91, P<0.005 for soil lead vs. 1979 airborne lead), in low-traffic areas as well as in areas adjacent to heavy traffic flow. Residual lead concentrations in these soils are relatively low, even for the high-traffic sites, as expected for a medium sized city.

  7. Correlation between Blood Lead Levels and Anaemia in Commercial Enamel Paint Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazumdar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead causes acute, sub-acute or chronic poisoning through occupational exposure along with decrease in some trace elements like iron, whose absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination being affected. Iron deficiency is a serious problem especially in developing countries and lead toxicity can augment anaemia directly by decreasing absorption of Iron and also by inhibiting enzymes of heme synthesis. Aim and Objectives: To assess haematological indices and serum iron and ferritin levels in Enamel paint industry workers who are exposed to very high Lead levels due to their occupation, and determine iron deficiency anaemia. Materials and Methods: Blood lead concentration was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS method. Haematological tests were performed using cell counter to measure haemoglobin, red blood cell and white blood cell count, etc. Mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were calculated. Serum ferritin and iron levels were assayed by chemilumenescence and spectrophotometric methods respectively. Results: All the parameters measured and calculated were found to be altered in paint workers as compared to healthy controls, with significant increase in blood lead level and decrease in the haematological as well as other analyte values. Conclusion: There seems to be a direct relationship between chronic lead exposure and the haematological disturbances, resulting in iron deficiency anaemia. Hence awareness about this association should be increased and protective measures should be implied accordingly.

  8. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  9. Daily rhythms in blood and milk lead toxicokinetics following intravenous administration of lead acetate to dairy cows in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, S. E.; Scaglione, M. C.; Acosta, P.; Coronel, J. E.; Beldomenico, H. R.; Boggio, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate circadian variations of blood and milk lead toxicokinetics in dairy cows in summer. Twenty lactating Holstein animals were randomly assigned to four treatments corresponding to different hours after onset of light (HALO): 2, 8, 14, and 20. Cows received a single intravenous administration of 2.5 mg/kg lead as lead acetate. Blood and milk samples were taken and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each toxicokinetic parameter, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to outline the existence of daily variations. Significant blood differences as a function of HALO were found for the hybrid constant of distribution (α), hybrid constant of elimination (β), elimination half-life ({text{t}}_{{{text{1/2 β }}}} ), area under the curve (AUC), volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) and clearance (ClB) ( pMilk data showed significant differences for maximum concentration and AUC ( pmilk. It differed significantly throughout the day ( pMilk data for the significant parameters could be fitted to circadian rhythms. No circadian rhythms were detected in blood parameters or in the ratio AUCmilk/AUCblood.

  10. Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S

    2008-02-01

    One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (shotshell for hunting.

  11. 电感耦合等离子体质谱法分析大鼠血、毛发及脏器中铅浓度及同位素比值%Determination of Lead Concentration and Isotopic Ratios of Blood, Hair and Tissues in Rats by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾静; 闫赖赖; 欧阳荔; 王京宇

    2011-01-01

    建立了电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)同时测定铅浓度及同位素比值的方法,并应用于染毒大鼠血、毛发及组织脏器测定,以考察大鼠体内铅浓度及同位素比值分布情况及染毒剂量对其的影响.标准物质牛全血铅浓度测定结果为(278±4) μg/L,在证书标准值(283±18)μg/L范围内;测定10 μg/L Pb标准溶液的RSD肾>毛>肝>全血,各组织脏器中铅同位素指纹亦有不同.血铅相对于毛发铅更适于作为反映体内铅蓄积程度的生物标志物.%A method was developed to simultaneously determine lead concentration and lead isotopic ratios in blood, hair, and other organs of lead exposed rats by inductively coupled plasma mass spec-trometry(ICP-MS). The measurement value of lead concentration in standard material is (278±4) μg/L that is in the range of certified value (283±18) μg/L, and the RSDs of Pb concentration, ratio 204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb of in the determination of 10 μg/L Pb standard solution were less than 0. 7%, 0. 3%, 0. 15% and 0. 15%, respectively. It was found that RSD of isotopic ratios is stable when Pb concentration is more than 8 μg/L; The concentration calculated by sum of of all Pb isotopes is more accurate and reasonable than that only by 208Pb. The measured results of samples from rats tissues show that there is a selective accumulation of Pb in different tissues and organs, Pb concentration from high to low is in femur, kidney, hair, liver and blood. Blood is more suitable than hair for biomarker to reflect inner Pb accumulation.

  12. Increased blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in inflammatory pulmonary diseases

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yasuda; Yamaya, M; Yanai, M; Ohrui, T; Sasaki, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Exhaled carbon monoxide has been reported to increase in inflammatory pulmonary diseases and to be correlated with blood carboxyhaemoglobin (Hb-CO) concentration. A study was undertaken to determine whether arterial blood Hb-CO increases in patients with inflammatory pulmonary diseases.

  13. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  14. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerstedt, Sara [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy [Department of Medicine Solna, Translational Immunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Mie, Axel [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Alm, Johan [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  15. Effects of Chronic Lead Acetate Intoxication on Blood Indices of Male Adult Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosein Noori Mugahi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead as one of the environmental pollutants can threats the life of living creatures in many ways. In this study, hematological effects of chronic toxicity of the lead acetate in adult male rats through measurement of the lead concentration in the blood of animal’s heart by atomic absorption as well as hematological analyses and differential cell count were investigated. Results showed that lead concentration in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control groups (P<0.001, and basophilic stippling, Howell-Jolly bodies, decreased RBC count (anemia, increased leukocyte count (leukocytosis, monocytosis, eosinopenia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis were observed in the test group (P<0.001. It is concluded that microcytic hypochromic anemia can be attributed to the interaction of lead with iron and copper metabolism and increased leukocyte count may be linked to the inflammatory effects of lead on lymphatic organs.

  16. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Needleman Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire regarding children's breakfast-eating habit (regular or not, demographics, and food frequency. Whole blood samples were collected from 1,344 children for the measurements of B-Pb and micronutrients (iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. B-Pb and other measures were compared between children with and without regular breakfast. Linear regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between regular breakfast and log-transformed B-Pb. The association between regular breakfast and risk of lead poisoning (B-Pb≥10 μg/dL was examined using logistic regression modeling. Results Median B-Pb among children who ate breakfast regularly and those who did not eat breakfast regularly were 6.1 μg/dL and 7.2 μg/dL, respectively. Eating breakfast was also associated with greater zinc blood levels. Adjusting for other relevant factors, the linear regression model revealed that eating breakfast regularly was significantly associated with lower B-Pb (beta = -0.10 units of log-transformed B-Pb compared with children who did not eat breakfast regularly, p = 0.02. Conclusion The present study provides some initial human data supporting the notion that eating a regular breakfast might reduce B-Pb in young children. To our knowledge, this is the first human study exploring the association between breakfast frequency and B-Pb in young children.

  17. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Blann, Andrew [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Nessar, E-mail: N.Ahmed@mmu.ac.uk [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  18. Preparation of lead sulfate powder directly from galena concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Wen-qing; LIU Hui; TANG Shuang-hua; SUN Wei

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to prepare PbSO4 powder is studied. Using the methods of the leaching of galena concentrates in the ferric chloride media, selective purification and chemical sedimentation, PbS concentrate can be converted into PbSO4. The conversion recovery is 97.39%, the purity of PbSO4 powder is above 99% and its average crystallite size is about 42 nm. In this process, emission of lead vapour and SO2 cannot occur. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of realizing a green route to prepare the lead sulfate powder.

  19. INCREASING AND PROLONGING BLOOD PENICILLIN CONCENTRATIONS FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Favour, C B

    1945-06-29

    (1) Restriction of fluid intake to 1,500 cc and the salt intake to 3 gm a day doubles the penicillin blood level following interrupted intramuscular [See Figure in the PDF file] injections of penicillin. (2) The administration of benzoic acid to a patient on an unrestricted diet Ilay double the penicillin blood level during similar treatment. (3) The combination of these two procedures results in a four- to eight-fold increase in penicillin blood level with a prolonged effective blood concentration.

  20. Blood lead levels in Japanese children: Effects of passive smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Kaji, Masayuki; Gotoh, Mikio; Takagi, Yasuko; Masuda, Hiroyuki

    1997-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) of 188 pediatric patients were measured and their parents were queried as to the smoking style in their home. Their mean BLL was 3.16 μg/dl, which was among the lowest levels in the world, and none of them had levels of over 10 μ g/dl. Preschool children ( 1 to 6 years of age) with parents who smoked in the same room had a significantly higher BLL (mean; 4.15 μ g/dl) than those with parents who never smoked (mean; 3.06 μ g/dl) (P

  1. Lead concentration in meat an meat products of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Lukáčová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Meat is very rich and convenient source of nutrients including also a large extent of microelements. Contamination with heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the food chain. The lead concentrations depend on the environmental conditions and the food production methods. Ingestion of contaminants, especially heavy metals, by animals causes deposition of residues in meat. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lead in the Malokarpatska and Lovecka salami during the technological processing with comparison to the raw materials originating from domestic and foreign production. Lead content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The starting materials in the Malokarpatska salami were found to contain the highest level of lead in the beef of foreign production (7.58 ppb, followed pork from foreign production (3.43 ppb, beef from domestic production (3.27 ppb, pork bacon from foreign production (2.41 ppb, pork from domestic production (1.63 ppb and pork bacon from domestic production (1.57 ppb. The average concentration of lead was higher in homogenized samples with addition of additives and spices and ranged between 6.49 to 7.56 ppb. The lead concentration in final product Malokarpatska salami was in the range from 8.57 to 8.89 ppb. The highest mean Pb concentrations in the Lovecka salami in the starting materials were beef from foreign production, beef from domestic production, pork from foreign production, pork bacon from foreign production, pork from domestic production and pork bacon from domestic production (7.31, 3.77, 3.21, 2.40, 2.03, 1.97 ppb, respectively. Increasing concentration of lead was found after the addition of additives, spices and curing compounds causing a threefold increase in the concentration of lead in final products Lovecka and Malokarpatska salami. Technological process of meat processing can create a potential source of heavy metals in

  2. An investigation of dust lead sampling locations and children's blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jonathan; Dixon, Sherry; Galke, Warren; McLaine, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide guidance on where to collect dust lead wipe samples in homes to best characterize the risk of a resident child having a blood lead level at or above the CDC level of concern (10 microg/dl). In 1998, the Milwaukee Health Department enrolled 72 children living in pre-1950 buildings: 34 had elevated (i.e., > or = 10 microg/dl) blood lead levels (EBL); and 38 had non-elevated blood lead levels (non-EBL). This study explored dust lead sampling locations by examining loading differences between homes where children with EBL and non-EBL lived. Floor, windowsill, and window trough samples were collected in the living room, kitchen, bathroom, and child's bedroom and play area. Floor samples were collected at four locations: room entry; center of the room; under a window; and against the wall opposite the window (perimeter). Geometric mean floor dust lead levels were generally two to three times higher in homes of EBL children than homes of non-EBL children. Sampling the floor at the room entry or center is preferable to sampling under the window or from the perimeter of the room. When the central floor average was used, the room combinations that had the greatest differences between homes of EBL children and non-EBL children all included a sample from the child's bedroom and excluded the bathroom. When the entry floor average was used, the greatest differences also excluded bathrooms, but otherwise included a mix of all of the other rooms. Window samples did not distinguish where children with EBLs versus non-EBLs resided. This paper is based on Milwaukee alone, so generalizing results to other locations should be done with caution. PMID:16823397

  3. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34 Section 634.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other...

  4. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  5. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  6. Australian atmospheric lead deposition reconstructed using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions of archival lichen and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K; Wu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lead concentrations and their isotopic compositions were measured in lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea and fungi genus Trametes from the Greater Sydney region (New South Wales, Australia) that had been collected and archived over the past 120 years. The median lead contents were elevated in lichens and fungi prior to the introduction of leaded petrol (Cladonia 12.5 mg/kg; Usnea 15.6 mg/kg; Trametes 1.85 mg/kg) corresponding to early industrial development. During the use of leaded petrol for automobiles in Australia from 1932 to 2002, total median lead concentrations rose: Cladonia 18.8 mg/kg; Usnea 21.5 mg/kg; Trametes 4.3 mg/kg. Following the cessation of leaded petrol use, median total lead concentrations decreased sharply in the 2000s: Cladonia 4.8 mg/kg; Usnea 1.7 mg/kg. The lichen and fungi isotopic compositions reveal a significant decrease in (206)Pb/(207)Pb values from the end of 19th century to the 1970s. The following decades were characterised by lower allowable levels of lead additive in fuel and the introduction of unleaded petrol in 1985. The environmental response to these regulatory changes was that lichen and fungi (206)Pb/(207)Pb values increased, particularly from 1995 onwards. Although the lead isotope ratios of lichens continued to increase in the 2000s they do not return to pre-leaded petrol values. This demonstrates that historic leaded petrol emissions, inter alia other sources, remain a persistent source of anthropogenic contamination in the Greater Sydney region.

  7. Australian atmospheric lead deposition reconstructed using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions of archival lichen and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K; Wu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lead concentrations and their isotopic compositions were measured in lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea and fungi genus Trametes from the Greater Sydney region (New South Wales, Australia) that had been collected and archived over the past 120 years. The median lead contents were elevated in lichens and fungi prior to the introduction of leaded petrol (Cladonia 12.5 mg/kg; Usnea 15.6 mg/kg; Trametes 1.85 mg/kg) corresponding to early industrial development. During the use of leaded petrol for automobiles in Australia from 1932 to 2002, total median lead concentrations rose: Cladonia 18.8 mg/kg; Usnea 21.5 mg/kg; Trametes 4.3 mg/kg. Following the cessation of leaded petrol use, median total lead concentrations decreased sharply in the 2000s: Cladonia 4.8 mg/kg; Usnea 1.7 mg/kg. The lichen and fungi isotopic compositions reveal a significant decrease in (206)Pb/(207)Pb values from the end of 19th century to the 1970s. The following decades were characterised by lower allowable levels of lead additive in fuel and the introduction of unleaded petrol in 1985. The environmental response to these regulatory changes was that lichen and fungi (206)Pb/(207)Pb values increased, particularly from 1995 onwards. Although the lead isotope ratios of lichens continued to increase in the 2000s they do not return to pre-leaded petrol values. This demonstrates that historic leaded petrol emissions, inter alia other sources, remain a persistent source of anthropogenic contamination in the Greater Sydney region. PMID:26608874

  8. Blood lead levels in children and environmental lead contamination in Miami inner city, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M; Siegel, Kristy A; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-09-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 microg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 microg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 microg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  9. Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophile Niyonsenga

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg /dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05. However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  10. Effect of Irradiation on Microparticles in Red Blood Cell Concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Yun, Seung Gyu; Koh, Young Eun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-01-01

    Changes in microparticles (MP) from red blood cell (RBC) concentrates in the context of irradiation have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how irradiation affects the number of MPs within transfusion components. Twenty RBC concentrates, within 14 days after donation, were exposed to gamma rays (dose rate: 25 cGy) from a cesium-137 irradiator. Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of MPs derived from RBC concentrates before and 24 hr after irradiation. The...

  11. Physico-chemical investigation of synthesis of lead salts from sulfide lead concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDER G. KHOLMOGOROV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaching of lead from lead–zinc concentrates by iron(III salt solutins in the absence, as well as in the presence of mineral acids (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 has been investigated. It was shown that the leaching of lead by means of 0.3 M Fe(NO33 at (22 ± 1 ºC leads to practically complete recovery of lead during 1 h. This conclusion was confirmed by data obtained using chemical, thermographical and X-ray photographical methods. Atechnological scheme for the synthesis of lead salts and oxides without the production of metal lead has been developed as a result of the present investigation.

  12. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  13. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  14. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  15. Lead Concentration in Primary School Soil-Dust in Nigeria, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwumemgbo P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead in soil has been recognized as a public health problem, particularly among children. In recent years, attention has been directed to cumulative adverse effects of lead at low levels of intake. Leadcontaminated soil and dust have been identified as important contributors to blood lead levels. This work examines the total concentration of lead in primary school soil-dust in Nigeria. Soil-dusts were collected randomly from six geopolitical areas of Nigeria, digested and analysed for total lead concentration by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The mean lead concentration in the dry season for the North East (NE, North West (NW, North Central (NC, South South (SS, South East (SE, South West (SW were 131.60 ± 70.98 mg/kg, 108.04 ± 47.33 mg/kg, 72.94 ± 55.45 mg/kg, 66.14 ± 43.9 mg/kg, 45.98 ± 34.60 mg/kg and 67.98 ± 34.89 mg/kg respectively. In the raining season the mean lead concentration were 130.78 ± 70.80 mg/kg, 106.24 ± 47.02 mg/kg, 70.96 ± 55.52 mg/kg, 64.12 ± 48.00 mg/kg, 44.58 ± 28.90 mg/kg, and 66.26 ± 41.87 mg/kg respectively. This analysis is necessary to provide scientific data base for the loading of lead in classroom soil-dust in each zone. The authors recommend measurement and surveillance of lead blood level of the primary school children and a clean-up of both classrooms and the school environment.

  16. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects. PMID:24222606

  17. A label-free and portable graphene FET aptasensor for children blood lead detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyu; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Ying; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q.; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Lead is a cumulative toxicant, which can induce severe health issues, especially in children’s case due to their immature nervous system. While realizing large-scale monitoring of children blood lead remains challenging by utilizing traditional methods, it is highly desirable to search for alternative techniques or novel sensing materials. Here we report a label-free and portable aptasensor based on graphene field effect transistor (FET) for effective children blood lead detection. With standard solutions of different Pb2+ concentrations, we obtained a dose-response curve and a detection limitation below 37.5 ng/L, which is three orders lower than the safe blood lead level (100 μg/L). The devices also showed excellent selectivity over other metal cations such as, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, suggesting the capability of working in a complex sample matrix. We further successfully demonstrated the detection of Pb2+ ions in real blood samples from children by using our aptasensors, and explored their potential applications for quantification. Our results underscore such graphene FET aptasensors for future applications on fast detection of heavy metal ions for health monitoring and disease diagnostics.

  18. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  19. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  20. The lead accumulation and hematological findings in juvenile rock fish Sebastes schlegelii exposed to the dietary lead (II) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-05-01

    Juvenile rockfish (mean length 14.2 ± 1.9 cm, and mean weight 57.3 ± 5.2g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary lead (Pb(2+)) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/L. The exposure concentration and period of Pb have induced significant amount of it the specific tissues of rockfish. The highest Pb accumulation was observed in the kidney tissue by the dietary lead exposure. The growth rate and hepatosomatic index were considerably inhibited over 120 mg/kg. The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht) value, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were significantly decreased over 60 mg/kg Pb concentration. In the inorganic components, the values of calcium and magnesium in plasma were significantly decreased. The glucose and cholesterol values were notably increased, whereas total protein was decreased. The enzyme components, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT), were significantly elevated by the dietary lead exposure, but no change was observed in alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

  1. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  2. Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, S.; Awasthi, R; Pande, V K; Srivastav, R C; Frumkin, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, north India. METHODS: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status were measured, and PbB was measured. RESULTS: The mean PbB was 14.3 micrograms/dl and 19.2% of women had PbB > ...

  3. Evaluation of the use of salivary lead levels as a surrogate of blood lead or plasma lead levels in lead exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Correa Rodrigues, Maria H.; Buzalaf, Maria R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas/Bioquimica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-15

    We conducted a study to evaluate the use of parotid salivary lead (Pb-saliva) levels as a surrogate of the blood lead (Pb-B) or plasma lead levels (Pb-P) to diagnose lead exposure. The relationship between these biomarkers was assessed in a lead exposed population. Pb-saliva and Pb-P were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while in whole blood lead was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. We studied 88 adults (31 men and 57 women) from 18 to 60 years old. Pb-saliva levels varied from 0.05 to 4.4 {mu}g/l, with a mean of 0.85 {mu}g/l. Blood lead levels varied from 32.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/l in men (mean 112.3 {mu}g/l) and from 25.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/l (mean 63.5 {mu}g/l) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.50 {mu}g/l (mean 0.77 {mu}g/l) and 0.03-1.6 {mu}g/l (mean 0.42 {mu}g/l) in men and women, respectively. A weak correlation was found between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-B (r=0.277, P<0.008), and between Log Pb-saliva and Log Pb-P (r=0.280, P=0.006). The Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio ranged from 0.20 to 18.0. Age or gender does not affect Pb-saliva levels or Pb-saliva/Pb-P ratio. Taken together, these results suggest that salivary lead may not be used as a biomarker to diagnose lead exposure nor as a surrogate of plasma lead levels at least for low to moderately lead exposed population. (orig.)

  4. Spatial relationships between lead sources and children's blood lead levels in the urban center of Indianapolis (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deborah; Lin, Qing; Wiehe, Sarah; Liu, Gilbert; Rosenman, Marc; Fuller, Trevor; Wang, Jane; Filippelli, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children's blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source-recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0-5 years during the period 1999-2008 were collected. The study population's mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children's blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community. PMID:22782519

  5. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hansen-Turton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6% of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7% of the 628 control children (p = 0.1. Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4 months versus 23.6 (3.1 months (P = 0.6. Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4. The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes.

  6. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  7. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Diane Saint-Laurent; Julien St-Laurent; Marlies Hähni; Bassam Ghaleb; Camille Chapados

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb) were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-François and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios (204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 20...

  8. A systematic review on food lead concentration and dietary lead exposure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yingliang; Liu Pei; Wu Yongning; Min Jie; Wang Cannan; Sun Jinfang; Zhang Yafei

    2014-01-01

    Background By synthesizing results from primary studies,systematic review can provide empirical information of concerned problems.This study aimed to review the available surveillance data from studies reporting the contamination surveillance of food lead in China.Methods Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching Chinese Biological Medicine Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure using the key term of "lead" for surveillance data published in Chinese between 2006 and 2012.To avoid potential selection bias,all articles were evaluated by two independent reviewers,and the disagreements were resolved by discussion or the third author was asked to arbitrate.Results Among 269 identified publications on surveillance data of lead in food,43 articles met the defined inclusion criteria.The food samples were divided into 11 groups (cereal grains and pulses,fish,eggs,vegetables,meat,edible fungi,milk and dairy products,fruits,offal,tea and preserved egg).Surveillance data of publications were reviewed to calculate the weighted mean and rate exceeding maximum levels.Our results indicated that the highest lead concentration was 1.937 mg/kg in tea.The total pementage of samples exceeding the maximum levels was 5.57%.Dietary exposure to lead was assessed by combining the weighted mean concentration of surveillance data with national consumption data in 2002.In this review,dietary intake of lead was 1.232 μg/kg b.w./day.Conclusion Further control measures should be taken to reduce exposure to lead,from both dietary and non-dietary sources.

  9. Postmortem Quetiapine Reference Concentrations in Brain and Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is a useful alternative to blood in postmortem forensic investigations, but scarcity of information on reference concentrations in brain tissue makes interpretation challenging. Here we present a study of 43 cases where the antipsychotic drug quetiapine was quantified in brain tissue...... and related to concentrations in postmortem blood. For cases, where quetiapine was unrelated to the cause of death (N 5 36), the 10–90 percentiles for quetiapine concentrations in brain tissue were 0.030 – 1.54 mg/kg (median 0.48 mg/kg, mean 0.79 mg/kg). Corresponding blood 10 –90 percentile values were 0.......007 – 0.39 mg/kg (median 0.15 mg/kg, mean 0.19 mg/kg), giving brain –blood ratio 10 –90 percentiles of 2.31 – 6.54 (median 3.87, mean 4.32). Both correspond well to the limited amount of data found in the literature. For cases where quetiapine was a contributing factor to death (N 5 5), the median value...

  10. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  11. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  12. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  13. ORAL TRANSMUCOSAL BACK PERMEATION OF ALFENTANIL IN DOGS A NOVEL METHOD TO DETERMINE BLOOD ALFENTANIL CONCENTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛苏毅; 张洁; 黄宇光

    1994-01-01

    This study explores a novel noninvasivc method for monitoring blood alfentanil concentrations using a dog model. Alfentanil which "back" permeated across the oral muccssa from the systemic circulation was collvcted from the oral mugosal surface and quantitated. The levels of the "back" permeated affentanil were found to closely reflect real time serum affentanfl concentrati~. With Rurther work, this finding may lead to a novel noninvasive method for mollitoring real time serum alfentanil concentrations in its clinical applications.

  14. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume...

  15. Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; LeTertre, Alain; Etchevers, Anne; Le Bot, Barbara; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14μg/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures. PMID:23528234

  16. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  17. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  18. Genetic Variations of Glutathione S-Transferase Influence on Blood Cadmium Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitchaphat Khansakorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs are involved in biotransformation and detoxification of cadmium (Cd. Genetic polymorphisms in these genes may lead to interindividual variation in Cd susceptibility. The objective of this study was to assess the association of GSTs (GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 Val105Ile polymorphisms with blood Cd concentrations in a nonoccupationally exposed population. The 370 blood samples were analyzed for Cd concentration and polymorphisms in GSTs genes. Geometric mean of blood Cd among this population was 0.46±0.02 μg/L (with 95% CI; 0.43–0.49 μg/L. Blood Cd concentrations in subjects carrying GSTP1 Val/Val genotype were significantly higher than those with Ile/Ile and Ile/Val genotypes. No significant differences in blood Cd concentrations among individual with gene deletions of GSTT1 and GSTM1 were observed. GSTP1/GSTT1 and GSTP1/GSTM1 combinations showed significantly associated with increase in blood Cd levels. This study indicated that polymorphisms of GSTP1 combined with GSTT1 and/or GSTM1 deletion are likely to influence on individual susceptibility to cadmium toxicity.

  19. Environmental determinants of different blood lead levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in children in France. We enrolled 484 children aged from 6months to 6years, in a nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2008-2009. We measured lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, household settled dusts, paints, cosmetics and traditional cookware). We performed two models: a multivariate generalized additive model on the geometric mean (GM), and a quantile regression model on the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th quantile of BLLs. The GM of BLLs was 13.8μg/L (=1.38μg/dL) (95% confidence intervals (CI): 12.7-14.9) and the 90th quantile was 25.7μg/L (CI: 24.2-29.5). Household and common area dust, tap water, interior paint, ceramic cookware, traditional cosmetics, playground soil and dust, and environmental tobacco smoke were associated with the GM of BLLs. Household dust and tap water made the largest contributions to both the GM and the 90th quantile of BLLs. The concentration of lead in dust was positively correlated with all quantiles of BLLs even at low concentrations. Lead concentrations in tap water above 5μg/L were also positively correlated with the GM, 75th and 90th quantiles of BLLs in children drinking tap water. Preventative actions must target household settled dust and tap water to reduce the BLLs of children in France. The use of traditional cosmetics should be avoided whereas ceramic cookware should be limited to decorative purposes.

  20. CHANGE IN BLOOD GELSOLIN CONCENTRATION IN RESPONSE TO PHYSICAL EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, C.-C.; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M.; Charmas, M.; Długołęcka, B.; Baranowski, M.; Górski, J.; Bucki, R.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) produced by muscle is an abundant protein of extracellular fluids capable of severing actin filaments and eliminating actin from the circulation. Additionally, pGSN modulates the cellular effects of some bioactive lipids. In this study we test the hypothesis that hormonal and metabolic adaptations to exercise are associated with changes in gelsolin concentration in blood. Plasma samples were collected from twenty healthy males recruited from untrained (UT, n=10) and end...

  1. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  2. Blood pressure and occupational exposure to noise and lead (Pb): A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Results showed that occupational exposure to higher ambient Pb and noise levels was related to slightly increased SBP and DBP. PbB values correlated significantly with SBP and DBP, whereas noise levels correlated neither with SBP nor with DBP. Furthermore, workers exposed to higher ambient Pb had higher PbB and ZPP and showed more decreased ALAD activity. Blood pressure does not correlate with noise exposure but only with PbB concentration.

  3. Changes in blood lactate concentrations during taekwondo combat simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger-Mendonça, Marcos; de Oliveira, João Carlos; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Bielavsky, Monica; Azevedo, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze blood lactate response before, during and after simulated taekwondo fight in young male athletes. The experiment was composed of simulated official taekwondo fight. During the experiment a total of 7 blood samples (25 μL) were collected that following: at rest, after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds, and 3, 5, and 10 min after the end of combat. The results showed that blood lactate concentrations [Lac]B increased significantly after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds of the combat compared to the rested values. The [Lac]B after 3rd round was higher when compared to 3, 5, and 10 min of recovery. After 10 min of passive recovery, the [Lac]B was significantly lesser than 3 and 5 min of recovery, and 2nd round. These data showed that taekwondo requires high activation of anaerobic lactic metabolism, and improves the ability to rapidly remove the lactate from blood.

  4. {delta}-ALAD activity variations in red blood cells in response to lead accumulation in rock doves (Columba livia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.; Tejedor, M.C. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    1992-10-01

    The enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD, E.C. 4.2.1.24), catalyses the second step of the haeme biosynthetic pathway and is required to maintain the haemoglobin and cytochrome content in red cells. {delta}-ALAD is not only found in bone marrow cells, the major site of haeme synthesis, but also in circulating erythrocytes and other tissues. An inverse correlation was found between {delta}-ALAD activity in red blood cells and lead concentration in the blood. The degree of {delta}-ALAD inhibition in erythrocytes has been widely accepted as a standard bioassay to detect acute and chronic lead exposure in humans and in avians. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. In lead-treated rats, an increase in {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and in blood samples was shown by radioimmunoassay at 5 and 9 days after the treatment. Similarly, the amount of {delta}-ALAD seems to be more sensitive to lead in avian species than in mammals, the usefulness of blood {delta}-ALAD activity as an index of lead exposure has already been questioned by Hutton in the pigeon and by Jaffe et al. in humans. The present investigation studied the toxic effects of lead on rock dove red blood cell {delta}-ALAD activity in two situations: in doves treated with lead acetate in the laboratory and in doves exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and the relationships between lead accumulation and enzyme activity in red cells, are examined. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Regional and long-term patterns of lead concentrations in fluvial, marine and terrestrial systems and humans in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    Lead contamination of abiotic and biotic systems has been studied closely since the early 1970s, when lead was firstly perceived as an environmental problem. Lead emission reduction policies were implemented throughout Europe during that time. Nonetheless, analyses of lead loads in aquatic systems, such as the river Elbe, showed no decline over time in either suspended matter or surface sediments. Regional differences in lead concentrations of fluvial systems were found, due to tidal influence, runoff and local emissions. Lead contamination of sediments from the North Sea was highest in estuaries. Concentrations in sediment cores were quite stable down to the depth of background values, due to bioturbation, flow, waves and meandering channels. Terrestrial soils in Europe were highly polluted in industrial and ore mining areas and large cities. No decline in lead concentrations was evident in foraminifers, bladder wrack or fish. It was found that contamination in sediments, mammals and fish was higher in coastal zones than in the open sea. In contrast to in aquatic organisms, positive impacts of lead reduction regulations were detected in terrestrial plants, which adsorbed or took up lead mainly through atmospheric lead deposition. European lead concentrations in plants decreased coincidently with lead emissions. That trend could also be identified in the blood lead levels of the human population in Europe: since 1979 they have declined in every group of the population. Mainly influenced by age, sex and the living environment, overall, the lead loads of humans had never been high enough to cause health danger. (orig.)

