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Sample records for blood haemoglobin measurement

  1. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11·5% higher than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...

  2. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 μM) and ±4

  3. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  4. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume...

  5. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. G.; Liu, H.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hbtotal) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hbtotal]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm-1 mM-1) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hbtotal] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  6. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J G; Liu, H [Joint Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington/University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2007-10-21

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hb{sub total}) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO{sub 2} and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hb{sub total}]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm{sup -1} mM{sup -1}) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}], {delta}[Hb] and {delta}[Hb{sub total}]. We have also observed that the error of {delta}[Hb{sub total}] is not always larger than those of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}] and {delta}[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}], {delta}[Hb] and {delta}[Hb{sub total}] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  7. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hbtotal) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hbtotal]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm-1 mM-1) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hbtotal] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal] from in vivo tissue measurements

  8. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin...... concentrations in apparently healthy subjects living at sea level. A retrospective, epidemiological cohort study was performed in 1984. Participants were 1,503 men and 1,437 non-pregnant women evenly distributed in age cohorts of 30, 40, 50, and 60 years. Information of smoking habits and alcohol consumption...... were obtained by a questionnaire. Haemoglobin was measured in the fasting state on Coulter-S. Men displayed no difference in mean haemoglobin levels in the four age groups. In women, mean haemoglobin increased gradually with age (p = 0.001). Fifty-nine percent of men and 50% of women were daily smokers...

  9. The effects of residual pump blood on patient plasma free haemoglobin levels post cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, Schotola; Aj, Wetz; Af, Popov; I, Bergmann; Bc, Danner; Fa, Schöndube; M, Bauer; A, Bräuer

    2016-09-01

    At the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, there are invariably several hundred millilitres of residual pump blood in the reservoir, which can either be re-transfused or discarded. The objective of this prospective observational study was to investigate the quality of the residual pump blood, focusing on plasma free haemoglobin (pfHb) and blood cell counts. Fifty-one consecutive patients were included in the study. Forty-nine units of residual pump blood and 58 units of transfused red blood cell (RBC) concentrates were analysed. The mean preoperative pfHb of the patients was 0.057 ± 0.062 g/l, which increased gradually to 0.55 ± 0.36 g/l on arrival in the intensive care unit postoperatively. On the first postoperative day, the mean pfHb had returned to within the normal range. Our data showed that haemoglobin, haematocrit, and erythrocyte counts of residual pump blood were approximately 40% of the values in standardised RBC concentrates. Plasma free haemoglobin was significantly higher in residual pump blood compared to RBC concentrates, and nearly twice as high as the pfHb in patient blood samples taken contemporaneously. Our findings indicate that residual pump blood pfHb levels are markedly higher compared to patients' blood and RBC concentrates, but that its administration does not significantly increase patients' pfHb levels. PMID:27608341

  10. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in human red blood cells, haemoglobin and myoglobin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susmita Sil; Tania Bose; Dibyendu Roy; Abhay Sankar Chakraborti

    2004-09-01

    Protoporphyrin IX and its derivatives are used as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer. Protoporphyrin IX penetrates into human red blood cells and releases oxygen from them. This leads to a change in the morphology of the cells. Spectrophotometric studies reveal that protoporphyrin IX interacts with haemoglobin and myoglobin forming ground state complexes. For both proteins, the binding affinity constant decreases, while the possible number of binding sites increases, as the aggregation state of the porphyrin is increased. The interactions lead to conformational changes of both haemoglobin and myoglobin as observed in circular dichroism studies. Upon binding with the proteins, protoporphyrin IX releases the heme-bound oxygen from the oxyproteins, which is dependent on the stoichiometric ratios of the porphyrin: protein. The peroxidase activities of haemoglobin and myoglobin are potentiated by the protein-porphyrin complexation. Possible mechanisms underlying the relation between the porphyrin-induced structural modifications of the heme proteins and alterations in their functional properties have been discussed. The findings may have a role in establishing efficacy of therapeutic uses of porphyrins as well as in elucidating their mechanisms of action as therapeutic agents.

  11. Structure of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Torvund-Jensen, Morten; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby;

    2012-01-01

    Red cell haemoglobin is the fundamental oxygen-transporting molecule in blood, but also a potentially tissue-damaging compound owing to its highly reactive haem groups. During intravascular haemolysis, such as in malaria and haemoglobinopathies, haemoglobin is released into the plasma, where it is...... receptor CD163 (ref. 3) protrudes from the surface of the distal end of the complex, adjacent to the associated haemoglobin α-subunit. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of human haptoglobin-haemoglobin bound to the ligand-binding fragment of CD163 confirm receptor binding in this area, and show...

  12. NOTE: A haemodynamic model for the physiological interpretation of in vivo measurements of the concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio

    2002-09-01

    We present a model that describes the effect of physiological parameters such as the speed of blood flow, local oxygen consumption, capillary recruitment, and vascular dilation/constriction on the concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in tissue. This model can be used to guide the physiological interpretation of haemodynamic and oximetric data collected in vivo with techniques such as optical imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to providing a formal description of well-established results (exercise-induced hyperemia, reperfusion hyperoxia, decrease in the concentration of deoxyhaemoglobin induced by brain activity, measurement of arterial saturation by pulse oximetry, etc.), this model suggests that the superposition of asynchronous contributions from the arterial, capillary and venous haemoglobin compartments may be at the origin of observed out-of-phase oscillations of the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations in tissue.

  13. Effect of blood haemoglobin concentration on V(O2,max) and cardiovascular function in lowlanders acclimatised to 5260 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Rådegran, G; Boushel, Robert Christopher;

    2002-01-01

    not alter peak CO. However, LBF and vascular conductance are higher at altitude when [Hb] is lowered to sea level values, with both relating closely to catecholamine and potassium concentrations. This suggests that the lack of effect of [Hb] on V(O(2),max) may involve reciprocal changes in LBF via local......The principal aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of blood haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) on maximal exercise capacity and maximal O(2) consumption (V(O(2),max)) in healthy subjects acclimatised to high altitude. Secondarily, we examined the effects of [Hb] on the regulation......). This was done first with the high [Hb] resulting from acclimatisation and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after isovolaemic haemodilution with Dextran 70 to near sea level [Hb]. After measurements at maximal exercise while breathing air at each [Hb], subjects were switched to hyperoxia (55 % O(2) in N(2...

  14. The impact of prematurity on fetal haemoglobin and how it can bias measurement of glycated haemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Esberg, Gitte; Grytter, Carl; Nybo, Mads

    Background: The extent to which fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentrations are increased in premature infants at the age of six to eight months is only sporadically described. The influence of HbF on measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been investigated in this population. Methods: As...... part of a nutritional study on premature children, HbF and HbA1c were measured in 46 premature infants at the age of six to eight months. Results: Median HbF percentage was 10.3% (range 2.0 to 39.2%). In a multiple regression model only birth weight (P = 0.002) and post-conceptional age (P < 0...... significantly from unadjusted values (4.4±0.4%), (P < 0.0001) with bias for unadjusted values ranging from 1.9 to 33.3%. Conclusions: The HbF concentration remains high in premature infants at six to eight months of age. The clinical implication of this work is a renewed attention on the prolonged Hb...

  15. Autoradiographic determination of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in conscious rats after fluid resuscitation from haemorrhage with a haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschke, K F; Albrecht, D M; van Ackern, K; Kuschinsky, W

    1994-10-01

    The effects of resuscitation fluids on the brain have been investigated in previous studies by global measurements of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. In this study we have examined the effects of a novel haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier on local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) after resuscitation from a volume-controlled haemorrhage of 30 min (3.0 ml/100 g body weight) with ultrapurified, polymerized, bovine haemoglobin (UPBHB). LCBF and LCGU were measured in 34 brain structures of conscious rats 2 h after resuscitation using quantitative iodo(14C)antipyrine and 2-(14C)-deoxy-D-glucose methods. The data were compared with a control group without haemorrhage and fluid resuscitation. In the haemorrhage group, LCBF increased after resuscitation by 12-56% in the different brain structures (mean 36%). LCGU changed less (0 to +18%, mean +9%). In the control group there was a close relationship between LCGU and LCBF (r = 0.95). After fluid resuscitation the relationship was preserved (r = 0.95), although it was reset at a higher ratio of LCBF to LCGU (P < 0.05). We conclude that fluid resuscitation of a 30 min volume-controlled haemorrhage using the haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, UPBHB, induced a moderate degree of heterogeneity in the resulting changes of LCGU and LCBF. Local disturbances of cerebral blood flow or metabolism were not observed. PMID:7999496

  16. Relationship between blood haemoglobin and serum iron concentrations and heart girth in pre-weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Klinkon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the relation between blood haemoglobin (Hb and serum iron (Fe concentrations and changing of heart girth with age in calves. Blood samples of 66 dairy calves were taken at the age of 3, 5 and 16 weeks (wks. Blood samples were analysed for Hb and serum Fe concentration. At each bleeding, the heart girth was measured. The lowest mean concentration of Hb was measured at the age of five wks. The concentration of serum Fe and heart girth increased with age. Significant positive correlations were found between Fe concentration at 3 wks of age and heart girth of calves at 5wks (r=0.270; P=0.032 and between Fe concentration at 5 wks and heart girth of calves at 5 (r=0.283; P=0.021 and 16 wks (r=0.284; P=0.028. The lowest Hb concentration recorded at 5 wks, might suggest that this is the most critical period for developing anaemia in calves. The correlations established between heart girth and Fe concentration at different ages indicate that serum Fe concentration has some influence on changing of heart girth in calves.

  17. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  18. Response of Neutrophils to Extracellular Haemoglobin and LTA in Human Blood System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Kyung Lee

    2015-03-01

    Interpretation: metHb and metHb + LTA complex are ligands of TLR2, inducing an unconventional TLR signalling pathway. Neutrophils are a highly sensitive cell type to metHb + LTA complex. During a haemolytic infection, white blood cells in the vicinity crosstalk to modulate neutrophil TLR-signalling induced by metHb and LTA.

  19. Vessel calibre and haemoglobin effects on pulse oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its success as a clinical monitoring tool, pulse oximetry may be improved with respect to the need for empirical calibration and the reports of biases in readings associated with peripheral vasoconstriction and haemoglobin concentration. To effect this improvement, this work aims to improve the understanding of the photoplethysmography signal—as used by pulse oximeters—and investigates the effect of vessel calibre and haemoglobin concentration on pulse oximetry. The digital temperature and the transmission of a wide spectrum of light through the fingers of 57 people with known haemoglobin concentrations were measured and simulations of the transmission of that spectrum of light through finger models were performed. Ratios of pulsatile attenuations of light as used in pulse oximetry were dependent upon peripheral temperature and on blood haemoglobin concentration. In addition, both the simulation and in vivo results showed that the pulsatile attenuation of light through fingers was approximately proportional to the absorption coefficients of blood, only when the absorption coefficients were small. These findings were explained in terms of discrete blood vessels acting as barriers to light transmission through tissue. Due to the influence of discrete blood vessels on light transmission, pulse oximeter outputs tend to be dependent upon haemoglobin concentration and on the calibre of pulsing blood vessels—which are affected by vasoconstriction/vasodilation. The effects of discrete blood vessels may account for part of the difference between the Beer–Lambert pulse oximetry model and empirical calibration

  20. Pulse oximetry optical sensor using oxygen-bound haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Z J V; Haxha, S; Aggoun, A

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report a unique approach to measuring oxygen saturation levels by utilising the wavelength of the haemoglobin instead of the conventional absorption difference. Two experiments are set up to measure the wavelength of the haemoglobin bound to oxygen at different oxygen saturation levels with the help of a spectrometer. We report a unique low cost and robust wavelength monitoring SpO2 sensor that measures the SpO2 by using the colour of the blood and not the absorption difference of oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin. With use of a spectrometer, we show that the wavelength of the oxygen-bound haemoglobin has a relation to the oxygen saturation level. The proposed device is designed and experimentally implemented with a colour sensor to measure the SpO2 level of the blood. PMID:27137621

  1. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation by a novel S-nitrosothiol is abolished by haemoglobin and red blood cells in vitro: implications for anti-thrombotic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Megson, Ian L; Sogo, Naoki; Mazzei, Francesca A; Butler, Anthony R.; Walton, John C; Webb, David J.

    2000-01-01

    S-Nitrosothiols are nitric oxide (NO) donor drugs that have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP) in vitro and to inhibit platelet activation in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the platelet effects of a novel S-nitrosated glyco-amino acid, RIG200, with an established S-nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in PRP, and to investigate the effects of cell-free haemoglobin and red blood cells on S-nitrosothiol-mediated inhibition of platelet aggre...

  2. Label-free detection of glycated haemoglobin in human blood using silicon-based photonic crystal nanocavity biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyaee, Saeed; Seifouri, Mahmood; Mohsenirad, Hamideh

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a two-dimensional photonic crystal-based biosensor that consists of a waveguide and a nanocavity with high sensitivity. A new method is employed for increasing sensitivity of the biosensor. The simulation results show that biosensor is highly sensitive to the refractive index (RI) variations due to injected biomaterials, like glycated haemoglobin, into the sensing surface. The proposed biosensor is designed for the wavelength range of 1514.4-1896.3 nm. The sensitivity and the quality factor are calculated to be 3000 and 272.43 nm/RIU, respectively. The designed structure can detect a 0.002 change in the RI via resonant wavelength shift of 0.9 nm. The band diagram and transmission spectra are computed using plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods.

  3. Plasma haemoglobin concentrations and other influx variables in blood in connection with transurethral resection of the prostate using distilled water as an irrigating fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlén, H; Allgén, L G; Vinnars, E; Wiklund, A

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) using sterile distilled water as an irrigating fluid were studied. The concentrations of plasma haemoglobin, serum sodium, serum prostatic acid phosphatase protein (PAP) and plasma osmolality were determined as possible indicators of absorption of irrigating fluid. In 3 patients there was a marked increase in plasma haemoglobin immediately postoperatively with a maximum of 3.3 g haemoglobin/l plasma. In the remaining 5 patients the plasma haemoglobin level did not exceed 0.7 g/l immediately postoperatively. In all cases there was a fairly rapid return of the elevated plasma haemoglobin level to preoperative values. There was also a postoperative increase in the serum PAP level which was not correlated with the simultaneous increase in plasma haemoglobin concentration. There was no significant change in the sodium, potassium or albumin concentration in serum nor in plasma osmolality postoperatively. There was some decrease in the postoperative serum creatinine and uric acid levels. The preoperative serum creatinine concentration was within reference limits in 7 patients and borderline high in 1 patient. The haemoglobin binding plasma protein haptoglobin showed a slight non-significant increase immediately postoperatively and a significant decrease in concentration 2 hours postoperatively. The mean plasma haemoglobin concentration immediately postoperatively did not exceed the mean preoperative haemoglobin binding capacity of serum. The mean preoperative haemoglobin binding capacity was 1.2 g/l and the mean plasma haemoglobin level was 1.2 g/l immediately postoperatively. Two hours later the mean plasma haemoglobin level was 0.8 g/l. The mean serum haptoglobin concentration was 2.4 g/l preoperatively, 2.6 g/l immediately postoperatively and 2.0 g/l 2 hours later.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2448868

  4. Investigation into the Antigenic Properties and Contributions to Growth in Blood of the Meningococcal Haemoglobin Receptors, HpuAB and HmbR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmos, Fadil A; Chan, Hannah; Praekelt, Uta; Tauseef, Isfahan; Ali, Youssif M; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Feavers, Ian; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of iron from host complexes is mediated by four surface-located receptors of Neisseria meningitidis. The HmbR protein and heterodimeric HpuAB complex bind to haemoglobin whilst TbpBA and LbpBA bind iron-loaded transferrin and lactoferrin complexes, respectively. The haemoglobin receptors are unevenly distributed; disease-causing meningococcal isolates encode HmbR or both receptors while strains with only HpuAB are rarely-associated with disease. Both these receptors are subject to phase variation and 70-90% of disease isolates have one or both of these receptors in an ON expression state. The surface-expression, ubiquity and association with disease indicate that these receptors could be potential virulence factors and vaccine targets. To test for a requirement during disease, an hmbR deletion mutant was constructed in a strain (MC58) lacking HpuAB and in both a wild-type and TbpBA deletion background. The hmbR mutant exhibited an identical growth pattern to wild-type in whole blood from healthy human donors whereas growth of the tbpBA mutant was impaired. These results suggest that transferrin is the major source of iron for N. meningitidis during replication in healthy human blood. To examine immune responses, polyclonal antisera were raised against His-tagged purified-recombinant variants of HmbR, HpuA and HpuB in mice using monolipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies were raised against outer membrane loops of HmbR presented on the surface of EspA, an E. coli fimbrial protein. All antisera exhibited specific reactivity in Western blots but HmbR and HpuA polyclonal sera were reactive against intact meningococcal cells. None of the sera exhibited bactericidal activity against iron-induced wild-type meningococci. These findings suggest that the HmbR protein is not required during the early stages of disease and that immune responses against these receptors may not be protective. PMID:26208277

  5. Study of haemoglobin saturation with Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortalli, I.; Pedrazzi, G.; Mangoni, L.; Rizzoli, V.

    1988-10-01

    Red blood cells from normal subjects, Hodgkin's lymphoma and acute leukaemia have been investigated. Preliminary Mössbauer spectroscopy results in seven patients have shown a high haedmoglobin saturation. Independent measurements of pH, pCO2, pO2, DPG and P50, are in agreement with the Mössbauer data. These results give indication that the evaluation of haemoglobin saturation could be an information to be used in the clinical follow up of these hematological malignancies.

  6. The influence of carbon monoxide bolus on the measurement of total haemoglobin mass using the optimized CO-rebreathing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (oCOR-method) is routinely used to measure total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass). The tHbmass measure is subject to a test-retest typical error of ∼2%, mostly from the precision of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) measurement. We hypothesized that tHbmass would be robust to differences in the bolus of CO administered during the oCOR-method. Twelve participants (ten males and two females; age 27 ± 6 yr, height 177 ± 11 cm and mass 73.9 ± 12.1 kg) completed the oCOR-method on four occasions. Different bolus of CO were administered (LOW: 0.6 ml kg−1; MED1: 1.0 ml kg−1 and HIGH: 1.4 ml kg−1); to determine the reliability of MED1, a second trial was conducted (MED2). tHbmass was found to be significantly less from the HIGH CO bolus (776 ± 148 g) when compared to the LOW CO (791 ± 149 g) or MED1 CO (788 ± 149 g) trials. MED2 CO was 785 ± 150 g. The measurement of tHbmass is repeatable to within 0.8%, but a small and notable difference was seen when using a HIGH CO bolus (1.4 to 1.9% less), potentially due to differences in CO uptake kinetics. Previously, an improved precision of the oCOR-method was thought to require a higher bolus of CO (i.e. larger ▵%HbCO), as commercial hemoximeters only estimate %HbCO levels to a single decimal place (usually ± 0.1%). With the new hemoximeter used in this study, a bolus of 1.0 ml kg−1 allows adequate precision with acceptable safety. (note)

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells. The food constituent, iron, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells is a beneficial...... physiological effect for infants and young children. A claim on iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells in the general population has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iron in normal formation of haemoglobin...