  6. Blood lead reference values: the results of an Italian polycentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, P; Baj, A; Bavazzano, P; Ganzi, A; Neri, G; Ronchi, A; Soleo, L; Di, Lorenzo L; Spinelli, P; Valente, T; Minoia, C

    2002-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a polycentric study carried out in seven different areas, organized by the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR) for assessing reference values of lead in blood (B-Pb) at the current doses of the metal to general population. The estimated arithmetic mean for B-Pb in males was of 45.1 microg/l and 30.6 microg/l in females; the 95th centile was 100 and 60 for males and females, respectively. The main variables influencing B-Pb levels were gender, age, BMI, outside sport practice, alcohol consumption and smoking habits, while the geographic area and the urban residence did not affect the metal concentration in blood. PMID:11883751

  7. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  8. Fat induced hypertension in rabbits. Effects of dietary fibre on blood pressure and blood lipid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, P G; Husbands, D R

    1980-04-01

    Rabbits were fed diets containing 200 g.kg-1 coconut oil, palm oil, or safflower oil. Some of the diets also contained 200 g.kg-1 cellulose. The blood pressure was measured daily by a non-invasive technique for the 2 month duration of the experiment. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast at intervals during the experiment and analysed for lipids. Blood pressure was always increased by a fat-enriched diet. This effect was diminished and delayed by adding cellulose to the diets, though cellulose itself had no effect on the blood pressure in the absence of fat. There was a modest negative correlation between fasting serum triglyceride concentration and the blood pressure in animals fed fat enriched diets without added cellulose, but not in animals fed diets containing both fat and cellulose. These results coupled with those of Wright, Burstyn and Gibney may serve partly to explain the observation that vegetarians have lower blood pressures than omnivores, the latter consuming diets which are relatively richer in fats and poorer in fibre than the former. PMID:6253068

  9. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E and vitamin C (Vit. C are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate and their concentrations are biological markers of oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal blood lead levels and the antioxidants Vit.E and Vit.C in a step to understand the mechanism of action of lead and its possible influence on maternal blood pressure and fetal growth at the lower community exposure levels. The study included, 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH with or without proteinuria, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FGR and 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancy. We demonstrated that, the maternal blood lead levels were significantly high in the PIH (30.5 ±0.978 µg/dl and FGR groups (28.87 ±1.21 µg/dl as compared with the uncomplicated pregnancy group (17.82 ±110µg/dl at P0.00l Vit.E concentrations were significantly lower in both PIH and FGR (0.941 ±0.033 mg/dl and 0.866 ± 0.055 mg/dl respectively when compared with normal group (2.00±0.085 mg/dl. Regarding Vit.C in the 2 studied groups there was significantly low levels in PIH group (0.772 ±0.030 mg/dl and FGR (0.847 ±0.039 mg/dl in comparison with control group (l.23 ±0.06 mg/dl. We observed significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead levels and Vit.E in PIH and FGR group. A significant negative correlation was also observed between maternal lead levels and Vit.C in both studied groups. We concluded that high blood lead levels in pregnancy are associated

  10. Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, D G; Hinkamp, D L; Robins, T G; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants who were followed for 30 months between 1983 and 1985 with frequent air lead and blood lead determinations. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposures from greater than 100 to less than 30 micrograms/m3. In multiple regression analyses including consideration of job category, seniority, age, ethnicity, gender, and smoking habit as covariates, there was a highly significant association of blood lead in micrograms/dL with air lead in micrograms/m3 (partial R2 = .20, P less than .0001) among the 68 workers in plant B but no association (P = .91) in plant A. Restriction of the regression analysis to those 44 workers in plant B with less than or equal to 22 years of seniority yielded the most significant air lead-blood lead association (partial R2 = .36, P less than .0001). Among the remaining 24 plant B workers, seniority, but not air lead, had a significant positive association with blood lead. Despite very stable air lead levels over the 30-month study, the 51 workers in plant A with more than 20 years' seniority had a mean decline of 0.04 microgram/dL in mean blood lead over the study period, whereas the 13 workers in plant A with less than or equal to 20 years' seniority had a mean increase of 7.6 microgram/dL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Concentrations of ions in blood or athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K) are widely distributed in the body and are the mainly of body fluids electrolytes. K is the major intracellular ion. Na and Cl are the major extracellular ions. Therefore, Na and Cl can be regarded as the most important osmotically active electrolytes. The concentrations of these ions in body fluids are very tightly controlled. These electrolytes play central roles in electrolytic balances and current, in osmotic control, in the transport of organic metabolites by cells, and stabilization of poly electrolytes in cells. In this study Na, Cl and K levels were investigated in blood of athletes submitted to physical exercise at Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP - Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The blood samples were collected from six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, before and after the physical training. These results were compared with the rest condition (before start the physical exercise), as well as with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities), for checking the performance of the athletes during and after the exercise. The nuclear procedure adopted as NAA, it can be an alternative procedure to perform biochemistry analyses in blood, mainly when the biological material is scarce. (author)

  12. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Saint-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-François and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios (204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg-1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg-1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg-1 (Pb, respectively, while the 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10–C50, most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth. The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on floodplains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils.

  13. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  14. Study of the relation between changes on blood lead and blood uric acid induced by occupational lead exposure%职业性铅暴露工人血铅和血尿酸的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 张健杰

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the changes of blood uric acid and blood lead induced by occupational lead exposure.METHODS The concentration-short term exposure of lead fume in the workshop was detected through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.The workers without lead exposure were selected the control group.According to the concentration of blood lead,263 workers exposed to lead were divided into occupation within the limits and super occupation limit group.The changes of blood lead levels and uric acid index were analyzed.RESULTS The permissible concentration-time weighted average (PC-TWA) of lead fume in workshops was 0.13mg/m3.The frequency of lead monitoring samples higher than national standard in the workshops was 68.61%.The levels of blood lead (3.16 ± 0.03) μmol/L and blood uric acid (528 ± 109.48) μmol/L in group of exposure were statistically higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05).This analysis confirmed lead exposure and ascending blood lead were responsible for blood uric acid.CONCLUSION Occupational lead exposure might cause the elevation of blood lead level as well as blood uric acid.The higher blood lead level,the more serious the level of blood uric acid.%目的 研究职业性铅作业工人血铅和尿酸的变化,探讨血铅浓度变化和血尿酸指标之间的关系.方法 车间空气中铅烟的短时间接触浓度用原子吸收火焰法检测.选择一般情况可比的非铅作业工人作为对照,根据接触铅的浓度是否超过职业限值将263名铅接触工人分为职业限值内组及超职业限值组.分析不同血铅水平和血尿酸指标的变化.结果 (1)车间空气中铅烟的时间加权平均容许浓度(PC-TWA)达0.13 mg/m3,超标率为68.61%; (2)接铅超职业限值组血铅浓度达(3.16±0.03) μmol/L、尿酸为(528±109.48) μmol/L,均显著高于对照组(P<0.05); (3)血铅浓度的变化和尿酸异常率存在一致的变化趋势.结论 职业性铅接触引起血铅浓度

  15. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered. PMID:27135573

  16. Evidence for effects of chronic lead exposure on blood pressure in experimental animals: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Victery, W

    1988-01-01

    Information obtained in a number of experimental studies conducted over the last 40 years on the effects of lead on blood pressure is reviewed. Differences in animal species, age at beginning of exposure, level of lead exposure, indices of lead burden, and blood pressure effects of each study are reported. In several of the high-dose experiments, hypertension was observed, but nephrotoxicity of lead may have contributed to its development. Moreover, in other high-dose experiments, no hyperten...

  17. Blood lead determinants and the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in firearm users in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Aguilar Madrid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify blood lead predictors and the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in firearm users of public security in Mexico. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 65 males. We obtained socio-occupational data and determined venous blood lead (blood (B, lead (Pb – BPb, as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms using the Q-16 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to assess determinants of BPb. Results: The mean age in the study group was 34.8 years (standard deviation (SD = 6.9, range: 21–60; the mean number of years spent in the company amounted to 14 years (SD = 8.5, range: 1–48. Twenty percent of the respondents (N = 13 used leaded glazed clay pottery (lead (Pb, glazed (G, and clay pottery (C – PbGC in the kitchen. During practice they fired a mean of 72 shots (SD = 60, range: 20–250, and during their whole duration of employment 5483 shots (SD = 8322.5, range: 200–50 000. The mean BPb was 7.6 μg/dl (SD = 6.8, range: 2.7–51.7. Two caretakers from the firing range had 29.6 μg/dl and 51.7 μg/dl BPb. The subjects who had shooting practice sessions ≥ 12 times a year reported a greater percentage of miscarriages in their partners (24% vs. 0%. Twelve percent of the respondents showed an increase in neuropsychiatric symptoms. The BPb multiple linear regression model explained R2 = 44.15%, as follows: those who had ≥ 12 practice sessions per year – β = 0.5339 and those who used PbGC – β = 0.3651. Conclusions: Using firearms and PbGC contributes to the increased BPb in the studied personnel. The determinants of BPb were: shooting practices >12 times a year and using PbGC. Blood lead concentrations reported in the study, despite being low, are a health risk, as evidenced by the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  18. 铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和锌原卟啉测定结果分析%Results analysis of blood lead , urine lead and zinc protoporphyrin determination in workers exposed to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛红艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较铅作业工人和非铅作业工人血铅、尿铅浓度、红细胞锌原卟啉和血常规的差异,探讨铅作业工人红细胞锌原卟啉和血铅、尿铅浓度的相关性.方法 以蓄电池企业的252名铅作业工人作为接铅组,电子厂205名非铅作业工人作为对照组,测定血铅、尿铅浓度、红细胞锌原卟啉和血常规,并对结果进行统计学处理.结果 接铅组血红蛋白含量低于对照组(P<0.05),白细胞和红细胞、血小板则无差异(P>0.05),接铅组红细胞锌原卟啉、血铅、尿铅浓度均显著高于对照组(P<0.01),尿铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关系数(r) =0.166,血铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关系数r=0.406.结论 长期接触铅可导致血铅、尿铅浓度和红细胞锌原卟啉升高,血红蛋白降低,对白细胞、红细胞、血小板无明显影响,血铅与红细胞锌原卟咻的相关性较尿铅与红细胞锌原卟啉的相关性好.%[ Objective] To compare the differences of blood lead , urine lead and zinc protoporphyrin determination between workers with lead exposure and workers without lead exposure, and explore the correlation ? between erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level, urine lead level of workers. [ Methods] A total of 252 lead exposed workers from a storage battery manufacture were selected as lead exposure group, another 205 workers without lead exposure from a electronics Factory as control group. The determination of blood lead level, urinary lead level, erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin and blood routine examination were performed, and the results were statistically analyzed. [ Results] Hemoglobin content of lead exposure group was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05) , while leukocytes, erythrocytes and blood platelet were not significantly different (P>0.05). Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin , blood lead , urinary lead concentration of lead exposure group were higher than those of control

  19. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  20. Hypothyroidism leads to increased dopamine receptor sensitivity and concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats treated with iodine-131 were confirmed to be hypothyroid by their reduced baseline core body temperatures, reduced serum thyroxine concentrations and elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. When hypothyroid rats were compared to euthyroid controls they were more sensitive to the effects of apomorphine (1.0 mumol/kg) on stereotypy, operant responding and body temperature and showed a smaller reduction in locomotor activity after injection of haloperidol (0.25 mumol/kg). Receptor binding studies on striatal homogenates indicated that hypothyroid rats had increased concentrations of D2 dopamine receptors but there was no change in the affinity. It is concluded that hypothyroidism increases dopamine receptor sensitivity by increasing receptor concentration

  1. Hypothyroidism leads to increased dopamine receptor sensitivity and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, A.D.; Overstreet, D.H.; Crocker, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Rats treated with iodine-131 were confirmed to be hypothyroid by their reduced baseline core body temperatures, reduced serum thyroxine concentrations and elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. When hypothyroid rats were compared to euthyroid controls they were more sensitive to the effects of apomorphine (1.0 mumol/kg) on stereotypy, operant responding and body temperature and showed a smaller reduction in locomotor activity after injection of haloperidol (0.25 mumol/kg). Receptor binding studies on striatal homogenates indicated that hypothyroid rats had increased concentrations of D2 dopamine receptors but there was no change in the affinity. It is concluded that hypothyroidism increases dopamine receptor sensitivity by increasing receptor concentration.

  2. Blood lead level and seizure: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shah Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the most serious and fast-growing problems in the world of today. Lead poisoning is a threatening environmental situation with the potential of causing irreversible health issues and serious negative consequences in adults and children. Lead proves to have almost no clear biological function. However, once it enters the body, it is known to cause severe health effects, which might be irreversible. In this article, we aimed to review the related literature to find evidence concerning the effect of lead toxicity on CNS, particularly its role in febrile convulsion. In this review, PubMed database was searched using MeSH terms. One hundred and fifty seven articles were retrieved, most of which were irrelevant to the topic. After a thorough search in PubMed and Google Scholar, seizure was shown to be one of the consequences of lead toxicity, but there was no evidence of epilepsy or febrile convulsion, induced by this metal contamination.

  3. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  4. Study on Lead Pollution and Blood Lead Level in Lead Workers of Storage Battery Plant%蓄电池厂铅污染与铅作业工人血铅水平研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭轩; 彭建明; 关德玲; 张宏光; 刘志东; 严伟兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the situation of lead pollution and blood lead level of lead workers in storage battery plant,to explore the relations which might affect the blood lead level of workers and lead density in the air,and provide evidence for formulation of appropriate occupational health countermeasures.Methods The occupational health check was performed on 103 workers with lead exposure,and Determines the blood lead concentrations,and monitoring concentrations of lead in the air of workplace,Results The over standard rales of air lead concentration were 41.7 % in working places,that of blood lead were 38.8% in lead workers,while the mean blood lead level of those lead workers was (381.81 ± 180.75) μ g/L; The differences of blood lead density between lengths of service and genders were not significance( P> 0.05 ) The blood lead level of lead worker was good correlation with the air lead density (r=0.9663,P<0.05).Conclusion The lead-exposure is proved to be the obvious occupational hazard for the workers in this battery plant,and the higher lead concentrations in the air of work-place were the hazardous factor for elevated blood lead level.%目的 了解蓄电池厂铅污染状况和铅作业工人血铅水平,探讨接铅作业工人血铅水平与空气中铅浓度的关系,为制定相应的职业卫生对策提供依据.方法 对蓄电池厂103名接铅工人进行职业健康检查,测定其血铅浓度,并对其工作场所空气中铅浓度进行现场检测,分析血铅浓度与工作场所空气中铅浓度的关系.结果 工作场所空气中铅浓度超标41.7%,接铅作业工人血铅超标38.8%,工人的血铅均值为(381.81 ±180.75)μ g/L;不同性别、工龄之间血铅浓度差异无显著性(P>0.05);随着工作场所空气中铅浓度的升高,铅作业工人血铅值也随之升高,两者呈正相关(r=0.9663,P<0.05).结论 该蓄电池厂的接铅作业工人受到一定的职业危害;工作场所空气中铅浓度较

  5. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH... Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer is a device that consists of a catheter-tip pH electrode and that...

  6. Importance of monitoring family members in establishing sources and pathways of lead in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Howarth, D

    1996-10-11

    High precision lead isotope measurements were undertaken to establish the sources and pathways in blood and environmental samples of five families from the Broken Hill lead mining community, New South Wales, Australia. The five families were selected from 27 families investigated to illustrate the different sources and pathways of lead into blood and the importance of monitoring the whole family. The results illustrate that although the major source of lead is from the orebody, paint and petrol can be significant contributors to both house dust and blood leads. The results also show that the sources and pathways can be from the father's occupation and hence monitoring of families is important, especially in high risk locations. In two cases, the elevated blood leads in the children did not derive from their current residence but from other residences in the community.

  7. Lead levels in the workers blood at the Toluca bus terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out in order to detect the levels of lead in blood in exposed workers to the lead in their place of work, in the Toluca bus terminal. The measurement of the levels of lead in blood was carried out in a sample of 31 people of 60 workers for atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead is a general protoplasmic poison that is accumulative and produce great variety of symptoms, the lead could be absorbed inside the body for ingestion, inhalation and through the skin. Organic compounds of the lead as tetraethyl lead, penetrate the cutaneous barrier quickly. From the beginning the personal habits were evaluated, hygienic, nutritious and the environmental conditions by means of a questionnaire. The levels of lead in opposing blood, they were below them you limit permissible for personal exposed, published by the WHO. (Author)

  8. Stimulation of human red blood cells leads to Ca2+-mediated intercellular adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Nguyen, Duc Bach; Müller, Torsten; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Kaestner, Lars; Wagner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are a major component of blood clots, which form physiologically as a response to injury or pathologically in thrombosis. The active participation of RBCs in thrombus solidification has been previously proposed but not yet experimentally proven. Holographic optical tweezers and single-cell force spectroscopy were used to study potential cell-cell adhesion between RBCs. Irreversible intercellular adhesion of RBCs could be induced by stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a compound known to be released by activated platelets. We identified Ca2+ as an essential player in the signaling cascade by directly inducing Ca2+ influx using A23187. Elevation of the internal Ca2+ concentration leads to an intercellular adhesion of RBCs similar to that induced by LPA stimulation. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, the adhesion of the RBCs was identified to be approximately 100 pN, a value large enough to be of significance inside a blood clot or in pathological situations like the vasco-occ...

  9. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: The use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/207Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in 208Pb/206Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for 206Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game

  10. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  11. Pilot study for utilization of dried blood spots for screening of lead, mercury and cadmium in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sanwat N; Butala, Steven J M; Ball, R Wayne; Braniff, Christopher T

    2009-03-01

    The exposure of pregnant women and young children to environmental pollutants is an ongoing concern of state and local public health departments. Of primary concern is the exposure to lead in lead-based paints, methyl mercury in contaminated fish and cadmium present at mining sites. The feasibility, utility and methodology of using blood spot cards collected for new born health screening purposes was studied for use in conducting routine state-wide surveillance of blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels in infants. Homogeneity of different lots of blank filter paper was examined. Mass measurements (weights) of filter paper punches were taken across three different lots of filter paper. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way ANOVA, which indicated no significant difference in the means of all three lots, but high variances were noted. The three metals were examined in three different lots of filter papers purchased from the manufacturer. The lots had measurable amounts of cadmium and lead, but not mercury. Lead spike values were observed for roughly about 7% of the blank samples, indicating heterogeneous distribution of this metal. Statistical analysis of the data was also performed using a two-way ANOVA calculation with Tukey's pairwise comparisons. The results found that total mean metal loadings across the three lots were different. The concentration of the metals can be different from each other and the concentration of any one metal can differ across lots. Stability at different concentrations of the heavy metals in blood spotted onto filter paper with time and storage conditions was examined. Results indicate acceptable performance for at least 8.5 months for lead (near CDC's concern level) and for mercury (near NRC's concern level). The filter paper and blood spots were analyzed for metals using an acid extraction, followed by analysis using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood spot cards were studied from four

  12. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (pshotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  13. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  14. 兰州市388例学龄前儿童指血铅、钙、镁、锌、铜、铁浓度分析%Analysis of concentrations of lead, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron in fingertip blood of 388 preschool children in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛世萍; 任为; 黄彩霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To know the levels of lead, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron in fingertip blood of the children aged 3~6 in Lanzhou, so that to provide some reference for preventing children mineral element deficiency and lead poisoning, and promoting children health development Methods: 388 children of 4 kindergartens in Lanzhou were choose, 80μl fingertip peripheral blood were collected from each children and the level of calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron and lead were detected. Results; The levels of lead, copper and iron of boies were higher than those of girls, the differences were significant ( P < 0. 05 ) . The deficiency rate of zinc in fingertip blood for boys was the highest ( 38. 92% ) , while the rate of lead poisoning was 12. 63% , but 3 - year - old group was the highest (28. 57% ) . The levels of calcium and magnesium in lead poisoning children were significantly lower than unimpaired children, the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ) . Conclusion: Zinc - deficiency is mainly and the rate of lead poisoning is higher for the children aged 3~6 in Lanzhou . Calcium deficiency lead easily to lead poisoning for children, higher level of blood lead also effects the absorption of calcium. It is one of the important measures of preventing childhood lead poisoning to prevent child calcium deficiency.%目的:了解兰州市3~6岁学龄前儿童的血中铅、钙、镁、锌、铜、铁6种矿物元素的水平,为预防儿童矿物元素缺乏和铅中毒、促进儿童健康发育提供参考依据.方法:在兰州市城区随机选择4所幼儿园共388名儿童,采指尖血80μl,测钙、镁、锌、铜、铁、铅浓度.结果:男孩的血铅、铜、铁均高于女孩,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).锌缺乏率最高,为38.92%.总的铅中毒率为12.63%,但3岁组最高,达到28.57%.铅中毒儿童的钙、镁水平明显低于正常儿童,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:兰州市3~6岁儿童微

  15. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  16. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  17. Association between the plasma/whole blood lead ratio and history of spontaneous abortion: a nested cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Donald

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood lead has been associated with an elevated risk of miscarriage. The plasmatic fraction of lead represents the toxicologically active fraction of lead. Women with a tendency to have a higher plasma/whole blood Pb ratio could tend towards an elevated risk of miscarriage due to a higher plasma Pb for a given whole blood Pb and would consequently have a history of spontaneous abortion. Methods We studied 207 pregnant Mexico City residents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, originally recruited for two cohorts between 1997 and 2004. Criteria for inclusion in this study were having had at least one previous pregnancy, and having valid plasma and blood Pb measurements. Pb was measured in whole blood and plasma by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using ultra-clean techniques. History of miscarriage in previous pregnancies was obtained by interview. The incidence rate of spontaneous abortion was defined as the proportion of previous pregnancies that resulted in miscarriage. Data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression models featuring the incidence rate of spontaneous abortion as the outcome and continuous or categorized plasma/blood Pb ratios as predictor variables. All models were adjusted for age and schooling. Additionally, logistic regression models featuring inclusion in the study sample as the outcome were fitted to assess potential selection bias. Results The mean number of miscarriages was 0.42 (range 0 to 4; mean Pb concentrations were 62.4 and 0.14 μg/L in whole blood and plasma respectively. Mean plasma/blood Pb ratio was 0.22%. We estimated that a 0.1% increment in the plasma/blood Pb ratio lead was associated to a 12% greater incidence of spontaneous abortion (p = 0.02. Women in the upper tertile of the plasma/blood Pb ratio had twice the incidence rate of those in the lower tertile (p = 0.02. Conditional on recruitment cohort, inclusion in the study sample was unrelated to observable

  18. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  19. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  20. Disposition of lead (Pb) in blood of rats following oral exposure to lipstick

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi-Moghaddam H.; Shiravi A.; Shadab-Shamsabad F.; Torabi M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about the health risks that might be associated with lipstick consumption effects is scarce in the literature. The present work investigated the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb) in blood of rats originated from lipstick sample. First, Lead contents were determined in 12 different brands of lipsticks. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The average lead content in 14 lipsticks samples was 12.2 PPM wet wt. Then, one brand was selected for feeding to the rats and amount of oral...

  1. Surveillance of Childhood Blood Lead Levels in 14 Cities of China in 2004-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI-MING ZHANG; YAO-HUA DAI; XIAO-HUA XIE; ZHAO-YANG FAN; ZANG-WEN TAN; YAN-FENG ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the blood lead level in children aged 0-6 years in urban areas of China. Methods Fourteen cities were selected as sites under surveillance. A total of 44 045 peripheral blood specimens were collected from 2004 to 2006, during which 15 727, 14 737, and 13 584 specimens were tested in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. Tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead level. Results The geometric mean blood lead level in the tested children was 47.10μg/L with 10.10% ≥100μg/L, 46.17μg/L with 7.78%≥100μg/L, and 47.03μg/L with 7.30% ≥ 100μg/L in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. The blood lead levels seemed to tend to rise in parallel with the increase of age of the children and were higher in boys (48.84μg/L, 47.56μg/L, and 47.78μg/L in the 3 respective years) than in girls (45.00 μg/L 44.53μg/L, and 46.13μg/L). Conclusion The blood lead levels in children in cities of China are lower than those in previous national studies, but higher than those in developed countries. Childhood lead poisoning remains a public health problem in China.

  2. Ligation of Glycophorin A Generates Reactive Oxygen Species Leading to Decreased Red Blood Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoory, Joseph; Estanislau, Jessica; Elkhal, Abdallah; Lazaar, Asmae; Melhorn, Mark I.; Brodsky, Abigail; Illigens, Ben; Hamachi, Itaru; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Ghiran, Ionita C.

    2016-01-01

    Acute, inflammatory conditions associated with dysregulated complement activation are characterized by significant increases in blood concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP. The mechanisms by which these molecules arise are not fully understood. In this study, using luminometric- and fluorescence-based methods, we show that ligation of glycophorin A (GPA) on human red blood cells (RBCs) results in a 2.1-fold, NADPH-oxidase-dependent increase in intracellular ROS that, in turn, trigger multiple downstream cascades leading to caspase-3 activation, ATP release, and increased band 3 phosphorylation. Functionally, using 2D microchannels to assess membrane deformability, GPS-ligated RBCs travel 33% slower than control RBCs, and lipid mobility was hindered by 10% using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). These outcomes were preventable by pretreating RBCs with cell-permeable ROS scavenger glutathione monoethyl ester (GSH-ME). Our results obtained in vitro using anti-GPA antibodies were validated using complement-altered RBCs isolated from control and septic patients. Our results suggest that during inflammatory conditions, circulating RBCs significantly contribute to capillary flow dysfunctions, and constitute an important but overlooked source of intravascular ROS and ATP, both critical mediators responsible for endothelial cell activation, microcirculation impairment, platelet activation, as well as long-term dysregulated adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:26784696

  3. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  4. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  5. Advances towards reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany Server, R.; Martens, D.; Jans, K.; Bienstman, P.; Hill, D.

    2016-03-01

    Through further development, integration and validation of micro-nano-bio and biophotonics systems FP7 CanDo is developing an instrument that will permit highly reproducible and reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood for two key societal challenges, early and low cost anti-cancer drug efficacy determination and cancer diagnosis/monitoring. A cellular link between the primary malignant tumour and the peripheral metastases, responsible for 90% of cancerrelated deaths, has been established in the form of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood. Furthermore, the relatively short survival time of CTCs in peripheral blood means that their detection is indicative of tumour progression thereby providing in addition to a prognostic value an evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and early recognition of tumour progression in theranostics. In cancer patients however blood concentrations are very low (=1 CTC/1E9 cells) and current detection strategies are too insensitive, limiting use to prognosis of only those with advanced metastatic cancer. Similarly, problems occur in therapeutics with anti-cancer drug development leading to lengthy and costly trials often preventing access to market. The novel cell separation/Raman analysis technologies plus nucleic acid based molecular characterization of the CanDo platform will provide an accurate CTC count with high throughput and high yield meeting both key societal challenges. Being beyond the state of art it will lead to substantial share gains not just in the high end markets of drug discovery and cancer diagnostics but due to modular technologies also in others. Here we present preliminary DNA hybridization sensing results.

  6. Anthropogenic lead concentrations and sources in Baltic Sea sediments based on lead isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pb concentrations reach even 147 μg/g at Gdansk Basin sediments. • Marine sediments deposited before 1860 are not contaminated by Pb. • Contemporary inventories of anthropogenic Pb in marine sediments was of 0.5–11 g for m2. • The lowest 206Pb/207Pb (1.165) were measured in sediments deposited between 1970s–90s. • Coal burning was always the most important Pb source in Poland. - Abstract: The Gulf of Gdańsk is influenced by heavy metals of anthropogenic origin. In this study, temporal concentration changes of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were studied in six, 50 cm long sediment cores. The main aim of the study was to concentrate on the history of Pb fluxes and Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) to trace Pb sources. The lowest Pb concentrations (19 μg g−1) were measured in sediments deposited circa 1860, while the highest Pb concentrations (63–147 μg g−1) were measured in sediments deposited between 1960s and 70s. Pre-industrial Pb fluxes were 7 Pb m2 year−1, while after WWII they reached 199 Pb m2 year−1. Highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios (∼1.22) were measured in the oldest sediment layers, and the lowest 206Pb/207Pb ratios (∼1.165) were measured in the sediments deposited in 1970s–90s. During the period of highest Pb contamination, the anthropogenic Pb fraction reached up to 93%. A general discussion of the Pb sources, emissions, and loads for Poland is included

  7. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations. PMID:22580791

  8. Predictors of Third Trimester Blood Trihalomethanes and Urinary Trichloroacetic Acid Concentrations among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zhou, Bin; Yang, Pan; Wang, Yi-Xin; Huang, Zhen; Li, Jin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-05-17

    Prenatal exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) has been associated with a variety of adverse birth outcomes. However, little is known about predictors of prenatal biomarkers of exposure to DBPs among pregnant women. We aimed to identify predictors of third trimester blood trihalomethanes (THMs) and urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) concentrations, two biomarkers of exposure to DBPs, among pregnant women. Blood samples, urine samples, and questionnaires on individual characteristics and water-use activities were collected from 893 pregnant women in a Chinese cohort study. Maternal blood THM [chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] and urinary TCAA concentrations were measured. We used multivariable linear regression to identify the predictors of third trimester blood THM and creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations. The geometric mean of blood TTHM (sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) and creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations were 51.90 ng/L and 9.66 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Study city was the strongest significant predictors of blood THM and creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations. Prenatal body mass index (BMI) was associated with decreased blood THM and decreased creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations. Age was associated with increased blood Br-THM (sum of BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) concentrations. Intake of boiled water and passive smoking were associated with lower blood THM concentrations. The predictors of blood THM and urinary TCAA concentrations identified in this study provide potential health implications on how to reduce DBP exposure during pregnancy. PMID:27095243

  9. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...

  10. Postmortem carisoprodol and meprobamate concentrations in blood and liver: lack of significant redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Iain M; Sherrard, James; Lucas, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Carisoprodol is a therapeutic and occasionally abused centrally acting muscle relaxant. We compare central blood and liver concentrations of carisoprodol and the metabolite meprobamate to concentrations in peripheral blood in 11 medical examiner cases. Specimens were initially screened for alcohol and simple volatiles by gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection headspace analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent array for drugs of abuse, and therapeutic drugs by GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Carisoprodol, when detected by the therapeutic drug screen, was confirmed and quantified by a specific GC-MS procedure. The results suggest that when ingested with other medications, carisoprodol may be a contributing factor in death, even when present at therapeutic concentrations. Considering the cases studied, together with previously published therapeutic and fatal concentrations, blood carisoprodol concentrations greater than 15 mg/L and liver concentrations greater than 50 mg/kg may be considered excessive and potentially fatal. Carisoprodol central blood to peripheral blood ratios averaged 1.31 + 0.33 (mean ± standard deviation), and liver to peripheral blood, 2.83 ± 1.51. Meprobamate central blood to peripheral blood ratios averaged 0.92 ± 0.22, and liver to peripheral blood, 1.25 ± 0.69. The low liver to peripheral blood ratio (less than 5), taken together with the low central blood to peripheral blood ratio, is an indicator that both carisoprodol and meprobamate lack the potential to exhibit postmortem redistribution. PMID:22417833

  11. Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions.

  12. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobinprotect the population in West Africa. PMID:26866471

  13. Seafood Consumption and Blood Mercury Concentrations in Jamaican Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Pearson, Deborah A.; Lalor, Gerald C.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal shown to have harmful effects on human health. Several studies have reported high blood mercury concentrations as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), while other studies have reported no such association. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations in children and ASDs. Moreover, we investigated the role of seafood consumption in relation to blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children. Based on d...

  14. Urgent percutaneous coronary intervention leads to a decrease in serum concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Inflammation as a consequence of vascular injury after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is a pathological substrate of restenosis and of its complications. The aim of the study was to examine perprocedural inflammatory response expressed by soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L and C-reactive protein (CRP in patients treated with PCI and dual antiplatelet therapy. Methods. The experimental group included 52 patients (80.8% men, age 60 ± 9 years with angina pectoris treated by PCI (22 urgent PCI with stent implantation, and dual antiplatelet therapy (tienopiridins and aspirin, according to the current recommendations for the execution of the intervention. The control group consisted of 8 patients (70.5% men, age 59 ± 7 years with angina pectoris, who had undergone coronarography taking aspirin 3 days prior to it. In all the patients 24 hours before and after the PCI concentrations of CRP and sCD40L in the blood were determined. Results. In the experimental group, the concentration of sCD40L was lower as compared to the control (p < 0.02. In 34 (65% patients postprocedural decrease in sCD40L was recorded, in 18 (34.6% of them increase, while in 50 (96% patients there was a rise in CRP. The patients with postprocedural fall in sCD40L hod greater preprocedural concentration of sCD40L (p < 0.001, and less postprocedural concentration of sCD40L (p < 0.001, compared to the group with an increase in sCD40L after the PCI, while CRP levels tients treated with emergency PCI compared to elective patietns had a postprocedural decrease in sCD40L (p = 0.02. Increase in the level of CRP was higher in the group with emergency PCI in relation to elective PCI (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Emergency PCI procedures in the treatment of patients with unstable angina pectoris lead to a postprocedural fall in the serum concentration of sCD40L. Dual antiplate therapy with tienopiridins and aspirin inhibits the release of sCD40L. Regardless a clinical presentation

  15. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves (Columba livia) treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.C.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-06-01

    The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments. Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. Studies of lead accumulation in U.K. rock doves imply that use of this species as a pollution indicator would facilitate periodic monitoring of chronic lead exposure conditions in the urban environment. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned. The present study was made on four rock dove (Columbia livia) populations: two groups (males and females) were dosed with lead acetate in the laboratory and two groups of males were housed in different parts of the city of Alcala de Henares. Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: the first was in a laboratory with controlled amounts of lead, while in the second situation the amounts reflected the actual environmental levels in Alcala de Henares. Lead levels were determined in two tissues: blood, which is the target of first impact in possible acute situations; and bone, which is the main tissue where lead accumulates and, therefore, very important during chronic exposure. The study focused on the following three items: (1) lead tissue distribution; (2) variation with habitat; and (3) an evaluation of the levels of lead contamination in the city of Alcala de Henares. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  17. Metal and selenium concentrations in blood and feathers of petrels of the genus Procellaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paloma Calábria; Bugoni, Leandro; McGill, Rona A R; Bianchini, Adalto

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) were determined in blood and feathers of spectacled (Procellaria conspicillata) and white-chinned (Procellaria aequinoctialis) petrels, species that are phylogenetically related, but with distinct ecological niches. In winter, they feed on similar foods, indicated by an overlapping range of whole-blood stable isotopes values (δ(15) N; δ(13) C). No relation was found between blood metal concentration and stable isotope values. In spectacled petrels, metal concentrations appeared lower in blood (Cu = 0.79-20.77 µg/g; Zn = 10.95-28.02 µg/g; Cd = 1.73-10.11 µg/g; Pb = 5.02-26.03 µg/g; Hg = 0.84-9.86 µg/g) than in feathers (Cu = 1.05-21.57 µg/g; Zn = 45.30-81.49 µg/g; Cd = 3.76-10.44 µg/g; Pb = 16.53-59.00 µg/g; Hg = 4.24-24.03 µg/g). In white-chinned petrels, metal concentrations also appeared lower in blood (Cu = 0.62-10.4 µg/g; Zn = 10.73-24.69 µg/g; Cd = 2.00-6.31 µg/g; Pb = 5.72-24.03 µg/g) than in feathers (Cu = 2.68-23.92 µg/g; Zn = 48.96-93.54 µg/g; Cd = 5.72-24.03 µg/g; Pb = 18.62-55.51 µg/g), except for Hg (blood = 0.20-15.82 µg/g; feathers = 0.19-8.91 µg/g). Selenium (0.24-14.18 µg/g) and Hg (0.22-1.44 µg/g) concentrations showed a positive correlation in growing feathers of spectacled petrels. Blood and feather Hg levels were higher in spectacled petrels while feathers Cu and Zn concentrations were greater in white-chinned petrels. Juvenile white-chinned petrels exhibited greater blood Hg concentrations than adults. In the south Atlantic Ocean, discards from commercial fishing operations consumed by spectacled petrels year-round and by white-chinned petrels during the wintering period have elevated Hg concentrations. Because Hg toxicity is associated with behavioral and reproductive changes in birds, it could

  18. Glutathione peroxidase activity, selenium, and lipid peroxide concentrations in blood from a healthy Polish population : I. Maternal and cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, B A; Wąsowicz, W; Gromadzińska, J; Skłodowska, M; Krasomski, G

    1986-09-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood and plasma of 19 nonpregnant women. 14 mothers at delivery, 14 neonates, and 13 infants, aged 2-12 mo, were evaluated. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in erythrocytes and plasma and the level of lipid peroxides in plasma were also analyzed. Selenium concentrations in whole blood and plasma in mothers at delivery were significantly lower compared to nonpregnant women. Selenium concentrations in cord blood components were lower compared to mothers, but the differences were not significant. The concentration of the element decreased in the first few months of life. Glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes differed only slightly in the examined groups. In plasma, however, the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women and in neonates compared to their mothers. Lipid peroxide concentrations in plasma differed only slightly in the examined groups. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the observations of other investigators. PMID:24254392

  19. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    , a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were......Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P

  20. Prediction methods for blood glucose concentration design, use and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, John; Renard, Eric; Re, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    This book tackles the problem of overshoot and undershoot in blood glucose levels caused by delay in the effects of carbohydrate consumption and insulin administration. The ideas presented here will be very important in maintaining the welfare of insulin-dependent diabetics and avoiding the damaging effects of unpredicted swings in blood glucose – accurate prediction enables the implementation of counter-measures. The glucose prediction algorithms described are also a key and critical ingredient of automated insulin delivery systems, the so-called “artificial pancreas”. The authors address the topic of blood-glucose prediction from medical, scientific and technological points of view. Simulation studies are utilized for complementary analysis but the primary focus of this book is on real applications, using clinical data from diabetic subjects. The text details the current state of the art by surveying prediction algorithms, and then moves beyond it with the most recent advances in data-based modeling o...

  1. Disposition of lead (Pb in blood of rats following oral exposure to lipstick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Moghaddam H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the health risks that might be associated with lipstick consumption effects is scarce in the literature. The present work investigated the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb in blood of rats originated from lipstick sample. First, Lead contents were determined in 12 different brands of lipsticks. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The average lead content in 14 lipsticks samples was 12.2 PPM wet wt. Then, one brand was selected for feeding to the rats and amount of oral exposing in the three doses was calculated. Sixty rats were used for the experiment. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals each. While 1group served as control group, the remaining 3 groups were exposed to lipstick through oral gavage for 12 weeks. Results show that, exposure to the lipstick cause significantly disposition of lead in the blood of rats.

  2. The gold contained in imported lead ore concentrate is exempted from import value-added tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>According to the No. 14 proclamation issued by Customs Service, as from April 1st 2007, the importation of galena and the lead ore concentrate will enjoy the favorable policy intended for associated gold deposits, i.e. the value-added tax for gold component in the imported galena and lead ore concentrate is exempted,

  3. The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen

    2003-01-01

    An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root…

  4. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  5. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb. PMID:27074096

  6. Negative Relationship between Erythropoietin Dose and Blood Lead Level in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    The adverse effects of increased blood lead levels have been well discussed. Several antioxidant agents have been reported to offer protection from lead toxicity and to reduce blood lead levels (BLL). Given that erythropoietin (EPO) also has antioxidant properties, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the role of EPO and other clinical variables on BLL in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We recruited 931 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients who had undergone HD for at least 6 months and who had ever received blood lead level (BLL) study. Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents followed the The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI) Clinical Practice Guideline. We estimated demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data based on this study. In the group with EPO, 7% had high BLL. In the group without EPO, 22% had high BLL. From the stepwise liner regression, urban areas, hemodialysis duration, and clearance of urea (KT/Vurea) were positively associated with log BLL. In contrast, diabetes (DM), and monthly EPO dose were negatively associated with log BLL. This study showed that EPO dose might be negatively associated with blood lead levels in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:27680289

  7. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  8. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AYOUBI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  9. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN / CNEN - SP) - Centro do Reator de Pesquisas Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242 - 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenco, T. F.; Macedo, D. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP - Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970 - Campinas, SP Brazil - Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  10. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ilse Skokan; P. Christian Endler; Beatrix Wulkersdorfer; Dieter Magometschnigg; Heinz Spranger

    2007-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the b...

  11. Estimation of indocyanine green concentration in blood from fluorescence emission: application to hemodynamic assessment during hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2009-09-01

    There is considerable interest in assessing cardiovascular function noninvasively in patients receiving hemodialysis. A possible approach is to measure the blood concentration of bolus-injected indocyanine green dye and to apply the dye-dilution method for estimating cardiac output and blood volume. Blood ICG concentration can be derived from a measurement of the ICG fluorescence through the dialysis tubing if a simple and unique calibration relationship can be established between transmural fluorescence intensity and blood ICG concentration. We investigated this relationship using Monte Carlo simulations of light transport in blood with varying hematocrit and ICG concentrations and performed empiric measurements of optical absorption and ICG fluorescence emission to confirm our findings. The ICG fluorescence intensity measured at the blood surface, as well as the light intensity remitted by the blood, varied as hematocrit changes modified the absorption and scattering characteristics of the blood. Calibration relationships were developed between fluorescence intensity and ICG concentration that accounted for hematocrit changes. Combining the backreflected fluorescence and the reflected light measured near the point of illumination provided optimal signal intensity, linearity, and robustness to hematocrit changes. These results provide a basis for developing a noninvasive approach to derive optically circulating blood ICG concentration in hemodialysis circuits.

  12. DSA Image Blood Vessel Skeleton Extraction Based on Anti-concentration Diffusion and Level Set Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Feng, Daming; Cui, Zhiming

    Serious types of vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis, aneurysm and vascular malformation may lead to brain stroke, which are the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability. In the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vascular diseases, how to do effective detection and description of the vascular structure of two-dimensional angiography sequence image that is blood vessel skeleton extraction has been a difficult study for a long time. This paper mainly discussed two-dimensional image of blood vessel skeleton extraction based on the level set method, first do the preprocessing to the DSA image, namely uses anti-concentration diffusion model for the effective enhancement and uses improved Otsu local threshold segmentation technology based on regional division for the image binarization, then vascular skeleton extraction based on GMM (Group marching method) with fast sweeping theory was actualized. Experiments show that our approach not only improved the time complexity, but also make a good extraction results.

  13. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  14. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program...

  15. Environmental determinants of different Blood Lead Levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in childre...

  16. Blood Lead, Urine Lead and Blood Test Results of Lead Exposed Workers%铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和血常规检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宁; 刘凤兰; 蒋培荣

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To compare the difference of levels of blood lead, urine lead and hemoglobin between workers with lead exposure and workers without lead exposure, and understand the health status of workers with long-term lead exposure. [ Methods ] Level determination of blood lead, urine lead and hemoglobin were performed on 400 workers with lead exposure and 120 workers without lead exposure from a storage battery factory in Tianjin in 2009. The results were analyzed statistically. [Results] Hemoglobin levels in lead-exposed workers were lower than those in non lead-exposed workers, while the blood lead, urine lead levels were significantly higher than those in non lead-exposed workers( P <0.01). The blood lead level was negatively associated with the hemoglobin level(r = -0.442). The relevance between urine lead level and blood lead, hemoglobin level is not ideal respectively (r values were -0.026 and -0.018). [ Conclusion]Long-term low lead exposure can induce blood lead and urine lead levels elevated. While the decrease of lead with severe fluctuation of urine lead are induced by many factors, so these indexes can not accurately reflect the lead volume in the body and have less correlation with other indexes.%目的 比较铅作业工人和非铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和血红蛋白浓度的差异.了解长期低铅作业工人的健康状况.方法 对2009年天津市某蓄电池厂400例铅作业工人和120例非铅作业工人分别进行血铅、尿铅和血红蛋白浓度的测定,并对结果进行统计学处理.结果 铅作业组血红蛋白浓度低于非铅作业组.而血铅、尿铅浓度均显著高于非铅作业组(P<0.01).并且血铅和血红蛋白浓度间呈负相关性(r=-0.442),尿铅与血铅和血红蛋白间的相关性均不理想(r值分别为-0.026和-0.018).结论 长期低铅作业可导致人体血铅尿铅升高,血红蛋白降低,但尿铅浓度波动大,且影响因素多,不能精确反映体内铅积蓄量,结果与其他指标的相关性较差.

  17. Lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) from the coast of Sinaloa, Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Miriam; Castillo-Guerrero, José Alfredo; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Fernández, Guillermo

    2016-09-15

    We used blood samples of the Blue-footed Booby, considering sex (female and male) and age-class (adult and chick) of individuals at different breeding stages during two breeding seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012) in Isla El Rancho, Sinaloa, to determine lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations. Lead and cadmium concentrations were below our detection limit (0.05 and 0.36ppm, respectively). A higher concentration of mercury was found in early stages of breeding, likely related to changes in mercury environmental availability. Mercury concentrations in adults did not relate with their breeding output. Males and adults had higher mercury concentration than females and chicks. We provide information of temporal, sex and age-related variations in the concentrations of mercury in blood of the Blue-footed Booby. PMID:27318761

  18. Density and surface tension of a concentrated lead melt in nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, K. S.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of a lead impurity on the properties of metallic melts in the composition range that obeys Henry's law is studied. The formation of the structural and physicochemical properties of real concentrated melts can be traced from changes in the temperature and concentration dependences of structure-sensitive properties, namely, density and surface tension. The surface properties of a solution depend on its volume properties and differ from them in enhancement effect. The lead saturation of the nickel melt is found to be accompanied by a compression effect (decrease in the melt volume), which is enhanced to a certain lead concentration. As this concentration is exceeded, the compression effect weakens because of volume separation and the appearance of an excess lead phase. As the lead content in a nickel base increases, the surface tension decreases, a second phase forms, and the melt undergoes separation.

  19. Bone remodeling during pregnancy and post-partum assessed by metal lead levels and isotopic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan; Eisman, John

    2016-08-01

    Bone remodeling is normally evaluated using bone turnover markers/indices as indicators of bone resorption and formation. However, during pregnancy and post-partum, there have been inconsistent results between and within biomarkers for bone formation and resorption. These differences may relate to pregnancy-related changes in metabolism and/or hemodilution altering measured marker levels. An alternative approach to evaluating bone remodeling is to use the metal lead (Pb) concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions in blood. These measurements can also provide information on the amount of Pb that is mobilized from the maternal skeleton. Despite some similarities with accepted bone turnover markers, the Pb data demonstrate increased bone resorption throughout pregnancy that further continues post-partum independent of length of breast-feeding, dietary intake and resumption of menses. Furthermore the isotopic measurements are not affected by hemodilution. These data confirm calcium balance studies that indicate increased bone resorption throughout pregnancy and lactation. They also indicate potentially major public health implications of the transfer of maternal Pb burden to the fetus and new born. PMID:27233973

  20. Recovery of Lead from Sulfide Concentrate after Mechanochemical Activation Using Nitric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.G.Kholmogorov; O.N.Kononova; G.L.Pashkov; L.V.Shashina; V.P.Plekhanov; A.A.Sabetskiy

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of lead sulfide concentrates in nitric acidic solutions after ferric (Ⅲ) nitrate addition and mechanical preparation has been investigated. It was found out that the decomposition can be achieved in HNO3 solution (>1.5 mol·L-1) at the temperature above 85℃. The leaching rate of lead can be increased by means of mechanochemical activation. The use of [Fe(NO3)3-HNO3-H2O] aqueous salt system allows the decomposition of lead sulfide concentrate at room temperature and in this case the concentration of HNO3 does not exceed 0.05-0.1 mol.L-1, The degree of lead recovery into solution from PbS concentrate reaches 99.3%-99.6c70 with the mechanochemical activation of this concentrate. The insoluble residues after the leaching contain SiO2, S0, FeCO3 and PbSO4.

  1. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days.

  2. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  3. Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly

  4. Blood lead levels and sexual maturation in U.S. girls: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tiejian; Buck, Germaine M; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we assessed measures of puberty in U.S. girls in relation to blood lead levels to determine whether sexual maturation may be affected by current environmental lead exposure. The study sample included 1,706 girls 8-16 years old with pubic hair and breast development information; 1,235 girls 10-16 years old supplied information on menarche. Blood lead concentrations (range = 0.7-21.7 micro g/dL) were categorized into th...

  5. Concentration measurement of lysosome enzymes in blood by fluorimetric analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strinadko, Marina M.; Strinadko, Elena M.

    2002-02-01

    The diagnostics of heritable disease series and sugar diabetes, myocardial infarction, collagenosis and kidney diseases widely uses the measurement of lysosomic enzymes in blood. In the present research work the definition procedure of concentration (beta) -glucuronidase with the help of fluorimetric analysis is offered, which allows using microamounts of biological fluids and samples with low enzyme activity which is especially important in paediatric practice. Due to the sharp sensibility of fluorimetric analysis and high speed of luminescent reactions the procedure gives an opportunity to obtain the result in the minimum terms as well as the use of small amounts of reaction mixture. The incubation in large dilution leads thereby to the elimination of influence of endogenic inhibitors and activators.

  6. Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration carry no fitness cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a response to the long-term presence of heavy metals in the environment, populations can evolve resistance. Its maintenance may have detrimental effect on population's fitness, causing a fitness cost. Lead is one of the widely distributed elements in the environment exhibiting high toxicity on organisms. By analyzing developmental stages viability and developmental time, we evaluated fitness cost in Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration and control flies derived from the same wild population, as well as their hybrids. Significant changes in specific developmental stages viability were detected in both lines, as well as their hybrids, suggesting complex response to low lead concentration. The results show that a long-term exposure to low lead concentration may have a significant impact on a population's survival, especially in a changing environment conditions. - Highlights: • We analyzed fitness cost in Drosophila subobscura flies reared on lead (Pb) for 37 generations. • Two fitness components, developmental stages viability and developmental time, were analyzed. • A long-term exposure to low lead concentration exhibits a complex adaptation response in D. subobscura flies. • A long-term exposure to low lead concentration decreases viability of population in a changing environment condition. - This study suggests that wild species under a long-term exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals could be in increased risk of population reduction under changing environments

  7. Comparison of drug concentrations in blood and oral fluid collected with the Intercept sampling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Mordal, Jon; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Bramness, Jørgen G; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine drug concentration ratios between oral fluid collected with the Intercept device and whole blood. Samples of blood and oral fluid were obtained from patients admitted to acute psychiatric treatment and drivers suspected of drugged driving. Samples were analyzed for illegal drugs, benzodiazepines, opioids, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. Drugs were detected in samples of both blood and oral fluid from 59 subjects; altogether, 17 different drugs were found. Concentration ratios between oral fluid and blood were determined for all cases. The distributions of drug concentration ratios were wide for most drugs and do not allow reliable estimations of drug concentrations in blood using concentrations in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood drug concentration ratios for the most prevalent drugs were 0.036 diazepam, 0.027 nordiazepam, 7.1 amphetamine, 2.9 methamphetamine, 5.4 codeine, 1.9 morphine, and 4.7 tetrahydrocannabinol. The correlation coefficients between drug concentrations in oral fluid and blood ranged from 0.15 to 0.96 for the six most prevalent drugs. PMID:20465866

  8. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Imer Haziri; Muhamed Zogaj; Fatgzim Latifi; Jetmira Abeshi; Dorjana Beqiraj; Luljeta Dhaskali; Enkelejda Ozuni

    2011-01-01

    A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg). Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21...

  9. Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namihira, D. (Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro (Mexico)); Saldivar, L.; Pustilnik, N.; Carreon, G.J.; Salinas, M.E. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1993-01-01

    The lead content in gasoline in Mexico City is the highest in the world (1g/L). The use of gasoline containing lead as an antiknock agent has been considered the major anthropogenic lead source in the area. Lead levels in breast milk and blood were determined in women living within a 200-m radius of 3 smelters in Mexico City. All samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer 460 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with HGA 2200. The mean blood lead level was 45.88 [mu]g/dl (SD 19.88 [mu]g/dl), and the geometric mean of milk lead level was 2.47 [mu]g/100 ml. The correlation coefficient of these two variables was 0.88. Using the mean value of lead found in breast milk, an infant of 5.5 kg would ingest 8.1 [mu]g/kg/d in his diet. The daily permissible intake (DPI) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972 for an adult is 5.0 [mu]g/kg/d. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  11. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 μg/L, with a mean of 76 μg/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 μg/L in men (mean, 98.3 μg/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 μg/L (mean, 62.8 μg/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 μg/L (mean, 0.66 μg/L) and 0.02-1.5 μg/L (mean, 0.42 μg/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P1492 (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x 0.702) and women (y=0.0534x 0.5209) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity

  12. Reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails among residents in Mansoura city, Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A random sample of 68 males and 25 females who reside in Mansoura city, Egypt, was examined for concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails. The effect of gender and smoking on such levels was studied. The influence of dental amalgam on the levels of mercury in these biological samples were also examined. The results obtained show that only blood lead, which increased among males, was affected by gender. Blood levels of cadmium and lead as well as hair lead appeared to increase with smoking habit. Mercury levels in blood and urine were related to the presence of dental amalgam fillings. International comparisons between our results and the corresponding levels in other localities in the world showed that there ere environmentally related variations in terms of cadmium levels in hair, lead levels in blood, urine, hair, and nails, and mercury levels in blood, air, and nails. In conclusion, reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the biological samples are environmentally related parameters. Some factors, such as gender, smoking habit, and the presence of dental amalgam fillings, may affect such levels and therefore should be considered

  13. Blood concentrations of everolimus are markedly increased by ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, J M; Beyer, D; Bizot, M N; Jiang, Q; Shenouda, M; Schmouder, R L

    2005-05-01

    The authors sought to quantify the influence of the CYP3A and P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of everolimus in healthy subjects. This was a 2-period, single-sequence, crossover study in 12 healthy subjects. In period 1, subjects received the reference treatment of a single 2-mg dose of everolimus. In period 2, they received the test treatment of ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for a total of 8 days and a single dose of everolimus coadministered on the fourth day of ketoconazole therapy. The test/reference ratio and 90% confidence interval were derived for everolimus maximum concentration and area under the curve. During ketoconazole coadministration, everolimus maximum concentration increased 3.9-fold (90% confidence interval, 3.4-4.6) from 15 +/- 4 ng/mL to 59 +/- 13 ng/mL. Everolimus area under the curve increased 15.0-fold (90% confidence interval, 13.6-16.6) from 90 +/- 23 ng*h/mL to 1324 +/- 232 ng*h/mL. Everolimus half-life was prolonged by 1.9-fold from 30 +/- 4 hours to 56 +/- 5 hours. Everolimus did not appear to alter ketoconazole predose concentrations. Given the magnitude of this drug interaction, use of ketoconazole should be avoided if possible in everolimus-treated patients. PMID:15831774

  14. Higher blood lactate concentration in Göttingen minipigs compared with domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of blood lactate concentration is useful as a monitoring tool during anaesthesia of animals and people. Recently, blood lactate has been used to monitor anaesthetized pigs, but very little is known about variations in blood lactate concentrations in pigs. We therefore evaluate...... the effects of breed (domestic pigs vs. Göttingen minipigs), body weight (40 kg vs. 70 kg), type of anaesthesia (inhalation vs. infusion) and surgery (minor vs. major surgery) on blood lactate concentrations in pigs. Anaesthesia reports from 81 pigs are included. We find significantly higher blood lactate...... levels in minipigs anaesthetised with isofluorane (2.53 ± 1.10 mmol/l) compared to domestic pigs (0.68 ± 0.48 mmol/l) (P

  15. Application of transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the measurement of blood glucose concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenliang Chen(陈文亮); Rong Liu(刘蓉); Houxin Cui(崔厚欣); Kexin Xu(徐可欣); Lina Lü(吕丽娜)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) light in the palm tissue are analyzed,and the principle and feasibility of using transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose detection are presented. An optical probe suitable for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum of human palm and a non-invasive blood glucose detection system using NIR spectroscopy are designed. Based on this system, oral glucose tolerance tests are performed to measure the blood glucose concentrations of two young healthy volunteers. The partial least square calibration model is then constructed by all individual experimental data. The final result shows that correlation coefficients of the two experiments between the predicted blood glucose concentrations and the reference blood glucose concentrations are 0.9870 and 0.9854, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction of full cross validation are 0.54 and 0.52 mmol/1, respectively.

  16. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  17. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  18. Temporal variations in lead concentrations and isotopic composition in the Southern California Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A.; Flegal, A.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Lead concentrations in surface waters of the Southern California Bight appear to have decreased threefold (from >170 to <60 pM) since they were initially measured by Clair Patterson and his associates in the 1970s. The decrease parallels a threefold decline in anthropogenic inputs of industrial lead to the bight over the past two decades. Moreover, mass balance calculations indicate that the primary source of lead to the bight now is upwelling. This is evidenced by the isotopic compositions of surface waters in the bight, which are most characteristic of Asian industrial lead aerosols (0.4793 [le] [sup 206]Pb/[sup 208]Pb [le] 0.4833) deposited in oceanic waters of the North Pacific. While the decrease in surface water lead concentrations in the bight reflects the reduction in industrial lead emissions from the United States, the isotopic compositions of surface waters in the southern reach of the bight reflect a concurrent increase in industrial lead emissions from Mexico (0.4852 [le] [sup 206]Pb/[sup 208]Pb [le] 0.4877). The isotopic composition ([sup 208]Pb/[sup 207]Pb [approximately] 2.427) of elevated lead concentrations of surface waters in San Diego Bay indicate that lead is being remobilized from contaminated sediments within that bay.

  19. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  20. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  1. Association of blood lead (Pb and plasma homocysteine: a cross sectional survey in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Yakub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High blood lead (Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Mean blood Pb and mean plasma homocysteine levels have been reported to be high in Pakistani population. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of blood Pb to the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income urban population of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males, 517 females; age 18-60 years were recruited from a low income urban population of Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for blood Pb and plasma/serum homocysteine, folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, a coenzymic form of vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The study population had median (IQR blood Pb of 10.82 microg/dL (8.29-13.60. Prevalence of high blood Pb (levels>10 microg/dL was higher in males compared to females (62.5% males vs 56% females; p value=0.05. Mean+/-SD/median (IQR value of plasma homocysteine was significantly higher in the highest quartile of blood Pb compared to the lowest quartile 16.13+/-11.2 micromol/L vs 13.28+/-9.7micromol/L/13.15 (10.33-17.81 micromol/L vs 11.09 (8.65 14.31 micromol/L (p value<0.001. Daily consumption of fruit juice had a positive influence on both levels of plasma homocysteine and blood Pb. Compared with the lowest quartile of blood Pb, the OR for hyperhomocysteinemia was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.85 for the fourth quartile when the model was adjusted for age, gender, folate and vitamin B12. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed a relationship between blood Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia in a general population of Karachi, Pakistan. The harmful effect of Pb on cardiovascular system could be due to its association with hyperhomocysteinemia.