  8. Evaluation of a reference material for glycated haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weykamp, CW; Penders, TJ; Muskiet, FAJ; vanderSlik, W

    1996-01-01

    The use of lyophilized blood as a reference material for glycated haemoglobin was investigated with respect to IFCC criteria for calibrators and control materials. Ninety-two laboratories, using 11 methods, detected no changes in glycated haemoglobin content when the lyophilizate was stored for one

  9. Comparison of total haemoglobin mass measured with the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method across different Radiometer™ ABL-80 and OSM-3 hemoximeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Radiometer™ hemoximeter (ABL-80) has recently become available to measure carboxyhaemoglobin concentration for the optimized CO-rebreathing method (oCOR-method). Within the English Institute of Sport (EIS), hemoximeters are used in three different laboratories; therefore, precision and agreement of total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass) determination across sites is essential, and comparison to the previous model OSM-3 is desirable. Six male and one female (age 30  ±  6 years, body mass 78.1  ±  10.6 kg) undertook the oCOR-method. Venous blood (∼2 ml) was sampled immediately before and at 7 min during the oCOR-method; with seven replicates from each time point simultaneously analysed on five different Radiometer™ hemoximeters [OSM-3(1), OSM-3(2), ABL-80(1), ABL-80(2) and ABL-80(3)]. There were no differences (p > 0.05) between Δ%HbCO or mean tHbmass analysed with five different hemoximeters (OSM-3(1): 886  ±  167 g; OSM-3(2): 896  ±  160 g: ABL-80(1): 904  ±  157 g; ABL-80(2): 906  ±  163 g: ABL-80(3): 906  ±  162 g). However, the Bland–Altman plot revealed that there was closer agreement between ABL-80 machines for tHbmass than for the OSM-3. The variance (i.e. % error) across replicate samples decreased as the number of samples increased, with the error derived from the ‘worse-case’ scenario (single samples) being 1.2 to 1.6 fold greater in the OSM-3 than the ABL-80. Although there were no differences in the average tHbmass measured with five different hemoximeters, the new ABL-80 were in better agreement with each other compared to the old OSM-3. Previously, five replicates were required to achieve a low error using the OSM-3; however, three replicates are sufficient with the ABL-80 model to produce an error of ≤ 1% in tHbmass. (note)

  10. Gastric mucosal blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertechnetate clearance (C/sub Tc/) by the stomach before and after betazole stimulation was compared to regional measurements of gastric blood flow utilizing nuclide (Chromium-51 and Cerium-141)-labeled microspheres in five piglets. Pertechnetate clearance closely correlated (correlation coefficient 0.926) with mucosal blood flow in the gastric corpus measured by the microsphere technique. Betazole increased blood flow in the corpus region by 100 percent but did not alter this relationship. Except in one experiment, microsphere blood flow valves in the antrum and fundus were unchanged by betazole and did not significantly correlate with pertechnetate clearance. Pertechnetate clearance appears to be a reliable method of determining gastric mucosal blood flow in experimental animals and may be considered as a noninvasive method for measuring such flow in humans. (U.S.)

  11. Blood distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of employing a vascular exploration technique, which is non-aggressive and repetitive, and which gives total and quantitative results led to the exploitation of a rheo-graphic method. An apparatus was constructed for making such measurements. Some appropriate statistics were subsequently determined which allowed the law concerning the establishment of a circulatory index to be determined as well as its statistical distribution and pathological threshold. The results of an examination, which are presented graphically, led to the establishment of a technique (known as cartography) giving the state of the circulation in a member. The application of this technique to persons affected with arteritis allowed the validity of the law and the previously established thresholds to be verified. The apparatus was completely automated and thus gives results which are entirely objective. (author)

  12. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  13. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  14. Disorders of haemoglobin in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Y T; Huang, S Z

    1987-01-01

    A large scale survey of haemoglobinopathies and thalassaemia has been carried out in China, involving 900,000 people in 28 provinces. It has resulted in the finding of many new variants and some interesting cases of thalassaemia, and in a study on the chemical structure of abnormal haemoglobins and DNA analysis of thalassaemia. We report here data on haemoglobin disorders in the Chinese, mainly the characterisation of the geographical distribution of haemoglobin variants, the analysis of glob...

  15. Quantitative measurement of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We are observing and measuring the varying development reaction stages of blood cells to different saline solutions. The imaging process is based on a common path interferometer which is realized with a spatial light modulator (SLM) in the Fourier plane after the microscope objective. With the SLM we can shift the phase of the transmitted light with respect to the phase of signal wave. This principle is used for the phase contrast microscopy method where we take four pictures of the same image with different phase shifts in order to calculate the complex field of the measured cell. This microscope technique obtains quantitative data about the blood cell's surface in different development stages, amplitude and phase differences inside the cell itself. (author)

  16. Blood presure measurement in LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pelikán, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to design and create a product for automated measurement of blood pressure by auscultatory method by using a computer. Thesis contains a description of the blood pressure, also there are explained ways of its monitoring, basic rules for its measurement and the methods by which it is possible to measure blood pressure. In the practical part is described measuring system serving to measuring blood pressure by auscultatory method using a computer. There is also shown a de...

  17. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  18. Accuracy of the blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F

    2006-08-01

    Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412

  19. Haemoglobin Polymorphism in Malabari Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Bindu and K. C. Raghavan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malabari Goat populations of Tanur, Thalassery and Badagara were studied for haemoglobin polymorphism. Two variants were observed for haemoglobin, Hb A and Hb B with a frequency of 0.987 and 0.012, respectively, suggestive of three phenotypes, viz. Hb AA, Hb AB and Hb BB, and indicating the predominance of Hb A in the pooled population. Hb B variant was observed only in the Thalassery population (gene frequency 0.038. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 74-75

  20. Study on the accuracy and application values of point-of-care testing of capillary blood glucose andglycosy lated haemoglobin%床旁检测血糖和HbAlc的准确性及其应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文辉; 周小梅; 李伟雄; 张书楠

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy and application values of point-of-care testing (POCT) of capillary blood glucose and glyeosylated haemoglobin(Hbalc) levels.Methods 152 residents (aged 21~75 years)were recruited.who had POCT glucose measurements in October 2006.Eighty-eight cases with POCT glucose level≥5.0 mmol/L,or self-reported diabetes mellitus(DM).Thereafter,88 cases had POCT HbAlc and laboratory glucose and HbAlc measurements,respectively.The POCT and laboratory measurements of glucose and HbAlc were compared,and the correlation coefficient r,mean difference and limits of agreement (LOA) between capillary POCT and venous blood laboratory measurements of glucose and HbAlc were evaluated for cross-sectional study.Results Mean and median POCT capillary glucose levels were 7.99 mmol/L and 6.25 mmol/L,respectively,while mean and median laboratory venous plasma glucose concentrations were 7.63 mmol/L and 5.35 mmol/L.Mean and median of POCT capillary HbAlc and laboratory HbAlc were 6.98% and 5.96%,and those of laboratory HbAlc were 7.06%and 6.O%,respectively.The correlation coefficient r for POCT and laboratory results was 0.98 for glucose and 0.95 for HbAlc.The mean difference in results was 0.36 mmol/L for glucose(95% CI:0.13~0.62;LOA:-2.07~2.79 mmol/L,P=0.007) and 0.02% for HbAlc(95%CI:-0.07%~0.09%;LOA:-O.66%~0.68%;P=0.95),respectively. Conclusion POCT capillary HoAle testing offers an accurate,practical and convenient way of monitoring the therapy effects of diabetes in community.While POCT capillary glucose results should be calibrated regularly by a laboratory test of venous plasma,it couldh't be directly used to diagnos DM.%目的 评价床旁检测(POCT)血糖和糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)的准确性及其应用价值.方法 对88例疑似糖尿病者行POCT方法测定HbAlc和实验室方法测定血浆血糖及HbAlc.将POCT方法测定毛细血管血糖及HbAlc的结果与相应静脉血的实验室测定结果作比较,评估POCT与实验室

  1. 'Blood doping' from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, James O M; Otto, James M; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin is the blood's oxygen carrying pigment and is encapsulated in red blood corpuscles. The concentration of haemoglobin in blood is dependent on both its total mass in the circulation (tHb-mass) and the total plasma volume in which it is suspended. Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the body per unit time and is one measure of physical fitness. Observations in athletes who have undergone blood doping or manipulation have revealed a closer relationship between physical fitness (aerobic capacity) and total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) than with haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Anaemia is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a haemoglobin concentration of oxygen carrying capacity? Which measure has the most utility for targeting therapies to manipulate haemoglobin levels? Do the newer agents being used for blood manipulation (to increase tHb-mass) in elite sport have utility in the clinical environment? This review explores the literature relating to blood manipulation in elite sport as well as the relationship between perioperative anaemia, physical fitness and outcome following surgery, and suggests some avenues for exploring this area further. PMID:26929820

  2. Two-colour immunocytochemical staining of gamma (gamma) and epsilon (epsilon) type haemoglobin in fetal red cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesker, WE; Velzen, MCMOV; Oosterwijk, JC; Bernini, LF; Golbus, MS; Kanhai, HHH; Van Ommen, GJB; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a two-colour immunocytochemical staining method for the detection of fetal and embryonic haemoglobin in erythroid cells. The method was applied to study these haemoglobin types in fetal red cells. Specimens from fetal blood (10 weeks), cord blood and fetal liver (14 weeks) as well

  3. Palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.

  4. Oxygen bioavailability and haemoglobins in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, B; Blust, R.; Decleir, W.

    1992-01-01

    Bioavailability of oxygen for the saline-water invertebrate Artemia franciscana was studied, since both oxygen concentration and oxygen diffusion rate change with salinity. Total haemoglobin concentration and the relative contribution of each of three haemoglobins was measured in specimens acclimated to different salinities and oxygen concentrations. Both haemoglobin concentration and contribution were influenced by salinity and the group observed (males, females with and females without eggs...

  5. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M091)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.

  6. Haemoglobin interference and increased sensitivity of fluorimetric assays for quantification of low-parasitaemia Plasmodium infected erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyet Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements on malarial diagnostic methods are currently needed for the correct detection in low-density Plasmodium falciparum infections. Microfluorimetric DNA-based assays have been previously used for evaluation of anti-malarial drug efficacy on Plasmodium infected erythrocytes. Several factors affecting the sensitivity of these methods have been evaluated, and tested for the detection and quantification of the parasite in low parasitaemia conditions. Methods Parasitaemia was assessed by measuring SYBRGreen I® (SGI and PicoGreen® (PG fluorescence of P. falciparum Dd2 cultures on human red blood cells. Different modifications of standard methods were tested to improve the detection sensitivity. Calculation of IC50 for chloroquine was used to validate the method. Results Removal of haemoglobin from infected red-blood cells culture (IRBC increased considerably the fluorescent signal obtained from both SGI and PG. Detergents used for cell lysis also showed to have an effect on the fluorescent signal. Upon depletion of haemoglobin and detergents the fluorescence emission of SGI and PG increased, respectively, 10- and 60-fold, extending notably the dynamic range of the assay. Under these conditions, a 20-fold higher PG vs. SGI fluorescent signal was observed. The estimated limits of detection and quantification for the PG haemoglobin/detergent-depleted method were 0.2% and 0.7% parasitaemia, respectively, which allow the detection of ~10 parasites per microliter. The method was validated on whole blood-infected samples, displaying similar results as those obtained using IRBC. Removal of white-blood cells prior to the assay allowed to increase the accuracy of the measurement, by reducing the relative uncertainty at the limit of detection from 0.5 to 0.1. Conclusion The use of PG microassays on detergent-free, haemoglobin-depleted samples appears as the best choice both for the detection of Plasmodium in low-density infections

  7. The haemoglobin pattern of sickle cell and haemoglobin C beta +-thalassaemia in Liberia.

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, M.

    1983-01-01

    Haemoglobin components in 21 Liberians with Hb S beta +-thalassaemia and four with Hb C beta +-thalassaemia were measured to classify the forms of beta +-thalassaemia present in the population. In 20 Hb S and all Hb C beta +-thalassaemics the data were consistent with the interaction of these variants with the mild type 2 (Negro) form of beta +-thalassaemia. The data available were insufficient to classify the remaining case, a young child. It was concluded that the clinically more severe typ...

  8. Blood Pressure Measurement Guidelines for Physical Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, Ethel M; Fick, Ann; Sadowsky, H. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical the...

  9. Accurate, reproducible measurement of blood pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, N. R.; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J. G.; McKay, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine con...

  10. Haemoglobin concentrations appear to be lower in indigenous Greenlanders than in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare haemoglobin concentrations in Greenlanders and Danes. METHODS: Haemoglobin was measured in a population survey in 1993-1994 comprising 234 indigenous Greenlandic individuals (115 men) aged 19-82 yr. and in Copenhagen County 1983-1984 comprising 2804 Caucasian Danes (1444 men...

  11. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha C.Pande

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  12. Measurement of bone blood flow in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone blood flow in sheep tibia has been estimated via the measurement of the perfusion limited clearance of 41Ar from the bone mineral matrix following fast neutron activation of 44Ca. Tibia blood flows were estimated for the intact sheep, and after the installation of an intramedullary pressure tap to elevate bone marrow pressure by saline infusion. The results indicate that normal blood flow in the tibia is in the range of 1.1 to 3.7 ml/100ml-min in the intact animal and at normal marrow pressure. With an elevated intramedullary pressure of approximately 100 mmHg, the bone blood flow measured varied around 0.5 to 1.1 ml/100ml-min. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement in large vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse pressure in the aorta was evaluated by the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood flow velocity (BFV). PWV reflects the elasticity of the vessel and was determined by a time-of-flight method. BFV was measured by analyzing the change of magnetization decay due to flow in multiecho experiments. If one neglects pulse wave reflections at vascular branch points and flow resistance due to blood viscosity, pulse pressure is proportional to PWV and BFV. Noninvasive MR imaging measurements were obtained in 12 patients, all of whom underwent correlative arterial catheterization. Values varied between 35 and 100 mm Hg. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the two methods

  14. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, D. K.; Dhanashri Bagul; Patil, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner ...

  15. Effect of daily versus weekly home fortification with multiple micronutrient powder on haemoglobin concentration of young children in a rural area, Lao People's Democratic Republic: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kounnavong Sengchanh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple micronutrient deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a severe public health problem in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR. Because of the practical difficulties encountered in improving the nutritional adequacy of traditional complementary foods and the limitations associated with the use of liquid iron supplementation for the treatment and prevention of IDA in infants and young children, recently, home-fortification with multivitamins and minerals sprinkles was recommended. This study aims to compare the effect of twice weekly versus daily supplementation with multivitamins and minerals powder (MMP on anaemia prevalence, haemoglobin concentration, and growth in infants and young children in a rural community in Lao PDR. Methods A randomized trial was conducted in six rural communities. Children aged 6 to 52 months (n = 336 were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 110 or to one of two intervention groups receiving either two sachets per week (n = 115 or a daily sachet (n = 111 of MMP for 24 weeks; 331 children completed the study. A finger prick of blood was taken at baseline, at week 12, and again at week 24 to determine haemoglobin concentration. Anthropometric measurements were taken every 4 weeks. The McNemar test was used to assess within group differences at three time points in the study subjects with anaemia and one-way ANOVA was used to assess changes in mean haemoglobin concentration in the treatment groups. Results MMP supplementation resulted in significant improvements in haemoglobin concentration and in the reduction of anaemia prevalence in the two treatment groups compared with the control group (p Conclusions MMP supplementation had positive effects in reduction of anaemia prevalence and in improving haemoglobin concentration. For severely to moderately anaemic children, daily MMP supplementation was more effective in improving haemoglobin concentration and reducing

  16. Haemoglobin adducts formed by aromatic amines in smokers: sources of inter-individual variability.

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, G.; Vineis, P; Bryant, M S; Skipper, P. L.; Tannenbaum, S R

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study we found that aromatic amines, particularly 4-aminobiphenyl, formed haemoglobin adducts at higher concentrations in the blood of smokers compared to non-smokers. We re-analyse here data on haemoglobin adducts of 14 aromatic amines in order to ascertain if the inter-individual variability left unexplained by tobacco smoking could be attributed to differences in individual metabolic patterns. For this purpose we computed residuals from analysis of variance in order to adjust...

  17. Racial variations in booking haemoglobin of primigravidae in Malaysia: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Albert Chao Chiet; Leong, Eugene Weng Kong; Chua, Ai Chen; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Variations in racial haemoglobin had been previously described in multiple studies locally and abroad. This study was conducted to quantify the differences in haemoglobin of booking primigravidae amongst the three major races in Malaysia at the antenatal clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Findings One year prospective study of booking full blood count sample of primigravidae taken in one centre was conducted. Multiple comparative analyses of the booking haemo...

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on avian haemoglobin from pigeon (Columba livia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin at low pH (5.5) and high ionic concentration (1 M) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method is reported. Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°

  19. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Drawz, Paul E; ABDALLA, MOHAMED; Rahman, Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk...

  20. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Kamat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner AD5933. AD5933 is then interfaced with microcontroller LPC1768 using I2C bus for displaying reading on LCD. Results can also be stored in database using UART interface of LPC1768.

  1. 'Blood doping' from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, James O.M.; Otto, James M.; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin is the blood’s oxygen carrying pigment and is encapsulated in red blood corpuscles. The concentration of haemoglobin in blood is dependent on both its total mass in the circulation (tHb-mass) and the total plasma volume in which it is suspended. Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the body per unit time and is one measure of physical fitness. Observations in athletes who have undergone blood doping or manipulation have revealed a clo...

  2. Evaluation of haemoglobin changes of skin and muscle tissue of the calf induced by topical application of a nonivamide / nicoboxil cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Jan; Wendt, Thomas; Schak, Matthias; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2011-07-01

    Topical agents inducing hyperaemisation like nonivamide or nicoboxil increase cutaneous blood flow and temperature and induce erythema. It is not proven up to now whether there is also a hyperaemisation effect in skeletal muscle. This study has the objective to determine the effects of a nonivamide / nicoboxil cream on haemodynamics in skin and calf muscle via optical spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared with a separation of changes for skin and muscle. Left and right calves of 14 healthy subjects were treated with a nonivamide / nicoboxil cream or mock administration, and cutaneous and muscle haemoglobin were measured using a combined NIRS / VIS sensor. The topical application of the cream increased the concentration of oxygenated haemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation significantly in skin as well as in muscle of the treated legs already after 15 minutes, with stronger and faster effects in skin. In contrast, the change in deoxygenated haemoglobin was found to be small. The kinetic of all changes varied widely between the subjects. The found haemoglobin changes might explain the beneficial effect of hyperaemisation creams for the treatment of minor injuries.

  3. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  4. Hereditary haemoglobin disorders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F

    1985-01-01

    The data on the incidence and variability of hereditary haemoglobin (Hb) disorders in Brazil are reviewed. The most common abnormalities are HbS, HbC and beta-thalassaemias. Both homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for these genes (i.e., HbS/HbC disease, S/beta-thalassaemia, C/beta-thalassaemia) are common, owing to the free miscegenation of populations of Mediterranean and African ancestry. The diversity of beta-thalassaemias is similar to that observed in other regions. beta(0)-Thalassaemia is more frequent than the beta(+) variant among affected individuals. Most patients are descendants of Italian immigrants but occasional cases have other racial origins. Patients with thalassaemia major are mostly beta (0) homozygotes, while thalassaemia intermedia is more heterogeneous, including a variety of genotypes. alpha-Thalassaemias are not common although cases of HbH disease have been reported. Isolated examples of several Hb variants have been described, and two abnormal Hb were first found in Brazil: Hb Porto Alegre and Hb Niteroi. PMID:3898485

  5. Noninvasive measurement of pulmonary blood volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In noninvasive estimation of pulmonary blood volume by radionuclide-angiocardiography, a formula was derived from experiments with heart-lung model, and in vivo experiments PBV = CO x PPT x 0.77. The pulmonary blood volume estimated clinically by this formula was in good agreement with the results obtained invasively before. The compliance (δV/δP) of the pulmonary ''venous'' system was calculated by simultaneous measurement of pressure changes in lung field on leg elevation and changes in pulmonary arterial wedge pressure with Swan-Ganz catheter. The compliances which were calculated in 35 cases of heart diseases by this method were in a considerably good agreement with those which were assessed by analysis of a pulmonary arterial wedge pressure tracing. (Ueda, J.)