  2. Influence of paint chips on lead concentration in the soil of public playgrounds in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Michie; Yoshinaga, Jun; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2006-03-01

    Lead concentration in the surface soils from 31 playgrounds in a ward in Tokyo was measured to examine if paint chips, peeled off from playing equipment installed in the playgrounds, contribute to elevated Pb concentration in the soil of public playgrounds. Lead concentration in the paint chips sampled from playgrounds ranged from 0.003 to 8.9%. Lead concentration in the surface soil ranged from 15.2 to 237 mg kg(-1) (average, 55.5 mg kg(-1)) and higher Pb concentration was found in the soil near painted playing equipment indicating that paint chips from playing equipment contributed to increase soil Pb level of playgrounds in Tokyo. The degree of peeling-off of paint on the surface of playing equipment in the public playground (peeling-off index: POI) positively correlated with Pb concentration in the soil (Spearman rank-correlation coefficient, r = 0.366, p = 0.043). The stronger correlation between Pb concentration and isotope ratios (207Pb/206Pb and Pb conc., r = 0.536, p = 0.002, 208Pb/206Pb and Pb conc. r = 0.600, p playground-to-playground variation in soil Pb concentration. It was concluded that both gasoline Pb of the past and paint chips contributed to increased Pb concentration in the surface soil of playgrounds in Tokyo, though the contribution of paint chips is smaller than gasoline Pb.

  3. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gi Kim

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.79, digestive disease (RR 3.23, 95% CI 1.33-7.86, and intentional self-harm (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.07-7.81 were statistically significantly higher in males with BLL >20 μg/dl than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl. The RR of males with BLL of 10-20 μg/dl was statistically higher than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl in infection (RR 3.73. 95% CI, 1.06-13.06. The RRs of females with 10-20 μg/dl BLL was statistically significantly greater than those with BLL <10μg/dl in all-cause mortality (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16-3.20 and colon and rectal cancer (RR 13.42, 95% CI 1.21-149.4. The RRs of females with BLL 10-20 μg/dl (RR 10.45, 95% CI 1.74-62.93 and BLL ≥20 μg/dl (RR 12.68, 95% CI 1.69-147.86 was statistically significantly increased in bronchus and lung cancer. The increased suicide of males with ≥20 μg/dl BLLs, which might be caused by major depression, might be associated with higher lead exposure. Also, increased bronchus and lung cancer mortality in female workers with higher BLL might be related to lead exposure considering low smoking rate in females. The kinds of BLL-associated mortality differed by gender.

  4. Atmospheric and children's blood lead as indicators of vehicular traffic and other emission sources in Mumbai, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Vinod Kumar, A.; Sastry, V.N.; Sadasivan, S. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, 400 085 Mumbai (India)

    2001-02-21

    Average concentration of Pb in atmospheric air particulates in different suburbs of Mumbai was studied for almost a decade and its spatial and temporal profiles are discussed in relation to emission sources. In general the concentration of Pb in all the residential suburban atmosphere is well below the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, 1994) prescribed limit of 1.5 {mu}g m{sup -3} barring a few exceptions for some residential/industrial sites, such as those of Thane and Kurla scrap yards. The correlation between blood lead of children and air lead reveals that the blood Pb level in children could increase by 3.6 {mu}g dl{sup -1} for an incremental rise of 1.0 {mu}g Pb m{sup -3} of air. The temporal profile of air Pb values indicates a decreasing trend in residential suburbs (Khar: 1984, 0.39 {mu}g m{sup -3}; 1996, 0.17 {mu}g m{sup -3}) as well as in suburban residential areas with low traffic (Goregaon: 1984, 0.53 {mu}g m{sup -3}; 1996, 0.30 {mu}g m{sup -3})

  5. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  6. Organohalogen concentrations in blood and adipose tissue of Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Amstrup, Steven C.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed 151 organohalogen chemicals (OHCs) in whole blood and subcutaneous fat of 57 polar bears sampled along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast in spring, 2003. All major organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs and their congeners were assessed. Concentrations of most OHCs continue to be lower among Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears than reported for other populations. Additionally, toxaphenes and related compounds were assessed in adipose tissue, and 8 perflourinated compounds (PFCs) were examined in blood. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations exceeded those of any other contaminant measured in blood. ??Chlordane concentrations were higher in females, and both ??PCBs and ??Chlordane concentrations in adipose tissue decreased significantly with age. The rank order of OHC mean concentrations; ??PCB > ??10PCB > PCB153 > ??Chlordane > Oxychlordane > PCB180 > ??HCH > ??-HCH > ??DDT > p,p-DDE > ??PBDE > HCB > Toxaphene was similar for compounds above detection limits in both fat and blood. Although correlation between OHC concentrations in blood and adipose tissue was examined, the predictability of concentrations in one matrix for the other was limited. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  8. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults

  9. Using the current Brazilian value for the biological exposure limit applied to blood lead level as a lead poisoning diagnostic criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, biological exposure limits are only used for the promotion and preservation of workers' health and are not applied for diagnostic purposes. However, the issue is controversial for certain types of occupational poisoning. This paper proposes the utilization of biological exposure limits currently applied to blood lead levels in Brazil as an important criterion for diagnosing occupational lead poisoning. The author argues that contrary to the traditional clinical criterion, one should deal with the diagnostic problem of lead poisoning from an epidemiological perspective, using the current Brazilian value for the biological exposure limit applied to blood lead level as an indicator of high relative risk.

  10. Total lead concentration in new decorative enamel paints in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Speranskaya, Olga; Brosche, Sara; Gonzalez, Hebe; Solis, Daniela; Kodeih, Naji; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Lead concentrations in new enamel decorative paints were determined in three countries in different areas of the world where data were not previously available. The average total lead concentration of the enamel decorative paints purchased in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia was 24,500ppm (ppm, dry weight), more than 270 times the current limit of 90ppm in Canada and in the United States. Sixty-three percent of these paints contained concentrations greater than 90ppm. Fifty-nine percent contained concentrations greater than 600ppm, the current limit in some countries. The maximum concentrations found were 236,000ppm in Lebanon, 169,000ppm in Paraguay and 52,900ppm in Russia. An average of 29% of the samples contained exceedingly high lead concentrations, >=10,000ppm. Five brands of paint were sampled in each of Lebanon and Paraguay and seven in Russia. Three colors from each brand were analyzed. For five of the six samples of the two brands in Lebanon with affiliations outside the country, the lead concentrations ranged from 1360ppm to 135,000ppm. In Lebanon the maximum concentration in the Egypt-affiliated brand (Sipes) was 135,000ppm and the maximum for the USA-affiliated brand (Dutch Boy) was 32,400ppm. Lead was not detected in any paints from the three of the four brands of paint purchased in Paraguay that had headquarters/affiliations in other countries (Brazil-Coralit), Germany (Suvinil) and USA (Novacor)). Two of the three paints from each of the other Paraguay brands contained high levels of lead with the maximum concentrations of 108,000 and 168,000ppm; one of these brands was manufactured under a license from ICI in the Netherlands. All of the paints purchased in Russia were from Russian brands and were manufactured in Russia. All three paints from one brand contained below detection levels of lead. The maximum levels of lead in the other six brands in Russia ranged from 3230 to 52,900ppm. The two brands with the highest lead concentration, TEKS and LAKRA

  11. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged water advisory) than during the period before the water switch to FWS. Although unrelated to lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions. PMID:27359350

  12. Determination of natural in vivo noble-gas concentrations in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yama Tomonaga

    Full Text Available Although the naturally occurring atmospheric noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe possess great potential as tracers for studying gas exchange in living beings, no direct analytical technique exists for simultaneously determining the absolute concentrations of these noble gases in body fluids in vivo. In this study, using human blood as an example, the absolute concentrations of all stable atmospheric noble gases were measured simultaneously by combining and adapting two analytical methods recently developed for geochemical research purposes. The partition coefficients determined between blood and air, and between blood plasma and red blood cells, agree with values from the literature. While the noble-gas concentrations in the plasma agree rather well with the expected solubility equilibrium concentrations for air-saturated water, the red blood cells are characterized by a distinct supersaturation pattern, in which the gas excess increases in proportion to the atomic mass of the noble-gas species, indicating adsorption on to the red blood cells. This study shows that the absolute concentrations of noble gases in body fluids can be easily measured using geochemical techniques that rely only on standard materials and equipment, and for which the underlying concepts are already well established in the field of noble-gas geochemistry.

  13. Study on risk factors of blood lead among occupational workers exposed to lead%职业性铅暴露人群血铅的危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗超; 邵迪初

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the risk factors of blood lead among workers who exposed to lead and provide scientific evidence for the establishment of its control and prevention. Methods A total of 227 workers in accumulator plants were selected as study objects. Their professional history, life habits and the level of education were investigated by uniformly designed questionnaire. The workers' blood lead and the lead concentration in air in their job-sites were measured. Risk factors of blood lead were analyzed by means of simple and multiple conditional logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 29 test sites were monitored, only 5 sites were qualified, the rate was 17. 24%. The mean of blood level of workers was (578. 54± 175. 56) μg/L. Simple logistic regression analysis showed that gender, smoking, residence, educational level and workplace air concentrations of lead could affect blood lead concentrations. Multiple conditional logistic regression analysis showed that workplace air concentrations of lead and residence could significantly affect blood lead concentrations. Conclusions Workplace air concentrations of lead is higher than the standard. The workers usually have the high level of blood lead. Workplace air concentrations of lead and residence are risk factors of blood lead.%目的 探讨职业铅暴露人群血铅的危险因素,为采取针对性的防控措施提供科学依据.方法 选择余姚市蓄电池工厂227名工人作为研究对象,采用统一调查表对个人职业史、生活习惯、教育程度等进行调查,同时进行血铅和车间空气中铅浓度测定.在此基础上,分别采用单因素、多因素条件logistic回归分析筛选血铅的关联因素,P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 本研究共设29个检测点,仅5个点合格,合格率17.24%,工人平均血铅水平为(578.54±175.56)μg/L.单因素条件logistic回归分析显示性别、吸烟、户籍、文化程度和车间空气铅浓度等变

  14. Postmortem Brain and Blood Reference Concentrations of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, and their Metabolites and a Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise; Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Johansen, Sys Stybe;

    2016-01-01

    with median brain-blood ratios ranging from 1.1 to 2.3. A positive correlation between brain and blood concentrations was found with R(2) values from 0.51 to 0.95. Our reported femoral blood concentrations concur with literature values, but sparse information on brain concentration was available. Drug...

  15. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam Saliu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U test. Seventy-three (40.3% of the organised compared to 59 (34.3% of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05. There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation, and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  16. Concentration and environmental significance of lead in surface snow of Antarctic ice sheet (III)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦大河; 任贾文; 孙俊英; 陈瓞延; 文克玲; 李良权

    1995-01-01

    Lead as an ultra-trace heavy metal becomes one of popular topics in glaciochemistry of the Antarctic ice sheet, because of its very low concertration (pg·g-1) and background and its sensitivity to the quality of the environment. The lead concentration of surface snow of the Antarctic ice sheet (corresponding to modern precipitation) applying LEAF technique by Chinese scholars has systematically been studied for the first time in the world. The distribution principle of lead concentration of surface snow of the Antarctic ice sheet is "low in the west and high in the east" along the route of 1990 International Trans-Antarctic Expedition (ITAE). The concentration of lead in East Antarctica is 2 - 3 fold higher than that in Larsen ice shelf and Antarctic Peninsula, which majorly results from the activity of pre-Soviet Antarctic Expedition The concentration of lead in Larsen ice shelf and Antarctic Peninsula can be regarded as the background value of modern precipitation of the Antarctic ice sheet in the en

  17. Leaching Mechanism of Complicated Antimony-Lead Concentrate and Sulfur Formation in Slurry Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChengyan; QiuDingfan; JiangPeihai

    2004-01-01

    Anodic reaction mechanism of complicated antimony-lead concentrate in slurry electrolysis was investigated by the anodic polarization curves determined under various conditions. The main reactions on the anode are the oxidations of FeCln(2-n) . Though the oxidation of jamesonite particle on the anode can occur during the whole process, it is less. With the help of mineralogy studies and relevant tests, the leaching reaction mechanism of jameson[to and gudmundite during slurry electrolysis was ascertained. Because of the oxidation reaction of FeCl3 produced by antimony-lead concentrate itself, the non-oxidation complex acid dissolution of jameson[re, the oxidation complex acid dissolution of gudmundite, and the oxidation of air carried by stirring, the leaching ratio of antimony reaches about 35% when HCl-NH4Cl solution is used to leach antimony-lead concentrate directly. So when the theoretical electric quantity is given to oxidation of antimony in slurry electrolysis, all of antimony, lead and iron containing in antimony-lead concentrate, are leached. The formation of sulfur is through the directly redox reaction of Fe3+ and jameson[re. The S2- in jamesonite is oxidized into S0 , and forms the crystals of sulfur again on the spot. The redox reaction of Fe3+ and H2S formed by non-oxidative acid dissolution of jamesonite is less.

  18. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  19. Unique pattern of molt leads to low intraindividual variation in feather mercury concentrations in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Drummond, Bridgette E; Borrett, Stuart R; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Rey, Andrea Raya

    2013-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that the catastrophic annual molt of penguins (Sphenisciformes) would lead to reduced intraindividual variation of mercury concentrations in body feathers. While mean mercury concentrations varied significantly among 8 penguin species, intraindividual variability did not differ among species and was 3 times lower than values observed in other seabirds. The findings of the present study suggest that a single body feather collected at random per individual can be adequate to estimate mercury exposure at the population level in penguins.

  20. Determination of Cadmium and Lead Concentration in Cosmetics (Sunscreen, Lipstick and Hair Color)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnoosh Mohammadi; Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari; Saber Khodabandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Development of cosmetics industry has increased the affinity to use these products by people especially women for makeup and toilet. Due to the presence of metals such as lead and cadmium as preservative and colored element in these products, concentrations of these metals in sunscreen cosmetics, lipstick and hair color were determined. Materials and Methods: Different brands of cosmetics were analyzed to determine Cd and Pb concentration (in µg/kg dry weight) us...

  1. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)

  2. Impacts of Elevated Prenatal Blood Lead on Trace Element Status and Pregnancy Outcomes in Occupationally Non-exposed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Obuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lead toxicity has been reported to affect hematopoietic, nervous, reproductive, cardiovascular and urinary tract systems. Many investigators have so far studied the effects of high blood lead levels on pregnancy outcomes.Objective: To investigate the effects of elevated maternal blood lead during pregnancy on some trace elements and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: Blood lead and plasma copper, iron and zinc were measured in 349 pregnant women with a mean±SD age of 27.0±4.8 years, and gestational age of 21.8±3.1 weeks, at recruitment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded during follow-up and at delivery, respectively. A blood lead level of ≥10 µg/dL was considered high.Results: Women with elevated blood lead had significantly higher plasma copper and iron and lower plasma zinc than women with low blood lead level (Conclusion: Complications of pregnancy may be induced by a high blood lead level possibly through the alterations in trace element metabolism.

  3. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  4. Calorie restriction at increasing levels leads to augmented concentrations of corticosterone and decreasing concentrations of testosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Tammer, Amanda H; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2010-05-01

    The influence of calorie restriction (CR) on increasing life span, enhancing immunocompetence, and reducing the incidence of age-related diseases is well established. Evidence points to the involvement of neuroendocrine alterations in these beneficial effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that CR will result in significant alterations to the hormones investigated. Little attention has been directed toward ascertaining the doses of CR required to obtain such alterations and, indeed, whether a dose-response exists. Adult rats were subjected to 1 of 5 dietary regimens: control, CR12.5%, CR25%, CR37.5%, or CR50%. Rats were decapitated 3 weeks following the onset of restriction; and trunk blood was collected and assayed for concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, and testosterone, as well as plasma concentrations of noradrenalin and adrenalin. No effect was found as a result of dietary manipulation for serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, all doses of CR resulted in increased serum corticosterone in a dose-response trend. A dose-response was also observed for serum testosterone, with higher doses of CR associated with lower testosterone. Concentrations of noradrenalin were not found to be altered by any CR dose, although a trend toward a down-regulation at CR50% was observed. Plasma adrenalin displayed a biphasic distribution with reductions observed at CR25% and CR50%, although the down-regulations only attained statistical significance relative to the CR37.5% and not the control group. As well as reporting the effect of CR on multiple hormones within individual animals, these results go some way in determining the optimal levels of CR needed to induce neuroendocrinologic alterations.

  5. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  6. Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood during cardiac surgery : effect on red blood cell function in concentrated blood compared with diluted blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. John; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Hagenaars, J. Ans M.; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood has been suggested to prevent patients from receiving activated leucocytes during autotransfusion in cardiac surgery. This study examines whether leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood affects the red blood cell (RBC) function and whether there is a

  7. Examination of four different instruments for measuring the blood lactate concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Medbø, Jon Ingulf; Mamen, Asgeir; Olsen, Ole Holt; Evertsen, Frank

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is incomplete information on the performance of different instruments used to measure the blood lactate concentration. We have therefore examined instruments from Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI 23L and YSI 1500), and three cheaper and simpler instruments: Dr. Lange’s LP8+, Lactate Pro from Arkray, KDK, and Accusport from Boehringer Mannheim. First a number of blood samples were analysed by standard enzymatic photofluorometry (our control method) and in additi...

  8. Relation of Whole Blood Carboxyhemoglobin Concentration to Ambient Carbon Monoxide Exposure Estimated Using Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra, Carole B.; Williams, Michelle A.; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schiff, Melissa A.; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Dills, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and other ambient air pollutants is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While there are several methods of estimating CO exposure, few have been evaluated against exposure biomarkers. The authors examined the relation between estimated CO exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 708 pregnant western Washington State women (1996–2004). Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in whole blood drawn around 13 weeks’ gestation. CO exposure during the mon...

  9. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  10. Platelet concentrates for topical use: bedside device and blood transfusion technology. Quality and versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzini, Piero; Balbo, Valeria; Mazzucco, Laura

    2012-06-01

    More or less after a decade of experimental and pioneering manual procedures to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for topical use, several portable and bedside devices were made available to prepare the PRP at the point-of-care. This technical opportunity increased the number of patients who got access to the treatment with autologous PRP and PRP-gel. Since topical treatment of tissue with PRP and PRP-gel was restricted to autologous preparation, blood transfusion centers that professionally prepare donor-derived platelet concentrates were not able to cover the overwhelming request for autologous PRP supply. Principally for logistic and organization reasons blood transfusion centers usually fail the challenge of prompt delivery of PRP to the physician over large territory. Nevertheless the blood bank production of platelet concentrates is associated with high standardization and quality controls not achievable from bedside and portable devices. Furthermore it easy to demonstrate that high-volume blood bank-produced platelet concentrates are less expensive than low-volume PRP produced by portable and bedside devices. Taking also in consideration the ever-increasing safety of the blood components, the relationship between bedside device-produced and blood-bank-produced PRP might be reconsidered. Here we discuss this topic concluding that the variety of sources of PRP production is an opportunity for versatility and that, ultimately, versatility is an opportunity for the patient's care.

  11. Blood concentrations of lactate, glucose and corticosterone in dispersing hatchling sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Pereira

    2012-11-01

    Natal dispersal of sea turtles is an energetically demanding activity that is fuelled primarily by aerobic metabolism. However, during intense exercise reptiles can use anaerobic metabolism to supplement their energy requirements. We assessed anaerobic metabolism in dispersing hatchling loggerhead and flatback turtles by measuring the concentrations of blood lactate during crawling and at different times during the first four hours of their frenzy swim. We also measured concentrations of blood glucose and corticosterone. Blood lactate (12.13 to 2.03 mmol/L, glucose (6.25 to 3.8 mmol/L and corticosterone (8.13 to 2.01 ng/mL concentrations decreased significantly over time in both loggerhead and flatback hatchlings and no significant differences were found between the species. These results indicate that anaerobic metabolism makes a significant contribution to the dispersal phase of hatchling sea turtles during the beach crawl and the first few hours of the frenzy swim.

  12. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  13. Changes in the lead isotopic composition of blood, diet and air in Australia over a decade: Globalization and implications for future isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Source apportionment in biological or environmental samples using the lead isotope method, where there are diverse sources of lead, relies on a significant difference between the isotopic composition in the target media and the sources. Because of the unique isotopic composition of Australian lead, source apportionment has been relatively successful in the past. Over the period of a decade, the 206Pb/204Pb ratio for Australian (mainly female) adults has shown an increase from a geometric mean of 16.8-17.3. Associated with this increase, there has been a decrease in mean blood lead concentration from 4.7 to 2.3 μg/dL, or about 5% per year, similar to that observed in other countries. Lead in air, which up until 2000 was derived largely from the continued use of leaded gasoline, showed an overall increase in the 206Pb/204Pb ratio during 1993-2000 from 16.5 to 17.2. Since 1998 the levels of lead in air were less than 0.2 μg/m3 and would contribute negligibly to blood lead. Over the 10-year period, the 206Pb/204Pb ratio in diet, based mainly on quarterly 6-day duplicate diets, increased from 16.9 to 18.3. The lead concentration in diet showed a small decrease from 8.7 to 6.4 μg Pb/kg although the daily intake increased markedly from 7.4 to 13.9 μg Pb/day during the latter part of the decade probably reflecting differences in demographics. The changes in blood lead from sources such as lead in bone or soil or dust is not dominant because of the low 206Pb/204Pb ratios in these media. Unless there are other sources not identified and analysed for these adults, it would appear that in spite of our earlier conclusions to the contrary, diet does make an overall contribution to blood lead, and this is certainly the case for specific individuals. Certain population groups from south Asia, south-east Asia, the Middle East and Europe (e.g. UK) are unsuitable for some studies as their isotopic ratios in blood are converging towards the increasing Australian values. The

  14. Enhanced blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortesniemi, M. E-mail: mika.kortesniemi@hus.fi; Seppaelae, T.; Auterinen, I.; Savolainen, S

    2004-11-01

    The blood boron concentration regulates directly the BNCT irradiation time in which the prescribed dose to the patient is delivered. Therefore a proper estimation of the blood boron concentration for the treatment field based on the measured blood samples before irradiation is required. The bi-exponential model fit using Levenberg-Marquardt method was implemented for this purpose to provide the blood boron concentration estimates directly to the treatment data flow during the BNCT procedure. The harmonic mean bi-exponential decay half-lives of the studied patient data (n=28) were 15{+-}8 and 320{+-}70 min for the faster and slower half-life. The model uncertainty (n=28) was reasonably low, 0.7{+-}0.1 {mu}g/g (about 5%). The implemented algorithm provides a robust method for temporal blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT. Utilization of the infusion data improves the reliability of the estimate. The overall data flow during the treatment fulfills the practical requirements concerning the BNCT procedure.

  15. Cadmium and Lead in Blood Cockle (Anadara granosa) from Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Faruk Hossen; Sinin Hamdan; Md. Rezaur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations were ranged from 1.35 ± 0.16 to 2.22 ± 0.34 µg/g (dry weight) and 2.65 ± 0.34 to 4.36 ± 0.53 µg/g (dry weight) for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985). It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long ...

  16. Review of pollutant lead decline in urban air and human blood: A case study from northwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Daniel; Véron, Alain; Flament, Pascal; Deboudt, Karine; Poirier, André

    2015-09-01

    A review of the transient decline of pollutant lead in the air (PbA) and the blood (PbB) has been conducted in order to assess the relationship between these environmental reservoirs. We have demonstrated that PbA decreased 20 to 100 times more than PbB for the past 30 years, suggesting another significant intake besides airborne lead to explain lead accumulated in humans. This trend has also been observed in two blood surveys we have completed in 1976-1978 and 2008-2009 in northern France and Belgium. Nowadays, the mean PbB (1.5-3.5 μg/dL) remains at least 100 times higher than the estimated non-contaminated PbB. Lead isotope imprints in blood could help decipher specific contamination cases, and were coherent with the decline of PbA, but could not help discriminate the source of blood lead owing to the lack of source imprints, especially from dietary intakes. Correlations between recent PbB, isotopic imprints and the age of the subjects suggested that lead released from bones has become a significant source of lead in blood. The significant cause for human exposure to lead may have shifted from direct pollutant lead input accumulated in exogenous reservoirs (air and diet) to endogenous lead release from bone tissues consequential to metabolic calcium homeostasis and bone turnover.

  17. 铅作业工人293名血铅水平的调查%Investigation on The Blood Lead Levels of 293 Workers with Lead Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆丰; 顾庆华; 沈美枫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the in vivo lead levels of workers with lead exposure.[Methods]Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer and blood analyzer XS - 1000i were used for determination of blood lead level and hemoglobin level respectively.[Results]Of 293 workers, the blood lead level of 192 workers ( 65.5% ) was over 1.9 μmol/L.The results showed negative correlations between blood lead level and hemoglobin level on male and female workers.[Conclusion]The blood lead level is relatively high in 293 lead-exposed workers.The enterprises should improve manufacturing technique, enhance protective measures,eliminate lead in workers with high lead level and perform health examination on workers regularly.%目的:了解铅作业工人体内铅含量水平.方法:采用石墨原子吸收法测定血铅含量,采用希斯美康1000 i血球仪测定血红蛋白含量.结果:293名铅作业工人中血铅超过1.9 μmol/L有192人;超标率为65.53%;男工和女工的血铅水平和血红蛋白水平都存在负相关.结论:293铅作业工人血铅水平较高,企业应改进生产工艺,增强防护措施,对血铅超标者进行驱铅治疗,定期对工人进行体检.

  18. Effect of Different Blood Sampling Methods on Blood Lead Detection%不同采血方法对血铅检测结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇华; 海日姑·加帕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究不同采血方法对血铅检测结果的影响。方法选取2013年3月-2015年3月前来该中心进行职业性健康检查的工人及其子女120名作为研究对象,并于同时期采集工人的静脉血与手指末梢血,对其中的血铅含量进行检测。结果所有受检工人中,手指血与静脉血的血铅含量平均为77μg/L和58μg/L,A、B、C 3组受检工人中手指末端血与静脉血中的血铅含量比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论在采血过程中,对血液中铅含量的影响因素很多,对静脉血进行采血可以有效提高检测结果的准确性,应引起采血检测人员的高度重视。%Objective To explore the effect of different blood sampling methods on blood lead detection results. Methods In 2013 March 2015 March came to my center for occupational health examination of workers and their children 120 as the research object and at the same time acquisition workers venous blood and peripheral finger blood, on the blood lead levels were detected. Results All the workers under the test, blood lead content in finger blood and venous blood in average 77μg/L and 58μg/L, a, B, C three groups by workers in finger tip blood and venous blood in the blood lead content difference was significant (P0.05). Conclusion In blood of the influencing factors of blood lead levels many, on venous blood can effectively improve the accuracy of detection results, which should be attached great importance to the blood testing personnel.

  19. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  20. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  1. Multiple sclerosis incidence associated with the soil lead and arsenic concentrations in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Piao Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. METHODS: There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997-2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. RESULTS: The lead (Pb concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As in soil predominated in females. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females.

  2. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imer Haziri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg. Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21 mg/kg (Hg; 0.01-0.16 mg/kg (Pb; nd - 0.002 (Cd, and 0.01-0.03 (Cr mg/kg wet weight. The results collected from this monitoring process revealed that these groups of cultivated fish species show low levels of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and chrome (Cr. This monitoring process is very important to safeguard the health of Tirana consumers.

  3. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  4. The effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on platelet function in whole blood and platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikvam, Anne-Grete; Hustad, Steinar; Reikvam, Håkon; Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Nepstad, Ina; Hervig, Tor Audun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies report that patients who are treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression may have increased risk of bleeding, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. This may be related to low intraplatelet serotonin concentrations. Several blood banks do not store platelets from donors using SSRIs for transfusion, although the possible effects of SSRIs on platelet storage are not documented. We conducted a case-control pilot study of apheresis platelet concentrates prepared from donors using SSRIs (n=8) and from donors without medication (n=10). The platelet concentrates were stored for 5 days. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA), thrombelastography (TEG), and flow cytometric analyses were preformed for in vitro measurements of platelet function. Platelet function and platelet serotonin content were investigated in whole blood and in platelet concentrates stored for up to 5 days. LTA, TEG, and flow cytometric analysis of glycoprotein expression did not reveal any significant differences between the two groups. All 18 platelet concentrates performed well according to the standards set for platelet quality in relation to transfusion. Blood donors using SSRIs had significantly lower platelet serotonin compared to blood donors without medication. The results from our pilot study indicate that platelets from donors using SSRIs may be suitable for transfusion after storage for 5 days, but further laboratory and clinical studies are necessary to confirm this.

  5. Uranium concentration measurements in human blood for some governorates in Iraq using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitive and simple technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in blood samples for occupational and non-occupational workers, male and female, using CR-39 track detector that is employed for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in human blood of workers in the ministry of Science and Technology were 1.90 ppb (male, 36 years old, 12 years' work experience, and living in Basrah governorate) and minimum concentration 0.26 ppb (female, 40 years old, 10 years' work experience, and living in Baghdad), while for non-occupational worker, the maximum uranium concentration was 1.76 ppb (female, 63 years old, and living in Al-Muthana) and minimum concentration was 0.28 ppb (female, 20 years old, and living in Baghdad). It has also been found that the uranium concentration in human blood samples of workers in the ministry of Science and Technology are higher than those of non-occupational workers, and the uranium concentrations for female workers and for non-occupational workers were higher than those for male workers and non-occupational workers. (author)

  6. Biomonitorization of cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel and lead in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva in an occupationally exposed population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal contamination from occupational origin is a cause for concern because of its potential accumulation in the environment and in living organisms leading to long term toxic effects. This study was aimed to assess Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb levels in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva from 178 individuals with occupational exposure to heavy metals. Levels of metal compounds were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. We collected information on occupation, lifestyle habits and food intake by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses for metal ion concentration in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva were adjusted for age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, lifetime workplace exposure, residence area and food habits. Overall, blood and urine median concentrations found for the five metals analyzed do not exceed biological exposure indexes, so that they are very similar to a non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicokinetic differences may account for the lack of correlations found for metal levels in hair and saliva with those in blood or urine. For those heavy metals showing higher median levels in blood with respect to hair (Cd, Mn and Pb) indicating lesser hair incorporation from blood, the lifetime working experience was inversely correlated with their hair levels. The longer the lifetime working experience in industrial environments, the higher the Mn and Ni concentration in saliva. Axillary hair and saliva may be used as additional and/or alternative samples to blood or urine for biomonitoring hair Mn, and saliva Ni in subjects with occupational exposure. - Research Highlights: → Metal levels in workers were similar to an occupationally non-exposed population. → Metal levels in blood and urine were below recommended reference values. → A lack of correlation was observed between metal levels in blood and saliva. → Toxicokinetic differences may account for the lack of correlations observed. → Axillary hair

  7. Amelioration of Lead-induced Toxicity in Blood, Liver and Kidney Tissues of Male Wistar Rats by Fermented Ofada Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eferhire Aganbi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of ‘ofada’ rice koji (ORK, fermented ofada rice and ascorbic acid (AA against lead (Pb-induced toxicity in the blood, liver and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats was investigated. The animals were divided into four treatment groups (A – D, n = 5. Groups B, C and D were intoxified by intra-peritoneal injection of 75 mg lead acetate/kg body weight. Groups C and D only had their feed mixed with ORK and AA, respectively. The results showed no significant difference in % packed cell volume (PCV and Pb concentrations. Feeding with ORK and AA significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase activities (36.50 ± 3.54 and 34.02 ± 0.05 UL-1 respectively compared to Pb-only treated group (85.50 ± 3.25 UL-1. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP for organs increased significantly following intake of feeds mixed with ORK and AA; increases in FRAP was higher for ORK-treated group possibly due to increased total flavonoids concentration following fermentation. Furthermore, Pb-induced high plasma creatinine levels decreased upon treatment with feeds mixed with ORK and ascorbic acid. These findings strongly indicated that feed supplementation with ORK by 45% may be more effective at ameliorating the effects of Pb-induced toxicity in tissues compared to supplementation with AA by 2%.