  6. How to measure blood pressure manually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Melanie; Smith, Joyce

    2016-01-20

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to measure blood pressure (BP) manually using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. ▶ BP measurement is an essential clinical skill, and nurses must be competent in performing this procedure and taking accurate readings. ▶ Nurses should be aware of manual BP measurement techniques and understand the patient and environmental factors that may result in inaccurate readings that could compromise patient care. ▶ Nurses should regularly undertake manual BP measurement to ensure they remain competent to perform the procedure. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. Further learning needs to extend your professional development. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26786460

  7. Maternal haemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Anjanappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal anaemia is common medical disorder in developing countries. WHO defines anaemia as haemoglobin concentration of and #8804;11 g/dl. However, in developing countries like India, the lower limit is accepted as 10 g/dl. Results: Of 218 women, 69 had anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was 31.65%; of which 84% had mild anaemia, 14.6% had moderate and only 1.4% had severe anaemia. Mean Hb levels were 12.04% among non-anaemic mothers and mean birth weight was 2.89 Kg whereas 9.14%, 2.18 kg in anaemic mothers respectively. In our study, 21% in anaemic group has birth weight <2.5 kg and only 0.06% in non-anaemic mothers (p<0.0012 3.6 times higher. The risk of IUGR was 3.77 times higher, low APGAR score at 1 min was 3.8 times higher (p<0.0001, meconium stained liquor was 2.3 times higher and NICU admissions 2.96 times higher in anaemic mothers than non-anaemic mothers. Conclusions: Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the causes of poor perinatal outcome. Maternal anaemia is associated with the high risk of low birth weight, IUGR babies, low APGAR scores and NICU admissions and overall increase in perinatal morbidity. Hence proper antenatal care and counseling can reduce occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1335-1338

  8. Soluble CD163, a product of monocyte/macrophage activation, is inversely associated with haemoglobin levels in placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lin Lin Chua

    Full Text Available In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocytes/macrophages can result in the production of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to immunopathology. Soluble CD163 (sCD163 is a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation typically found at increased levels during various inflammatory conditions and can be associated with poor clinical outcomes. To better understand the relationships between levels of sCD163 and clinical parameters in women with placental malaria, we measured plasma sCD163 levels in maternal peripheral and placental blood compartments at delivery and determined their correlations with birth weight and maternal haemoglobin concentrations. sCD163 levels were negatively correlated with birth weight only in the placental compartment (r = -0.145, p = 0.03 and were inversely correlated with maternal haemoglobin concentrations, both in peripheral blood (r = -0.238, p = 0.0004 and in placental blood (r = -0.259, p = 0.0001. These inverse relationships suggest a potential role for monocyte/macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of malaria in pregnancy, particularly in relation to malaria-associated anaemia.

  9. Laser Doppler measurement of cutaneous blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Doppler velocimetry is an instrument system which has only recently been applied to the evaluation and quantitation of perfusion in the micro-vascular bed. The instrument is based on the Doppler principle, but uses low power laser light rather than the more commonly used ultrasound, and has a sample volume of approximately 1 mm/sup 3/. As it is non-invasive, it can be used on any skin surface or exposed microvascular bed and provides a continuous semi-quantitative measure of microcirculatory perfusion, it has a number of advantages as compared to other cutaneous blood flow measurement techniques. Initial studies have shown that it is easily used, and it has demonstrated good correlation with both xenon radio-isotope clearance and microsphere deposition techniques. Areas of current evaluation and utilization are in most major areas of medicine and surgery and include plastic, vascular and orthopaedic surgery, dermatology, gastro-enterology, rheumatology, burns and anaesthesiology

  10. Oxygen binding properties of backswimmer (Notonectidae, Anisops) haemoglobin, determined in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philip G D; Seymour, Roger S

    2011-12-01

    Aquatic backswimmers (Anisops spp.) collect oxygen from the atmosphere in order to breathe underwater, carrying it within a bubble of air on the ventral surface of their body and bound within haemoglobin-filled cells inside their abdomen. These oxygen stores are interconnected via the abdominal spiracles and the tracheal system. Fibre optic oxygen probes were used to measure PO(2) changes within the air bubbles of submerged backswimmers (Anisops deanei) and these measurements were transformed into in vivo haemoglobin-oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) using a biotonometric approach. The haemoglobin displayed a triphasic, highly sigmoid OEC with a P(50) of 3.90 kPa. Comparisons made with a previous in vitro analysis of Anisops haemoglobin demonstrate that while the apparent cooperativity and oxygen affinity are considerably higher in vivo, both measurements share unusual Hb-O(2) binding characteristics. The affinity and cooperativity of the backswimmers' haemoglobin appears adaptive as it lengthens dives and promotes neutral buoyancy. While there are limitations associated with biotonometry, the in vivo OEC accurately represents the loading and unloading of biologically available oxygen within the backswimmers' haemoglobin cells. Potential errors associated with determining the OEC are small, as evaluated with sensitivity analyses in numerical models. PMID:21945425

  11. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  12. Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754

  13. A STUDY OF HAEMOGLOBIN PATTERNS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RIMS

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    Urmila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Haemoglobinopathies are a major health problem worldwide. Because of the high prevalence of these disorders in India and especially in North–East, we undertook this limited student based study as RIMS comprised students from the seven North-East states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. AIMS: To study the prevalence of haemoglobin variants among the North-East students of RIMS and to find out any abnormal haemoglobin pattern pertaining to a particular community. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, RIMS. From Sept. 2002 to Dec. 2004, our study included 100 student volunteers taking a minimum of ten from each of the seven states. History of presenting complaints, personal, family and past illness were taken. Physical examination was done with special emphasis on appearance, presence of pallor, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly etc. Blood samples were collected in 2 EDTA vials, one was used for CBC and another for preparation of hemolysate. CBC was done for all cases by electronic cell counter supported by manual hemocytometry, peripheral blood examination and reticulocyte count. All the cases were routinely screened for haemoglobin type using standard alkaline cellulose acetate electrophoresis with Tris-Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA borate buffer. Fetal Hb. estimation, sickling test, serum bilirubin estimation were also done in relevant cases. RESULTS: Out of the 100 student volunteers studied, 98 cases showed HbA pattern in 46 males and 52 females while HbE was seen in 2 cases, 1 male and a female. The prevalence of HbE was 2% in our study, which belonged to the ethnic group of Garo of Meghalaya. Both case had mild anemia with microcytosis and normal reticulocyte count. Peripheral smear showed anisopoikilocytosis and target cells. RBC count, MCH values were within normal range. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that HbA was the predominant

  14. Altitude Exposure at 1800 m Increases Haemoglobin Mass in Distance Runners

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    Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Iona Halliday, Chris R. Abbiss, Philo U. Saunders, Christopher J. Gore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low natural altitudes (< 2000 m on erythropoietic adaptation is currently unclear, with current recommendations indicating that such low altitudes may be insufficient to stimulate significant increases in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass. As such, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of 3 weeks of live high, train high exposure (LHTH at low natural altitude (i.e. 1800 m on Hbmass, red blood cell count and iron profile. A total of 16 elite or well-trained runners were assigned into either a LHTH (n = 8 or CONTROL (n = 8 group. Venous blood samples were drawn prior to, at 2 weeks and at 3 weeks following exposure. Hbmass was measured in duplicate prior to exposure and at 2 weeks and at 3 weeks following exposure via carbon monoxide rebreathing. The percentage change in Hbmass from baseline was significantly greater in LHTH, when compared with the CONTROL group at 2 (3.1% vs 0.4%; p = 0.01; and 3 weeks (3.0% vs -1.1%; p < 0.02, respectively following exposure. Haematocrit was greater in LHTH than CONTROL at 2 (p = 0.01 and 3 weeks (p = 0.04 following exposure. No significant interaction effect was observed for haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.06, serum ferritin (p = 0.43, transferrin (p = 0.52 or reticulocyte percentage (p = 0.16. The results of this study indicate that three week of natural classic (i.e. LHTH low altitude exposure (1800 m results in a significant increase in Hbmass of elite distance runners, which is likely due to the continuous exposure to hypoxia.

  15. The relationship between the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

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    Newton Paul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a very important cause of anaemia in tropical countries. Anaemia is assessed either by measurement of the haematocrit or the haemoglobin concentration. For comparisons across studies, it is often necessary to derive one measure from the other. Methods Data on patients with slide-confirmed uncomplicated falciparum malaria were pooled from 85 antimalarial drug trials conducted in 25 different countries, to assess the haemoglobin/haematocrit relationship at different time points in malaria. Using a linear random effects model, a conversion equation for haematocrit was derived based on 3,254 measurements from various time points (ranging from day 0 to day 63 from 1,810 patients with simultaneous measurements of both parameters. Haemoglobin was also estimated from haematocrit with the commonly used threefold conversion. Results A good fit was obtained using Haematocrit = 5.62 + 2.60 * Haemoglobin. On average, haematocrit/3 levels were slightly higher than haemoglobin measurements with a mean difference (± SD of -0.69 (± 1.3 for children under the age of 5 (n = 1,440 measurements from 449 patients. Conclusion Based on this large data set, an accurate and robust conversion factor both in acute malaria and in convalescence was obtained. The commonly used threefold conversion is also valid.

  16. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  17. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter;

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total of...

  18. Signal quality measures for unsupervised blood pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate systolic and diastolic pressure estimation, using automated blood pressure measurement, is difficult to achieve when the transduced signals are contaminated with noise or interference, such as movement artifact. This study presents an algorithm for automated signal quality assessment in blood pressure measurement by determining the feasibility of accurately detecting systolic and diastolic pressures when corrupted with various levels of movement artifact. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to a manually annotated reference scoring (RS). Based on visual representations and audible playback of Korotkoff sounds, the creation of the RS involved two experts identifying sections of the recorded sounds and annotating sections of noise contamination. The experts determined the systolic and diastolic pressure in 100 recorded Korotkoff sound recordings, using a simultaneous electrocardiograph as a reference signal. The recorded Korotkoff sounds were acquired from 25 healthy subjects (16 men and 9 women) with a total of four measurements per subject. Two of these measurements contained purposely induced noise artifact caused by subject movement. Morphological changes in the cuff pressure signal and the width of the Korotkoff pulse were extracted features which were believed to be correlated with the noise presence in the recorded Korotkoff sounds. Verification of reliable Korotkoff pulses was also performed using extracted features from the oscillometric waveform as recorded from the inflatable cuff. The time between an identified noise section and a verified Korotkoff pulse was the key feature used to determine the validity of possible systolic and diastolic pressures in noise contaminated Korotkoff sounds. The performance of the algorithm was assessed based on the ability to: verify if a signal was contaminated with any noise; the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this noise classification, and the systolic and diastolic pressure

  19. Exercise and sports in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yazman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia causes lower oxygen transport to tissues, interfering with normal physical development and may interfere with exercise and sports in thalassemia and Sickle-Cell-Disease (SCD l. Moreover, in SCD, the abnormal haemoglobin alters the erythrocyte shape and leads to pulmonary parenchymal damage, impaired vascular function and micro vascular complications. However, we now accept that, with regular blood transfusions and efficient oral or parenteral chelation modalities, many patients lead a normal development and life with little or no change from the lifestyle of their unaffected friends, although there are cognitive and emotional factors leading behaviour for participation in the social life and exercise, as studied by many scientists in Italy, United Kingdom, Greece and India. 贫血导致组织供氧不足,妨碍身体的正常发育,并可能干扰地中海贫血和镰状细胞病(SCD)患者的体育运动。更严重的是,在镰状细胞病患者体内,异常血红蛋白能改变红细胞形态,造成肺薄壁组织损害、血管功能损伤,并引起微血管并发症。 然而,意大利、英国、希腊和印度的多位科学家的研究表明:尽管认知因子和情感因子是参加社会生活和运动的主导行为,但只要患者定期输血和采用高效的口服或非口服螯合疗法,很多人都可以正常发育和生活,与未受感染的人群并无大的区别。

  20. Pulmonary blood volume measured by RI angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RI angiocardiography (RACG) was performed in 81 patients with heart disease without congestive heart failure at the time, and the results were compared between the groups with mitral valve disease and other diseases. Cardiac output (CO) and pulmonary mean transit time (PMTT) were compared with the results from the dye dilution method in the same patients. PMTT directly measured by RACG was also compared with the peak to peak time (P-PT). P-PT was expressed as the distance from the right to the left peak time in radiocardiography (RCG). There were good correlations between the CO and PMTT obtained from the RI method and those of the dye dilution method (r = 0.90, r = 0.84). The ralationship between PMTT and P-PT in mitral valve disease was different from that of other diseases. The average value of PMTT was 5.2 +- 1.0 seconds, and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) was 315 +- 57 ml/m2 in the control group. The PBV values were markedly increased in patients with mitral stenosis (558 +- 132 ml/m2) and mitral regurgitation (444 +- 119 ml/m2), and were slightly increased in aortic valve disease, congenital shunt disease and cardiomyopathy. The patients with ischemic heart disease had normal PBV. In mitral valve disease, the direct method using PMTT of RACG is more accurate than the presumption method using P-PT of RCG. The determination of PBV by this method is very important to observe hemodynamic states in mitral valve disease. (J.P.N.)

  1. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement. Objective. To compare blood pressure by auscultatory and oscillometric measurements in...... patients 80 years. Method. 100 patients had blood pressure measured by auscultation with a sphygmomanometer and by an electronic device using the oscillometric method. For each patient the mean of two blood pressures with each method measured within 15 min were compared. Results. The mean age of...... participants was 85.8 years; 55.8% were women. The correlation coeffi cient for systolic blood pressure was 0.88 and for diastolic 0.79. Differences between auscultatory and oscillometric values were less than 10 mmHg in 70.6% of systolic blood pressures and in 83.2% for diastolic. Arrhythmia and hypertension...

  2. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

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    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. RESULTS: The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values. CONCLUSION: We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  3. Analysis of Mitochondrial haemoglobin in Parkinson's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Freya; Greville-Heygate, Oliver; Liddell, Susan; Emes, Richard; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early feature of neurodegeneration. We have shown there are mitochondrial haemoglobin changes with age and neurodegeneration. We hypothesised that altered physiological processes are associated with recruitment and localisation of haemoglobin to these organelles. To confirm a dynamic localisation of haemoglobin we exposed Drosophila melanogaster to cyclical hypoxia with recovery. With a single cycle of hypoxia and recovery we found a relative accumulation of haemoglobin in the mitochondria compared with the cytosol. An additional cycle of hypoxia and recovery led to a significant increase of mitochondrial haemoglobin (pbrains. Relative mitochondrial/cytosolic quantities of haemoglobin were obtained for the cortical region, substantia nigra and cerebellum. In age matched post-mortem brain mitochondrial haemoglobin ratios change, decreasing with disease duration in female cerebellum samples (n=7). The change is less discernible in male cerebellum (n=18). In cerebellar mitochondria, haemoglobin localisation in males with long disease duration shifts from the intermembrane space to the outer membrane of the organelle. These new data illustrate dynamic localisation of mitochondrial haemoglobin within the cell. Mitochondrial haemoglobin should be considered in the context of gender differences characterised in Parkinson's disease. It has been postulated that cerebellar circuitry may be activated to play a protective role in individuals with Parkinson's. The changing localisation of intracellular haemoglobin in response to hypoxia presents a novel pathway to delineate the role of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease. PMID:27181046

  4. A new method of non-invasive blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangling; Yang, Yongming; Yu, Chengbo; Guo, Qiaohui; Zhu, Gang

    2005-12-01

    Blood pressure reflects a person's health.It is proposed here that the method of detecting blood pressure may be the key to improving the precision of blood pressure measurements. The oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique is widely used in automatic blood pressure measurement instruments correctly. A method of blood pressure measurement by oscillometric method is first presented. In the oscillometric method, the basic principle of the "feature point" method and the "amplitude characteristic ratios" method is also explained and discussed here. A new method of blood pressure measurement, namely the coefficient difference comparative method, is proposed here,which is based on the feature point method and amplitude characteristic ratios method. The method is proved both effective and reliable through the analysis of many cases and clinical tests. Utilizing Visual C++, software for this new and novel method was developed and passed criterion simulation apparatus test. When applied in hospital situation, its error was +/-5%. It is concluded that the oscillometric blood pressure measurement method can provide better means of blood pressure measurements reference for doctors.

  5. The determination of chromium-50 in human blood and its utilization for blood volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible relationships between insufficient blood volume increases during pregnancy and infant mortality could be established with an adequate measurement procedure. An accurate and precise technique for blood volume measurements has been found in the isotope dilution technique using chromium-51 as a label for red blood cells. However, in a study involving pregnant women, only stable isotopes can be used for labeling. Stable chromium-50 can be determined in total blood samples before and after dilution experiments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) or mass spectrometry. However, both techniques may be affected by insufficient sensitivity and contamination problems at the inherently low natural chromium concentrations to be measured in the blood. NAA procedures involving irradiations with highly thermalized neutrons at a fluence rate of 2x1013 n/cm2xs and low background gamma spectrometry are applied to the analysis of total blood. Natural levels of chromium-50 in human and animal blood have been found to be <0.1 ng/mL; i.e., total chromium levels of <3 ng/mL. Based on the NAA procedure, a new approach to the blood volume measurement via chromium-50 isotope dilution has been developed which utilizes the ratio of the induced activities of chromium-51 to the iron-59 in three blood samples taken from each individual, namely blank, labeled and diluted labeled blood. (author)

  6. Meta-analysis: Effects of glycerol administration on plasma volume, haemoglobin, and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Thevis, Mario; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The use of glycerol in combination with excess fluid can be used to increase total body water. Because glycerol hyperhydration may also be misused to mask the effects of blood doping on doping-relevant parameters, namely haemoglobin and haematocrit, glycerol has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency since 2010. In order to test this rationale, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of glycerol hyperhydration on plasma volume, haemoglobin, and haematocrit in comparison to administration of fluid only. Following a literature search, a total of seven studies was included and meta-analyses were performed separately for the effects on plasma volume (5 studies, total n = 54) and on haemoglobin (6 studies, n = 52) and haematocrit (6 studies, n = 52). The meta-analysis revealed that the increase in plasma volume was 3.3% larger (95%-CI: 1.1-5.5%) after glycerol administration when compared to fluid only. Reductions in haemoglobin were 0.2 g/dl (95%-CI: -0.3, 0.0) larger and there was no difference in the changes in haematocrit between glycerol and fluid administration (95%-CI: -0.7-0.8%). In comparison with other plasma-volume expanding agents, glycerol hyperhydration has a very limited potential in increasing plasma volume and altering doping-relevant blood parameters. PMID:24353192

  7. Videodensitometry for measuring blood vessel diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method employing a special computer for determining the internal diameters of blood vessels from photofluorographic image is described; in vitro and in vivo experiments are performed with the system. The amount of contrast medium injected is restricted to 4x3 ml, and it is possible to determine the diameter (in the range from 2 to 16 mm) at any place where blood vessels can be catheterized. In the in vivo experiments the maximum systematic error is +-5 per cent in the 7 to 8 mm range. (Auth.)

  8. Videodensitometry for measuring blood vessel diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoornstra, K; Hanselman, J M; Holland, W P; De Wey Peters, G W; Zwamborn, A W

    1980-01-01

    A method employing a special computer for determining the internal diameters of blood vessels from photofluorographic image is described; in vitro and in vivo experiments are performed with the system. The amount of contrast medium injected is restricted to 4 times 3 ml, and it is possible to determine the diameter (in the range from 2 to 16 mm) at any place where blood vessels can be catheterized. In the in vivo experiments the maximum systematic error is +/-5 percent in the 7 to 8 mm range. PMID:7424549

  9. [Attitude of blood donors towards cholesterol measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesland, O; Botten, G; Solheim, B G; Orjasaeter, H

    1992-05-20

    In analyses of cost-effectiveness it is customary to count knowledge of having a high serum cholesterol level as a negative factor. There is little support for this practice in the literature. We have studied the attitude of 305 Norwegian blood donors towards cholesterol testing. 63% stated that they were interested in their serum cholesterol level, and 40% said they knew their own serum cholesterol level. The attitude towards cholesterol testing was clearly positive, both among men and among women, regardless of age. Only one donor stated that she did not want to have her serum cholesterol tested in conjunction with blood donation. PMID:1509430

  10. A blood pressure measurement method based on synergetics theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The principle for blood pressure measurement using pulse transit time is introduced in this paper.And the math model of synergetics theory is studied in detail.The synergetics theory is applied in the analysis of blood pressure measurement data.The simulation results show that the application of synergetics theory is helpful to judge the normal blood pressure,and the accuracy is up to 80%.

  11. Invasive versus noninvasive hemoglobin measurement by pulse CO-Oximeter in neonates admitted to NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal Vora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Total haemoglobin measurement (tHb is one of the most commonly performed laboratory tests in patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Non invasive haemoglobin measurement is possible. In neonates this method can reduce iatrogenic blood loss. Studies performed in adults to compare haemoglobin (Hb obtained with the use of non-invasive Hb monitor and laboratory method has shown a clinically acceptable accuracy of non-invasive Hb measurements.(1 Masimo Rainbow SET, Pulse CO‐oximetry developed by Masimo Corporation leverages 7 wavelengths and advanced signal processing technique to measure total haemoglobin (SpHb values. The haemoglobin values measured through monitor is displayed continuously. This improves quality of care in babies by non invasive way. The monitor measures both pulse oximetry and SpHb with single probe which makes it advantageous (2 Objective. To compare transcutaneously spectroscopically measured hemoglobin values with venous hemoglobin values in neonates admitted to NICU. Study Design Prospective study in healthy preterm and term infants who were hemodynamically stable. Results Recordings were obtained from 76 stable infants (median gestational age at measurement: 36 weeks [range: 34–43 weeks]; median body weight: 1890 g [range: 1095–4360 g]. The spectroscopic haemoglobin values were corrected for inhomogeneous distribution of haemoglobin in the tissue. The venous and spectroscopic haemoglobin values were then compared by using the Bland- Altman method, which gave an error of <5%. Conclusions This is a good relation between the 2 methods for measuring haemoglobin. Larger studies are required to validate this non invasive method in those with conditions that affects the perfusion.

  12. Haemoglobin C and S role in acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Verra

    Full Text Available A recently proposed mechanism of protection for haemoglobin C (HbC; beta6Glu-->Lys links an abnormal display of PfEMP1, an antigen involved in malaria pathogenesis, on the surface of HbC infected erythrocytes together with the observation of reduced cytoadhesion of parasitized erythrocytes and impaired rosetting in vitro. We investigated the impact of this hypothesis on the development of acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA encoding PfEMP1 in HbC in comparison with HbA and HbS carriers of Burkina Faso. We measured: i total IgG against a single VSA, A4U, and against a panel of VSA from severe malaria cases in human sera from urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso of different haemoglobin genotypes (CC, AC, AS, SC, SS; ii total IgG against recombinant proteins of P. falciparum asexual sporozoite, blood stage antigens, and parasite schizont extract; iii total IgG against tetanus toxoid. Results showed that the reported abnormal cell-surface display of PfEMP1 on HbC infected erythrocytes observed in vitro is not associated to lower anti- PfEMP1 response in vivo. Higher immune response against the VSA panel and malaria antigens were observed in all adaptive genotypes containing at least one allelic variant HbC or HbS in the low transmission urban area whereas no differences were detected in the high transmission rural area. In both contexts the response against tetanus toxoid was not influenced by the beta-globin genotype. These findings suggest that both HbC and HbS affect the early development of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. The enhanced immune reactivity in both HbC and HbS carriers supports the hypothesis that the protection against malaria of these adaptive genotypes might be at least partially mediated by acquired immunity against malaria.

  13. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  14. On-line dynamic measurement of blood viscosity, hematocrit and change of blood volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit. The dynamic changes of the macrovascular blood volumes,microvascular blood volumes and the total blood volume were observed by means of calculating from the testing result. Methods: Applying traditional viscosity measurement principle and specific wavelength optic density measurement method, an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit was developed, and the A/D multifunctionai board and the testing circuit were designed by ourselves. The system was validated by experiments both in vitro and in vivo. Therapeutic effects of hypertonic saline dextran solution (HSD) and Lactatic Ringer's solution at the early stage after burn-blast combined injury were compared by this method. Results: The results showed that the system has attained the goal of the design. The changes of the blood viscosity and hematocrit could be detected effectively and continuously. The changes of macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volume could be calculated approximately. Conclusions: The system and the method can continuously on-line test the blood viscosity and hematocrit, and reveal the change and distribution of blood volumes more accurately and dearly in the therapy process by estimating changes of the macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volumes, respectively. It has confirmed that HSD treatment could increase blood pressure and attenuate tissue edema by significantly increasing total blood volume,improving macrocirculatory and microcirculatory blood volumes. This study suggested that it could be desirable to develop an experiment technique based on the method mentioned above.

  15. Occlusion cuff for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Krähenbühl, B; Hirai, M

    1977-01-01

    A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for us...... in conjunction with a mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow in patients with arterial disease....

  16. Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600)

    OpenAIRE

    Wachsmuth, Nadine; Kley, Marlen; Spielvogel, Hilde; Aughey, Robert J; Gore, Christopher J; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Hammond, Kristal; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Gregory D.; Sanchez, Rudy Soria; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Schmidt, Walter F; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The optimal strategy for soccer teams playing at altitude is not known, that is, ‘fly-in, fly-out’ versus short-term acclimatisation. Here, we document changes in blood gas and vascular volumes of sea-level (Australian, n=20) and altitude (Bolivian, n=19) native soccer players at 3600 m. Methods Haemoglobin-oxygen saturation (Hb-sO2), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), blood volume (BV) and blood gas concentrations were measured before descent (Bolivians onl...

  17. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnant diabetic patients are often required to self- measure their blood pressure in the waiting room before consulta- tion. Currently used blood pressure devices do not guarantee valid measurements when used unsupervised. This could lead to misdi- agnosis and treatment error. The aim...... of this study was to investigate current use of blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room in order to identify challenges that could influence the resulting data quality. Also, we wanted to investigate the potential for addressing these challenges with e-health and telemedicine technology...... obtain a reliable blood pressure reading. Results: We found that the patients did not adhere to given instructions when performing blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room. None of the 81 patients adhered to all six inves- tigated recommendations, while around a quarter adhered to five out of...

  18. Non-Invasive Haemoglobin Estimation in Patients with Thalassaemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtadha K. Al Khabori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to validate pulse CO-oximetry-based haemoglobin (Hb estimation in children and adults with thalassaemia major (TM and to determine the impact of different baseline variables on the accuracy of the estimation. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a five-week period from March to April 2012. A total of 108 patients with TM attending the daycare thalassaemia centre of a tertiary care hospital in Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Spot (Sp Hb measurements were estimated using a Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device (Masimo Corp., Irvine, California, USA. These were compared to venous samples of Hb using the CELL-DYN Sapphire Hematology Analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA to determine the reference (Ref Hb levels. A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the impact of baseline variables such as age, gender, weight, height, Ref Hb and blood pressure on the Hb estimations. Results: Of the 108 enrolled patients, there were 54 males and 54 females with a mean age of 21.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 7.3 years; range: 2.5–38 years. The mean Ref Hb and Sp Hb were 9.4 g/dL (SD = 0.9 g/dL; range: 7.5–12.3 g/dL and 11.1 g/dL (SD = 1.2 g/dL; range: 7.5–14.7 g/dL, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2 was 21% with a mean difference of 1.7 g/dL (SD = 1.1 g/dL; range: −0.9–4.3 g/dL. In the multivariable model, the Ref Hb level (P = 0.001 was the only statistically significant predictor. Conclusion: The Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device was found to overestimate Hb levels in patients with TM and therefore cannot be recommended. Further larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  19. Quantitative blood flux measurement using MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Qin, Jia; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to quantify red blood cell (RBC) flow through capillary loops and microvessels using optical microangiography (OMAG). Current existing methods of capillary flow quantification either require a very long scanning time (~few minutes) or a large acquisition number per location (+100 scans per location) to form a highresolution spectral estimation. We utilize a model-based super-resolution spectral estimation technique based on principle of orthogonality to quantify moving RBCs within a voxel. The scanning protocol required for our method is very similar to 3D ultrahigh sensitive OMAG that requires few scans per location (8) and can be performed in few seconds that makes it applicable for in vivo experiments. This method is analogous to power Doppler in ultrasonography and estimates the number of red blood cells passing through the beam as opposed to the velocity of the particles. The technique is tested both qualitatively and quantitatively by using OMAG to image microcirculation within mouse ear flap in vivo.

  20. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  1. Automated measurement of retinal blood vessel tortuosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vinayak; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities in the vascular pattern of the retina are associated with retinal diseases and are also risk factors for systemic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. The three-dimensional retinal vascular pattern is mostly formed congenitally, but is then modified over life, in response to aging, vessel wall dystrophies and long term changes in blood flow and pressure. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e. how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. We developed a new quantitative metric for vascular tortuosity, based on the vessel's angle of curvature, length of the curved vessel over its chord length (arc to chord ratio), number of curvature sign changes, and combined these into a unidimensional metric, Tortuosity Index (TI). In comparison to other published methods this method can estimate appropriate TI for vessels with constant curvature sign and vessels with equal arc to chord ratios, as well. We applied this method to a dataset of 15 digital fundus images of 8 patients with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and to the other publically available dataset of 60 fundus images of normal cases and patients with hypertensive retinopathy, of which the arterial and venous tortuosities have also been graded by masked experts (ophthalmologists). The method produced exactly the same rank-ordered list of vessel tortuosity (TI) values as obtained by averaging the tortuosity grading given by 3 ophthalmologists for FSHD dataset and a list of TI values with high ranking correlation with the ophthalmologist's grading for the other dataset. Our results show that TI has potential to detect and evaluate abnormal retinal vascular structure in early diagnosis and prognosis of retinopathies.

  2. Our experience of blood flow measurements using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical study of blood flow measuring methods is proposed. After a review of the various diffusible and non-diffusible radioactive tracers and the corresponding detector systems, the principles which allow to measure blood flow from the data so obtained, are studied. There is a different principle of flow measurement for each type of tracer. The theory of flow measurement using non-diffusible tracers (human serum albumin labelled with 131I or sup(99m)Tc, 113In-labelled siderophiline) and its application to cardiac flow measurement are described first. Then the theory of flow measurement using diffusible tracers (133Xe, 85Kr) and its application to measurement of blood flow through tissues (muscles and kidney particularly) are described. A personal experience of this various flow measurements is reported. The results obtained, the difficulties encountered and the improvments proposed are developed

  3. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  4. Analysis of mitochondrial haemoglobin in Parkinson's disease brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, Freya; Greville-Heygate, Oliver; Liddell, Susan; Emes, Richard D.; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early feature of neurodegeneration. We have shown there are mitochondrial haemoglobin changes with age and neurodegeneration. We hypothesised that altered physiological processes are associated with recruitment and localisation of haemoglobin to these organelles. To confirm a dynamic localisation of haemoglobin we exposed Drosophila melanogaster to cyclical hypoxia with recovery. With a single cycle of hypoxia and recovery we found a relative accumulation of ha...

  5. Assessment of fetal-maternal haemorrhage in mothers with hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, W N; Nicholson, G S; Sawers, A H; Franklin, I M; Ala, F A; Simpson, A W

    1990-01-01

    Kleihauer examination of peripheral blood cannot be used reliably to detect transplacental fetal-maternal haemorrhage in mothers with hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH). In Rh(D) negative pregnancies diagnostic confusion with a large fetal-maternal haemorrhage could result in the administration of inappropriately excessive amounts of anti-D immunoglobulin, and the inability to diagnose and quantify transplacental haemorrhage in maternal HPFH by current methods could result in ...

  6. Comparison of haemoglobin H inclusion bodies with embryonic ζ globin in screening for α thalassaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, LC; So, JCC; Chui, DHK

    1995-01-01

    Aims - To compare the haemoglobin (Hb) H inclusion test with immunocytochemical detection of embryonic ζ chains in screening for a thalassaemia. Methods - Blood samples from 115 patients with relevant clinical history and hypochromic microcytic indexes were screened using the HbH inclusion test and the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System (BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA). Results - The HbH inclusion test was positive in 61 of 115 cases, three of whom had HbH disease confirmed by electrophoresis. The ...

  7. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  8. Soluble haemoglobin is a marker of recent Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bygbjerg, I C; Theander, T G;

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab) were raised against haemoglobin (Hb) associated with Plasmodium falciparum protein and used to develop an ELISA, measuring circulating levels of released Hb. This assay was evaluated in different malaria patients in parallel with ELISA assays for C-reactive protein (CRP...

  9. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buhari Hauwa Ali; Yeldu Mohammed Haruna; Erhabor Osaro; Imrana Sani; Abubakar Wase; Onuigwe Festus; Okwesili Augustine; Isaac Zama; Yakubu Abdulrahaman; Dallatu Kabiru

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7%) family replacement donors and 2 (1.3%) voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland). Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kit-ACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA). Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL) was evident in 24 (16%) and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL) in 5 (10%) of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00) compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20) respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively). The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10) compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13) (P=0.01). The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01). Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for regular

  10. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhari Hauwa Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7% family replacement donors and 2 (1.3% voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland. Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kitACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA. Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL was evident in 24 (16% and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL in 5 (10% of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00 compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20 respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10 compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13 (P=0.01. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01. Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for

  11. Indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure: physiotherapists’ theoretical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Morgana Vieira de Assis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure checking and its theoretical knowledge are crucial to obtain reliable data in clinical examination. Although it is considered a simple technique to be learned and applied, it is not fully dealt with at physiotherapy university courses. Therefore, a wide range of mistakes and misinterpretations are likely to threaten treatment quality. This work aims to evaluate the theory background of physiotherapists for blood pressure measurement. From June to October 2002, 55 physiotherapists answered a 20- question multiple-choice questionnaire on general knowledge related to concepts, anatomy and physiology, suitable equipment, indirect measurement, blood pressure values, mistakes and misinterpretation factors related to blood pressure measurement. The results disclose faulty theory concepts in the sample studied, indicating the need of deeper approach to this complex theme during course and ongoing updating of professionals.

  12. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure. PMID:26519423

  13. Aortic blood flow subtraction: an alternative method for measuring total renal blood flow in conscious dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H;

    2002-01-01

    We have measured total renal blood flow (TRBF) as the difference between signals from ultrasound flow probes implanted around the aorta above and below the renal arteries. The repeatability of the method was investigated by repeated, continuous infusions of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 seven t...... of TRBF by aortic blood flow subtraction is a practical and reliable method that allows direct comparison of excretory function and renal blood flow from two kidneys. The method also allows direct comparison between TRBF and flow in the caudal aorta....

  14. Low haemoglobin concentration in Tibetan males is associated with greater high-altitude exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, T S; Wei, G; Wagner, H E; Wuren, T; Qin, G; Yan, M; Wagner, P D; Ge, R L

    2015-07-15

    Tibetans living at high altitude have adapted genetically such that many display a low erythropoietic response, resulting in near sea-level haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. We hypothesized that absence of the erythropoietic response would be associated with greater exercise capacity compared to those with high [Hb] as a result of beneficial changes in oxygen transport. We measured, in 21 Tibetan males with [Hb] ranging from 15.2 g dl(-1) to 22.9 g dl(-1) (9.4 mmol l(-1) to 14.2 mmol l(-1) ), [Hb], ventilation, volumes of O2 and CO2 utilized at peak exercise (V̇O2 and V̇CO2), heart rate, cardiac output and arterial blood gas variables at peak exercise on a cycle ergometer at ∼4200 m. Lung and muscle O2 diffusional conductances were computed from these measurements. [Hb] was related (negatively) to V̇O2 kg(-1) (r = -0.45, Pexercise capacity in Tibetans without the erythropoietic response, supported mostly by cardiac and muscle O2 transport capacity and ventilation rather than pulmonary adaptations, and (2) support the emerging hypothesis that the polycythaemia of altitude, normally a beneficial response to low cellular PO2, may become maladaptive if excessively elevated under chronic hypoxia. The cause and effect relationships among [Hb], QT, DM, and PCO2 remain to be elucidated. PMID:25988759

  15. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  16. Measurement of normal portal venous blood flow by Doppler ultrasound.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H S; Halliwell, M; Qamar, M.; Read, A. E.; Evans, J. M.; Wells, P N

    1989-01-01

    The volume flow rate of blood in the portal vein was measured using a duplex ultrasound system. The many errors inherent in the duplex method were assessed with particular reference to the portal vein and appropriate correction factors were obtained by in vitro calibration. The effect of posture on flow was investigated by examining 45 healthy volunteers in three different positions; standing, supine and tilted head down at 20 degrees from the horizontal. The mean volume blood flow in the sup...

  17. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  18. Temperature influence on non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2009-02-01

    Regular monitoring of blood sugar level is important for the management of diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is a promising approach and this involves some form of contact with the body skin. It is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environment and physiological conditions and the temperature has an influence on the glucose measurement. In this paper, in-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement were studied. The in-vitro results from FTIR spectrometer show that sample temperature has significant influence on water absorption, which significantly affects the glucose absorption measurement. The in-vivo results show that when skin temperature around the measurement site is taken into consideration, the prediction of blood glucose level greatly improves.

  19. Measurement of directed blood flow by laser speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Evan R.; Thompson, Oliver B.; Andrews, Michael K.

    2011-03-01

    Recent success in reconciling laser Doppler and speckle measurements of dermal perfusion by the use of multi-exposure speckle has prompted an investigation of speckle effects arising from directed blood flow which might be expected in the small blood vessels of the eye. Unlike dermal scatter, the blood in retinal vessels is surrounded by few small and stationary scatterers able to assist the return of light energy by large-angle scatter. Returning light is expected to come from multiple small angle scatter from the large red blood cells which dominate the fluid. This work compares speckle measurements on highly scattering skin, with measurements on flow in a retinal phantom consisting of a glass capillary which is itself immersed in an index matching fluid to provide a flat air-phantom interface. Brownian motion dominated measurements when small easily levitated scatters were used, and flow was undetectable. With whole-blood, Brownian motion was small and directed flows in the expected region of tens of mm/s were detectable. The nominal flow speed relates to the known pump rate; within the capillary the flow will have a profile reducing toward the walls. The pulsatile effects on laser speckle contrast in the retina are discussed with preliminary multi-exposure measurements on retinal vessels using a fundus camera. Differences between the multiple exposure curves and power spectra of perfused tissue and ordered flow are discussed.

  20. The kinetic measurement of phagocyte function in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed for the kinetic measurement on the same blood sample of a variety of functions of phagocytic cells. Adherence to glass, the clearance of a mixture of microorganisms and their subsequent solubilisation, and the secretion of granule contents from the cells were determined. The technique uses carbon-14 labelled and tritium-labelled bacteria which are injected into a perfusion chamber with glass coverslips containing anticoagulated blood. The release of soluble radioactive microboial components into the blood gives a measure of bacterial degradation. The numbers of residual viable intracellular staphylococci were measured at the completion of the study. These methods were used to investigate phagocyte function in 33 normal subjects and 6 patients with chronic granulomatous disease. (Auth.)