  8. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R2=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV1/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV1/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations

  9. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  10. Blood concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam in a lethal case involving clobazam, meprobamate and clorazepate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pok, Phak-Rop Pos; Mauras, Michel; De Saint Léger, Marie-Noëlle; Kuhlmann, Erika; Charpenel-Durat, Catherine; Navarette, Claudie; Duval, Marie-Laure; De Meo, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Clobazam is a benzodiazepine with anti-anxiety and anticonvulsant properties marketed in several countries. Norclobazam, a metabolite of clobazam, has similar pharmacological activity but weaker sedative and tranquilizing effect. The two drugs were detected by GC-MS and determined by HPLC-DAD in the samples from a postmortem case. The femoral blood concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam were 0.72 and 36 μg/mL, respectively. The concentration of the active norclobazam was very high. The sum of both clobazam and norclobazam blood concentration (36.72 μg/mL) was clearly toxic, but was not necessarily fatal. Other associated drugs concentrations were within their therapeutic ranges. Interactions due to drug association were discussed. PMID:20870445

  11. Lack of differences in blood and tissue concentrations of endogenous ethanol in conventional and germfree rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W; Ostrovsky YuM; Wallin, A; Midtvedt, T

    1984-01-01

    Headspace gas chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of endogenous ethanol in blood and tissue of conventional and germfree rats. In all biological specimens analysed, the four principal volatile endogenous substances were identified as methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol and acetone. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of endogenous ethanol were noted between conventional and germfree animals. In whole blood, liver, kidney, and brain of germfree rats the concentrations of endogenous ethanol were 4.2 +/- 0.19 microM, 5.1 +/- 0.55 microM, 8.2 +/- 0.59 microM and 4.4 +/- 0.17 microM (means +/- SE), respectively. The higher concentration in kidney was also observed in conventional rats. Our results suggest that ethanol is a normal metabolic intermediate in rats and does not exclusively arise from microbial fermentation reactions in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply

  13. Concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a herd of high-productive dairy cows of the Holstein breed, 40 cows were selected for an experiment. The animals were chosen at the period of advanced gravidity. Data on mean values of beta-carotene concentrations in blood serum of the cows show that significantly higher values (p<0.01 were established in advanced gravidity (x=9.53± 3.49 μmol/l in comparison with the values on calving day (x=5.69±3.14 μmol/l and in early puerperium (x=2.25±1.00 μmol/l. The average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows varied approximately the same as the concentration of beta-carotene. The highest average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows was determined in advanced gravidity (x=1.856±0.52 μmol/l, and the lowest in early puerperium (x=0.988±0.31 μmol/l (p<0.05. It can be concluded on the grounds of the results obtained in this work that the average concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving is within the limits of physiological values and in keeping with the values cited in literature, and that concentrations of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows two weeks after calving are significantly lower than the values obtained in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving and are lower than the physiological values most often reported in literature for this animal specie.

  14. Insights into past atmospheric lead emissions using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in historic lichens and fungi (1852-2008) from central and southern Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K.; Gulson, Brian L.

    2016-08-01

    Lead concentrations and lead isotopic compositions were determined in historic central and southern Victoria, Australia lichen (Cladonia and Usnea) and fungi (Trametes) samples collected between 1852 and 2008 to evaluate long-term atmospheric lead contamination sources. The data are grouped into four time intervals of 1850-1931, 1932-1984, 1985-2001 and 2002-2008 corresponding to the history of leaded petrol use in Australia. Elevated lichen and fungi lead concentrations and relatively high isotopic compositions from the period 1850-1931 are attributed to lithogenic sources, gold mining activities and early industrialisation. Significant increases in lichen and fungi lead concentrations and concomitant lower lead isotopic compositions correspond to the marked increase in lead emissions from leaded petrol use after 1932. Following the end of leaded petrol use in 2002 lead isotopic composition values 'recover' toward more lithogenic values. However, the lead isotopic composition data indicate that the environmental impact from leaded petrol emissions persists in contemporary samples dated to 2002-2008. Overall, the data reveal that herbarium lichens and fungi from central and southern Victoria can be used as proxies for environmental lead emissions over the past 150 years.

  15. Effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead acid battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of lead acid battery in tropical countries normally faces the problem of water decomposition. This phenomenon is due to the factor of charge-discharge reaction in the battery and heat accumulation caused by hot tropical climate and heat generated from engine compartment. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead-acid battery. Gas separation membranes, prepared through wet-dry phase inversion method and using various polysulfone concentrated formulations, were applied on the battery vent holes, for the purpose of preventing electrolyte from evaporating to the atmosphere. The best membrane, which retains the most electrolyte, will be chosen to be applied on the soon-to-be-developed “membrane-assisted maintenance- free battery”. This maintenance-free battery will need no topping up of deionized water every time the electrolyte level goes low.

  16. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. METHODS: We undertook a meta...... markers. HRs for coronary heart disease were higher in women than in men, at 40-59 years than at 70 years and older, and with fatal than with non-fatal disease. At an adult population-wide prevalence of 10%, diabetes was estimated to account for 11% (10-12%) of vascular deaths. Fasting blood glucose......-analysis of individual records of diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration, and other risk factors in people without initial vascular disease from studies in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. We combined within-study regressions that were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure...

  17. Contaminant concentrations, biochemical and hematological biomarkers in blood of West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, D G; Sarkis, J E S; Diaz, E; Soares, D G; Serrano, I L; Borges, J C G; Souto, A S; Taniguchi, S; Montone, R C; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2012-07-01

    The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is threatened with extinction in Brazil, and this study focused on nondestructive blood samples analyzed for metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as biochemical and hematological biomarkers. Studied manatees were kept at Projeto Peixe-Boi headquarters in Pernambuco State, and at two natural areas in estuaries where they are released to the wild. Manatees kept at the natural estuary in Paraiba State have blood concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Sn that are 11, 7, 8 and 23 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations found in blood of animals from the same species in Florida, USA. An inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in manatees kept at the two reintroduction sites in Alagoas and Paraiba States indicated possible exposure of the animals to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides. PCBs and OCPs were not detected. Results from this study will help delineate conservation efforts in the region. PMID:22626623

  18. Contaminant concentrations, biochemical and hematological biomarkers in blood of West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, D G; Sarkis, J E S; Diaz, E; Soares, D G; Serrano, I L; Borges, J C G; Souto, A S; Taniguchi, S; Montone, R C; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2012-07-01

    The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is threatened with extinction in Brazil, and this study focused on nondestructive blood samples analyzed for metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as biochemical and hematological biomarkers. Studied manatees were kept at Projeto Peixe-Boi headquarters in Pernambuco State, and at two natural areas in estuaries where they are released to the wild. Manatees kept at the natural estuary in Paraiba State have blood concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Sn that are 11, 7, 8 and 23 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations found in blood of animals from the same species in Florida, USA. An inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in manatees kept at the two reintroduction sites in Alagoas and Paraiba States indicated possible exposure of the animals to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides. PCBs and OCPs were not detected. Results from this study will help delineate conservation efforts in the region.

  19. Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal E; Hall, Jeffery O; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James A; Bonde, Robert K; Heard, Darryl

    2013-06-01

    Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation.

  20. Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal E; Hall, Jeffery O; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James A; Bonde, Robert K; Heard, Darryl

    2013-06-01

    Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation. PMID:23805546

  1. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes. PMID:27812289

  2. The relation between the blood benzodiazepine concentration and performance in suspected impaired drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, B.E.; Lusthof, K.J.; de Gier, J.J.; Uges, D.R.; Egberts, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown a negative influence of benzodiazepines on driving skills. The objective of this study is to study the relationship between the blood concentration of benzodiazepines and the influence on performance in field sobriety tests. A retrospective case file evaluatio

  3. Environmental factors predicting blood lead levels in pregnant women in the UK: the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Taylor

    Full Text Available Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL of 5-10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy.Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women.Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC in 1991-1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285. Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19.The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41-19.14 µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.42; p<0.001. Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects.The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed.

  4. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Clozel-Leloup, Blandine; Douay, Francis

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (ECRa), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783km(2) around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The ECRa values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70±0.06 to 12.53±0.49Bq·kg(-1), and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100mg·kg(-1) <3km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak ECRa values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of ECRa correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger ECRa values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, ECRa mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that ECRa mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, ECRa may provide a novel index to identify soils potentially able to fix

  5. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 μg/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 μg/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  6. Measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography: Implication for noninvasive blood glucose concentration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for analysis. There have been enormous efforts by many scientific groups and companies to quantify glucose concentration noninvasively using different optical techniques. However, these techniques face limitations associated with low sensitivity, accuracy, and insufficient specificity of glucose concentrations over a physiological range. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a new technology, is being applied for noninvasive imaging in tissues with high resolution. OCT utilizes sensitive detection of photons coherently scattered from tissue. The high resolution of this technique allows for exceptionally accurate measurement of tissue scattering from a specific layer of skin compared with other optical techniques and, therefore, may provide noninvasive and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration with high accuracy. In this dissertation work I experimentally and theoretically investigate feasibility of noninvasive, real-time, sensitive, and specific monitoring of blood glucose concentration using an OCT-based biosensor. The studies were performed in scattering media with stable optical properties (aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk), animals (New Zealand white rabbits and Yucatan micropigs), and normal subjects (during oral glucose tolerance tests). The results of these studies demonstrated: (1) capability of the OCT technique to detect changes in scattering coefficient with the accuracy of about 1.5%; (2) a sharp and linear decrease of the OCT signal slope in the dermis with the increase of blood glucose concentration; (3) the change in the OCT signal slope measured during bolus glucose injection experiments (characterized by a sharp increase of blood glucose concentration) is higher than that measured in

  7. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aebi Christoph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia. Methods Copeptin cord blood concentration was determined using the BRAHMS kryptor assay. Neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS, n = 30, chorioamnionitis (n = 33 and asphyxia (n = 25 were compared to a control group of preterm and term (n = 155 neonates. Results Median copeptin concentration in cord blood was 36 pmol/l ranging from undetectable to 5498 pmol/l (IQR 7 - 419. Copeptin cord blood concentrations were non-normally distributed and increased with gestational age (p Conclusions Copeptin concentrations were strongly related to factors associated with perinatal stress such as birth acidosis, asphyxia and vaginal delivery. In contrast, copeptin appears to be unsuitable for the diagnosis of EOS.

  8. Abdominal Respiration Induces Hemodilution and Related Reduction in ADH Concentration of Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Ajima, Kumiko; Nagai, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yumiko; Kaidoh, Maki; Seto, Emi; Honda, Takayuki; Ohhashi, Toshio

    2015-09-01

    To establish effective lymph drainage methods and develop concise and accurate clinical techniques for evaluating lymph drainage in healthy individuals and patients with cancer treatment-related lymph edema, we investigated the numbers of red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cells, and platelets (PLT) in blood, hematocrit (Ht), and the blood concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) before and after 5 min manual lymph drainage, followed by 30 min rest with or without abdominal respiration in the supine or sitting position in 48 healthy volunteers. The 5 min facial, upper and lower extremities lymph drainage, followed by 30 min rest in the supine position induced significant reductions of the TP and Alb in all subjects, and their RBC and Ht levels in some subjects. The 30 min rest only in the supine position without lymph drainage produced also significant reductions of blood TP and Alb. In addition, abdominal respiration in the supine position without manual lymph drainage caused more significant hemodilution, being significant reductions of TP, Alb, RBC, Ht, and ADH in all volunteers. These findings may be related to effective lymph drainage from the chylocyst. Furthermore, it also resulted in a significantly increased micturition desire. In conclusion, abdominal respiration during 30 min rest in the supine position is effective at inducing lymph drainage, and the associated induction of hemodilution and lowering of the blood ADH concentration (and increased micturition desire in some cases) can be used to accurately assess the extent of lymph drainage.

  9. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  10. Association between blood lead levels and environmental exposure among Saudi schoolchildren in certain districts of Al-Madinah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolaly MA

    2012-04-01

    that using cosmetics (OR = 18.5, confidence interval [CI] = 14.4–19.8, putting colored toys in mouth (OR = 15.7, CI = 3.6–16.2, eating canned food (OR = 9.8, CI = 7.0–10.1, and using newspaper during food preparation (OR = 7.6, CI = 6.3–8.2 are risk factors. There were significant correlations between BLLs and family habits (r = 0.225, P = 0.000, personal habits (r = 0.321, P = 0.000, eating habits (r = 0.128, P = 0.002 and school building characteristics (r = 0.469, P = 0.000. There was a significant correlation between BLLs and anemia in age group 6 < 12 years (P = 0.000 and age group 12 to less than 18 years, among males (P = 0.000 and females (P = 0.041.Conclusion: The BLLs of children are affected by multiple factors. Female students have higher BLLs and lower hemoglobin concentration than males. The possible sources of lead exposure were use of toothpaste, use of kohl, putting colored toys in the mouth, use of both canned food and canned juice, use of lip gloss in females, and different methods of handling newspaper while preparing food.Keywords: blood, lead, exposure, cosmetics, schoolchildren, anemia

  11. Changes in some blood parameters in lactating female rats and their pups exposed to lead: effects of vitamins C and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Jassim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to examine the changes in some blood parameters in lactating rats treated with lead acetate (10 mg /kg B.W. orally and its interaction with vitamin E (600 mg/kg diet or vitamin C (100 mg/kg B.W. orally during lactation period (20 days and their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant decrease in packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, red blood cell count (RBC, body weight, mean corpuscular heamoglobin concentration (MCHC whereas the white blood cells count (WBC, total proteins, the percentage of monocyte and mean corpuscular volume(MCV significantly increased administration of lead acetate to female lactating rats produced a significant decrease in PCV, Hb, RBC, MCHC, body weight, and the percentage of the neotrophils in their pups. But the WBC count, total proteins, the percentage of lymphocyte, monocyte, MCV a significantly increased in their pups. Treatment dams with vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate increased the PCV, Hb, MCHC, whereas percentage of monocyte significantly decreased, PCV, Hb, RBC, the percentage of neutrophils a significantly increased, whereas WBC count, the percentage of lymphocyte decreased significantly in their pups of this group of dams. Treatment dams with vitamin C concomitantly with lead acetate significantly increased the PCV, MCV, whereas percentage of monocytes significantly decreased, but Hb, PCV and RBC significantly increased in their pups. It could be concluded that treatment female lactating rats with vitamin E or C concomitantly with lead acetate exert an antioxidant effect on blood constituent in dams and their pups and vitamin E more effective than vitamin C.

  12. Predicting Blood Lactate Concentration and Oxygen Uptake from sEMG Data during Fatiguing Cycling Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras Ražanskas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the relationship between electromyographic (EMG signals from vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles, collected during fatiguing cycling exercises, and other physiological measurements, such as blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption. In contrast to the usual practice of picking one particular characteristic of the signal, e.g., the median or mean frequency, multiple variables were used to obtain a thorough characterization of EMG signals in the spectral domain. Based on these variables, linear and non-linear (random forest models were built to predict blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption. The results showed that mean and median frequencies are sub-optimal choices for predicting these physiological quantities in dynamic exercises, as they did not exhibit significant changes over the course of our protocol and only weakly correlated with blood lactate concentration or oxygen uptake. Instead, the root mean square of the original signal and backward difference, as well as parameters describing the tails of the EMG power distribution were the most important variables for these models. Coefficients of determination ranging from R2 = 0:77 to R2 = 0:98 (for blood lactate and from R2 = 0:81 to R2 = 0:97 (for oxygen uptake were obtained when using random forest regressors.

  13. Hyperspectral imaging of vascular anastomosis associated with blood flow and hemoglobin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Nagaoka, Eiki; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    The feasibility of optical non-invasive evaluation of the graft function of vascular anastomosis was investigated in vitro using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the wavelength range from 500 to 600 nm. A Y-shaped vessel was made using porcine carotid arteries having an inner diameter of 3.5 to 4 mm. The graft vessel was anastomosed at a 45° angle with 8-0 polypropylene suture. Fresh porcine blood at an oxygen saturation of 100% was circulated in the specially designed circuit loop and through the graft or main vessel. The vessels were then irradiated with light, and the reflected light was captured with an HSI camera. The attenuation (A) image at each wavelength (λ) was obtained and the spectral A(λ) image was created. The spectral A(λ) image showed graft patency and changes in the hemoglobin concentration. The A(λ) decreased as the flow rate increased due to the orientation of the red blood cells. The experimental results indicated that imaging of the hemoglobin concentration without distortion from blood flow is possible using two wavelengths: 625 and 770 nm. This method is able to distinguish between the blood flow and changes in hemoglobin concentration. The multispectral and hyperspectral imaging method is useful for the non-invasive evaluation of graft function. PMID:26737232

  14. Cadmium and Lead in Blood Cockle (Anadara granosa from Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruk Hossen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations were ranged from 1.35±0.16 to 2.22±0.34 µg/g (dry weight and 2.65±0.34 to 4.36±0.53 µg/g (dry weight for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985. It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long term consumption. Thus, consumer should have consciousness about such type of seafood from mentioned sites and need further investigation.

  15. Cadmium and lead in blood cockle (Anadara granosa) from Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Faruk; Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md Rezaur

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations were ranged from 1.35 ± 0.16 to 2.22 ± 0.34 µg/g (dry weight) and 2.65 ± 0.34 to 4.36 ± 0.53 µg/g (dry weight) for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985). It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long term consumption. Thus, consumer should have consciousness about such type of seafood from mentioned sites and need further investigation.

  16. Cadmium and lead in blood cockle (Anadara granosa) from Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Faruk; Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md Rezaur

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations were ranged from 1.35 ± 0.16 to 2.22 ± 0.34 µg/g (dry weight) and 2.65 ± 0.34 to 4.36 ± 0.53 µg/g (dry weight) for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985). It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long term consumption. Thus, consumer should have consciousness about such type of seafood from mentioned sites and need further investigation. PMID:25538965

  17. Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, J.; Harr, Kendal E.; Hall, Jeffery O.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Heard, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P ≤ 0.05). Mean WB aluminum, calcium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, vanadium, and serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower in BZ versus FL manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P ≤ 0.05). Females had significant and higher mean WB nickel and serum barium compared to males (P ≤ 0.05). Mean WB arsenic and zinc, and mean serum iron, magnesium, and zinc concentrations fell within toxic ranges reported for domestic species. Results reveal manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation.

  18. Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) Concentrations in Marine Gastropod Strombus Canarium in Johor Coastal Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strombus canarium is a popular food source with high commercial value in southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. As a deposit feeder, Strombus canarium can accumulate pollutants especially heavy metals in their system. Study on this species was conducted at Teluk Sengat and Mersing, Johor where samples of seawater and Strombus canarium were collected during spring low tides around 0 to 0.2 meters. Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were investigated to determine pollution status in the area. Samples from Teluk Sengat showed that Zn has higher concentration in both water and S. canarium with 0.055 mg/ L and 20.257 mg/ kg wet weight respectively. However the concentrations were within permissible limit of Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria and Standard (MMWQS). In contrast, Pb concentration at Teluk Sengat exceeded the MMWQS and its concentration in soft tissues of S. canarium also exceeded the permissible limit recommended by Food and Agriculture Organisation (0.5 mg/ kg wet weight) and World Health Organisation (0.2 mg/ kg wet weight). (author)

  19. Chromium and cobalt ion concentrations in blood and serum following various types of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christopher; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Duus, Benn R;

    2013-01-01

    Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties.......Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties....

  20. Measurement of lead isotope ratios in wine by ICP-MS and its applications to the determination of lead concentration by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described for the accurate and precise determination of lead concentrations and the isotopic composition of lead in wine samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method needs little sample preparation. A comparison with lead isotope ratios measured by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) in three wine samples reveals a good agreement between the two techniques. The lead concentration in three certified wine samples were measured by isotope dilution (ID) and the results are compared with those obtained by external calibration ICP-MS. (orig.). With 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended exposure to low levels of lead causes high blood pressure in human and laboratory animals. The mechanism is not completely recognized, but it is relatively implicated with generation of free radicals, oxidant agents such as ROS, and decrease of available nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to low levels of lead. Materials and Methods: The adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups: control, lead acetate (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate in drinking water, lead acetate plus ascorbic acid (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate and 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water, and ascorbic acid (receiving 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water groups. The animals were anesthetized with ketamin/xylazine (50 and 7 mg/kg, respectively, ip and systolic blood pressure was then measured from the tail of the animals by a sphygmomanometer. Nitric oxide levels in serum were measured indirectly by evaluation of its stable metabolites (total nitrite and nitrate (NOc. Results: After 8 and 12 weeks, systolic blood pressure in the lead acetate group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Ascorbic acid supplementation could prevent the systolic blood pressure rise in the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and there was no significant difference relative to the control group. The serum NOc levels in lead acetate group significantly decreased in relation to the control group, but this reduction was not significantly different between the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and the control group. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid as an antioxidant prevents the lead induced hypertension. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of NOc oxidation and thereby increasing availability of NO.

  2. CSF and blood oxytocin concentration changes following intranasal delivery in macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Dal Monte

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT in the central nervous system (CNS influences social cognition and behavior, making it a candidate for treating clinical disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Intranasal administration has been proposed as a possible route of delivery to the CNS for molecules like OT. While intranasal administration of OT influences social cognition and behavior, it is not well established whether this is an effective means for delivering OT to CNS targets. We administered OT or its vehicle (saline to 15 primates (Macaca mulatta, using either intranasal spray or a nebulizer, and measured OT concentration changes in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF and in blood. All subjects received both delivery methods and both drug conditions. Baseline samples of blood and CSF were taken immediately before drug administration. Blood was collected every 10 minutes after administration for 40 minutes and CSF was collected once post-delivery, at the 40 minutes time point. We found that intranasal administration of exogenous OT increased concentrations in both CSF and plasma compared to saline. Both delivery methods resulted in similar elevations of OT concentration in CSF, while the changes in plasma OT concentration were greater after nasal spray compared to nebulizer. In conclusion our study provides evidence that both nebulizer and nasal spray OT administration can elevate CSF OT levels.

  3. Influence of red blood cell concentration on the initiation time of blood coagulation: risk of thrombus formation in pregnant females with anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagesaka, Toshiaki; Juen, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a change in red blood cell (RBC) concentration on the initiation time of blood coagulation (Ti) in pregnant and non-pregnant females was investigated using a damped oscillation rheometer to evaluate the risk of hemorrhagic tendency or thrombus formation. The blood samples from 40 female volunteers (20 pregnants and 20 non-pregnants) were examined. After centrifuging some portion of each blood sample, an appropriate volume was taken from the RBC layer to make an artificially diluted blood, or to add it to the autologous blood, making an artificially concentrated blood. The Ti of non-pregnant females was significantly reduced with increasing the RBC concentration from 3.75+/-0.25 to (5.75+/-0.25)x10(6)/mm(3). However, the Ti of pregnant females showed almost no change in the RBC concentrations from 3.25+/-0.25 to (5.25+/-0.25)x10(6)/mm(3). These results suggest that RBC concentration plays an important role in accelerating the initial coagulation reaction of blood of non-pregnant females and that a hypercoagulant condition caused by pregnancy conceals the effect that changes in RBC concentration have in pregnant females. PMID:17325439

  4. Investigating the impact of oxygen concentration and blood flow variation on photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-03-01

    Type II photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for cancer treatment based on the combined action of a photosensitizer, a special wavelength of light, oxygen (3O2) and generation of singlet oxygen (1O2). Intra-patient and inter-patient variability of oxygen concentration ([3O2]) before and after the treatment as well as photosensitizer concentration and hemodynamic parameters such as blood flow during PDT has been reported. Simulation of these variations is valuable, as it would be a means for the rapid assessment of treatment effect. A mathematical model has been previously developed to incorporate the diffusion equation for light transport in tissue and the macroscopic kinetic equations for simulation of [3O2], photosensitizers in ground and triplet states and concentration of the reacted singlet oxygen ([1O₂]rx) during PDT. In this study, the finite-element based calculation of the macroscopic kinetic equations is done for 2-(1- Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH)-mediated PDT by incorporating the information of the photosensitizer photochemical parameters as well as the tissue optical properties, photosensitizer concentration, initial oxygen concentration ([3O2]0), blood flow changes and Φ that have been measured in mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors. Then, [1O2]rx calculated by using the measured [3O2] during the PDT is compared with [1O2]rx calculated based on the simulated [3O₂]; both calculations showed a reasonably good agreement. Moreover, the impacts of the blood flow changes and [3O2]0 on [1O2]rx have been investigated, which showed no pronounced effect of the blood flow changes on the long-term 1O2 generation. When [3O2]0 becomes limiting, small changes in [3O₂] have large effects on [1O2]rx.

  5. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  6. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: meredith.curren@hc-sc.gc.ca [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: chun.lei.liang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: karelyn.davis@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: Kami_Kandola@gov.nt.ca [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: jbrewster@gov.nu.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: mary_potyrala@yahoo.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  7. On the potential contribution of open lead particle emissions to the central Arctic aerosol concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Held

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During the ice-breaker borne ASCOS expedition (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study direct eddy covariance measurements of aerosol number fluxes were carried out in August 2008 on the edge of an ice floe drifting in the central Arctic Ocean between 2°–10° W longitude and 87°–87.5° N latitude. The median aerosol transfer velocities over different surface types (open water leads, ice ridges, snow and ice surfaces ranged from 0.27 to 0.68 mm s−1 during deposition-dominated episodes. Emission periods were observed more frequently over the open lead, while the snow behaved primarily as a deposition surface. Directly measured aerosol fluxes were compared with particle deposition parameterizations in order to estimate the emission flux from the observed net aerosol flux. Finally, the contribution of the open lead particle source to atmospheric variations in particle number concentration was evaluated and compared with the observed temporal evolution of particle number. The direct emission of aerosol particles from the open lead can only explain 5–10% of the observed particle number variation in the mixing layer close to the surface.

  8. Blood Lead Levels During Pregnancy and Its Influencing Factors in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Xi-rong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the blood lead levels (BLLs) in the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery, and analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.MethodsPregnant women were recruited from September 2009 to February 2010 at the prenatalclinic inNanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. Altogether 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnant or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes were enrolled as the gravidagroup, and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group. BLLs during pregnancy were determinedby flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.ResultsBLLs in all the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum were 59.8±24.3, 55.4±20.1,55.9±19.7, and 67.6±17.4 μg/L, respectively, and the mean BLL in control group was 67.5±21.3 μg/L. BLLs during all the three trimesters were lower in the gravida group than in the control group (P=0.043, 0.021, and 0.028). Furthermore, occupations, nutrients supplementation, and time ofhouse/apartmentpainted were associated with BLLs in pregnant women. Lead-related occupations, cosmetics use, and livingin a house painted less than 1 year beforeare risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women, while calcium, iron, zinc, and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusion Supplementing calcium, iron, zinc, and milk, or avoiding contact with risk factors may help people, especially pregnant women, to reduce lead exposure.

  9. Platelet aggregation and quality control of platelet concentrates produced in the Amazon Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Dantas Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of platelet aggregation is essential to assess in vitro platelet function by different platelet activation pathways. OBJECTIVE: To assess aggregation and biochemical parameters of random platelet concentrates produced at the Fundação HEMOAM using the quality control tests defined by law. METHODS: Whole blood samples from 80 donors and the respective platelet concentrate units were tested. Platelet concentrates were tested (platelet count, aggregation and pH on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage. Additionally a leukocyte count was done only on day 1 and microbiological tests on day 5 of storage. Collagen and adenosine diphosphate were used as inducing agonists for platelet aggregation testing. RESULTS: Donor whole blood had normal aggregation (aggregation with adenosine diphosphate = 67% and with collagen = 78%. The median aggregation in platelet concentrates with adenosine diphosphate was low throughout storage (18% on day 1, 7% on day 3 and 6% on day 5 and the median aggregation with collagen was normal only on day 1 and low thereafter (54.4% on day 1, 20.5% on day 3 and 9% on day 5. CONCLUSION: Although the results were within the norms required by law, platelet concentrates had low aggregation rates. We suggest the inclusion of a functional assessment test for the quality control of platelet concentrates for a more effective response to platelet replacement therapy.