  1. Superiority of home blood pressure measurements over office measurements for testing antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaur; Dubroca; Dutrey-Dupagne; Genès; Chatellier; Bouvier-d'Yvoire; Elkik; Ménard

    1998-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on office blood pressure and home blood pressure of placebo and active drug administration. DESIGN: After a 2-week wash-out period, patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension entered a 2-week single-blind placebo period and then a 4-week double-blind period. Patients were randomly assigned to be administered either 2 mg trandolapril once daily or its placebo in a 2:1 proportion. Office blood pressure was measured by a physician at the end of each period, using a mercury sphygmomanometer (mean of three consecutive measurements). Home blood pressure was measured during the last week of each period according to standard procedure carefully taught to each patient by the physician. Compliance was checked by using electronic pill boxes. RESULTS: Data for 34 of the 44 patients who entered the study were eligible for analysis. Baseline systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure were significantly (P = 0.0001/P = 0.0001) higher for office blood pressure (161/101 mmHg) than they were for home blood pressure (145/93 mmHg). There was no statistically significant difference between the placebo and active-treatment groups at baseline. During the single-blind period, blood pressures measured at the office and at home did not change significantly. Office blood pressure decreased by 2.7 +/- 10 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 0.5 +/- 4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure whereas home blood pressure increased by 0.8 +/- 6 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 0.7 +/- 4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. During the double-blind period, office blood pressure fell significantly with trandolapril treatment (systolic by 10.2 +/- 12 mmHg, diastolic by 8.3 +/- 6 mmHg; P = 0.0005/0.0001, versus single-blind placebo period) but this decrease was not significantly different (P = 0.45/0.92) from the fall in members of the placebo group (systolic by 6.9 +/- 9 mmHg, diastolic by 8.0 +/-6 mmHg; P = 0.04/0.002, versus single-blind placebo period

  2. Measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-05-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4 +- 3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1 +- 2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain.

  3. The measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4+-3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1+-2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain. (author)

  4. Determination of melanin and haemoglobin in the skin of idiopathic cutaneous hyperchromia of the orbital region (ICHOR: A study of Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Verschoore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic cutaneous hyperchromia at the orbital region (ICHOR is a cutaneous hyperchromia characterised by bilateral darkening of the eyelid and orbital skin that contrasts with the adjoining facial skin. ICHOR is frequent in dark skin. It interferes with the face appearance which often causes difficulties in societal acceptance and may impact quality of life. Objective : The aim of this investigation was to study the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors associated with ICHOR in Indian patients and also to study the distribution of melanin and haemoglobin in ICHOR patients. This study also assessed the relevance of SIAscopy technique (spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA, a new objective non-invasive method to measure melanin and haemoglobin concentration in vivo. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients diagnosed with ICHOR at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Dehli, India, were included in the study. Epidemiological data were collected through a self-administrated questionnaire. Standard photographs were taken from each patient and SIAscopy measurements were done on dark circles and normal skin. Results: Surprisingly our study showed no significant correlation between ICHOR prevalence and family history, atopic and contact dermatitis, contemporaneous melasma and hormonal factors. The study confirms that sun exposure is a risk factor of dark circles aggravation. Indeed patients tend to reduce sun exposure after the onset of dark circles. SIAscopy analysis reveals significant differences in the concentration of total melanin, of dermal melanin and of haemoglobin between ICHOR skin and normal skin of the same patient. Conclusion: This study confirms that melanin deposits and blood stasis in dark circles may play a role in ICHOR pathogenesis and cause the darkening of skin under eyes. SIAscopy provides objective diagnostic information about ICHOR.

  5. Measurement of tumor blood flow following neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical oncologists and cancer researchers benefit from information on the vascularization or non-vascularization of solid tumors because of blood flow's influence on three popular treatment types: hyperthermia therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The objective of this research is the development of a clinically useful tumor blood flow measurements technique. The designed technique is sensitive, has good spatial resolution, in non-invasive and presents no risk to the patient beyond his usual treatment. Tumor blood flow was determined by measuring the washout of positron emitting isotopes created through neutron therapy treatment. In order to do this, several technical and scientific questions were addressed first. These questions have been answered through both theoretical calculation and measurement. The first question was answered through the measurement of macroscopic cross sections for the predominant nuclear reactions in the body. These results correlate well with an independent mathematical prediction of tissue activation and measurements of mouse spleen neutron activation. The second question was addressed by performing cell suspension and protein precipitation techniques on neutron activated mouse spleens. The third and final question was answered by using first physical principles to develop a model mimicking the blood flow system and measurement technique. In a final set of experiments, the above were applied to flow models and animals. The ultimate aim of this project is to apply its methodology to neutron therapy patients

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF THE BLOOD CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMengcai; GuZhong; HangWenjing; ZhongQuan; TangFuyong

    1990-01-01

    Describe some new fully automatic instruments for the measurements of the blood capillary pressure (Pcap) and arterial elastic properties in human fingers using a photoelectric plethysmographic technique, With these instruments, the value of Pcap was in good agreement with those reported by other investigators, the arterial elastic properties in human fingers have been successfully measured. The measurements of Pcap and arterial elasticity are now required in clinics because they provide useful and important information for evaluating vascular haemodynamics.

  7. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W;

    2016-01-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively...

  8. Nephron blood flow dynamics measured by laser speckle contrast imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Pavlov, Alexey N;

    2011-01-01

    simultaneously. The interacting nephron fields are likely to be more extensive. We have turned to laser speckle contrast imaging to measure the blood flow dynamics of 50-100 nephrons simultaneously on the renal surface of anesthetized rats. We report the application of this method and describe analytic...

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin has been purified and crystallized under low salt buffered conditions. Preliminary analysis of the crystal that belonged to monoclinic system (C2) is reported. Birds often show efficient oxygen management in order to meet the special demands of their metabolism. However, the structural studies of avian haemoglobins (Hbs) are inadequate for complete understanding of the mechanism involved. Towards this end, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out for parakeet Hb. Parakeet Hb was crystallized as the met form in low-salt buffered conditions after extracting haemoglobin from crude blood by microcentrifugation and purifying the sample by column chromatography. Good-quality crystals were grown from 10% PEG 3350 and a crystal diffracted to about 2.8 Å resolution. Preliminary diffraction data showed that the Hb crystal belonged to the monoclinic system (space group C2), with unit-cell parameters a = 110.68, b = 64.27, c = 56.40 Å, β = 109.35°. Matthews volume analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit

  10. Correlation of Lipid Peroxidation with Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varashree BS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are crucial to normal biological processes; they are potentially dangerous and are commonly referred to as prooxidants. The reactive oxygen intermediates can cause direct cellular injury by including lipid and protein peroxidation and damage to nucleic acid. The polyunsaturated fatty acids present in the cells are vulnerable to free radicals causing lipid peroxidation. Determination of Malondialdehyde (MDA by using thiobarbituric acid is used as an index of the extent of lipid peroxidation. This study was done to know if lipid peroxidation correlated with the glycated haemoglobin levels. Diabetic status was assessed by estimating fasting blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin level while oxidant stress was evaluated by estimating erythrocyte MDA levels. The lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte lysates was significantly increased in diabetic individuals compared to controls (p<0.001. The result of this study indicates that in diabetic individuals are more prone to oxidative stress and glycated haemoglobin is a marker in evaluating the long term glycemic status in diabetic individuals.

  11. Simple technique for measuring relative renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether externally monitored early renal uptake of 131I-hippurate is proportional to renal blood flow, the renal uptake of 131-hippurate at 1 to 2 min after injection was compared with the renal accumulation of radioactive carbonized microspheres in dogs. A renal artery catheter equipped with a balloon was used to decrease renal blood flow unilaterally. One minute after the intravenous injection of 100 μCi of 131I-hippurate, about 1 μCi of either 85Sr- or 95Nb-labeled carbon microspheres was injected into the left ventricle. Radioactivity was measured over both kidneys. The total radioactivity within each kidney region of interest was corrected for background and integrated over the 1 to 2 min interval after injection. Thirteen measurements of relative renal blood flow were made for seven dogs. The dogs were then killed and both kidneys were excised and counted for the radioactivity of the microspheres. The 1 to 2-min relative renal uptake of 131I-hippurate correlated well with relative microsphere uptake, suggesting that relative renal blood flow can be simply determined from the external measurements of renal uptake of 131I-hippurate

  12. Pulmonary blood flow distribution measured by radionuclide computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributions of pulmonary blood flow per unit lung volume were measured in sitting patients with a radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) by intravenously administered Tc-99m macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). Four different types of distribution were distinguished, among which a group referred as type 2 had a three zonal blood flow distribution as previously reported (West and co-workers, 1964). The pulmonary arterial pressure (Pa) and the venous pressure (Pv) were determined in this group of distribution. These values showed satifactory agreements with the pulmonary artery pressure (Par) and the capillary wedged pressure (Pcw) measured by Swan-Ganz catheter in eighteen supine patients. Those good correlations enable to establish a noninvasive methodology for measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures

  13. Blood and Dried Blood Spot Telomere Length Measurement by qPCR: Assay Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Zanet, DeAnna L.; Sara Saberi; Laura Oliveira; Beheroze Sattha; Izabella Gadawski; Côté, Hélène C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of telomere length is crucial for the study of telomere maintenance and its role in molecular pathophysiology of diseases and in aging. Several methods are used to measure telomere length, the choice of which usually depends on the type and size of sample to be assayed, as well as cost and throughput considerations. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors that may influence the reliability of qPCR-based relative telomere length measurements in whole blood. Day to day...

  14. A STUDY OF HAEMOGLOBIN PATTERNS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RIMS

    OpenAIRE

    Urmila; Sunita,; Mohen Singh; Durlav Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies are a major health problem worldwide. Because of the high prevalence of these disorders in India and especially in North–East, we undertook this limited student based study as RIMS comprised students from the seven North-East states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. AIMS: To study the prevalence of haemoglobin variants among the North-East students of RIMS and to find out any abnormal haemoglobin pattern pertai...

  15. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  16. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Human and Porcupine (Hystrix Cristata L., 1758) Haemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİĞREMİŞ, Yılmaz; ATALAR, Ömer; Kenan ERDOĞAN; Gaffaroğlu, Muhammet; Türköz, Yusuf; YILMAZ, Sadık

    2010-01-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to determine the electrophoretic pattern of the haemoglobin of Hystrix cristata (H. cristata), and that of a healthy human. Alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis of the haemoglobin of H. cristata revealed that the mobility of the H. cristata haemoglobin was considerably faster than that of human haemoglobin. These comparisons showed obvious differences between the haemoglobin of the two species. 

  18. The measurement of blood speed in the pulmonary artery trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a non invasive methodology for the measurement of blood speed in the pulmonary artery trunk. The methodology has been tested with a moving radioactive tracer (nuclear medicine). An image processing technique is proposed, for detection and analysis of a moving object with variable shape and intensity over time (radioactive bolus). Experiments on the application of the technique in nuclear medicine are critically analysed. (authors)

  19. Near-infrared spectral methods for noninvasively measuring blood glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Sun; Kong, Deyi; Mei, Tao; Tao, Yongchun

    2004-05-01

    Determination of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients is a frequently occurring procedure and an important tool for diabetes management. Use of noninvasive detection techniques can relieve patients from the pain of frequent finger pokes and avoid the infection of disease via blood. This thesis discusses current research and analyzes the advantages and shortages of different measurement methods, including: optical methods (Transmission, Polarimetry and scattering), then, we give emphasis to analyze the technology of near-infrared (NIR) spectra. NIR spectral range 700 nm ~2300 nm was used because of its good transparency for biological tissue and presence of glucose absorption band. In this work, we present an outline of noninvasive blood glucose measurement. A near-infrared light beam is passed through the finger, and the spectral components of the emergent beam are measured using spectroscopic techniques. The device includes light sources having the wavelengths of 600 nm - 1800 nm to illuminate the tissue. Receptors associated with the light sources for receiving light and generating a transmission signal representing the light transmitted are also provided. Once a transmission signal is received by receptors, and the high and low values from each of the signals are stored in the device. The averaged values are then analyzed to determine the glucose concentration, which is displayed on the device.

  20. A laboratory strategy for genotyping haemoglobin H disease in the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, AYY; So, CC; Ma, ESK; Chan, LC

    2007-01-01

    Background: The thalassaemias are the commonest blood disorders worldwide, with South East Asia and southern China as areas of high prevalence. Accurate diagnosis of these disorders helps in clinical management with improved outcome. Methods: The α-globin genotypes of 100 Chinese patients in Hong Kong with haemoglobin H (Hb H) disease were characterised. Single-tube multiplex gap-PCR was used to detect -SEA, -α3.7 and -α4.2, while Hb CS, Hb QS and codon 30 (ΔGAG) were identified by single-tub...

  1. Comparison of haemoglobin H inclusion bodies with embryonic zeta globin in screening for alpha thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, L C; So, J C; Chui, D H

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the haemoglobin (Hb) H inclusion test with immunocytochemical detection of embryonic zeta chains in screening for alpha thalassaemia. METHODS--Blood samples from 115 patients with relevant clinical history and hypochromic microcytic indexes were screened using the HbH inclusion test and the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System (BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA). RESULTS--The HbH inclusion test was positive in 61 of 115 cases, three of whom had HbH disease confirmed by electrophoresis. ...

  2. Oxygen tension measurement using an automatic blood gas analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becket, J; Orchard, C; Chakrabarti, M K; Hall, G M; Gillies, I D; Bourdillon, P J

    1981-08-01

    Two different methods of assessing the reliability of the oxygen electrode of one model of an automatic blood gas analyser (BGA) have been studied. In the first, a single automatic BGA was assessed by using outdated bank blood which was pumped around a small extracorporeal circuit into which known gas mixtures were passed. Oxygen tension was varied between 2 and 16 kPa. In the second, fresh heparinized blood was tonometered with calibrated gases and submitted to the automatic BGA used in the first part of the study and also to three other identical machines. Each of the machines was between 3 and 4 years old.Eighteen different units of blood were used in the first part of the study. The correlation coefficient between the automatic BGA and the Po(2) in the extracorporeal circuit varied between 0.29 and 0.99. 31% of the total of 209 measurements made by the automatic BGA were more than 1.2 kPa from the reference value, 25% of them being between 1.2 and 4.0 kPa from the reference value. In the second part of the study, the correlation coefficient between this automatic BGA and the tonometered blood was 0.96. The correlation coefficients for the 3 other identical BGAs were 0.84, 0.97 and 0.88, indicating that the BGA used in the first part of the study was no worse than any of the others.It is suggested that although clinicians are likely to ignore readings of an automatic BGA that are more than 4.0 kPa from the true value and are likely to repeat the investigation, readings between 1.2 and 4.0 kPa from the true value may adversely affect patient management. PMID:7288796

  3. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal advantage of positron emission tomography over other methods for measuring cerebral blood flow stems from the accurate, quantitative three-dimensional measurements of regional brain radioactivity that are possible with this technique. As a result, accurate quantitative measurements of regional cerebral blood flow can be obtained for both superficial and deep cerebral structures. The value of PET for investigating central nervous system physiology and pathology extends far beyond this, however. Through the use of different radiotracers and appropriate mathematical models, PET can be applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physiologic variables. Measurements of rCBF tell only part of the story. Experience with PET and with a variety of other techniques has taught us that rCBF is at times a poor indicator of the metabolic, functional, and biochemical status of cerebral tissue. It is only by understanding the interaction of all of these factors that our understanding of neurologic disease can advance. It is in the investigation of these complex relationships that the real value of PET resides

  4. Problems with cerebral blood flow measurement in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring cerebral blood flow in man is usually thought to be of great physiological and pathological interest. Thus, since 30 years, attemps to quantify the cerebral blood flow have given rise to a growing field of research. But, none of the proposed methods has never been currently used as a means of diagnosis or as a test of cerebral function. Methodological and technical difficulties greatly account for this failure. First, a steady flow must be ensured, while measuring it. This requires the operator to keep lung ventilation and cerebral activity to a constant level. Second, the classical models, the stochastic or the compartimental one, imperfectly fit the clearance curves. The calculations based on these models involve systematic errors, specially with low flows. Third, no tracer has been found to quite satisfactory. 133Xe remains the most commonly used radiotracer. But its low solubility in vivo gives low cerebral count-rates. If the actual local partition coefficient is unknown, cerebral blood flow cannot be accurately quantified. Recently, positron emitters have been employed and their advantages begin to be exploited. The most reliable results have been obtained using an intracarotid injection. Finally, the characteristics of the detecting part of the stationary and tomographic systems vary greatly. But, till now, no study has shown what is the best compromise between good statistics and good spatial resolution

  5. Cutaneous and subcutaneous blood flow measurements in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments - published in 7 papers in The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1983-86 - have demonstrated: 1. The accuracy of the local 133Xe washout method is about 15% for estimation of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF), and about 10% for subcutaneous blood flow measurements (SBF). In measurements of absolute CBF values a graphic curve resolution of the washout curve should alwaus be performed. Otherwise the CBF might be considerably underestimated. 2. CdTe(Cl) mini-detectors can be attached directly to the skin, and might yield measurements of both CBF and SBF that can substitute for those made with conventional detectors. 3. The laser Doppler measurements could not be correlated to quantitative measurements of the CBF. 4. The tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 133Xe of lesional psoriatic skin (LS) is increased. 5. In untreated, LS of patients with active psoriasis the CBF is about a factor of 10 times higher than the CBF of normal individuals. In non-lesional skin (NLS) of patients with active psoriasis the CBF is about a factor of 2 higher than the CBF of normal individuals. However, the CBF did not differ in NLS of patients with minimal skin manifestations. The high CBF decreases gradualy during antipsoriatic treatment. 6. A paradoxical autoregulation of the CBF was observed in LS. 7. The high CBF is not due to a maximally dilated vascular bed. 8. The SBF in LS areas was a factor of higher than the SBF in normal individuals. 9. A normal, local regulation of the SBF was found. (author)

  6. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920). PMID:25341864

  7. Cost effective improvement in the protocol for detection of haemoglobin variants –a step forward in quality assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Natasha; Khurshid, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background We report the results of a cost effective improvement in the protocol for detection of haemoglobin variants which incorporates the findings of peripheral blood film along with the results of HPLC. Findings A total of n = 10,844 samples were received from January 2011 till August 2011. Diagnosis of haemoglobinopathy was made in n = 1123 samples while other abnormalities included iron deficiency anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia, malarial parasite, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and G6PD...

  8. Transplanting a unique allosteric effect from crocodile into human haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, N H; Miyazaki, G; Tame, J; Nagai, K

    1995-01-19

    Crocodiles are able to remain under water for more than one hour without surfacing to breathe and often kill their prey by drowning it. How do crocodiles stay under water for a long time? When they hold their breath, bicarbonate ions, the final product of respiration, accumulate and drastically reduce the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin, releasing a large fraction of haemoglobin-bound oxygen into the tissues. We have now located the bicarbonate-ion-binding site at the alpha 1 beta 2-subunit interface by making various human-crocodile chimaeric haemoglobins. Furthermore, we have been able to transplant the bicarbonate effect into human haemoglobin by replacing only a few residues, even though the amino-acid sequence identity between crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and human haemoglobins is only 68% for the alpha- and 51% for the beta-subunit. These results indicate that an entirely new function which enables species to adapt to a new environment could evolve in a protein by a relatively small number of amino-acid substitutions in key positions. PMID:7816138

  9. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  10. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-03-28

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  11. Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine; Dasari, Ramachandra; Feld, Michael; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark; Levine, Alex

    2010-03-01

    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a Noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

  12. Context-aware patient guidance during blood pressure self-measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Puk; Lindahl, Camilla; Schlütter, Jacob Mørup;

    2013-01-01

    The importance of accurate measurement of blood pressure in the screening and management of hypertension during pregnancy is well established. Blood pressure levels can be measured manually by healthcare staff or by using a blood pressure self-measurement device, either at home or in the clinic. In...... blood pressure self-measurement process. Preliminary results indicate that such active and context-aware guidance leads to more reliable measurements by inhibiting non-adherent patient behavior...

  13. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Kechris, Katerina; Jacobson, Sean; Drummond, M Bradley; Hawkins, Gregory A; Yang, Jenny; Chen, Ting-Huei; Quibrera, Pedro Miguel; Anderson, Wayne; Barr, R Graham; Basta, Patricia V; Bleecker, Eugene R; Beaty, Terri; Casaburi, Richard; Castaldi, Peter; Cho, Michael H; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D; Criner, Gerard; Demeo, Dawn; Christenson, Stephanie A; Couper, David J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Freeman, Christine M; Gouskova, Natalia A; Han, MeiLan K; Hanania, Nicola A; Hansel, Nadia N; Hersh, Craig P; Hoffman, Eric A; Kaner, Robert J; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric C; Lutz, Sharon; Martinez, Fernando J; Meyers, Deborah A; Peters, Stephen P; Regan, Elizabeth A; Rennard, Stephen I; Scholand, Mary Beth; Silverman, Edwin K; Woodruff, Prescott G; O'Neal, Wanda K; Bowler, Russell P

    2016-08-01

    Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs). PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs). Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis) were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p 10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10-392) explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC). Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER), surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD), and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis), but distant (trans) pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2) for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In conclusion, given the frequency of highly significant local pQTLs, the large amount of variance potentially explained by pQTL, and the

  14. Hall effect in electrolyte flow measurements: introduction to blood flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwast, Maciej; Piatkiewicz, Wojciech

    2012-06-01

    The Hall effect has been applied to electrolyte flow measurement. It has been proven that Hall voltage does not depend on electrolyte concentration; however, there is a linear relationship between Hall voltage and flow velocity. Obtained results for electrolyte allow us to suppose that Hall effect can be used to determine blood flow. Research on blood will be conducted as the next step. PMID:22145845

  15. Measuring the impact of a restrictive transfusion guideline in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeg, R T; Leinoe, E B; Andersen, P;

    2013-01-01

    Interventions to change physician transfusion behavior are often evaluated by examining the amount of red blood cell (RBC) units transfused or the proportion of patients transfused before and after the intervention. The pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentration is a sensitive measure of transfusi...

  16. Radiation induced structural and functional modification of haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomlinov, B F; Savich, A V; Starikovich, L S; Dudok, E P

    1985-06-01

    An abnormality in the primary structure of dog haemoglobin was observed 1-20 days after their whole body irradiation with 190 keV X-rays (4.0 Gy). It consisted in a substitution of tryptophane residue in position 15 of the beta-chain for serine. The percentage of abnormal beta-chains in different time intervals after irradiation was determined. The structural changes have functional impact: an increasing haemoglobin affinity to oxygen. This could be explained on the basis of changes in the tertiary structure of haemoglobin, which may result from the substitution Trp 15----Ser15 in the beta-chain which may influence the haeme ability to bind oxygen. PMID:3896922

  17. Measurement of regional myocardial blood flow with multiple colored microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive microspheres (RM) for the measurement of regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) is limited and inaccessible to many investigators due to radiation safety concerns and radioactive waste disposal problems. Therefore, a new method for the measurement of RMBF using colored microspheres (CM) was developed. Polystyrene spheres (diameter, 15 +/- 0.1 [SD] micron; density, 1.09 g/ml) were dyed with one of five colors. With the injection of CM into the left atrium or into a coronary perfusion line, RMBF and its distribution can be determined. CM are extracted from the myocardium and blood by digestion with potassium hydroxide and subsequent microfiltration. The dyes are then recovered from the CM within a defined volume of a solvent, and their concentrations are determined by spectrophotometry. The separation of composite absorbance spectra by spectrophotometry with the CM technique was as good as the separation of energy spectra by a gamma-counter using the RM technique. Leaching of dye from the CM was less than 0.1% during a 2-month period in vitro. Significant leaching of dye from the microspheres also did not occur during 8 hours in the blood and myocardium of four anesthetized dogs in vivo. For further validation of this method, pairs of CM and RM (15.5 +/- 0.1 [SD] microns) were simultaneously injected under five different RMBF conditions (range, 0-10 ml/[min.g]) into the left anterior descending coronary artery of four anesthetized pigs, with coronary inflow as a flow reference, or into the left atrium of four anesthetized dogs using aortic blood withdrawal as a reference. The relation between RMBF determined by CM and RM was CM = 0.01 + 1.00.RM (r = 0.98, n = 1,080 data points) in the pigs, and CM = -0.19 + 0.92.RM (r = 0.97, n = 1,813 data points) in the dogs. Measurement of RMBF with CM yields values very similar to those of RM

  18. Lack of relation between glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations and number of daily insulin injections: cross sectional study in care of ambulatory diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Agardh, C D; Tallroth, G

    1985-01-01

    Diabetic treatment aims at achieving a normal blood glucose concentration as reflected by the glycosylated haemoglobin concentration. Intensive treatment by insulin pump or multiple insulin injections is thought to achieve this. In an unselected group of outpatient diabetics metabolic control was the same after one, two, three, or more injections, which suggests that the mode of treatment was optimal for each group.

  19. STUDY OF PHOSPHOROUS AND SULF HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS IN BLOOD AND ITS EFFECTS ON CBC OF MATCHE INDUSTRY WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Karimian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood sulfhemoglobin (S-Hb, total haemoglobin and phosphorous (P level and blood cell count in 33 matches industry workers of Azar Abhar, who were exposed directly or indirectly to chemical agents used in the factory (subjects, were measured. The results were compared with the result of the same measurement on 14 farm workers of the region (control and were analysed. In this study the effect of the work situation and duration of their occupation on the above-mentioned parameters were studied. The following results were obtained: S-Hb blood level between the subjects had a significant increase in respect to the control. This level in subjects of the regions with a high phosphorous pollution was higher than the other parts. Total haemoglobin concentration in the subjects yielded a significant decrease in respect to the control.

  20. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mouse were also investigated.

  1. The haemoglobin of the herring, Clupea harengus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, Jan Meindert

    1978-01-01

    This study deals with the haematological and oxygen binding properties of blood of a marine teleost, the herring, Clupea harengus, and the change of these properties during ontogenetic development. It traces the influences of physical and chemical factors like pH, temperature and the erythrocytic co

  2. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sjannie, E-mail: sjannie.lefevre@biology.au.dk [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Frank B. [Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Huong, Do.T.T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Wang, Tobias [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Phuong, Nguyen T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-15

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO{sub 2max}) and critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC{sub 50} of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO{sub 2max} and U{sub crit}. The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO{sub 2max} and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  3. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO2-) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO2max) and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC50 of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO2max and Ucrit. The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO2max and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  4. Blood safety measures and the role of central blood institute in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji Tadokoro

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Japanese Blood Programme Japanese Red Cross Blood Service is the sole conductor of blood service in Japan. It collects 5.3 million volun-tary non-remunerated donations from 127 million popu-lations and distributes 18 million units ( one unit = 200 ml,2 million Liter) blood matching the medical needs.A part of plasma is supplied to the JRCBS fractionation center and other 3 commercial manufacturers for pro-duction of plasma derivatives.

  5. Crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction studies and Raman microscopy of the major haemoglobin from the sub-Antarctic fish Eleginops maclovinus in the carbomonoxy form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major haemoglobin of the sub-Antarctic fish E. maclovinus is the first sub-Antarctic fish haemoglobin to be crystallized and its structural characterization will shed light on the molecular mechanisms of cold adaptation and the role of the Root effect in fish. The blood of the sub-Antarctic fish Eleginops maclovinus (Em) contains three haemoglobins. The major haemoglobin (Hb1Em) displays the Root effect, a drastic decrease in the oxygen affinity and a loss of cooperativity at acidic pH. The carbomonoxy form of HbEm1 has been crystallized in two different crystal forms, orthorhombic (Ortho) and hexagonal (Hexa), and high-resolution diffraction data have been collected for both forms (1.45 and 1.49 Å resolution, respectively). The high-frequency resonance Raman spectra collected from the two crystal forms using excitation at 514 nm were almost indistinguishable. Hb1Em is the first sub-Antarctic fish Hb to be crystallized and its structural characterization will shed light on the molecular mechanisms of cold adaptation and the role of the Root effect in fish haemoglobins

  6. The haemoglobin system of the mudfish, Labeo capensis: adaptations to temperature and hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, B.J.; Weber, Roy E.; Aardt, W.J. Van;

    1998-01-01

    The effect of temperature and hypoxic acclimation on the haemoglobin system and intraerythrocytic organic phosphate concentrations in the South African mudfish, Laheo capensis, have been investigated. Exposure to hypoxia or increased temperature raised haemoglobin concentration and decreased NTP/...

  7. Blood doping by cobalt. Should we measure cobalt in athletes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidi Gian

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood doping is commonplace in competitive athletes who seek to enhance their aerobic performances through illicit techniques. Presentation of the hypothesis Cobalt, a naturally-occurring element with properties similar to those of iron and nickel, induces a marked and stable polycythemic response through a more efficient transcription of the erythropoietin gene. Testing the hypothesis Although little information is available so far on cobalt metabolism, reference value ranges or supplementation in athletes, there is emerging evidence that cobalt is used as a supplement and increased serum concentrations are occasionally observed in athletes. Therefore, given the athlete's connatural inclination to experiment with innovative, unfair and potentially unhealthy doping techniques, cobalt administration might soon become the most suited complement or surrogate for erythropoiesis-stimulating substances. Nevertheless, cobalt administration is not free from unsafe consequences, which involve toxic effects on heart, liver, kidney, thyroid and cancer promotion. Implications of the hypothesis Cobalt is easily purchasable, inexpensive and not currently comprehended within the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list. Moreover, available techniques for measuring whole blood, serum, plasma or urinary cobalt involve analytic approaches which are currently not practical for antidoping laboratories. Thus more research on cobalt metabolism in athletes is compelling, along with implementation of effective strategies to unmask this potentially deleterious doping practice

  8. [Personal protection measures against blood-sucking insects and ticks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshan, Laor; Wilamowski, Amos; Pener, Hedva

    2010-09-01

    Blood-sucking arthropods are major vectors of various pathogens like viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes. Preventing exposure to the vector is imperative especially when vaccine and prophylactic treatments are not available. Personal protection measures (PPM) are essential and often the only means available when dealing with blood-sucking disease transmitting arthropods. Awareness of the risk in the specific areas of travel is the first step to be taken before and while traveling. PPM include preventive personal behavior, suitable clothing, application of insect repellents to the skin, the use of space repellents, impregnation of clothing, camping gear and bed nets and, when necessary, ground spraying of insecticides. The registered and recommended active ingredients for skin application are Deet, picaridin (icaridin), p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and IR3535. Volatile pyrethrins are used as space repellents while pyrethroids, especially permethrin, are employed for impregnation and for ground spraying. It is recommended to purchase only products registered in Israel or other developed countries. These products should have a detailed label specifying the concentration of the active ingredient, application instructions and the duration of protection. PMID:21302476

  9. Characterization of haemoglobin from Actinorhizal plants -- An in silico approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghati Bhattacharya; Arnab Sen; Subarna Thakur; Louis S Tisa

    2013-11-01

    Plant haemoglobins (Hbs), found in both symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants, are heme proteins and members of the globin superfamily. Hb genes of actinorhizal Fagales mostly belong to the non-symbiotic type of haemoglobin; however, along with the non-symbiotic Hb, Casuarina sp. posses a symbiotic one (symCgHb), which is expressed specifically in infected cells of nodules. A thorough sequence analysis of 26 plant Hb proteins, currently available in public domain, revealed a consensus motif of 29 amino acids. This motif is present in all the members of symbiotic class II Hbs including symCgHb and non-symbiotic Class II Hbs, but is totally absent in Class I symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs. Further, we constructed 3D structures of Hb proteins from Alnus and Casuarina through homology modelling and peeped into their structural properties. Structure-based studies revealed that the Casuarina symbiotic haemoglobin protein shows distinct stereochemical properties from that of the other Casuarina and Alnus Hb proteins. It also showed considerable structural similarities with leghemoglobin structure from yellow lupin (pdb id 1GDI). Therefore, sequence and structure analyses point to the fact that symCgHb protein shows significant resemblance to symbiotic haemoglobin found in legumes and may thus eventually play a similar role in shielding the nitrogenase from oxygen as seen in the case of leghemoglobin.

  10. Measurement of digital blood pressure after local cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    A double-inlet plastic cuff was designed for local cooling and systolic blood pressure measurement on the middle phalanx of the fingers. With a tourniquet on the proximal phalanx of one finger, cooling for 5 min made the digital artery temperature equal the skin temperature. The difference between...... the systolic pressure in a control finger and in the cooled finger give the reopening pressure in the digital arteries. At 30, 25, 20, 15, and 10 degrees C, respectively the percent decrease of the finger pressure was 0.2 (0.2), 1.5 (2.5), 8.5 (3.7), 11.4 (3.4), and 15.3 (3.1) in normal young women...

  11. Why some adult Canadians do not have blood pressure measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwah, Ernest; Campbell, Norman R C; Maxwell, Colleen; Onysko, Jay; Quan, Hude

    2007-12-01

    Regular blood pressure (BP) measurements are required to identify people with hypertension and to optimally manage their cardiovascular risk. Analyses of data from the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey showed that most adult Canadians have had a BP assessment in the previous 2 years and few have never had one. Large numbers of persons without BP recordings were observed, however, among persons who were younger, were male, who did not have either a regular doctor or physician contact in the previous year, who were recent immigrants or visible minorities (nonwhite and non-Aboriginal), and who spoke neither French nor English. Common reasons reported for not having a BP assessment included believing it was not necessary and simply not getting around to it. Education programs targeting those at risk as well as more convenient BP screening may improve awareness and testing. PMID:18046100

  12. Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L.; Feld, Michael S.; Levine, Alex J.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) are a composite of a fluid lipid bilayer and a triangular network of semiflexible filaments (spectrin). We perform cellular microrheology using the dynamic membrane fluctuations of the RBCs to extract the elastic moduli of this composite membrane. By applying known osmotic stresses, we measure the changes in the elastic constants under imposed strain and thereby determine the nonlinear elastic properties of the membrane. We find that the elastic nonlinearities of the shear modulus in tensed RBC membranes can be well understood in terms of a simple wormlike chain model. Our results show that the elasticity of the spectrin network can mostly account for the area compression modulus at physiological osmolality, suggesting that the lipid bilayer has significant excess area. As the cell swells, the elastic contribution from the now tensed lipid membrane becomes dominant.

  13. Measuring and communicating blood loss during obstetric hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kristi T; Weeber, Tracy A

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of blood loss is an essential skill necessary to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality associated with obstetric hemorrhage. Visual estimation of blood has been consistently shown to be extremely inaccurate. The nurse plays a pivotal role in quantifying blood loss after birth, recognizing triggers, mobilizing needed interventions, and providing essential communication. PMID:22548283

  14. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Pandian, E-mail: prms23@gmail.com [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India); Sundaresan, S. S.; Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N. [University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-11-01

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation.

  15. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P21 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation

  16. Development of automatic blood extraction device with a micro-needle for blood-sugar level measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Kaichiro; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2008-12-01

    In this study, a portable type HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is newly developed. It has features 1) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 2) extracting and transferring human blood and 3) measuring blood glucose level. This miniature SMBG (Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose) device employs a syringe reciprocal blood extraction system equipped with an electro-mechanical control unit for accurate and steady operations. The device consists of a) a disposable syringe unit, b) a non-disposable body unit, and c) a glucose enzyme sensor. The syringe unit consists of a syringe itself, its cover, a piston and a titanium alloy micro-needle, whose inner diameter is about 100µm. The body unit consists of a linear driven-type stepping motor, a piston jig, which connects directly to the shaft of the stepping motor, and a syringe jig, which is driven by combining with the piston jig and slider, which fixes the syringe jig. The required thrust to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Because of this driving mechanism, the automatic blood extraction and discharging processes are completed by only one linear driven-type stepping motor. The experimental results using our miniature SMBG device was confirmed to output more than 90% volumetric efficiency under the driving speed of the piston, 1.0mm/s. Further, the blood sugar level was measured successfully by using the glucose enzyme sensor.

  17. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of a forearm blood pressure measurement method in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Marie-Ève; Cloutier, Lyne; Poirier, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For blood pressure assessment, it has been reported that forearm blood pressure measurement appears to be as valid as an upper-arm blood pressure measurement method in individuals with severe obesity when correlated to the intra-arterial method, considered as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the presence of systemic hypertension in 25 severely obese patients from 352 blood pressure measurements were calculated. The sensitivity (0.98) and the positive predictive value (0.93) for hypertension on forearm blood pressure measurements are excellent, indicating that the forearm approach is a promising alternative to systemic hypertension diagnosis in severe obesity. PMID:25757220

  18. TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION USING TELEMEDICAL HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N;

    2015-01-01

    of the measurements and subsequent communication by telephone or E-mail. In the control group, patients received usual care. Primary outcome was reduction in daytime ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) from baseline to 3 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In both groups, daytime ABPM decreased significantly......: Participants (n = 356) were recruited from a prevalence study among citizens aged 55-64 years in the municipality of Holstebro, Denmark. The study was a randomised, controlled, unblinded 3 months trial. In the intervention group, antihypertensive treatment was based on TBPM with transmission....... The decrease in daytime ABPM in the intervention group was systolic/diastolic, -8  ± 12/-4 ± 7 mmHg. This did not differ significantly from the control group's -8 ± 13/-4 ± 8 mmHg. An equal number of participants obtained normal daytime ABPM, in the intervention group 17% (31/175) versus control 21% (37...

  19. Blood pressure measurement in epidemiological investigations in teenagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The use of sphygmomanometers may lead to problems in investigations on health of young people. The purpose of this paper is to present the validation of the blood pressure (BP) collected during the survey 'Youth Heart Health' in Hainaut by using second sample of young people in Hainaut for which BP was measured by a manual taking of tension and by an electronic device. Methods: Validation was done with a control sample of 343 young with five successive BP measures: twice with the mercury sphygmomanometer and three with DXL. We compared the manual and the electronic measures in order to study the correlation between the two methods. The control sample was used in order to compare the BP measurements with the results of the survey on the health of young people in Hainaut. Results: The differences between manual systolic BP and Dinamap measures are significant (differences in averages 3.6 mmHg; d.s. 7.8; 95% CI: 2.8-4.4 mmHg; p < 0.001) and the regression coefficient is -0.015. Diastolic BP is significantly higher with the manual method than with Dinamap (differences in means: 8.2 mmHg; d.s. 7.0; 95% CI: 7.4-8.9 mmHg; p < 0.001) and the coefficient of regression is 0.096. We observe a difference in BP between the general survey and the control group (10.3 mmHg for systolic manual control and of 10.9 mmHg for systolic electronic control; 3.3 mmHg for diastolic manual control and of 11.5 mmHg for diastolic electronic control). Conclusions: The values of BP of the 'Youth Heart Health' are significantly higher. These observations indicate the difficulties in the choice of the tool for measurements of BP in epidemiological investigations in the teenagers. In order to decrease skews of observations in the measurement of BP, it is recommended to use a valid electronic instrument. Dinamap XL is an instrument of choice in such studies of young people. Environmental and organisational factors may also explain the observed difference, which means that survey

  20. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  1. Capillary Bedside Blood Glucose Measurement in Neonates: Missing a Diagnosis of Galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Öcal, Murat; Tanrıverdi, Sibel; Baysal, Birsen; Deniz, Ahmet; Öncel, Kahraman; Demirbilek, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors may lead to inaccuracy in measurement of capillary blood glucose with a glucometer. Measurement of other carbohydrate molecules such as galactose and fructose along with glucose can potentially be a cause of error. We report a newborn patient who was referred to our hospital with conjugated bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and high capillary blood glucose levels measured with a glucometer. Simultaneous biochemical measurements revealed normal blood glucose levels. Further inves...