  10. DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.

    1999-01-01

    In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Zinc (Zn, Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb and Copper (Cu in Blood Using Differential- Pulse Anodic-Stripping Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Jaiswal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The salts of Zinc (Zn, Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, are of great toxicological importance and can causes poisoning. Therefore quantitative determination of traces of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, in blood is very essential. Routinely, inductive coupled plasma, atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry were used for analysis. An attempt has been made to develop new method for simultaneous determination of traces of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, in blood done by differential-pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry. Blood was processed by wet digestion method using concentrated nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, was made in acetate buffer (pH 4.6 with a sweep rate (scan rate of 60.0 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50 mV by Hanging Mercury Dropping Electrode (HMDE by standard addition method. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at -1150 mV (vs. Ag/ AgCl for 90 s and the potential was scanned from - 1150m V to +100m V (vs. Ag/ AgCl. Under these conditions the limit of detection of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper were 1.0 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L, 0.1 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L and respectively

  12. Development of an aptamer-based concentration method for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Nagarkatti

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, a blood-borne parasite, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. T. cruzi trypomastigotes, the infectious life cycle stage, can be detected in blood of infected individuals using PCR-based methods. However, soon after a natural infection, or during the chronic phase of Chagas disease, the number of parasites in blood may be very low and thus difficult to detect by PCR. To facilitate PCR-based detection methods, a parasite concentration approach was explored. A whole cell SELEX strategy was utilized to develop serum stable RNA aptamers that bind to live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. These aptamers bound to the parasite with high affinities (8-25 nM range. The highest affinity aptamer, Apt68, also demonstrated high specificity as it did not interact with the insect stage epimastigotes of T. cruzi nor with other related trypanosomatid parasites, L. donovani and T. brucei, suggesting that the target of Apt68 was expressed only on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Biotinylated Apt68, immobilized on a solid phase, was able to capture live parasites. These captured parasites were visible microscopically, as large motile aggregates, formed when the aptamer coated paramagnetic beads bound to the surface of the trypomastigotes. Additionally, Apt68 was also able to capture and aggregate trypomastigotes from several isolates of the two major genotypes of the parasite. Using a magnet, these parasite-bead aggregates could be purified from parasite-spiked whole blood samples, even at concentrations as low as 5 parasites in 15 ml of whole blood, as detected by a real-time PCR assay. Our results show that aptamers can be used as pathogen specific ligands to capture and facilitate PCR-based detection of T. cruzi in blood.

  13. Development of an Aptamer-Based Concentration Method for the Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkatti, Rana; Bist, Vaibhav; Sun, Sirena; Fortes de Araujo, Fernanda; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Debrabant, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, a blood-borne parasite, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. T. cruzi trypomastigotes, the infectious life cycle stage, can be detected in blood of infected individuals using PCR-based methods. However, soon after a natural infection, or during the chronic phase of Chagas disease, the number of parasites in blood may be very low and thus difficult to detect by PCR. To facilitate PCR-based detection methods, a parasite concentration approach was explored. A whole cell SELEX strategy was utilized to develop serum stable RNA aptamers that bind to live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. These aptamers bound to the parasite with high affinities (8–25 nM range). The highest affinity aptamer, Apt68, also demonstrated high specificity as it did not interact with the insect stage epimastigotes of T. cruzi nor with other related trypanosomatid parasites, L. donovani and T. brucei, suggesting that the target of Apt68 was expressed only on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Biotinylated Apt68, immobilized on a solid phase, was able to capture live parasites. These captured parasites were visible microscopically, as large motile aggregates, formed when the aptamer coated paramagnetic beads bound to the surface of the trypomastigotes. Additionally, Apt68 was also able to capture and aggregate trypomastigotes from several isolates of the two major genotypes of the parasite. Using a magnet, these parasite-bead aggregates could be purified from parasite-spiked whole blood samples, even at concentrations as low as 5 parasites in 15 ml of whole blood, as detected by a real-time PCR assay. Our results show that aptamers can be used as pathogen specific ligands to capture and facilitate PCR-based detection of T. cruzi in blood. PMID:22927983

  14. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  15. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  16. 不同供氧流量对新生儿头罩吸氧的吸入氧浓度和动脉血二氧化碳分压的影响%Oxygen concentration analyzer combines with blood gas analysis to lead the choice of oxygen flow with oxygen hood for the newborn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋才好; 何燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测新生儿头罩吸氧时不同供氧流量下患儿血液中二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)与吸入氧浓度(FIO2)的变化关系,分析得出新生儿安全头罩用氧的规律.方法 调节氧气流量,测定在不同流量下新生儿头罩内FIO2.结果 氧气流量在3 L/min以下时,3组FIO2均小于35%,中小号头罩组有CO2潴留;氧流量在3~5 L/min时,中小号头罩组FIO2为35%左右,大号头罩组FIO2接近30%,小号头罩组有CO2潴留;氧流量在5~7 L/min时,中小头罩组FIO2为40%~50%,大号头罩组FIO2接近40%,3组均无CO2潴留;氧流量大于7 L/min时,3组FIO2均在50%以上,无CO2潴留.结论 纯氧下,选择流量在3~5 L/min,选择大中号头罩吸氧相对安全.对于没有空氧混合仪及氧浓度检测设备的基层医院进行氧气治疗有一定指导作用.%Objective By monitoring the relationship of change between pressure of carbon dioxide ( Paco2 ) and inspired oxygen concentration ( Fio2 ) when the newborn oxygen hood with different flow of oxygen, to analyze and obtain laws of newborn s safe oxygen hood. Methods The oxygen flow rate was adjusted, Fio, and Paco, in the hood under different oxygen flow were measured. Results When oxygen flow was under 3L/MIN, Fio2 of the all three groups was less than 35% , and medium and small hood groups had CO2 retention; when oxygen flow was between 3 -5L/MIN, the Fio2 of medium and small hood groups was around 35% and Fio2 of large hood group was close to 30% , and small group hood had CO2 retention; when oxygen flow was between 5 - 7L/MIN, the Fio, of medium and small hood groups was 40 -50% while the large hood group was close to 40% , and three groups had no CO2 retention; when oxygen flow was greater than 7L/MIN, the Fio2 of three groups was above 50% , without CO2 retention. Conclusion When pure oxygen is used, the oxygen flow is between 3 - 5L/ MIN, selection of the large and medium oxygen hood is relatively safe. It plays a guiding role for primary

  17. Carbofuran concentrations in blood, bile and tissues in fatal cases of homicide and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunthala Tennakoon, D A S; Karunarathna, W D V; Udugampala, U S S

    2013-04-10

    Carbofuran is a broad spectrum carbamate insecticide which inhibits cholinesterase. In the recent past several carbofuran related homicide and suicide cases were reported in Sri Lanka. The concentration of carbofuran found in blood, bile and/or tissues in eight fatal cases were presented in this paper. Liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform was carried out with tissue and beverage samples while blood and bile samples were roller mixed with n-hexane and finally extracted into acetonitrile. Qualitative analysis of carbofuran in biological specimens was carried out using TLC and GC-MS. Presence of carbofuran and its metabolite carbofuran phenol were confirmed by GC-MS. The quantitative analysis was carried out using a validated method where Zorbax Eclips XDB C18 column was used in HPLC with photo diode array detector and GC-MS. In blood, bile, liver and stomach contents/stomach and contents both carbofuran and carbofuran phenol were identified, while in certain cases only the metabolite, carbofuran phenol was identified in blood. The carbofuran levels ranged from 0.4 to 18 μg/ml in blood, 0.4 to 60 μg/ml in bile, 2.2 μg/g in liver and 0.3 to 300 μg/g in stomach contents/stomach and contents.

  18. EFFECT OF RESISTANCE AND ENDURANCE TRAINING ON BLOOD TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATION IN OLD MEN

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman Tarverdi zadeh; Fazlollah Fathollahi; Bahareh Sheikh Saraf; Majid Soltani; Khosro Jalali

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with quantitative loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and subsequentdecrement in muscle strength and functional abilities. Exercise can change the impact of someanabolic hormones including testosterone. This study was undertaken to determine the effect ofresistance and endurance training on blood testosterone concentration in old men(age 63.7±3.4yr ; n=45). Participants were assigned to three equivalent groups of control; endurance andresistance randomly (n=15). Endurance and...

  19. The association between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and blood pressure in pregnancy: The HOME Study

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Erika F.; Braun, Joseph M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Khoury, Jane C.; Bruce P Lanphear

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to phthalates, a class of endocrine disrupting chemicals, is ubiquitous. We examined the association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations during pregnancy with maternal blood pressure and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertensive diseases. Methods We used data from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort of low-risk pregnant women recruited between March 2003 and January 2006. We analyzed maternal urine samples collected...

  20. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A.; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily...

  1. The Association between Concentrations of Green Tea and Blood Glucose Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; ISO, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukino, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine whether habitual green tea consumption is associated with blood glucose levels and other biomarkers of glucose metabolism. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 male volunteers, 23–63 years old and residing in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan. Biochemical data were measured and we conducted a questionnaire survey on health, lifestyle, and nutrition, as well as frequency of consumption and concentrations (1%, 2%, and 3%) of green tea. Men who consumed a 3% concent...

  2. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  3. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  4. Thrombopoietin concentration in umbilical cord blood of healthy term newborns is higher than in adult controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walka, M M; Sonntag, J; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    1999-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations were determined in umbilical cord plasma of 121 healthy term newborns. The lower detection limit of the enzyme immunoassay employed was 32.5 pg/ml. Median cord plasma TPO concentration was 78 (interquartile range 55-107) pg/ml. 95th percentile was 255 pg/ml. In only 8% (10/121), TPO was below the detection limit compared to 81% of healthy adults (25/31). In cord blood and adult controls, there were no significant correlations of TPO with platelet count or mass.

  5. Associations between Serum Sex Hormone Concentrations and Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haring

    Full Text Available Despite observational evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies associating sex hormones with various cardiometabolic risk factors or diseases, pathophysiological explanations are sparse to date. To reveal putative functional insights, we analyzed associations between sex hormone levels and whole blood gene expression profiles.We used data of 991 individuals from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with whole blood gene expression levels determined by array-based transcriptional profiling and serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free testosterone (free T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, androstenedione (AD, estradiol (E2, and estrone (E1 measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and immunoassay. Associations between sex hormone concentrations and gene expression profiles were analyzed using sex-specific regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and technical covariables.In men, positive correlations were detected between AD and DDIT4 mRNA levels, as well as between SHBG and the mRNA levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B. No additional significant associations were observed.Besides the associations between AD and DDIT4 expression and SHBG and the transcript levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B, the present study did not indicate any association between sex hormone concentrations and whole blood gene expression profiles in men and women from the general population.

  6. Can Genetic Analysis of Putative Blood Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Lead to Identification of Susceptibility Loci?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert C; Phillips, Nicole R; Tilson, Jeffrey L; Huebinger, Ryan M; Shewale, Shantanu J; Koenig, Jessica L; Mitchel, Jeffrey S; O'Bryant, Sid E; Waring, Stephen C; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Chasse, Scott; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2015-01-01

    Although 24 Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk loci have been reliably identified, a large portion of the predicted heritability for AD remains unexplained. It is expected that additional loci of small effect will be identified with an increased sample size. However, the cost of a significant increase in Case-Control sample size is prohibitive. The current study tests whether exploring the genetic basis of endophenotypes, in this case based on putative blood biomarkers for AD, can accelerate the identification of susceptibility loci using modest sample sizes. Each endophenotype was used as the outcome variable in an independent GWAS. Endophenotypes were based on circulating concentrations of proteins that contributed significantly to a published blood-based predictive algorithm for AD. Endophenotypes included Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1), Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP), Beta2 Microglobulin (B2M), Factor VII (F7), Adiponectin (ADN) and Tenascin C (TN-C). Across the seven endophenotypes, 47 SNPs were associated with outcome with a p-value ≤1x10(-7). Each signal was further characterized with respect to known genetic loci associated with AD. Signals for several endophenotypes were observed in the vicinity of CR1, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, PICALM, CLU, and PTK2B. The strongest signal was observed in association with Factor VII levels and was located within the F7 gene. Additional signals were observed in MAP3K13, ZNF320, ATP9B and TREM1. Conditional regression analyses suggested that the SNPs contributed to variation in protein concentration independent of AD status. The identification of two putatively novel AD loci (in the Factor VII and ATP9B genes), which have not been located in previous studies despite massive sample sizes, highlights the benefits of an endophenotypic approach for resolving the genetic basis for complex diseases. The coincidence of several of the endophenotypic signals with known AD loci may point to novel

  7. Can Genetic Analysis of Putative Blood Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Lead to Identification of Susceptibility Loci?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Barber

    Full Text Available Although 24 Alzheimer's disease (AD risk loci have been reliably identified, a large portion of the predicted heritability for AD remains unexplained. It is expected that additional loci of small effect will be identified with an increased sample size. However, the cost of a significant increase in Case-Control sample size is prohibitive. The current study tests whether exploring the genetic basis of endophenotypes, in this case based on putative blood biomarkers for AD, can accelerate the identification of susceptibility loci using modest sample sizes. Each endophenotype was used as the outcome variable in an independent GWAS. Endophenotypes were based on circulating concentrations of proteins that contributed significantly to a published blood-based predictive algorithm for AD. Endophenotypes included Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1, Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP, Beta2 Microglobulin (B2M, Factor VII (F7, Adiponectin (ADN and Tenascin C (TN-C. Across the seven endophenotypes, 47 SNPs were associated with outcome with a p-value ≤1x10(-7. Each signal was further characterized with respect to known genetic loci associated with AD. Signals for several endophenotypes were observed in the vicinity of CR1, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, PICALM, CLU, and PTK2B. The strongest signal was observed in association with Factor VII levels and was located within the F7 gene. Additional signals were observed in MAP3K13, ZNF320, ATP9B and TREM1. Conditional regression analyses suggested that the SNPs contributed to variation in protein concentration independent of AD status. The identification of two putatively novel AD loci (in the Factor VII and ATP9B genes, which have not been located in previous studies despite massive sample sizes, highlights the benefits of an endophenotypic approach for resolving the genetic basis for complex diseases. The coincidence of several of the endophenotypic signals with known AD loci may point

  8. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  9. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  10. Low Blood Lead Levels and educational achievement in 7-8 year old children in the Community of Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez Iriarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead affects the behavioral and cognitive functions of children. The current lead safety level for avoiding these adverse effects is still controversial.Methods of study: A cross-sectional study included 511 children from 23 primary schools within the Comunidad de Madrid (the Madrid Region –including the city of Madrid and the large urban-industrial conurbation of satellite towns surrounding it, Spain. The children’s blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, the teachers completed an eight-item questionnaire about the children’s behavior and academic achievement. Parents filled in a self-completion survey about the sociodemographic variables of the children and the family.Results: The mean Blood Lead Level (BLL of the children was 4.1 μg/dL SD 1.6 μg/dL (log transformed 3.8 μg/dL SD 0.2 μg/dL. Multivariate analysis controlling for relevant sociodemographic cofactors (among others, sex, age and educational level of the parents showed a negative association, but this was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Despite the low blood lead levels found in the children of the Comunidad de Madrid (Spain and the design limitations of the study, the results obtained suggest the existence of a harmful, but not statistically significant, effect of blood lead on the behavior and academic achievement of children.

  11. Relationship Between Blood Mercury Concentration and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Elderly Korean Individuals Living in Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Jung-Man; Yu, Seung-do; Kim, Yu-Mi; Kim, Rock-Bum; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between the blood mercury concentration and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly Korean individuals living in coastal areas. Methods The sample consisted of 477 adults (164 males, 313 females) aged 40 to 65 years who visited a Busan health promotion center from June to September in 2009. The relationship between blood mercury concentration and cardiovascular risk factors including metabolic syndrome, cholesterol profiles, blood pressure, b...

  12. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  13. Contribution of environmental lead exposure to blood lead level among infants based on IEUBK model%基于IEUBK模型研究环境铅对婴儿血铅的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 邵迪初; 项张华; 叶虹; 倪为民; 杨水莲; 吴翠娥; 李凭健; 傅华

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用环境铅、出生前铅暴露数据和暴露吸收生物动力学模型(IEUBK模型),探讨环境铅对婴儿6月龄时血铅浓度的影响.方法 利用2005-2007年的出生队列资料、出生前铅暴露数据和婴儿6月龄时血铅浓度值,以及婴儿居住环境土壤、大气和饮用水等介质中的铅检测数据,基于IEUBK模型计算环境铅引起的婴儿血铅增高水平.结果 婴儿出生前就存在铅暴露,孕晚期母亲血铅浓度几何均数为(40.3±3.7)μg/L,6月龄婴儿的血铅浓度的几何均数为(54.7±6.7)μg/L,有17.3%的婴儿血铅浓度超过100μg/L.研究对象居住环境中多种介质均能检测到铅,土壤、大气和饮水中铅的几何均数浓度分别为45.57mg/kg、0.023μg/m3和3.25μg/L.根据IEUBK模型计算的由环境铅及出生前铅暴露引起的婴儿6月龄血铅浓度几何均数值为12.4μg/L,占其实际血铅浓度的22.7%.结论 研究区域婴儿仍存在较高水平的血铅暴露,其居住环境内存在一定程度的铅污染现象.除环境铅外,当地婴儿可能还存在其他的铅暴露来源.%Objective To evaluate the influence of environmental lead exposure on infant' s blood lead through integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children (IEUBK) model, based on environmental lead and prenatal lead exposure. Methods The data is from a prospective study conducted among pregnant women during 2005 -2007. Blood lead of the pregnant women in the late pregnancy, environmental lead values including lead concentration in soil, air and drink-water were measured. Moreover, the blood lead concentrations of infants were measured as well. Results Infants were exposed to lead from the pregnant women during the pregnancy, and in the late pregnancy the geometric mean blood lead of pregnant women was (40. 3 ± 3.7 ) μg/L. The geometric mean blood lead concentration of six-month old infants was (54. 7 ± 6.7) μg/L and there were 17. 3% infants whose blood lead

  14. Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration by Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajravelu Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early and non-invasive determination of blood glucose level is of great importance. We aimed to present a new technique to accurately infer the blood glucose concentration in peripheral blood flow using non-invasive optical monitoring system.Methods: The data for the research were obtained from 900 individuals. Of them, 750 people had diabetes mellitus (DM. The system was designed using a helium neon laser source of 632.8 nm wavelength with 5mW power, photo detectors and digital storage oscilloscope. The laser beam was directed through a single optical fiber to the index finger and the scattered beams were collected by the photo detectors placed circumferentially to the transmitting fiber. The received signals were filtered using band pass filter and finally sent to a digital storage oscilloscope. These signals were then decomposed into approximation and detail coefficients using modified Haar Wavelet Transform. Back propagation neural and radial basis functions were employed for the prediction of blood glucose concentration.Results: The data of 450 patients were randomly used for training, 225 for testing and the rest for validation. The data showed that outputs from radial basis function were nearer to the clinical value. Significant variations could be seen from signals obtained from patients with DM and those without DM.Conclusion: The proposed non-invasive optical glucose monitoring system is able to predict the glucose concentration by proving that there is a definite variation in hematological distribution between patients with DM and those without DM.

  15. Association of bovine Toll-like receptor 4 with tick infestation rates and blood histamine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs. PMID:23479166

  16. Normal blood D-dimer concentrations: do they exclude pulmonary embolism?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhiguo; Ma Qingbian; Zheng Yaan; Zhang Yumei; Ge Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    Background Although pulmonary embolism (PE) with normal blood D-dimer (DD) concentrations is considered rare,in practice the incidence may be greater than is generally believed.Overlooking PE is potentially dangerous.The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and clinical features of PE with normal DD concentrations.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the records of 29 patients with PE and normal DD concentrations from the past seven years.We here compare relevant clinical characteristics of these patients with those of patients with PE and abnormal DD concentrations.We evaluated the probabilities of differences by computing pretest probability scores (Wells score and revised Geneva score).Results The frequency of normal DD concentrations in patients with PE was 4%.Previous episode(s) of PE were more common in patients with normal DD concentrations than in those with abnormal DD concentrations (P=0.001).Fever,tachycardia,and tachypnea occurred less frequently in the former group (P<0.05) and time between onset of symptoms and DD testing was longer (P=0.001).The diagnosis of PE was delayed in 22 of the 29 cases.Nineteen and seven cases with normal DD concentrations were classified according to pretest scores as intermediate and low risk,respectively.Conclusions PE with normal DD concentrations is uncommon.Although most diagnoses of PE are ruled out by normal DD values,a small number of cases with PE are missed.A combination of pretest probability score and normal DD concentration increases the probability of making the correct diagnosis,but cannot completely exclude patients with suspected PE.When the clinical manifestations cannot be otherwise explained,clinicians should be alert to the possibility of PE with normal DD concentrations in patients with previous episode(s) of PE or a long interval between onset of symptoms and DD testing.

  17. Measurement of diabetic sugar concentration in human blood using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Rashid, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrates the use of Raman spectroscopy for the direct measurement of diabetic sugar in human blood using 532 nm laser system. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 21 individuals. We have elicited a reliable glucose signature in diabetic patients, and measured glucose levels in blood serum of normal, healthy diabetic and diabetic patients with other malignancies like cancer and hepatitis. Quantitative predictions of glucose spectra illustrate the predictions based on molecular information carried by the Raman light in highly light-scattering and absorbing media. Raman spectrum peaks for diabetic blood serum are observed at 1168, 1531, 1463, 1021 cm-1 with intensity level 17000 to 18500 pixels attributed to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, collagen, and skeletal C-C stretch of lipids acyl chains. Raman spectra for normal, diabetic patients having cancer and hepatitis were also recorded. This in vitro glucose monitoring methodology will lead in vivo noninvasive on-line monitoring having painless and at the same time the data will be displayed on-line and in real time. The measured Raman peaks provides detailed bio-chemical fingerprint of the sample and could confer diagnostic benefit in a clinical setting.

  18. The impact of freediving on psychomotor performance and blood catecholamine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Jan; Kawczyński, Adam; Medraś, Marek; Jóźków, Paweł; Morawiec, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of breath-hold diving on divers' psychomotor performance and blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and lactate concentrations. Four male divers took part in the experiment. During the study the divers' choice reaction time as well as plasma concentration of adrenaline, noradrenaline and lactate were measured. The measurements were carried out before immersion (before a warm-up), three minutes after the dive, and 60 minutes after the dive. A reduction in the reaction time to audiovisual stimuli was found in three divers, three minutes after the dive. Diver 4, who broke his personal best record, had a longer choice reaction time at three minutes after the dive. The adrenaline concentration was lowered in Diver 1 and Diver 2, at three minutes after the dive. The adrenaline level in Diver 3 was relatively steady at all test measurements. In Diver 4, who broke his personal best, a twofold increase in adrenaline concentration was noted at three minutes after the dive. All examined divers revealed an increase in noradrenaline blood level at three minutes after the dive. The results of the study are of great practical value since disturbed reactions during freediving can put the diver at the risk of serious barotraumas. PMID:24851548

  19. Endogenous concentrations of GHB in postmortem blood from deaths unrelated to GHB use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Ann-Sophie; Cooper, Gail

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous compound, but its presence in postmortem blood presents a challenge when interpreting elevated levels as GHB is misused as a recreational drug and is also produced postmortem. A total of 387 postmortem cases (273 male and 114 female) submitted to the toxicology laboratory between 2010 and 2012 specifically requested the analysis of the ketoacidosis biomarker, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). No reference to GHB use was identified in any of the case files; however, BHB and GHB are measured simultaneously using deuterated GHB as the internal standard (GHB-d6) within a calibration range of 5-500 mg/L. GHB was not detected or GHB concentrations in excess of 100 mg/L with advanced decomposition changes noted in five of these cases. Moderate-to-advanced decomposition was also noted in 50% (n = 15) of the cases with GHB concentrations in excess of 50 mg/L but GHB concentrations GHB concentrations >51 mg/L (∼6% preserved versus 11% unpreserved). This study highlights the danger of only using a cutoff to establish endogenous levels compared with exogenous use of GHB in postmortem blood.

  20. Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium and Copper Concentrations in Bee Honey and Edible Molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Content of Cadmium, lead and copper in 26 bee honey samples from different places of Assiut governorate (south of Egypt and three different botanical origins (Clover, Multi-flower and Citrus in addition to four edible molasses samples from Egypt market were evaluated by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV in Briton-Robinson buffer solution at pH ~ 2.1, as well as atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion. Approach: The optimal deposition potentials and times for the detection of these metal ions in all sample solutions have been studied. Results: The concentration of each metal ion was determined by the standard addition method. The statistical parameters i.e., slope, standard deviation, correlation coefficient and confidence have been calculated. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results obtained using stripping voltammetry indicate that the average concentration of Cu ions ranged from 0.085-0.987 μg g−1. In addition, the average concentrations of Cd and Pb ions ranged 0.001-0.077 and 0.006-1.640 μg g−1; respectively. On the other hand, the average concentrations obtained using atomic absorption spectrometry of the same element mentioned above ranged from 0.077-0.991 μg g−1 for Cu; 0.001-0.087 μg g−1 for Cd and 0.007-1.650 μg g−1 for Pb.

  1. Steroid changes adipokine concentration in the blood and bone marrow fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Hozumi, Akira; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Miyata, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Taguchi, Kenji; Goto, Hisataka; Tsuda, Keiichi; Osaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene expression and secretion from bone marrow adipocytes increased markedly with dexamethasone administration. The purpose of the present study was to measure the secretion of various adipokines from human bone marrow and blood, and investigate how adipokine secretion changes in a steroid environment. Human blood and bone marrow fluid were collected from a steroid treatment group and a control group during hip replacement surgery, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the adiponectin, leptin, and PAI-1 levels. Adiponectin and leptin showed no significant differences between bone marrow and blood levels, but PAI-1 was significantly higher in bone marrow. The steroid treatment group had higher levels of leptin and PAI-1 in both the blood and bone marrow than the control group. PAI-1 was present at high concentrations in the bone marrow and increased by steroid treatment. High levels of PAI-1 in bone marrow may influence intraosseous hemodynamics and may induce necrotic bone disorders. PMID:27356609

  2. Concentrations of ions and metals in blood of amateur and elite runners using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense physical training is known to be associated with increased mineral losses through sweating (during the exercise) and also through urine (after the exercise). Nowadays physical training is recognized for adapting or damaging the muscles, depending on the intensity and duration of the effort, provoking detectable metabolic alterations in blood, mainly in the content of some ions. In this study Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S levels were investigated in blood of Brazilian athletes that were submitted to constant physical exercise, at Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP) using Neutron Activation Analyses technique (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male amateurs and elite athletes, ranging from 18 to 36 years old. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5 MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The concentrations data were compared with the control group (subjects of same gender and age but not involved with physical activities). These data can be useful for evaluating the performance of endurance athletes during the period of competition preparation as well as to propose new evaluation of protocols not yet reported. (author)

  3. Estimation of free copper ion concentrations in blood serum using T1 relaxation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicharska, Barbara; Witek, Magdalena; Fornal, Maria; MacKay, Alex L.

    2008-09-01

    The water proton relaxation rate constant R1 = 1/ T1 (at 60 MHz) of blood serum is substantially increased by the presence of free Cu 2+ ions at concentrations above normal physiological levels. Addition of chelating agents to serum containing paramagnetic Cu 2+ nulls this effect. This was demonstrated by looking at the effect of adding a chelating agent—D-penicillamine (D-PEN) to CuSO 4 and CuCl 2 aqueous solutions as well as to rabbit blood serum. We propose that the measurement of water proton spin-lattice relaxation rate constants before and after chelation may be used as an alternative approach for monitoring the presence of free copper ions in blood serum. This method may be used in the diagnosis of some diseases (leukaemia, liver diseases and particularly Wilson's disease) because, in contrast to conventional methods like spectrophotometry which records the total number of both bound and free ions, the proton relaxation technique is sensitive solely to free paramagnetic ions dissolved in blood serum. The change in R1 upon chelation was found to be less than 0.06 s -1 for serum from healthy subjects but greater than 0.06 s -1 for serum from untreated Wilson's patients.

  4. Study on measurement of free ligand concentration in blood and quantitative analysis of brain benzodiazepine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Osamu; Itoh, Takashi; Yamasaki, Toshiro.

    1988-11-01

    We developed the method to determine rapidly the free ligand concentration in the blood as an input function for the purpose of quantitative analysis of binding potential (B/sub max//K/sub d/) of brain benzodiazepine receptor in vivo. It was found that the unmetabolized radioligand in the blood after intravenous administration of /sup 3/H-Ro 15 - 1788 could be extracted by chloroform, whereas the radioactive metabolites could not be extracted. And the plasma protein binding of /sup 3/H-Ro 15 - 1788 was determined using an ultrafiltration method. The biodistribution of /sup 3/H-Ro 15 - 1788 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons-medulla after intravenous administration of the radiotracer in the control and forced-swimmed mice was examined. And the time course of the free ligand concentration in the blood was determined as described above. Further, the binding potential of benzodiazepine receptor in the mouse brain was analyzed using a simple mathematical model. It was suggested that the binding potential of benzodiazepine receptor in the mouse brain was significantly decreased by forced-swimming. In conclusion, it was found that these methods would be useful for quantitative analysis of clinical data in the human brain using /sup 11/C-Ro 15 - 1788 and positron emission tomography (PET).

  5. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V2/Pa1/3 with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors.

  6. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  7. Determination of the concentrations of lead in raw milk in the Valley of Toluca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present work, undertaken under the program of Regional and Cooperative Agreement for Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America (ARCAL IV), was to determine the amounts of lead found in raw milk using the analytic techniques of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX); so as to aid in solving problems of public health originating from elevated amounts of heavy metals in foods of animal origin. A total of thirty samples of raw milk were collected in the Valley of Toluca in Mexico, where heavy metal contaminants in the environment due to effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization, are known to have entered the food chain. The methodology, consisting in destroying organic matter in the samples by calcination, and included, in the case of AAS and ICP-AES, acid digestion. In the case of FRX, lead was extracted by ammonium 1-pyrrolidine carboditioate (APDC). The equipment to be used was calibrated and both blank and working solutions prepared in order to perform quantitative analysis. The concentrations of lead which were found in all the milk samples ranged from <0.03 to 0.31 μg/ml milk. These amounts within the maximum permissible limits, 0.5 μg/ml for all types of milk, established by the FDA. In the analysis ICP-AES gave best results as to sensitivity, precision and accuracy, followed by AAS which gave reliable results. FRX failed to detect lower limits and was, therefore, less reliable. (Author)

  8. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette E-mail: melieres@glaciog.ujf-grenoble.fr; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-07-01

    To make up for the lack of data on {sup 210}Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23{+-}0.02 mBq m{sup -3} during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163{+-}75 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana.