  2. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  3. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesan, G. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India); Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K. [University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Harikrishna Etti, S. [GKM College of Engineering and Technology, Kamaraj Salai, Chennai 600 063 (India); Aravindhan, S., E-mail: aravindhanpresidency@gmail.com [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2014-10-25

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  4. Capillary bedside blood glucose measurement in neonates: missing a diagnosis of galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Öcal, Murat; Tanrıverdi, Sibel; Baysal, Birsen; Deniz, Ahmet; Öncel, Kahraman; Demirbilek, Hüseyin

    2015-03-01

    A number of factors may lead to inaccuracy in measurement of capillary blood glucose with a glucometer. Measurement of other carbohydrate molecules such as galactose and fructose along with glucose can potentially be a cause of error. We report a newborn patient who was referred to our hospital with conjugated bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and high capillary blood glucose levels measured with a glucometer. Simultaneous biochemical measurements revealed normal blood glucose levels. Further investigation led to a diagnosis of classical galactosemia. Capillary blood glucose level measured with glucometer also dropped to normal values following cessation of breastfeeding and initiation of feeding with a lactose-free formula. PMID:25800483

  5. Home blood pressure measurement : reproducibility and relationship with left ventricular mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.H.; Beltman, F.W.; Terpstra, W.F.; Smit, A.J.; May, J.F.; de Graeff, P.A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility and relationship with left ventricular mass index of home blood pressure in comparison with ambulatory and office blood pressures. METHODS: We measured home, ambulatory and office blood pressures of 84 previously untreated hypertensive patients, aged 60-74

  6. The applicability of home blood pressure measurement in clinical practice: A review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Verberk, Willem J; Kroon, Abraham A.; Jongen-Vancraybex, Heidi A; Peter W de Leeuw

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To review the literature on home blood pressure measurement (HBPM), to examine its validity and applicability for clinical practice and to provide recommendations regarding HBPM assessment. Findings HBPM can eliminate the white coat effect and offers the possibility to obtain multiple measurements under standardized conditions, which increases knowledge of overall blood pressure value. Although it is not entirely capable of replacing ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM), HBPM ...

  7. Non Invasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pauline; Avadhany, Sandhya T.; K.N. Maruthy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non invasive, simple and economical instrument to measure blood pressure in r365-ats is important in cardiovascular research. Methods: Systolic blood pressure measuring instrument was fabricated using a tail cuff, photoplethysmograph, pressure transducer and PC with Biopac Software for recording. Tail cuff was used to occlude the tail artery, photoplethysmograph picked the blood flow pulses in the rat tail and the pressure transducer measured the cuff pressure and converted it int...

  8. Glycosylated haemoglobin for screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuah, Eileen; Al-Barazan, Abdul Majeed; Nikakis, Irena; Radford, Andrea; Clarkson, Wade; Trevett, Clinton; Brain, Terry; Gebski, Val; Corbould, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a cumbersome test that is time consuming, labour intensive and often poorly tolerated by pregnant women. To date, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is the most accepted measure of chronic glycaemia outside of pregnancy. HbA1c is an uncomplicated test, less time consuming, does not require any specific patient preparation and is considered straightforward compared with the OGTT. Therefore, we prospectively tested the utility of the HbA1c when used as a screening tool in pregnancy for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Settings Primary health care. Single tertiary referral centre, Tasmania, Australia. Participants A direct comparison between HbA1c levels and the OGTT results in pregnant women, tested concurrently at the 24–28 gestational week, was undertaken. A full profile of 480 pregnant women during the period from September 2012 to July 2014 was completed. Median and mean age of participants was 29 years (range 18–47 years). Interventions A simultaneous prospective assessment of HbA1c versus standard OGTT in a cohort of consecutive pregnant women presenting to our institute was performed. Results The number of women who had GDM according to OGTT criteria was 57, representing 11.9% of the evaluated 480 pregnant women. Using a cut-off value for HbA1c at 5.1% (32 mmol/mol) for detecting GDM showed sensitivity of 61% and specificity of 68% with negative predictive value (NPV) of 93%, versus sensitivity of 27% and specificity of 95% with NPV of 91% when using HbA1c cut-off value of 5.4% (36 mmol/mol). Conclusions Our results suggest that pregnant women with an HbA1c of≥5.4% (36 mmol/mol) should proceed with an OGTT. This may result in a significant reduction in the burden of testing on both patients and testing facility staff and resources. Further investigations are required to integrate and optimise the HbA1c as a single, non-fasting, screening tool for GDM. Trial registration number ACTRN

  9. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Mugyenyi, Godfrey Rwambuka; Obua, Celestino; Atuhumuza, Elly Bronney; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Tornes, Yarine Fajardo; Agaba, Amon Ganaafa; Siedner, Mark Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL) versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH. Methods Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241). Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%. Results A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6%) developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0%) had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85%) in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL. Conclusion WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell

  10. Comparison of tests for glycated haemoglobin and fasting and two hour plasma glucose concentrations as diagnostic methods for diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    McCance, D.R.; Hanson, R.L.; Charles, M. A.; Jacobsson, L. T.; Pettitt, D. J.; Bennett, P H; Knowler, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the ability of tests measuring two hour plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated haemoglobin concentrations in predicting the specific microvascular complications of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN--Cross sectional and longitudinal analysis of the relation between complications and concomitant results of the three tests. SETTING--Gila River Indian Community, Arizona. SUBJECTS--Pima Indians (cross sectional, n = 960), aged 25 years or above who...

  11. Placental blood flow measurements with radioisotopes in the pregnant guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 15 pregnant guinea pigs near term the blood flow (BF) of the myometrium and the placenta as well as the cardiac output were measured with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled microspheres. In front of one placenta the clearance of 133Xe was estimated in the same animal. For the 133Xe measurement a theoretical concept is presented. The mean placental BF is 105ml/(minx100g)(SD:84) for 99Tcsup(m) and 244(SD:80)ml/(minx100g) for 133Xe. The difference in both flow values is assumed to be related to foetal placental BF. The placental blood flow is also related to the location of the placenta in the uterine horn. The ratio of myometrial blood flow to placental blood flow decreased with an increase in the mean arterial blood pressure. The measurements are a preliminary report of an attempt to compare two different methods in measuring placental blood flow. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  13. Faecal blood loss in response to exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, J D; Maughan, R J; Davidson, R J

    1987-01-01

    Recently qualitative tests have indicated that gastrointestinal bleeding during exercise may be an important contributory factor in sports anaemia. In six healthy men who walked 37 km on four consecutive days faecal haemoglobin content remained normal (reference range 0.10-2.53 mg/g faeces) with no significant differences between values. In 28 marathon runners who refrained from taking drugs or food containing blood the median faecal haemoglobin content increased by 0.42 mg/g faeces (95% conf...

  14. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  15. Aortic blood pressure measured via EIT: investigation of different measurement settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Fabian; Proença, Martin; Rapin, Michael; Lemay, Mathieu; Adler, Andy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Solà, Josep; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) allows the measurement of intra-thoracic impedance changes related to cardiovascular activity. As a safe and low-cost imaging modality, EIT is an appealing candidate for non-invasive and continuous haemodynamic monitoring. EIT has recently been shown to allow the assessment of aortic blood pressure via the estimation of the aortic pulse arrival time (PAT). However, finding the aortic signal within EIT image sequences is a challenging task: the signal has a small amplitude and is difficult to locate due to the small size of the aorta and the inherent low spatial resolution of EIT. In order to most reliably detect the aortic signal, our objective was to understand the effect of EIT measurement settings (electrode belt placement, reconstruction algorithm). This paper investigates the influence of three transversal belt placements and two commonly-used difference reconstruction algorithms (Gauss-Newton and GREIT) on the measurement of aortic signals in view of aortic blood pressure estimation via EIT. A magnetic resonance imaging based three-dimensional finite element model of the haemodynamic bio-impedance properties of the human thorax was created. Two simulation experiments were performed with the aim to (1) evaluate the timing error in aortic PAT estimation and (2) quantify the strength of the aortic signal in each pixel of the EIT image sequences. Both experiments reveal better performance for images reconstructed with Gauss-Newton (with a noise figure of 0.5 or above) and a belt placement at the height of the heart or higher. According to the noise-free scenarios simulated, the uncertainty in the analysis of the aortic EIT signal is expected to induce blood pressure errors of at least ± 1.4 mmHg. PMID:26007662

  16. A simple method of blood pressure measurement in the pig using a neonatal cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P K; Ng, T H; Heng, D; Mack, P O

    1999-01-01

    The pig is a commonly used large animal model in experimental studies. Few non-invasive techniques exist however for the measurement of blood pressure in the porcine model. This study evaluates the novel use of the easily available neonatal blood pressure cuff for measuring blood pressure in the pig. Six Yorkshire pigs were used for the study. Blood pressure measurements obtained by the application of neonatal blood pressure cuff (Hewlett Packard) around the base of the tail were compared with results obtained from intra-arterial measurements in the normotensive range as well as in experimentally created hypertensive (intravenous dopamine) and hypotensive (hypovolaemic shock) ranges. Results of the two techniques are closely correlated (Pearson's coefficient = 0.95, 0.97, 0.90). Systematic bias was however detected at the extremes of hypertensive and hypotensive blood pressure. Analysis of the limits of agreement (method of Bland and Altman) showed that neonatal blood pressure cuff measurements fall within--2 to 2.5 mmHg of the readings obtained from the invasive technique (95% confidence interval). The neonatal blood pressure cuff technique is a good substitute for the standard invasive intra-arterial measurement of blood pressure in the pig model. PMID:10374020

  17. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2003-01-01

    was the case for HbI-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an...... advantage for HbI-1 cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....... in northern regions, and the HbI(1) allele dominant in warmer areas. To determine if temperature is a selective parameter in the distribution of the haemoglobin types, the preferred temperature of the homozygous genotypes HbI-1 and HbI-2 was measured. We found that HbI-2 cod preferred a temperature...

  18. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  19. Cerebral blood flow measurements using electron beam computed tomography (EBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In close collaboration with the participants of the TEMPUS-Project Nr. 11117 a new technical and theoretical approach was developed to estimate cerebral blood flow using i.v. applied contrast agent and evaluating the cerebral time density curves using EBT as imaging method. This new approach and first clinical results are described. (author)

  20. Smartphone-based Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement Using Pulse Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Meintjes, Andries; Baig, Mirza; Linden, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This inflation can also cause patient discomfort and alter the measurement results. In this work, a mobile application was developed to collate the PhotoPlethysmoGramm (PPG) waveform provided by a pulse oximeter and the electrocardiogram (ECG) for calculating the pulse transit time. This information is then indirectly related to the user's systolic blood pressure. The developed application successfully connects to the PPG and ECG monitoring devices using Bluetooth wireless connection and stores the data onto an online server. The pulse transit time is estimated in real time and the user's systolic blood pressure can be estimated after the system has been calibrated. The synchronization between the two devices was found to pose a challenge to this method of continuous blood pressure monitoring. However, the implemented continuous blood pressure monitoring system effectively serves as a proof of concept. This combined with the massive benefits that an accurate and robust continuous blood pressure monitoring system would provide indicates that it is certainly worthwhile to further develop this system. PMID:27225558

  1. Report of haemoglobin J-Toronto and alpha thalassemia in a family from North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Bayat, Nooshin; Hadavi, Valeh; Karami, Hosein; Roshan, Payam; Najmabadi, Hossein; Rohanizadeh, Hamed

    2012-04-01

    We report of an Iranian family with history of a rare haemoglobin variant, Haemoglobin J associated with alpha thalassemia, discovered while performing premarital thalassemia screening. In the present study we report the first case of haemoglobin J-Toronto [alpha 5 (A3) Ala > Asp] on -globin gene, found in a 16-year-old female from Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Further investigation characterized the same mutation for mother and brother of the proband, whilst mother was also a carrier of an alpha thalassemia gene mutation (-alpha3.7). Haemoglobin J-Toronto was previously just reported from Canada and has not been found in any part of Iran. PMID:22755290

  2. Measurement of Uranium in Blood-Plasma of Bavarian Females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been reported that the water supply in some parts of Bavaria (Germany) contains Uranium. In order to study its effects we have determined the concentrations of U in the blood plasma of 25 females. All the females came from Bavaria and were not on any medication. Blood samples were drawn from a superficial arm vein, centrifuged and plasma extracted. The plasma samples were freeze-dried and analysed in our Analytical Laboratory in Perth, Western Australia by using the technique of ICP-MS. The U contents found varied from less than 0.1 to 8.2 ppb (6.6 ng/L to 543 ng/L)

  3. Continuous blood pressure measurement using the pulse transit time: Comparison to intra-arterial measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Andreas; Mendoza, Yuri; Gesche, Heiko; Konermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement allows the investigation of transient changes in BP and thus may give insights into mechanisms of BP control. We validated a continuous, non-invasive BP measurement based on the pulse transit time (PTT), i.e., BP(PTT), by comparing it with the intra-arterial BP (BP(i.a.)) measurement. Twelve subjects (five females and seven males) were included. BP(i.a.) was obtained from the radial artery using a system from ReCor Medical. Systolic and diastolic BP were calculated using the PTT (BP(PTT), SOMNOscreen). (PTT) was determined from the electrocardiogram and the peripheral pulse wave. The BP was modulated by application of increasing doses of dobutamine (5, 10, 20 μg/kg body mass). Systolic BP(PTT) and systolic BP(i.a.) correlated significantly (R = 0.94). The limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot were ± 19 mmHg; the mean values differed by 1 mmHg. The correlation coefficient for the diastolic BP measurements was R = 0.42. The limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot were ± 18 mmHg, with a mean difference of 5 mmHg in favour of the BP(PTT). The study demonstrates a significant correlation between the measurement methods for systolic BP. The results encourage the application of PTT-based BP measurement for the evaluation of BP dynamics and pathological BP changes. PMID:25857601

  4. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  5. Measurement of human blood viscosity by an electromagnetic spinning sphere viscometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Koji; Abumiya, Takeo; Sakai, Keiji; Hirano, Miki; Osanai, Toshiya; Shichinohe, Hideo; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Aida, Toshimitsu; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-08-01

    We herein applied an electromagnetic spinning sphere (EMS) viscometer to the measurement of human blood viscosity for the first time. We collected blood samples from 100 healthy outpatient volunteers in order to analyse viscosity dependence on blood cell parameters and on the shear rate with a simple approximation formula [ηi (γ)\\, = Ai γ(- pi) + η0]. Viscosity dependence on blood cell parameters was relatively high at a high shear rate, but became lower as the shear rate decreased. The approximation formula with appropriate parameters of Ai and pi nearly faithfully reproduced actual blood rheological behaviour with a standard deviation of 1.5%. The distributions of Ai and pi values were broad, suggesting that the pattern of viscosity dependence on the shear rate varied with individual differences. The results obtained using the EMS viscometer suggest that blood viscosity values are individual-specific and actual individual measurements are important for understanding rheological conditions. PMID:27167739

  6. Uteroplacental blood flow measured by placental scintigraphy during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uteroplacental blood flow was measured before and during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in 11 woman. The blood flow was measured with dynamic placental scintigraphy. After an i.v. injection of indium-113m chloride, the gamma radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked scintillation camera. The uteroplacental blood flow could be calculated from the isotope accumulation curve. The anaesthesia was performed with bupivacaine plain 0.5%, 18-22 ml and a preload of a balanced electrolyte solution 10 ml/kg b.w. was given. The placental blood flow decreased in eight patients and increased in three with a median change of -21%, not being statistically significant. No correlation between maternal blood pressure and placental blood flow was found. (author)

  7. Uteroplacental blood flow measured by placental scintigraphy during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjoeldebrand, A.; Eklund, J.; Johansson, H.; Lunell, N.-O.; Nylund, L.; Sarby, B.; Thornstroem, S. (Departments of Anaesthesiology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medical Physics, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    The uteroplacental blood flow was measured before and during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in 11 woman. The blood flow was measured with dynamic placental scintigraphy. After an i.v. injection of indium-113m chloride, the gamma radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked scintillation camera. The uteroplacental blood flow could be calculated from the isotope accumulation curve. The anaesthesia was performed with bupivacaine plain 0.5%, 18-22 ml and a preload of a balanced electrolyte solution 10 ml/kg b.w. was given. The placental blood flow decreased in eight patients and increased in three with a median change of -21%, not being statistically significant. No correlation between maternal blood pressure and placental blood flow was found. (author).

  8. Seasonal changes of blood values in Rufous-collared sparrows from high and low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Gricelda; Rosenmann, Mario; Novoa, F. Fernando

    1995-06-01

    Haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and plasma solids concentration, were measured in populations of Zonotrichia capensis captured during different seasons of the year at altitudes ranging from sea level up to 3500 m. Winter blood values of birds from high and low altitude proved not to be significantly different. Similar results were obtained during summertime, with the exception of cell Hb content and concentration, which were about 10% higher in low-altitude birds. Seasonal changes in RBC size and number appear to be better correlated with the prevailing summer and winter conditions than with the particular altitudinal distribution of the examined populations.

  9. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keramati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional anaemia among children. Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in children of Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on children between 1 year and 10 years, in Imam Reza teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Indeed during complete blood count (CBC, we measured iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC by colorimetric methods, ferritin by radioimmune assay and blood lead concentration by atomic absorption method. Results were analysed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS (version 11.5, using statistical tests including independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman′s test and analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson′s or Spearman′s correlation coefficient. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212 μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159 μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713. We also did not find any correlation between blood lead concentration and haemoglobin, ferritin, iron, TIBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, white blood cells (WBC and platelets. Conclusion: Based on these results, no correlation was found between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in the children. Because all children had lead intoxication, further studies in highly polluted and a comparison with a low polluted area are necessary to make a general conclusion.

  10. Outcome-Driven Thresholds for Home Blood Pressure Measurement International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Niiranen, T. J.; Asayama, K.; Thijs, L; Johansson, J K; Ohkubo, T.; Kikuya, M; Boggia, J.; Hozawa, A.; Sandoya, E.; Stergiou, G. S.; Tsuji, I; Jula, A. M.; Imai, Y.; Staessen, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of outcome-driven operational thresholds limits the clinical application of home blood pressure (BP) measurement. Our objective was to determine an outcome-driven reference frame for home BP measurement. We measured home and clinic BP in 6470 participants (mean age, 59.3 years; 56.9% women; 22.4% on antihypertensive treatment) recruited in Ohasama, Japan (n=2520); Montevideo, Uruguay (n=399); Tsurugaya, Japan (n=811); Didima, Greece (n=665); and nationwide in Finland (n=2075). In mul...