  9. Research of a hormone of stress-cortisol and concentration of blood sugar for an estimation efficiency anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yusupov Anvar Sabirdjanovich; Agzamhodjaev Talat Saidalimovich; Fayziev Otabek Yakupdjanovich; Mamatkulov Isfandiyor Abdurahmanovich; Avazov Jasurbek Husinovich

    2015-01-01

    Aim of investigation: To study changing of concentration of cortisol and concentration of glucose of blood for the evaluation different mode of anaesthetic manuals at children. 64 acquired patients undergoing surgical correction with mean age 2–14 subsequently was included. MBP, HR, concentration of cortisol and sugar of blood were investigated. We concluded: nubain-propofol versus nubain — valium — ketamine general anesthesia provide stable hemodynamic profile during the surgery.

  10. The evaluation of relationship between blood pressure and dialysate Na concentration in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed, Narges Sadat; Gharooi, Omid; Gachkar, Latif; Nikbakht, Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension is one of the traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extra cellular volume expansion and Na retention remain the main cause of hypertension. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between concentration of Na dialysate and blood pressure (BP) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patient. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 266 adult patients undergoing HD for at least three months. Pre-HD systolic BP (SBP) and post-HD SBP during 4 weeks were measured in relation to Na dialysate concentration. The other main factors affecting the post-dialysis BP, such as body mass index (BMI), pump speed, dialysis solution temperature, duration of dialysis and intradialysis weight gain (IDWG) were also considered. Mean of ΔSBP (post-HD SBP – pre-HD SBP) in each patient in 12 session of HD was measured and statistically analyzed in relation to dialysate Na with SPSS 21. Backward multivariable linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the correlation between sodium gradient and ΔSBP. Results: SBP was significantly changed before and after dialysis in relation to dialysate Na (Pcorrelation between ΔSBP with dialysate sodium and blood flow rate (pump speed) were statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion: We found that changes in SBP before and after dialysis is significantly associated with dialysate sodium concentration.

  11. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  12. Relationships between recall of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration in a judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Salvador, A; González-Bono, E G; Sanchís, C; Suay, F

    2001-06-01

    Relationships between perceived exertion and blood lactate have usually been studied in laboratory or training contexts but not in competition, the most important setting in which sports performance is evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and physiological indices of the physical effort in a competition setting, taking into account the duration of effort. For this, we employed two Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE and CR-10) and lactic acid plasma concentration as a biological marker of the effort performed. 13 male judo fighters who participated in a sports club competition provided capillary blood samples to assay lactate concentrations and indicated on scale their Recall of Perceived Exertion in the total competition and again in just the Last Fight to compare the usefulness of RPE and CR-10 in assessing discrete bouts of effort and a whole session. Analysis showed that perceived exertion or the effort made during the whole competition was positively and significantly related to maximal lactate concentration and lactate increase in competition, thus extending the validity of this scale to sports contests. The Recall of Perceived Exertion scores were not significantly correlated with the duration of effort.

  13. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19–25, 26–30 and 31–38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of mercury in cord blood exceed the safety threshold level. •Maternal age was not an influential factor of Hg concentrations in studied samples. •Positive correlations between Hg levels in different tissues were observed. •Negative correlation between Hg concentrations and pregnancy parameters were noted. -- Maternal age was not an influential factor of mercury concentrations in studied samples. 75% of cord blood samples exceeded the Hg threshold concentration

  14. Effect of using unleaded gasoline on lead concentration in air, soil and plants in Damascus-Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the consequences of changing fuel consumption from leaded to unleaded gasoline in 2000, lead concentrations in air, soil and plants were measured in different sites of Damascus City. The results showed that lead concentrations in the total suspended particulate (TSP) have considerably decreased in most sites and returned to WHO standard levels (0.5-1 ?g/m3) after introduction of unleaded gasoline. In addition, lead concentrations in plants and superficial road side soils (0.5-5 cm in depth) were decreased to an extent of about 15-50% in most locations compared with the results obtained from the first study in 1996. We conclude that changing to unleaded gasoline clearly lowered lead concentrations in air, soil and plants in the city

  15. A follow-up comparison of blood lead levels between foreign and native workers of battery manufacturing in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign workers employed in industries in Taiwan have been found at elevated risk of injuries. Less well known is whether the elevated risk persists in chemical exposure such as lead exposure at battery manufacturing. A cohort of 70 Thai workers and 55 native workers employed at a battery plant were followed up, after an education of job safety, from 2000 until 2002. This study compared the change of blood lead levels (BLLs) between these two groups of workers. With informed consent, BLLs were measured annually for participants and compared. The average baseline BLLs were approximately at similarly high levels between Thai workers and native workers with means ± standard deviations of 36.9 ± 16.4 and 36.2 ± 12.4 μg/dl, respectively (p = 0.79). At the end of 2002, the average concentration was higher in Thai workers than in native workers. Using mixed models, Thai workers had an average of 5.95 μg/dl increase in BLLs over native workers during the 3-year study. Further measurements revealed that the average BLL for workers in the assembly department was 3.57 ± 1.83 μg/dl in excess, compared with workers in the plate engineering department. Thai workers were more likely to drink alcohol but less likely to wear gloves at work and wash hands before meals. The BLL disparities between Thai workers and native workers can partly be explained by differences in risk-taking behaviors. Higher BLLs in Thai workers suggest the need of language appropriate health education to improve their personal hygiene. Workplace smoking ceasing program may be needed both in Thai and native workers

  16. Hyperthermic Laser Ablation of Recurrent Glioblastoma Leads to Temporary Disruption of the Peritumoral Blood Brain Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Leuthardt

    Full Text Available Poor central nervous system penetration of cytotoxic drugs due to the blood brain barrier (BBB is a major limiting factor in the treatment of brain tumors. Most recurrent glioblastomas (GBM occur within the peritumoral region. In this study, we describe a hyperthemic method to induce temporary disruption of the peritumoral BBB that can potentially be used to enhance drug delivery.Twenty patients with probable recurrent GBM were enrolled in this study. Fourteen patients were evaluable. MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy was applied to achieve both tumor cytoreduction and disruption of the peritumoral BBB. To determine the degree and timing of peritumoral BBB disruption, dynamic contrast-enhancement brain MRI was used to calculate the vascular transfer constant (Ktrans in the peritumoral region as direct measures of BBB permeability before and after laser ablation. Serum levels of brain-specific enolase, also known as neuron-specific enolase, were also measured and used as an independent quantification of BBB disruption.In all 14 evaluable patients, Ktrans levels peaked immediately post laser ablation, followed by a gradual decline over the following 4 weeks. Serum BSE concentrations increased shortly after laser ablation and peaked in 1-3 weeks before decreasing to baseline by 6 weeks.The data from our pilot research support that disruption of the peritumoral BBB was induced by hyperthemia with the peak of high permeability occurring within 1-2 weeks after laser ablation and resolving by 4-6 weeks. This provides a therapeutic window of opportunity during which delivery of BBB-impermeant therapeutic agents may be enhanced.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01851733.

  17. 蓄酸电池厂铅作业工人血铅异常回顾性队列研究%A retrospective cohort study on abnormal blood lead levels in lead-exposed workers in a storage battery factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周齐红; 付风云; 俞慧娟; 任阳春; 叶海朋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influencing factors of high blood lead levels in lead-exposed workers of a storage battery factory .Methods By the typical sampling method , lead-exposed workers were chosen as study subjects for a three-year retrospective cohort study starting from September of 2011 and ending in September of 2014.The starting blood lead level was <400.0μg/L and ending blood lead level was ≥400.0μg/L ( abnormal level ) .The influencing factors of abnormal blood lead level were analyzed by the COX regression analysis method .Results There were 244 lead-exposed workers included in this study .The median (M) working years of baseline lead exposure was 6.3 (0.7-35.9) years, the M of baseline blood lead level was 321.5 (215.7-398.7) μg/L by September of 2011.During the 3 years, there were 78 workers found to have abnormal blood lead levels , with an abnormality rate of 32.0%.The multivariable COX regression analysis indicated that the workers with following situations had relative higher incidences of abnormal blood lead level :working without masks , baseline blood lead level over 300.0 μg/L, the air concentration of lead in workplace beyond the standard and the workers exposed to lead for over 5.0 years, their relative risk ratios were 6.89, 4.00, 9.02 and 2.93 times of those workers with the opposite situations , respectively ( P<0.01 ) .Conclusion Measures should be taken to prevent and control the occupational chronic lead poisoning especially in those lead -exposed workers who don ’t wear masks during work, whose baseline blood lead level was over 300.0 μg/L, whose air concentrations of lead in workplace were beyond the standard and whose lead exposure year was over 5.0 years.%目的:分析蓄电池厂铅作业工人血铅异常的影响因素。方法采用典型抽样方法,以某蓄电池厂的铅作业工人为研究对象,进行为期3年的回顾性队列研究。起点时间为2011年9月,起点事件为血铅水平<400.0μg

  18. Incubation of human blood fractions leads to changes in apparent miRNA abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jørgensen, Stine Thuen; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    was performed. 19 specific miRNAs were compared in control samples (0 hours), incubated 24 hour samples, and incubated 24 hour samples with glass bead stimulation for each blood fraction. All 19 miRNAs were expressed in all blood fractions albeit at different levels for different miRNAs. Incubation resulted...... in plasma, RBC, PBMC and PMN, while expression of miR-25, miR15a, miR-126 and miR223 was significantly changed in PRP. Thus, PRP, as the only blood fraction depended on stimulation to change its miRNA profile upon incubation. For the other fractions, stimulation either leveled out the changes induced......A basic investigation on the presence and composition of miRNA species and their reaction to in vitro incubation and stimulation (borosilicate glass beads), in plasma, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), red blood cells (RBC), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells...

  19. Patients blood serum ferritin concentrations changes associated with Caesium-137 incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioimmune study of ferritin and carcinoembryonic antigen in 60 persons: 35 those who took part in liquidation of the Chernobyl accident and incorporated 25.9-70.4 MBq of Cesium-137,25 residents of Rivno Region with 7.4-203.5 MBq of the radionuclide in the organism are reported. The increased concentration of ferritin and carcinoembryonic antigen in blood serum was noted to be determined more often in the residents of the areas polluted with Caesium-137 than in liquidators. The tumor markers levels depended to some extent on bad habits (smoking, alcohol) and existing chronic diseases of the alimentary system

  20. Effect of guar crispbread with cereal products and leguminous seeds on blood glucose concentrations of diabetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Barker, H M; Fielden, H; Jenkins, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    To compare the effect on blood glucose concentrations of guar incorporated into crispbreads with that of unprocessed high-fibre foods groups of four to six diabetics took a total of seven test breakfasts on separate days. By comparison with a breakfast of wholemeal bread and cheese, guar crispbread combined with bread reduced the area under the glucose response curve to 51% (p < 0.05); bread and soya beans reduced the area to 65% (p < 0.05); guar crispbread with soya beans to 25% (p < 0.002);...

  1. Utility of blood procalcitonin concentration in the management of cancer patients with infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnaś, Bonita; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Marzec, Michał; Bucki, Robert; Góźdź, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of infections in cancer patients is usually problematic since differentiating between infection and fever of unknown origin is often a considerable clinical challenge. In general, increase concentration of blood procalcitonin (PCT) is associated with severe bacterial infection. PCT with an optimal cutoff level of 0.5 ng/mL seems to be the most helpful biochemical parameter in detecting severe infections, mainly bloodstream infection, in patients with hematological cancers. In all clinical situations, the elevated level of PCT should be carefully analyzed, always with a thorough physical examination and an appropriate microbiological assessment. PMID:26858528

  2. 儿童高血铅对视力、立体视及视觉诱发电位的影响%Visual acuity,stereoacuity and visual evoked potentials in children with high blood lead level Visual acuity,stereoacuity and visual evoked potentials in children with high blood lead level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文珲; 廖瑞端; 苏毅华; 陈咏冲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To find out the influences of high blood lead level on visual acuity,stereoacuity,visual evoked potentials in children. [Method] 172 children aged 4 to 10 were randomly selected and their serum concentration of lead were detected. They were divided into normal blood lead group and high blood lead group by the blood lead level. [Results] The difference of cases with abnormal corrected visual acuity between high blood lead group and normal blood lead group was statistically significant(P0. 05). [Conclusions] High blood lead level has bad influence on visual acuity,stereoacuity, visual evoked potentials in children. More attention should be paid to the prevention of the lead pollution and the abnormal development of visual function.%[目的]了解铅对儿童视力、立体视及视觉诱发电位有无影响,为防治其对儿童视功能发育的损害提供科学依据. [方法]随机选择4~10岁的儿童172例,检测血清铅浓度,按正常和超过正常分为正常血铅组和高血铅组.并分别比较两组间矫正视力、立体视锐度及视觉诱发电位的差异. [结果]高血铅组矫正视力异常人数与血铅正常组相比,差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01);两组间P100潜伏期及矫正立体视锐度比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组间P100振幅比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论]高血铅对儿童视力、立体视及视觉诱发电位都有不利影响,需重视防治铅污染及其导致的儿童视功能发育异常.

  3. Glucose concentration and blood acid-basis status in high-yielding dairy cows during heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanac Ivan

    2011-01-01

    significant differences between the average values for glucose during the spring period of investigations. During the summer, the average afternoon values for glucose on days 60 and 90 of lactation were significantly lower against the morning values. Glucose concentration measured on day 90 was statistically significantly lower than those for days 30 and 60 of lactation, both in the morning and in the afternoon. Glucose concentration on day 90 of lactation during the summer period was significantly lower against glucose concentration during the spring, both in the morning and in the afternoon hours. During the spring period, there was no significant correlation between blood glucemia and pH, while there was a negative correlation between the electrochemical reaction of blood and glucemia during the summer, but which was significant only in the afternoon hours. The decrease in glucemia in the afternoon hours of days 60 and 90 of lactation during the summer period can be explained by the strong influence of alkalosis on insulin secretion that leads to the increased utilization of glucose in peripheral tissues, which is why its concentration in blood is significantly decreased at that time. This is a form of the metabolism shifting under conditions of heat stress, when it uses glucose predominantly as a source of energy in the cells, as its oxidation releases significantly less heat energy in comparison with the combustion of other metabolites.

  4. Cloud point extraction for determination of lead in blood samples of children, using different ligands prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Faheem, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Naeemullah, E-mail: khannaeemullah@ymail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Trace levels of lead in blood samples of healthy children and with different kidney disorders {yields} Pre-concentration of Pb{sup +2} in acid digested blood samples after chelating with two complexing reagents. {yields} Multivariate technique was used for screening of significant factors that influence the CPE of Pb{sup +2} {yields} The level of Pb{sup +2} in diseased children was significantly higher than referents of same age group. - Abstract: The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of lead (Pb{sup 2+}) from digested blood samples after simultaneous complexation with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) separately. The complexed analyte was quantitatively extracted with octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit value of Pb{sup 2+} for the preconcentration of 10 mL of acid digested blood sample was 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference material (whole blood). Under the optimized conditions of both CPE methods, 10 mL of Pb{sup 2+} standards (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) complexed with APDC and DDTC, permitted the enhancement factors of 56 and 42, respectively. The proposed method was used for determination of Pb{sup 2+} in blood samples of children with kidney disorders and healthy controls.

  5. Effect of number of corpora lutea and fetuses on concentrations of progesterone in blood of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, V L; Dziuk, P J

    1991-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess relationships between 1) number of corpora lutea (CL) and concentrations of progesterone (P) in plasma of goats from onset of estrus (d 0) to d 45 of pregnancy and 2) concentration of P and number of fetuses on d 45. Blood from 79 pregnant goats was obtained on d 0 and 1 and at 48-h intervals thereafter to d 25 of gestation. Additional samples were collected every 5 d from d 25 to d 45. Plasma samples were analyzed for P by RIA. Fetuses and CL were counted at laparotomy on d 45 +/- 3. Six does had one CL, 47 had two and 26 had three or four. Concentrations of P were compared for 1) animals with different numbers of CL and 2) animals with the same number of CL but different numbers of fetuses on d 45. Concentration of P increased in all animals from d 3 to a maximum of 8.5 +/- .3 ng/ml on d 13, then P declined to 5 +/- .3 ng/ml by d 35. Goats with multiple CL had higher P than goats with one CL (P less than .01) from d 7 to d 30. Of goats with two CL, those with two fetuses at d 45 had higher P on d 13 than those with one fetus (P less than .01). The number of CL or fetuses did not influence the concentration of P after d 30. PMID:2016202

  6. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  7. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration in the red blood cells of anaemic pregnant women in various periods of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasomski, G; Zachara, B; Krajewski, J

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intraerythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration in anaemic (haemoglobin concentration below 10.5 g/100 ml blood) and in normal pregnant women (haemoglobin concentration above 12.5 g/100 ml blood). The authors showed that the 2,3-DPG concentration increased systematically between the 16th and 42nd weeks of pregnancy, both in the control group and in pregnant women with anaemia. However, in the group of anaemic pregnant women the 2,3-DPG concentration was higher in each stage of pregnancy. PMID:6629145

  8. Isotopes and concentrations of Zn in human blood and serum by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double focusing IMS-Plasmax2 is used at different resolving powers, for the separation between zinc isotopes and the interfering ions. NIST standard samples of zinc in the single and multi-elements are used in the analysis. Variation of different Zn isotopic abundances and their interfering ions are studied as a function of concentrations at low and high resolutions. The precision and the accuracy of the data are calculated. Blood and serum samples in human are used as an application for this method in the biological samples. The obtained results are compared with that obtained by using flame atomic absorption spectrometer and it is found in the same range of concentration

  9. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly......Inconsistencies in previous reports regarding changes in early distal NaCl concentration (ED(NaCl)) and renin secretion during osmotic diuresis motivated our reinvestigation. After intravenous infusion of 10% mannitol, ED(NaCl) fell from 42.6 to 34.2 mM. Proximal tubular pressure increased by 12...

  10. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  12. Blood concentrations of ions and metals in amateur and elite runners using neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, I, K, Mg, Na, S and Zn concentration were investigated in blood of Brazilian athletes (endurance) using Neutron Activation Analyses technique (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male amateur athletes (AR) and male and female elite athletes (ER), ranging from 18 to 36 year old. The blood samples were collected at the LABEX/UNICAMP and they were irradiated in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The range (at rest) established for AR and ER were compared with the control group (CG), subjects of same gender and age but not involved with physical activities, and showed significant differences for Ca (51 - 439 mgL-1 for CG, 162 - 410 mgL-1 for AR and 64 - 152 mgL-1 for ER) and Br (7.4 - 30.6 mgL-1 for CG, 4.0 - 9.6 mgL-1 for AR and 1.9 - 3.5 mgL-1 for ER), suggesting that a strong dependency of these limits in function of adopted physical training exists. We also performed a systematic investigation for the AR before, during and after the exercise program. These data can be considered for the preparation of a balanced diet, for evaluating the performance of the athletes during the period of competition preparation as well as contributing for proposing new protocols of clinical evaluation not reported in the literature yet. (author)

  13. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  14. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinye Lim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26 and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83 for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67 and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74 for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father, with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53 than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59, and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father, with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches

  15. The measurement of thermal neutron flux depression for determining the concentration of boron in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of targeted radiotherapy that relies on the uptake of the capture element boron by the volume to be treated. The treatment procedure requires the measurement of boron in the patient's blood. The investigation of a simple and inexpensive method for determining the concentration of the capture element 10B in blood is described here. This method, neutron flux depression measurement, involves the determination of the flux depression of thermal neutrons as they pass through a boron-containing sample. It is shown via Monte Carlo calculations and experimental verification that, for a maximum count rate of 1x104 counts/s measured by the detector, a 10 ppm 10B sample of volume 20 ml can be measured with a statistical precision of 10% in 32±2 min. For a source activity of less than 1.11x1011 Bq and a maximum count rate of less than 1x104 counts/s, a 10 ppm 10B sample of volume 20 ml can be measured with a statistical precision of 10% in 58±3 min. It has also been shown that this technique can be applied to the measurement of the concentration of any element with a high thermal neutron cross section such as 157Gd. (author)

  16. Application of DNA-based forensic analysis for the detection of homologous transfusion of whole blood and of red blood cell concentrates in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampella, Alessandra; Di Marco, Sabrina; Pirri, Daniela; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco; Donati, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In this work we present the application of a method for the identification of homologous blood transfusions using forensic genetic techniques based on DNA typing. Ex vivo mixtures of human blood samples - either whole blood or red blood cell concentrates - simulating homologous blood transfusions at different percentages of the donor were typed for a panel of 16 highly variable DNA short tandem repeats (STR). Tested samples included also mixtures, which gave false-negative results if assayed by the reference flow cytofluorimetric method, which is based on the recognition of target antigens located on the membrane of the red blood cell. The recognition of triplets and quadruplets at various loci gave information of the presence of cells belonging to different individuals, as it is the case for homologous blood transfusions. Specificity and sensitivity of the method were assessed in the validation study. The method proved to be unequivocally specific since it was able to recognize all single profiles of each individual, clearly discriminating them from mixtures. Sensitivity resulted as a consequence of the percentage of the donor aliquot in the total volume of the mixture. Although the source of DNA in a blood sample is represented only by nucleated white blood cells, the same procedure resulted effective also in detecting mixtures of red blood cell concentrates (RBCC) from leukodepletion procedure: DNA of the donor from the residual white blood cells resulted still detectable, even if with an expected loss of sensitivity. The proposed approach may contribute to reduce the risk of false-negative results, which may occur using the reference cytofluorimetric method. PMID:27175858

  17. Effect of L-arginine, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA and the association of L-arginine and DMSA on tissue lead mobilization and blood pressure level in plumbism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvezzi C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb-induced hypertension is characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO. In the present study we evaluated the effect of L-arginine (NO precursor, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a chelating agent and ROS scavenger, and the association of L-arginine/DMSA on tissue Pb mobilization and blood pressure levels in plumbism. Tissue Pb levels and blood pressure evolution were evaluated in rats exposed to: 1 Pb (750 ppm, in drinking water, for 70 days, 2 Pb plus water for 30 more days, 3 Pb plus DMSA (50 mg kg-1 day-1, po, L-arginine (0.6%, in drinking water, and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA for 30 more days, and 4 their respective matching controls. Pb exposure increased Pb levels in the blood, liver, femur, kidney and aorta. Pb levels in tissues decreased after cessation of Pb administration, except in the aorta. These levels did not reach those observed in nonintoxicated rats. All treatments mobilized Pb from the kidney, femur and liver. Pb mobilization from the aorta was only effective with the L-arginine/DMSA treatment. Blood Pb concentrations in Pb-treated groups were not different from those of the Pb/water group. Pb increased blood pressure starting from the 5th week. L-arginine and DMSA treatments (4th week and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA (3rd and 4th weeks decreased blood pressure levels of intoxicated rats. These levels did not reach those of nonintoxicated rats. Treatment with L-arginine/DMSA was more effective than the isolated treatments in mobilizing Pb from tissues and in reducing the blood pressure of intoxicated rats.

  18. Metal Accumulation, Blood δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity and Micronucleated Erythrocytes of Feral pigeons (Columba Livia) Living Near Former Lead-Zinc Smelter “ Trepça” – Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Elezaj I. R.; Selimi I. Q.; Letaj K. Rr.; Millaku L. B.; Sefaja L.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of lead in blood and tibia (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cupper (Cu) in tibia, blood δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; EC: 4.2.1.24) activity, hematocrit value (Hct) and micronuclei frequency (MN) of peripheral erythrocytes have been determinated in three different populations of feral pigeons (Columba livia; forma urbana and forma domestica), collected in Mitrovica town (situated close to smelter “Trepça”, down closed in 2000 year ) and in rural area (Koshare willage ) . The...

  19. The spectrographic determination of minor and trace elements in copper, lead, and zinc concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the development of a method for the determination, by an emission-spectrographic technique, of magnesium, manganese, aluminium, silver, calcium, chromium, cobalt, titanium, antimony, cadmium, molybdenum, zirconium, nickel, boron, vanadium, arsenic, beryllium, tin, germanium, and bismuth in copper, lead, and zinc sulphide concentrates. The method involves the preparation of complex standards in which the volatile elements arsenic, antimony, cadmium, tin, and bismuth are incorporated as sulphide compounds at temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius in evacuated silica tubes together with a synthetic sulphide matrix. These standards are then mixed with the other minor and trace elements to form composite standards. The conditions for excitation with a direct-current arc, and the analytical lines for the elements and internal standards, are given. The procedure is rapid and convenient, and involves the minimum of sample preparation. The accuracy is about 10 per cent, and the method has a coefficient of variation for the various elements of between 2 and 13 per cent

  20. Treatment of mine drainage generated by lead-zinc concentration plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾科; 覃文庆; 焦芬; 何名飞; 孔令强

    2014-01-01

    The purification efficiency in the treatment of the mine drainage generated by the mineral processing industry in Mengzi, Yunnan Project, China, was investigated, and the influences of the treated drainage on the mineral electrodes’ electrochemical behaviors were tested. Experiments with different doses of polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) at different pH values were carried out, and the advanced purification by activated carbon (AC) was conducted. Compared with PFS, the better coagulant for removal efficiency is PAM, under the optimal conditions, the removals of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+and COD reduction from solution were 94.8%, 79.9%, 87.6% and 85%, respectively. In the advanced purification, the particle size of activated carbon and agitation time played important roles in the removal efficiency. Each pollute concentration could meet the emission standard of pollutants for lead and zinc industry (GB25466-2010). The wastewater without treatment affected galena and sphalerite electrochemical behaviors greatly, after treatment by the technology, the effects disappeared, which proved the reliability of the technology for wastewater treatment.

  1. The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Rashidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients′ health.

  2. Photosensitizer fluorescence dynamics at its diffusion in blood flow for different means of cells concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryakhina, V. S.; Gun'kov, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    In the paper the mathematical model of kinetics of interaction of the injected compound with biological liquid flow has been described for different means of cells concentrations connected on packed cell volume. It is considered that biological liquid contains a three phases such as water, peptides and cells. At the time, the injected compound can interact with peptides and cells which are "trap" for him. The obtained distribution of the compound connects on changes of its fluorescence spectra. It is shown that fluorescence intensivity change is different at 560, 580 and 590 nm. The curves do not have monotonic nature. There is a sharp curves decline in the first few seconds, next, it are increasing. Curves inflection time slightly depends on the cells concentration and is 7-9 seconds. At the time stationary concentration significantly depends on this parameter in contrast to blood viscosity. As long s cells concentration is primarily mean of the packed cell volume, the model can be important for pharmacokinetics and preparations delivery. It can be also used for fluorescent biomedical diagnostics of cancer tumour.

  3. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safira, Nabila; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre-Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  4. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safira, Nabila, E-mail: safira.nabila@ymail.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: tjandra@sith.itb.ac.id [School of Life Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung – Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre–Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  5. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Jenssen, M.T.S. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo (Norway); Alexander, J. [Office of the Director-General, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Meltzer, H.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Brantsæter, A.L., E-mail: Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B{sub ln} 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B{sub ln} 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different

  6. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (Bln 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (Bln 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different elements • The

  7. Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Scott, E-mail: clarkcs@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati (United States); International POPS Elimination Network (IPEN), San Francisco (United States); Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant [Toxics Link, New Delhi (India); Nycz, Zuleica [APROMAC Environmental Protection Association and Toxisphera Environmental Health Association, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Hambartsumyan, Amalia [Greenwomen, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Astanina, Lydia [Khazer Ecological and Cultural Non-Governmental Organization, Yerevan (Armenia); Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm{sup 2}) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (<9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the

  8. Correlations between blood lead levels and some physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in some Nigerian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is one of the common toxic materials widely occurring in the Nigerian environment. Even with the change to unleaded petrol, other significant sources still remain to be addressed. The deleterious impact of lead on human health, is well documented. The effects range from attention-grabbing mass mortality - as happened in Zamfara State recently, to no less serious but grossly neglected neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental effects, including lowered intelligence quotient scores. All these impacts are most serious in children, especially fetuses who receive their burden from their mothers. Ninety percent of lead in most adults resides in the bones with a half-life measured in decades. Therefore, fetuses and breast-fed children in this generation will remain seriously at risk of exposure to damaging lead levels no matter the efforts to rid our external environment of lead in the years to come. In this work, we have investigated the correlation between Blood Lead Levels (BLL) and up to 35 physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in 62 women of child-bearing age from lIe-lfe, Nigeria. BLL was determined in venous blood using Inductively- coupled plasma Mass Spectrometry. Our results show that BLL significantly correlates with Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Creatine Clearance, and the ratio of Low-density Lipids to High density Lipids in these women. When the subjects were stratified into different Nutritional Status group based on their Body Mass Index, significant correlation was found between BLL and Age but only in Obese subjects.

  9. Evaluating the Accuracy of Self-Reported Exposure to Secondhand Smoke during Pregnancy by Measuring Umbilical Cord Blood Cotinine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zahra Banihosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS during pregnancy leads to fetal and neonatal complications. Since the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy on maternal self-reporting may not be accurate, this study design to evaluate the validity and accuracy of maternal self- reported SHS exposure, using the cord blood cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco at delivery. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 108 non-smoking pregnant women. They were divided into two groups based on their reports; smoke exposed (54 and non-exposed groups (54. Exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed during pregnancy by measuring cord blood cotinine and using questionnaires. The umbilical cord blood of newborns was obtained at delivery room to evaluate the amount of cotinine (main metabolite of nicotine and for estimation of the accuracy of maternal self-reported to SHS exposure, cut-off point Cotinine level of umbilical cord serum that more than 2 ng/ml was considered as positive exposed. Result: The geometric mean cotinine of umbilical cord serum in the exposed group (3.71±1.22 ng/ml was significantly higher than the non-exposed (0.404±0.63 ng/ml (P<0.0001. There was a strong association between maternal reported SHS exposure and umbilical cord cotinine (Kappa= 98%, P<0.0001. In addition, the reported SHS exposure had 98% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive and 98% negative predictive value in comparison to umbilical cord cotinine concentration. Conclusion: This study shows that maternal self-reported SHS exposure is highly accurate .Moreover it seems valid questionnaire. Should be considered as an alternative method for measuring chemical biomarkers, such as cotinine; if the structured questionnaires and accurate interviewing techniques is used.

  10. Changes of Blood Lead and Oxidative Stress Enzymes among the Workers Exposed to Lead%铅作业工人血铅和氧化应激酶变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘淑华; 邹华; 何晓庆

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study oxidative damage for occupational lead exposure, the relationship between serum lead and oxidative stress enzymes, and the mechanism of lead poisoning. Methods The lead content in the air was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, the lead concentration in serum was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the effect indicators of oxidative stress were used to analyze the relationship between blood lead and the indicators. Results Five workplaces were monitored. The lead concentration in exposed group (244.27±124.59ug/L) was significantly higher than that in control group (P0.05), while MDA concetration in exposure group (9.42±3.89mmol/L) was significantly higher than in control group (P0.05);接触组MDA含量(9.42±3.89)mmol/L,显著高于对照组(P<0.01);血清MDA含量与血铅之间存在正相关关系(r=0.3,P<0.01);吸烟、饮酒对SOD活性和MDA含量影响无统计学差异.结论 职业性铅接触引起人体血铅升高,作业场所空气中铅浓度与血铅含量变化不一致,血铅是近期铅接触者的敏感内接触指标,且血铅浓度越高,SOD活性代偿性升高;MDA含量越高,氧化损伤越明显.

  11. Blood parameters and apparent digestibility of concentrate with rice oil for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Alberto Cumani Garcia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients and serum parameters were measured to evaluate the effect of supplementing feed concentrates with rice bran oil in horses. Twelve horses (6 males and 6 females with a mean age of 18 ± 4 months old and mean live weight of 306 ± 22.6 kg were used. Treatments consisted of increasing rice bran oil concentrate levels of 0, 3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0 and 17.5%, considering a daily intake of 2.25% live weight on a dry matter basis. A dietary effect of supplementation on the apparent digestibility of gross energy (y = 64.55 - 0.58x was observed (P0.05. Supplementation did not affect serum glucose levels (P>0.05, but cholesterol was affected (P0.05. A dietary effect on the triglyceride (y = 15.73 - 0.96x + 0.0524x² and HDL (high-density lipoprotein (y = 45.24 + 1.0499x parameters was observed (P<0.01. While the use of rice bran oil does affect blood parameters associated with lipid metabolism, rice bran oil levels up to 17.5% concentrate do not negatively affect the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients.

  12. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, arsenic, nickel, and lead concentrations in rice grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wang-da; ZHANG Guo-ping; YAO Hai-gen; WU Wei; XU Min

    2006-01-01

    Genotypic and environmental variation in Cd, Cr, As, Ni and Pb concentrations of grains, and the relationships between these heavy metals and Fe, Zn were investigated using 9 rice genotypes grown in 6 locations for two successive years.Significant genotypic variation was detected in the five heavy metal concentrations in grains, indicating the possibility to reduce the concentration of these heavy metals in grains through breeding approach. The environmental effect varied with metal, with Pb and Ni having greater variation than the other three metals. There was significant genotype-environment (location) interaction of the concentrations of all five heavy metals in grains, suggesting the importance of cultivar choice in producing rice with low heavy metal concentrations in grains for a given location. Correlation analysis showed that Cd and As, Cr and Ni, and As and Pb concentrations in rice grains were closely associated, and that Ni concentration in grains was negatively correlated with Zn concentration.

  13. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  14. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Anne; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Strat, Yann; Lecoffre, Camille; Bretin, Philippe; Le Tertre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The decline in children’s Blood Lead Levels (BLL) raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008–2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L) were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75) and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70). The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child’s address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead poisoning screening criteria should be updated. The risk of industrial, occupational and hobby-related exposure could not be assessed in this study, but should be kept as screening criteria. PMID:26633457

  15. Blood lactate concentration after exposure to conducted energy weapons (including TASER® devices): is it clinically relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R

    2013-09-01

    In previous studies, blood lactate concentration (BLac) consistently increased in anesthetized animals and in human subjects after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). Some have suggested the increased BLac would have detrimental consequences. In the current review, the following are evaluated: (a) the nature of muscle contractions due to CEWs, (b) general aspects of increased BLac, (c) previous studies of conventional neuromuscular electrical stimulation and CEW exposures, and (d) BLac in disease states. On the basis of these analyses, one can conclude that BLac, per se (independent of acidemia), would not be clinically relevant immediately after short-duration CEW applications, due to the short time course of any increase. PMID:23605975

  16. Blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations in cows with left displaced abomasum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement is one of the most important disorders of the digestive tract in high-yield dairy cows. The etiology and pathogenesis of its occurrence has not been fully clarified to this day. The work examines calcaemia and phosphataemia in cows during the antepartal and postpartal periods and their connection with the incidence of abomasal displacement. The experiment covered 30 cows in advanced stages of gravidity. Blood samples were taken two weeks before expected parturition and two weeks after calving. In all blood samples (taken antepartal and postpartal, concentrations of calcium and an organic phosphorus were determined using a commercial test package (Bio-Merieux. Following parturition, left displacement of the abomasums was established in seven (23.33 % of the 30 cows covered by the experiment (experimental group. The remaining 23 cows in the experiment were clinically healthy, they were placed in a group and represented control animals. The average value of calcaemia for the control group of cows during the antepartal period was 2.72±0.25 mmol/l, and of phosphataemia 2.04±0.25 mmol/l. In the same cows postpartum, average calcaemia values were 2.46±0.22 mmol/l and phosphataemia 1.85±0.29 mmol/l. The average antepartal value for calcaemia in the experimental group of cows was 2.51±0.25 mmol/l, and for phosphataemia 1.73± 0.22 mmol/l. The average values for this group of cows postpartally was 2.13±0.31 mmol/l for calcaemia and 1.43±0.24 mmol/l for phosphataemia. The differences between the concentration values for calcium and phosphorus obtained postpartally between the experimental and control groups were statistically significant. .

  17. Concentrations of metals in feathers and blood of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.; Parsons, K.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, destruction and degradation of wetland habitat has contributed to the decline of wading bird colonies on the Atlantic Coast. In 1998, an initial assessment of the possible contribution of metal pollution to declining heron populations in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays was conducted. Study sites included two heronries in industrialized locations (Pea Patch Island, DE and Baltimore Harbor, MD), and a reference site (Holland Island) remotely located in the southern Chesapeake Bay. Concentrations of 19 metals, metalloids, and trace elements were examined in blood and breast feathers of 14-16 day old nestling black-crowned night-herons. Metal concentrations in blood were low and showed few site differences, though mercury was elevated at Pea Patch Island as compared to other sites. In feathers, metal concentrations appeared to be in the low to moderate range at all sites, though limited data exist for interpreting pollutant concentrations in feathers of nestling wading birds. Where differences were detected, concentrations at Pea Patch Island were consistently greater than those at Baltimore Harbor and Holland Island. Feathers collected at Pea Patch Island had significantly greater concentrations of aluminum, barium, iron, lead, magnesium, and manganese, but were generally found to be within the range of concentrations detected in other nestling birds, where that information was available. Based on these results, metal pollution does not appear to be an immediate threat to BCNH colonies at these two locations, though future monitoring of some elements (Pb, Mn, and Al) may be warranted.

  18. Concentrations of Sex Hormones in Umbilical-Cord Blood: Their Relations to Sex and Birth Order of Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that concentrations of testosterone were significantly greater in the umbilical blood of newborn males than females. In both sexes, firstborns had significantly more progesterone and estrogens than later borns, and among males, firstborns had higher concentrations of testosterone. Temporal spacing of childbirths had greater effects…

  19. Concentration of China’s Lead & Zinc Industry Drops,Rather Than Rises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>This year has seen China’s lead & zinc industry go up dramatically in sales revenue and fixed investment and its proportion in national GDP grow as well.In contrast to the global giants, however,China’s lead & zinc industry is still restrained by such problems as resource bottle- neck,less(ratber than more)industrial concen-

  20. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Risk factors associated with the blood lead levels of children in the Community of Madrid in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez-Iriarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a toxic element for humans, with children being the most vulnerable population.Objective: To find out the risk factors associated to the existing blood lead levels (BLLs of children in the Community of Madrid, after 9 years of lead being banned in gasoline.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 with a sample of 85 children, less than 15 years of age, recruited via the outpatients’ service of the Pediatrics Department of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos in Madrid. Routine blood tests provided the opportunity for determining other blood parameters. Lead levels were measured using electrothermal-atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with the Zeeman-effect background correction. In addition, a survey was undertaken directed to the parents for gathering information about a series of socioeconomic and environmental variables.Results: The arithmetic mean of the BLLs in the children was 1.1 μg/dL (SD=0.7 μg/dL with a range from 0.1 μg/dL to 3.4 μg/dL. The geometric mean was 0.9 μg/dL (SD= 1.1 μg/dL. The risk factors associated to these BLLs are the following: playing in the street; low educational level of the parents; leisure activities of one of the parents linked to lead; tobacco smoking of the father; and drinking tap water.Conclusions: The BLLs of the children in the Community of Madrid have decreased, but there are still sociodemographic and environmental risk factors associated to the present levels.

  2. Effects of processing on the concentration of lead in Manchego-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurera-Cosano, G; Moreno-Rojas, R; Amaro-Lopez, M A

    1994-01-01

    Variations in lead content were determined throughout the process of manufacturing cheese, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and taking samples of natural, pasteurized milk, with additions of rennet, curd whey, pressed curd, pressing whey and cheese. The mean content of lead in cheese was 211 micrograms/kg on dry weight. Statistically significant differences (p cheese-making, expressed both on wet weight and dry weight. Certain differences were observed in the groups formed on using a Scheffe homogeneity test (p < 0.05) depending on whether the lead content was expressed on wet weight or on dry weight. Slight rises in the lead content based on dry weight were shown to be mainly due to the retention of lead by curd and, secondly, by possible contamination occurring during the process. PMID:8181637

  3. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-01-01

    Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E) and vitamin C (Vit. C) are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect altera...

  4. Monitoring of milk production and total cholesterol concentration, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutathione peroxidase in Simmental cows blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezija Silvija Marenjak

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk production, total blood cholesterol concentration and activity ofgamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT and glutation peroxidase (GPx in blood of Simmental cows was monitored during two control periods (first control period - May 2004; second control period - June 2004. The objective was to determine a relationship between milk production and particular blood parameters, and their possible implementation as an indicator of milk production. Twelve Simmental cows from small-scale dairy farm in Zagreb County were included in the study. Cows originated from the same herd andwere roughly of the same parity and stage of lactation. The average milk production and total blood cholesterol concentration were significantly higher in May then in June (20,55 L/d vs. 15,44 L/d; 4,55 mmol/L vs. 3,96 mmol/L, respectively, whereas the GPx and GGT activity was significantly lower in May in comparison with June (GPx=1720,66 U/L vs. GPx=1808 U/L, and GGT = 20,11 U/L vs. 23,22 U/L, respectively. A positive correlation between the milk production and the total blood cholesterol level was detected (r=0,58. The total blood cholesterol concentration in the blood plasma mighthave been one of the indicators of production performance in the Simmental cows herd, whereas the activity of stated enzymes may specify the nutritional status thereof the milk production depends on.

  5. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  6. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Karen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%, Spanish (59.6% and British (61.4% samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%. In those drinking 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08% was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife.

  7. Effects of strength training on blood lipoprotein concentrations in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strength training is often identified as a contributing factor in prevention of diseases and as a non-pharmacological treatment for metabolic disorders and for control of body mass. Its protective effects and utility for management of disease are amplified in people at risk of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Recently the benefits of strength training have been used to reduce the risk of these diseases emerging in postmenopausal women, who are at greater risk of CVD than men of the same age. Notwithstanding, little is known about the effects of strength training on metabolism of blood lipoproteins. The objective of this review was to compare the results of articles that have investigated the effects on lipoprotein concentrations of strength training in postmenopausal women. Current articles dealing with the subject, with publication dates from 1979 to 2012 and large numbers of citations by well-known researchers were identified on the Pubmed, Scopus and EBSCO databases. It was concluded that strength training possibly has an action that affects lipoprotein metabolism and concentrations in postmenopausal women.

  8. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors enable freezing of human red blood cells with reduced glycerol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Kurach, Jayme D R; Turner, Tracey R; Mancini, Ross S; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are cryopreserved in a clinical setting using high glycerol concentrations (40% w/v) with slow cooling rates (~1°C/min) prior to storage at -80°C, while European protocols use reduced glycerol concentrations with rapid freezing rates. After thawing and prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis. This is a time consuming process requiring specialized equipment. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) such as β-PMP-Glc and β-pBrPh-Glc have the ability to prevent ice recrystallization, a process that contributes to cellular injury and decreased cell viability after cryopreservation. Herein, we report that addition of 110 mM β-PMP-Glc or 30 mM β-pBrPh-Glc to a 15% glycerol solution increases post-thaw RBC integrity by 30-50% using slow cooling rates and emphasize the potential of small molecule IRIs for the preservation of cells.

  9. Breath acetone concentration decreases with blood glucose concentration in type I diabetes mellitus patients during hypoglycaemic clamps

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Claire; Walton, Christopher; Hoashi, Shu; Evans, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Conventional wisdom is that breath acetone may be markedly elevated in type 1 diabetes, but that this only occurs during poor blood glucose control and/or intercurrent illness. In contrast, little is known about breath acetone at more representative everyday blood glucose levels in diabetes. We used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to monitor the breath of 8 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus during “insulin clamp” studies in which insulin and glucose were infused into p...

  10. Oxidative damage increases intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i concentration in human erythrocytes incubated with lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González-Martínez, M T; del Pilar, Intriago-Ortega Ma; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2010-08-01

    One important effect of lead toxicity in erythrocytes consists of increasing [Ca(2+)](i) which in turn may cause alterations in cell shape and volume and it is associated with cellular rigidity, hemolysis, senescence and apoptosis. In this work, we proposed the use of erythrocytes incubated with Pb(2+) to assess association of the mechanisms of lead erythrocyte oxidative damage and calcium homeostasis. Lead incubation produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) dose- and time-dependent, which mainly involved Ca(2+) entry mechanism. Additionally, in this in vitro model alterations similar to erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers were produced: Increase in Ca(2+) influx, decrease in (Ca(2+)-Mg(2+))-ATPase activity and GSH/GSGG ratio; increase in lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation and osmotic fragility accompanied of dramatic morphological changes. Co-incubation with trolox, a soluble vitamin-E analog is able to prevent these alterations indicating that lead damage mechanism is strongly associated with oxidative damage with an intermediate toxic effect via [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Furthermore, erythrocytes oxidation induced with a free radical generator (APPH) showed effects in [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative damage similar to those found in erythrocytes incubated with lead. Co-incubation with trolox prevents the oxidative effects induced by AAPH in erythrocytes. These results suggest that increase of [Ca(2+)](i) depends on the oxidative status of the erythrocytes incubated with lead. We consider that this model contributes in the understanding of the relation between oxidative damage induced by lead exposure and Ca(2+) homeostasis, the consequences related to these phenomena and the molecular basis of lead toxicity in no excitable cells. PMID:20460147

  11. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  12. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure

  13. The Effects of Air Pollution and Smoking on Cadmium Concentration in Human Blood and Correlation with Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zeneli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study described the research of the effects that the environment pollution and smoking have in cadmium concentration in human blood, as well as in the correlation between cadmium and the biochemical parameters. Approach: In a comparative study of cadmium concentration in blood of human population of two different environments in Kosovo, one nearby Kosovo Thermo Power Plants (Obiliq, a highly polluted environments (Investigated Group and the other that was considered as relatively clean rural environment Dragash (control group. Results: The results showed that there exists a significant difference in the average concentration of cadmium in human blood between the Investigated Group (IG and the Control Group (CG (t = -3.34, p = 0.0006. The series of determination of cadmium concentration in blood of population that lives in this environment had shown direct effects in biochemical parameters (direct bilirubine, total bilirubine. Conclusion: Air pollution (from coal burning in power plant and smoking were very important factors for the level of cadmium concentration in blood, which had an inhibitory effect in the syntheses of bilirubine.

  14. The Inflammatory Phenotype in Failed Metal-On-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Correlates with Blood Metal Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erja-Leena Paukkeri

    Full Text Available Hip arthroplasty is the standard treatment of a painful hip destruction. The use of modern metal-on-metal (MOM bearing surfaces gained popularity in total hip arthroplasties during the last decade. Recently, worrisome failures due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD, including pseudotumor response, have been widely reported. However, the pathogenesis of this reaction remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ARMD response by flow cytometry approach.Sixteen patients with a failed Articular Surface Replacement (ASR hip prosthesis were included in the study. Samples of pseudotumor tissues collected during revision surgery were degraded by enzyme digestion and cells were typed by flow cytometry. Whole blood chromium and cobalt concentrations were analyzed with mass spectrometry before revision surgery.Flow cytometry analysis showed that the peri-implant pseudotumor tissue expressed two principal phenotypes, namely macrophage-dominated and T-lymphocyte-dominated response; the average portions being 54% (macrophages and 25% (T-lymphocytes in macrophage-dominated inflammation and 20% (macrophages and 54% (T-lymphocytes in T-lymphocyte-dominated response. The percentages of B-lymphocytes and granulocytes were lower in both phenotypes. Interestingly, the levels of blood chromium and cobalt were significantly higher in patients with macrophage-dominated response.The results suggest that the adverse tissue reactions induced by MOM wear particles contain heterogeneous pathogeneses and that the metal levels are an important factor in the determination of the inflammatory phenotype. The present results support the hypothesis that higher metal levels cause cytotoxicity and tissue injury and macrophages are recruited to clear the necrotic debris. On the other hand, the adverse response developed in association with lower metal levels is T-lymphocyte-dominated and is likely to reflect hypersensitivity reaction.

  15. The Inflammatory Phenotype in Failed Metal-On-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Correlates with Blood Metal Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukkeri, Erja-Leena; Korhonen, Riku; Hämäläinen, Mari; Pesu, Marko; Eskelinen, Antti; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hip arthroplasty is the standard treatment of a painful hip destruction. The use of modern metal-on-metal (MOM) bearing surfaces gained popularity in total hip arthroplasties during the last decade. Recently, worrisome failures due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD), including pseudotumor response, have been widely reported. However, the pathogenesis of this reaction remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ARMD response by flow cytometry approach. Methods Sixteen patients with a failed Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) hip prosthesis were included in the study. Samples of pseudotumor tissues collected during revision surgery were degraded by enzyme digestion and cells were typed by flow cytometry. Whole blood chromium and cobalt concentrations were analyzed with mass spectrometry before revision surgery. Results Flow cytometry analysis showed that the peri-implant pseudotumor tissue expressed two principal phenotypes, namely macrophage-dominated and T-lymphocyte-dominated response; the average portions being 54% (macrophages) and 25% (T-lymphocytes) in macrophage-dominated inflammation and 20% (macrophages) and 54% (T-lymphocytes) in T-lymphocyte-dominated response. The percentages of B-lymphocytes and granulocytes were lower in both phenotypes. Interestingly, the levels of blood chromium and cobalt were significantly higher in patients with macrophage-dominated response. Conclusions The results suggest that the adverse tissue reactions induced by MOM wear particles contain heterogeneous pathogeneses and that the metal levels are an important factor in the determination of the inflammatory phenotype. The present results support the hypothesis that higher metal levels cause cytotoxicity and tissue injury and macrophages are recruited to clear the necrotic debris. On the other hand, the adverse response developed in association with lower metal levels is T-lymphocyte-dominated and is likely to reflect

  16. Relationship between blood haemoglobin and serum iron concentrations and heart girth in pre-weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Klinkon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the relation between blood haemoglobin (Hb and serum iron (Fe concentrations and changing of heart girth with age in calves. Blood samples of 66 dairy calves were taken at the age of 3, 5 and 16 weeks (wks. Blood samples were analysed for Hb and serum Fe concentration. At each bleeding, the heart girth was measured. The lowest mean concentration of Hb was measured at the age of five wks. The concentration of serum Fe and heart girth increased with age. Significant positive correlations were found between Fe concentration at 3 wks of age and heart girth of calves at 5wks (r=0.270; P=0.032 and between Fe concentration at 5 wks and heart girth of calves at 5 (r=0.283; P=0.021 and 16 wks (r=0.284; P=0.028. The lowest Hb concentration recorded at 5 wks, might suggest that this is the most critical period for developing anaemia in calves. The correlations established between heart girth and Fe concentration at different ages indicate that serum Fe concentration has some influence on changing of heart girth in calves.

  17. A rugged and transferable method for determining blood cadmium, mercury, and lead with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, William J.; Pappas, R. Steven; Wilson-McElprang, Veronica; Paschal, Dan

    2008-06-01

    A simple, high-throughput method for determining total cadmium, mercury, and lead in blood in cases of suspected exposure, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), has been developed and validated. One part matrix-matched standards, blanks, or aliquots of blood specimens were diluted with 49 parts of a solution containing 0.25% (w/w) tetramethylammonium hydroxide; 0.05% v/v Triton X-100 (blood cell membranes and protein solubilization); 0.01% (w/v) ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (mercury memory effect prevention and oxidation state stabilization, solubilization by complexation of all three metals); 1% v/v isopropanol (signal enhancement); and 10 μg/L iridium (internal standard). Thus the final dilution factor is 1 + 49. The method provides the basis for the determination of total cadmium, mercury, and lead for assessment of environmental, occupational, accidental ingestion or elevated exposures from other means. Approximately 80 specimens, including blanks, calibration standards, and quality control materials can be processed in an 8-h day. The method has been evaluated by examining reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as by participation in six rounds of proficiency testing intercomparisons led by the Wadsworth Center of the New York State Department of Health. This method was developed for the purpose of increasing U.S. emergency response laboratory capacity. To this end, 33 U.S. state, and 1 district health department laboratories have validated this method in their own laboratories.

  18. [MELATONIN CONCENTRATION IN THE BLOOD OF VITILIGO PATIENTS WITH STRESS IN ANAMNESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiskarishvili, N I; Katsitadze, A; Tsiskarishvili, N V; Tsiskarishvil, Ts; Chitanava, L

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, despite some progress in the study of vitiligo many aspects of pathogenesis and treatment of this dermatosis remain unsolved or are highly controversial. It is believed that progression of disease is associated with a genetic predisposition, autoimmune processes and oxidative stress, but the concrete role of stress on the processes having place in the organism of vitiligo patients so far is not investigated. As we know, epiphysis is the main regulator of adaptation of the individual to the environment. An important product of secretion of the pineal gland is the hormone melatonin - a universal regulator of vital functions and biorhythms of the body. Psychoses, neuroses, depression, immunopathology are aspects of disturbances in circadian, seasonal and annual rhythms of the synthesis of this hormone. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that the hormone melatonin, which is one of the links in a stress defense mechanism of the body, has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma level of melatonin in the blood of vitiligo patients (with stress in anamnesis), depending on the clinical form and duration of the disease. 41 patients with vitiligo (16 with segmental and 25 with non-segmental form) with stress in anamnesis and duration of disease from several months to 20 years were under observation. The level of melatonin in the blood plasma was determined by ELISA (IBL - international - reagent), the results were expressed in units of pg/ml. According to the results of our study, 8 patients with segmental vitiligo had the normal level of plasma melatonin concentration (in the range of 20.2-31.1 pg/ml), in 2 cases - the level was near the norm (19.2 pg/ml). In the group of patients with non-segmental vitiligo, the level of melatonin was below the norm (12.5 pg/ml) and in 2 cases, the content of melatonin was very low - 4.05 pg / ml. Correlation analysis of melatonin levels with duration of disease

  19. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Frey, Beat [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch

    2008-12-15

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils.

  20. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  1. Cold-blooded loneliness: Social exclusion leads to lower skin temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, H.; Gallucci, M.; Pouw, W.T.J.L.; Weiβgerber, S.; Doesum, van N.J.; Williams, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Keefer, 2010). We suggest that people feel colder because they are colder. The results strongly support the idea that more complex metaphorical understandings of social relations are scaffolded onto literal changes in bodily temperature: Being excluded in an online ball tossing game leads to lower f

  2. Frequency-domain photothermoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging of blood and opto-thermal effects of plasmonic nanoparticle concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Mohammad E.; Mandelis, Andreas; Lashkari, Bahman

    2015-07-01

    We describe the use of combined ultrasonic imaging (USI) and photoacoustic radar imaging (PARI) with linear chirp laser modulation to provide visualization of blood with and without the use of gold nanoparticles. A blood vessel simulating sample (S1) containing pure sheep blood was shown to be an optically weak absorbing medium which satisfies thermal but not acoustic confinement. On the contrary, the blood-gold combinations (S2) using 10% and S3 (20%) Au concentrations behaved as optically strongly absorbing media. A heating efficiency of 0.54 to 8.60×103 K cm2 J-1 was determined for Au NPs. The optimal optical power modulation spectral density was determined to be in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 MHz and 0.3 to 1.0 MHz for USI and PARI, respectively. USI produced a better structural image while PARI produced a better functional image of the simulated blood vessel in the order of S2>S3>S1 due to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Two-dimensional images of the simulated blood vessel were also obtained. In summary, the PA signal does not increase linearly with Au NP concentration and the change of blood osmolarity due to temperature increase can cause thermo-hemolysis of red blood cells which in turn degrades the PA signal and thus the blood imaging quality. On the other hand, USI produced the best structural image, S4, due to the strong US reflection response from Au NPs and its insensitivity to the presence of blood.

  3. Selenium status, lipid peroxides concentration, and glutathione peroxidase activity in the blood of power station and rubber factory workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, B.A.; Wasowicz, W.; Sklodowska, M.; Gromadzinska, J.

    1987-07-01

    Concentration of selenium in whole blood and plasma, lipid peroxides in plasma, and glutathione peroxidase activities in red blood cell hemolysates and plasma were determined in 49 coal power plant workers and in 50 rubber factory workers. The results were compared with those obtained for 58 nonindustrial controls. Whole blood selenium was significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxides were significantly higher in power plant workers when compared to the nonindustrial group. In the rubber factory workers, whole blood selenium and red blood cells and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly lower than in the control group. Urinary output of selenium was also significantly decreased in rubber factory workers. Slightly elevated lipid peroxides were also observed in that group. It seems reasonable to conclude that the lower blood selenium and decreased urinary output of this element may result from increased loss of selenium with perspiration. No correlation has been observed between selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity and between enzyme activity and lipid peroxides concentration in the industrial group.

  4. Lead and Cadmium Concentration in Agricultural Crops (Lettuce, Cabbage, Beetroot, and Onion of Isfahan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohajer

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that although most of the sampling plants were contaminated with lead and cadmium, the estimated daily intake of each metal (EDI showed that except lead in lettuce, other crops have EDI below the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI recommended by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. In order to better management, preventing pollution and also finding the origin of elements, analyzing heavy metals content in soil, water, and dust of this region is recommended.

  5. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:3522147

  6. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of glucose concentration in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y C; Davies, A G; Linfleld, E H; Elsey, T S; Taday, P F; Arnone, D D

    2003-07-01

    Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy has been used for the determination of glucose concentration in whole blood samples from 28 patients. A 4-vector partial least-squares calibration model, using the spectral range 950-1200 cm(-1), yielded a standard-error-of-prediction of 0.59 mM for an independent test set. For blood samples from a single patient, we found that the glucose concentration was proportional to the difference between the values of the second derivative spectrum at 1082 cm(-1) and 1093 cm(-1). This indicates that spectroscopy at these two specific wavenumbers alone could be used to determine the glucose concentration in blood plasma samples from a single patient, with a prediction error of 0.95 mM. PMID:12884933

  7. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  8. Drag-reducing polymers diminish near-wall concentration of platelets in microchannel blood flow

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, R.; Marhefka, J.N.; Antaki, J.F.; Kameneva, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of platelets near the blood vessel wall or artificial surface is an important factor in the cascade of events responsible for coagulation and/or thrombosis. In small blood vessels and flow channels this phenomenon has been attributed to the blood phase separation that creates a red blood cell (RBC)-poor layer near the wall. We hypothesized that blood soluble drag-reducing polymers (DRP), which were previously shown to lessen the near-wall RBC depletion layer in small channels...

  9. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten Morill; Hansen, Pernille Bl;

    2011-01-01

    RNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma......It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP m...... is not necessary for enhanced AVP expression and secretion in response to water deprivation. Renal medullary COX-2 activity negatively regulates AQP2 and -3. The urine concentrating defect in COX-2(-/-) is likely caused by developmental glomerular injury and not dysregulation of AVP or collecting duct aquaporins....

  10. ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

  11. Changes in blood alcohol concentration and driving ability after alcohol intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃华丽; 张岫竹; 赵新才; 朱秉忠; 周继红; 王正国

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the amount of consumed alcohol, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and driving ability among a part of the population in Southwest China and to provide reference for the formulation of the legal limits for safe driving. Methods: Seventy-six randomly selected volunteer drivers each had three times of alcohol intake ( 100 fl each time). After each drank, BAC was measured with gas chromatograph and driving ability was evaluated.The drivers were grouped according to age, weight, alcohol tolerance and driving experience respectively and changes in BAC and driving ability were analyzed. Results: Average BAC and the percentage of drivers showing impaired driving ability in the groups increased after each intake of 100 ml alcohol. BAC in Group≤60 kg was more susceptible to alcohol than that in Group > 60 kg. When each drank, alcohol had greater influence on drivers who had comparatively shorter driving experience. Conclusion: Volume of consumed alcohol, BAC and driving ability have direct associations among one another and are all under the influence of various factors including individual conditions. To set an appropriate legal BAC limit for safe driving should take an overall consideration of all factors.

  12. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered.

  13. Utility of blood procalcitonin concentration in the management of cancer patients with infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durnaś B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonita Durnaś,1,2 Marzena Wątek,1 Tomasz Wollny,1 Katarzyna Niemirowicz,3 Michał Marzec,4 Robert Bucki,2,3 Stanisław Góźdź1 1Holy Cross Oncology Center of Kielce, Artwinskiego, Kielce, Poland; 2Department of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Microbiology of Infections, The Faculty of Health Sciences of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Aleja IX Wieków Kielc, Kielce, Poland; 3Department of Microbiological and Nanobiomedical Engineering, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland; 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,