  11. Cerebral blood volume measured using near-infrared spectroscopy and radiolabels in the immature lamb brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, C P; Yu, V Y; Noma, O; Kukita, J; Cussen, L J; Oates, A; Walker, A M

    1999-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a technique that is increasingly being used for the noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) in newborn infants, but it has not been fully validated against established methods. These experiments in immature lambs (gestation 92+/-1 d, mean+/-SEM) compared CBV measured using NIRS-derived estimates of oxygenated Hb (n = 5) with CBV estimated with radiolabeled indicators (125I-labeled serum albumin and 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, n = 10). Total brain CBV (mL/100 g tissue) measured using NIRS was 2.5+/-0.2 compared with 2.5+/-0.2 using radiolabels (NS). Regional tissue plasma, red blood cells, and whole blood volumes from radiolabels varied significantly (p cerebellum > cortex > brain stem = midbrain > white matter. Regional plasma and red blood cell distributions were similar to whole blood, being highest in choroid plexus (13.0+/-1.6 and 3.2+/-0.9, respectively), and least in white matter (0.8+/-0.1 and 0, respectively). These data from the immature lamb brain indicate that total CBV measured with NIRS is essentially identical with the volumes obtained using intravascular radiolabels. Among cerebral regions, white matter contributes little to the global blood volume measured with NIRS because its red blood cell content is very low. PMID:10400134

  12. The structure of the giant haemoglobin from Glossoscolex paulistus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero Bachega, José Fernando; Vasconcelos Maluf, Fernando; Andi, Babak; D'Muniz Pereira, Humberto; Falsarella Carazzollea, Marcelo; Orville, Allen M; Tabak, Marcel; Brandão-Neto, José; Garratt, Richard Charles; Horjales Reboredo, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    The sequences of all seven polypeptide chains from the giant haemoglobin of the free-living earthworm Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) are reported together with the three-dimensional structure of the 3.6 MDa complex which they form. The refinement of the full particle, which has been solved at 3.2 Å resolution, the highest resolution reported to date for a hexagonal bilayer haemoglobin composed of 12 protomers, is reported. This has allowed a more detailed description of the contacts between subunits which are essential for particle stability. Interpretation of features in the electron-density maps suggests the presence of metal-binding sites (probably Zn(2+) and Ca(2+)) and glycosylation sites, some of which have not been reported previously. The former appear to be important for the integrity of the particle. The crystal structure of the isolated d chain (d-HbGp) at 2.1 Å resolution shows different interchain contacts between d monomers compared with those observed in the full particle. Instead of forming trimers, as seen in the complex, the isolated d chains associate to form dimers across a crystallographic twofold axis. These observations eliminate the possibility that trimers form spontaneously in solution as intermediates during the formation of the dodecameric globin cap and contribute to understanding of the possible ways in which the particle self-assembles. PMID:26057666

  13. Development of dual micro-PIV system for simultaneous velocity measurements: optical arrangement techniques and application to blood flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood rheological characteristics can significantly vary with the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) in plasma. Moreover, RBCs show a complicated behavior in micro vessels. Thus, the determination of either plasma or blood cell velocity distribution has been the primary objective in blood flow analysis. However, the conditions during blood flow analyses are different from the actual physiological conditions, wherein the motion of the two distinct blood phases simultaneously occurs. In this study, we used an in vitro micro-particle image velocimetry, which is a reliable velocity field measurement technique, to evaluate the velocity distribution of plasma and blood cells simultaneously. Blood flow through a rectangular microchannel was determined using special optical filter arrangements and by assuming two different hematocrit values. Using the proposed technique, the averaged parabolic velocity profiles for the RBCs and plasma were successfully obtained and compared. The developed simultaneous measurement technique can be used to predict blood cell and plasma behaviors simultaneously with high accuracy under given clinical conditions. (paper)

  14. Measurement of Flow Properties of Mammalian Blood with Different Hematocrit Values Using Falling Needle Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Suzuki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of viscometry with high accuracy and quick operation, as well as the establishment of a data evaluation method by pathology are largely required. Especially, the flow properties of human blood are an important factor in the evaluation of blood disease on the medicine, but the method of viscometry and the data collection are not so easy. This study has been described on the viscosity measurement and their evaluations for mammalian blood (rabbit, pig and horse including human blood. A compact-sized falling needle rheometer (FNR and a flow analysis method using this device for blood have been developed, and the relationship between the apparent viscosity and physical properties (density, hematocrit value of blood have also been evaluated. Measured flow properties of blood are evaluated as a flow curve showing the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate. Observed flow curves of mammalian bloods show three typical fluid regions, these are, the Non-newtonian fluid region for a low shear rate range, the transition region and the Newtonian fluid region for a high shear rate range. Flow properties of blood in the Casson fluid region and the apparent viscosity (μ in the Newtonian fluid region are measured, and they are compared between mammals.

  15. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Komine Hidehiko; Asai Yoshiyuki; Yokoi Takashi; Yoshizawa Mutsuko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Because current methods of measuring arterial stiffness are technically demanding, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement. Methods Blood pressure was conventionally measured in the left upper arm of 173 individuals using an inflatable cuff. Using the time series of occlusive cuff pressure and the amplitudes ...

  16. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO/sub 2/ did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow.

  17. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO2 did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow

  18. Development of portable health monitoring system for automatic self-blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huijun; Mizuno, Yoshihumi; Nakamachi, Eiji; Morita, Yusuke

    2010-02-01

    In this study, a new HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is developed for diabetic patient. This device mainly consists of I) 3D blood vessel searching unit and II) automatic blood glucose measurement (ABGM) unit. This device has features such as 1)3D blood vessel location search 2) laptop type, 3) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 4) very little blood sampling (10μl), and 5) automatic blood extraction and blood glucose measurement. In this study, ABGM unit is described in detail. It employs a syringe type's blood extraction mechanism because of its high accuracy. And it consists of the syringe component and the driving component. The syringe component consists of a syringe itself, a piston, a magnet, a ratchet and a micro-needle whose inner diameter is about 80μm. And the syringe component is disposable. The driving component consists of body parts, a linear stepping motor, a glucose enzyme sensor and a slider for accurate positioning control. The driving component has the all-in-one mechanism with a glucose enzyme sensor for compact size and stable blood transfer. On designing, required thrust force to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Further, only one linear stepping motor is employed for blood extraction and transportation processes. The experimental result showed more than 80% of volume ratio under the piston speed 2.4mm/s. Further, the blood glucose was measured successfully by using the prototype unit. Finally, the availability of our ABGM unit was confirmed.

  19. Development of a Phantom Tissue for Blood Perfusion Measurements and Noninvasive Blood Perfusion Estimation in Living Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mudaliar, Ashvinikumar

    2007-01-01

    A convenient method for testing and calibrating surface perfusion sensors has been developed. A phantom tissue model is used to mimic the non-directional blood flow of tissue perfusion. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed in Fluent to design the phantom tissue and validate the experimental results. The phantom perfusion system was used with a perfusion sensor based on the clearance of thermal energy. A heat flux gage measures the heat flux response of tissue whe...

  20. Blood pressure measurement of all five fingers by strain gauge plethysmography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirai, M; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to study the methodological problems involved in measuring systolic blood pressure in all five fingers by the strain gauge technique. In 24 normal subjects, blood pressure at the proximal phalanx of finger I and both at the proximal and the intermediate phalanx of...

  1. Measurement of blood pressure, ankle blood pressure and calculation of ankle brachial index in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Damsbo, Bent; Lund, Jens Otto;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values......BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values...

  2. Changes in human cerebral blood flow and myocardial blood flow during mental stress measured by dual positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mental stress causes a substantial sympathetic response, thus increasing myocardial blood flow (MBF). However, the effects of mental stress on global cerebral blood flow (CBF) have not been elucidated. In this study, changes in CBF and MBF in relation to mental stress were measured by a dual positron emission tomography system that can measure CBF and MBF simultaneously. CBF and MBF were measured in 10 healthy men with O-15 labeled water at rest (baseline) and during the performance of a mental task that required subtraction of 7s serially from a four-digit number. Baseline global CBF and values obtained during the mental activity were 0.42±0.05 and 0.45±0.06 ml/ml/min (mean±SD), respectively. Baseline MBF and values obtained during mental activity were 0.61±0.12 and 1.09±0.58 ml/ml/min, respectively. Percent changes in CBF and MBF during mental stress were 6±11% and 78±73%, respectively. No significant difference was observed in arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) level between the mental stress and baseline conditions. MBF, blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline increased significantly during mental stress. Sympathetic stimulation is reported to cause cerebral vasoconstriction and reduce CBF in animals. Although such a sympathetic response was observed in relation to mental stress, no significant change in CBF was observed in our subjects. (author)

  3. Measurement of effective hepatic blood flow using 99mTc-PMT SPECT and single blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective hepatic blood flow (EHBF) was measured from an uptake constant using single blood sampling and 99mTc-PMT hepatobiliary SPECT data. After intravenous injection of 3 mCi (111MBq) of 99mTc-PMT, serial 1 min SPECT data were obtained for 7 minutes. A time activity curve (TAC) over the heart, that was normalized with the 5 minutes venous sample concentration (%/dose/m1), was used as a blood clearance curve (B(t)). And a TAC of the whole liver, that was normalized with the injected dose of 99mTc-PMT (%/dose), was used as a hepatogram (L(t)). An uptake constant representing EHBF, was estimated from the Rutland's method L. (t)/B(t) was plotted against ∫otB(t)dt/B(t), and the slope of the least square fitted straight line was determined as the uptake constant. In 16 cases, significant correlation was obtained between the 99mTc-PMT hepatic uptake at 5 minutes and the EHBF estimated from the blood clearance (r=0.85,p99mTc-PMT SPECT data enables us to estimate EHBF with single venous sampling and in relatively short acquisition time. This method is thought to be very valuable in clinical practice. (author)

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of blood oxygenation content and its application in sports practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guodong; Gong, Hui; Ge, Xinfa; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    To research the change characteristics of blood oxygenation content in skeletal muscle, the change regularity between blood oxygenation content and exercise intensity as well as HbO2 and blood lactate acid while taking incremental exercises, we took an in vivo, real-time and continuous measurement on the blood oxygenation content of eight sportsmen when they did incremental exercises of five degrees on a power bicycle using a portable tissue oximeter which is based on the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), simultaneously, we detected the blood lactate acid of subjects after each degree of incremental physical load instantly using a blood lactate analysis equipment. The results showed that the content of HbO2 descended regularly while that of Hb ascended; blood volume decreased; and the density of lactate increased as the intensity of exercises was heightened. The statistics analyses showed that the relationship between HbO2 and blood lactate is rather close (correlation coefficient r=-0.918). With this discovery, a theoretical basis in measuring the relative change of blood oxygenation content non-invasively was evidenced, and a novel technology for assessing the physical situation of sportsman, grasping sports density and evaluating the training effect could be imported.

  5. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin–borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations. (paper)

  6. Oxygen-binding characteristics of three extracellular haemoglobins of Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, J; Moens, L; Heip, J; D'Hondt, A; Kondo, M

    1978-06-01

    The oxygen-binding characteristics of the three extracellular haemoglobins of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) were studied in vitro by using highly purified preparations. Haemoglobin I is induced last in the development of brine shrimps when functional gills are formed. It has the lowest oxygen affinity (p(50) 5.34mmHg), an intermediate Bohr effect (ø -0.09 at 20 degrees C) above pH8 and a temperature-sensitivity (DeltaH -44.8 to -45.6kJ/mol at pH8-9) comparable with those observed with other invertebrate haemoglobins [Weber & Heidemann (1977) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A57, 151-155]. Haemoglobin II, which is the first to be induced, soon after hatching of nauplius larvae, persists generally throughout the whole adult life. It has an intermediate oxygen affinity (p(50) 3.7mmHg), the highest Bohr effect (ø -0.21 at 20 degrees C) above pH8 and a similar temperature-sensitivity (DeltaH -46.0 to -54.8kJ/mol at pH8-9) as haemoglobin I. However, haemoglobin III, which is induced second several hours after the induction of haemoglobin II but disappearing from the haemolymph in the middle of adult life, has the highest oxygen affinity (p(50) 1.8mmHg), the lowest Bohr effect (ø -0.03 at 20 degrees C) above pH8.5 and a high resistance against temperature variation between 10 and 25 degrees C at pH8.5-9 (DeltaH -22.6 to -23.0kJ/mol). At pH7.5-8, haemoglobin III exhibits a similar temperature-sensitivity under 30 degrees C as do other haemoglobins. All three haemoglobins have a rather low co-operativity, with Hill coefficients (h 1.6-1.9 at pH8.5), which are dependent on both pH and temperature. The highest co-operativity was observed at 20 degrees C and pH9 for haemoglobins I and II, whereas it was at 27 degrees C and pH8.5 for haemoglobin III. Thus the oxygen-binding behaviour of haemoglobin III in vitro is significantly different from those of haemoglobins I and II and indicates possibly its specific physiological role in vivo in the adaptive process in the natural

  7. Study on optical measurement conditions for noninvasive blood glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kexin; Chen, Wenliang; Jiang, Jingying; Qiu, Qingjun

    2004-05-01

    Utilizing Near-infrared Spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose concentration sensing has been a focusing topic in biomedical optics applications. In this paper study on measuring conditions of spectroscopy on human body is carried out and a series of experiments on glucose concentration sensing are conducted. First, Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate and calculate photons" penetration depth within skin tissues at 1600 nm. The simulation results indicate that applying our designed optical probe, the detected photons can penetrate epidermis of the palm and meet the glucose sensing requirements within the dermis. Second, we analyze the influence of the measured position variations and the contact pressure between the optical fiber probe and the measured position on the measured spectrum during spectroscopic measurement of a human body. And, a measurement conditions reproduction system is introduced to enhance the measurement repeatability. Furthermore, through a series of transmittance experiments on glucose aqueous solutions sensing from simple to complex we found that though some absorption variation information of glucose can be obtained from measurements using NIR spectroscopy, while under the same measuring conditions and with the same modeling method, choices toward measured components reduce when complication degree of components increases, and this causes a decreased prediction accuracy. Finally, OGTT experiments were performed, and a PLS (Partial Least Square) mathematical model for a single experiment was built. We can easily get a prediction expressed as RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of Prediction) with a value of 0.5-0.8mmol/dl. But the model"s extended application and reliability need more investigation.

  8. Application of transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the measurement of blood glucose concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenliang Chen(陈文亮); Rong Liu(刘蓉); Houxin Cui(崔厚欣); Kexin Xu(徐可欣); Lina Lü(吕丽娜)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) light in the palm tissue are analyzed,and the principle and feasibility of using transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose detection are presented. An optical probe suitable for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum of human palm and a non-invasive blood glucose detection system using NIR spectroscopy are designed. Based on this system, oral glucose tolerance tests are performed to measure the blood glucose concentrations of two young healthy volunteers. The partial least square calibration model is then constructed by all individual experimental data. The final result shows that correlation coefficients of the two experiments between the predicted blood glucose concentrations and the reference blood glucose concentrations are 0.9870 and 0.9854, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction of full cross validation are 0.54 and 0.52 mmol/1, respectively.

  9. Blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions - Catheter-based thermodilution or Doppler ultrasound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren T; Hansen, Marc A; Schroeder, Torben V; Ladefoged, Søren D; Lönn, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the clinical performance of catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound of the feeding brachial artery for blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions.Methods: Thirty patients with arteriovenous fistulas who underwent 46 interventions had...

  10. Science is Not a Quiet Life: Unravelling the Atomic Mechanism of Haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linus Pauling called haemoglobin the most interesting and important of molecules. This important volume shows how X-ray crystallography was used to determine its bewilderingly complex atomic structure and to unravel the stereochemical mechanisms of its respiratory functions. It introduces isomorphous replacement with heavy atoms which led to the first protein structures, haemoglobin and its simpler relative myoglobin. Later papers deal with the stereochemistry of the cooperative effects of haemoglobin, with the relationships between the structures and impaired functions of abnormal haemoglobin, with species adaptation of haemoglobin, and with its action as a drug receptor and as an oxygen sensor.The final papers deal with amino acid repeats which act as polar zippers and their role in certain inherited neuro degenerative diseases

  11. A simple versatile method for measuring tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdop, R E; Li, X C

    1997-09-01

    1. The non-invasive measurement of tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats is routinely used in long-term cardiovascular studies. There are a number of commercially available tail cuff systems, however, these apparatus are generally expensive and are dedicated for single-task operations. In the present study, a simple method for measuring systolic blood pressure, which requires only minor modifications to the existing hardware found in most cardiovascular laboratories, is described. 2. Systolic blood pressure measurements were made in the conventional manner by determining the systolic blood pressure which coincided with the restoration of the caudal artery pulse. This was achieved by using an inexpensive piezo-electric pulse transducer to detect the pulse, and this was coupled to a standard data-acquisition system (MacLab, ADInstruments) normally set up to record blood pressure. This method was compared with another established tail cuff method, as well as with direct intra-arterial recordings. 3. It was found that the results obtained using both tail cuff systems were in good agreement when systolic blood pressure was measured in Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. In addition, systolic blood pressure was measured over 4 weeks in 2K1C rats and sham-operated rats, with both tail cuff methods producing similar results, which were not significantly different from direct intra-arterial recordings in the same animals. 4. Thus, in the present study, with only minor modifications, the same equipment was used for both direct and indirect determinations of systolic blood pressure. This situation differs from other conventional tail cuff systems since these items are designed for a single purpose. Therefore, the current method using piezo-electric sensor/MacLab-technology should be viewed as a relatively simple, flexible and cheap alternative method to measure tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats. PMID:9337632

  12. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 μm2). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0±5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCODSA=COFick. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  13. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Mingde; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi; Johnston, Samuel M.; Badea, Cristian T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Johnson, G. Allan [Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0{+-}5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCO{sub DSA}=CO{sub Fick}. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  14. Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ashbury, Janet E.; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Stephen C Pang; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J.; King, Will D

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA ...

  15. Simple Radiowave-Based Method For Measuring Peripheral Blood Flow Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Project objective is to design small radio frequency based flow probes for the measurement of blood flow velocity in peripheral arteries such as the femoral artery and middle cerebral artery. The result will be the technological capability to measure peripheral blood flow rates and flow changes during various environmental stressors such as microgravity without contact to the individual being monitored. This technology may also lead to an easier method of detecting venous gas emboli during extravehicular activities.

  16. Mucosal blood flow measurements using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff; Hans Gregersen; Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk

    2009-01-01

    Perfusion of individual tissues is a basic physiological process that is necessary to sustain oxygenation and nutrition at a cellular level. Ischemia, or the insufficiency of perfusion, is a common mechanism for tissue death or degeneration, and at a lower threshold, a mechanism for the generation of sensory signalling including pain. It is of considerable interest to study perfusion of peripheral abdominal tissues in a variety of circumstances. Microvascular disease of the abdominal organs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease and chest pain. The basic principle of laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM) is to analyze changes in the spectrum of light reflected from tissues as a response to a beam of monochromatic laser light emitted. It reflects the total local microcirculatory blood perfusion, including perfusion in capillaries, arterioles, venules and shunts. During the last 20-25 years, numerous studies have been performed in different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using LDPM. In recent years we have developed a multi-modal catheter device which includes a laser Doppler probe, with the intent primarily to investigate patients suffering from functional chest pain of presumed oesophageal origin. Preliminary studies show the feasibility of incorporating LDPM into such catheters for performing physiological studies in the GI tract. LDPM has emerged as a research and clinical tool in preference to other methods; but, it is important to be aware of its limitations and account for them when reporting results.

  17. Doctor Reports New Way to Measure Blood Sugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林徽英

    2000-01-01

    对“糖尿病”及其危害,本文有一简略说明: Diabetes occurs when blood sugar,or glucose,a source of body fuel,is toohigh and the body is not able to burn it.The disease can lead to blindness,organdiseases,stroke and death. 句中的一个动词burn令我们过目难忘。此外,此疾引起的后果也令人生畏:blindness,organ diseases,stroke and death. 要测得患者的血糖含量,就得验血,就得像本文所讲的那样“pricking(刺;戳)the skin and drawing a tiny amount of blood”。 美国宾夕法尼亚州立大学的研究人员研制了a hand—held ultrasound(超声波)machine,验血者可免受皮肉之苦,而又可测量到准确的血糖含量。 文章末尾有一条信息:美国人中糖尿病患者约占总人口的6%。

  18. Electrochemical investigation of the effect of some organic phosphates on haemoglobin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rezaei-Zarchi; A A Saboury; H Ghourchian; J Hong; A Barzegar; P Norouzi; A A Moosavi-Movahedi; M R Ganjali; A Javed

    2007-03-01

    The effects of DPG, IHP, GTP, GDP and GMP on the structure and stability of haemoglobin were electrochemically investigated with an iodide-modified silver electrode in 0.01 M KNO3 at pH 7.0. Anodic and cathodic peaks of haemoglobin were observed at 250 mV and 12 mV with a formal potential value of 133 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of different concentrations of DPG, IHP, GTP, GDP and GMP on the anaerobic redox reaction were determined. The results showed that DPG and IHP can lead to a positive shift in the reduction peak of haemoglobin, indicating that the oxidation peak shift of haemoglobin was small as a result of stabilization of the reduced state and destabilization of the R-like state of haemoglobin. GTP elicited a more positive shift in the cathodic and anodic peaks of haemoglobin at a higher concentration, signifying that it has a low-affinity binding site on haemoglobin. The positive shift of the cathodic and anodic peaks revealed a slight variation in the structure and indicated the unfolding of haemoglobin in the presence of high concentrations of GTP. Our study also showed that GDP and GMP did not cause significant shift the cathodic and anodic peaks of haemoglobin even at high concentrations, refuting the existence of specific GDP- and GMP-binding sites on the protein. Moreover, the iodide-modified silver electrode method proved to be easy and useful in investigating the effects of ligands or other effectors on haemoglobin in solution.

  19. Assessment of microsphere technique for measurement of capillary blood flow in random skin flaps in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this technical paper, we reviewed the theory and methodology of the radioactive microsphere technique for determination of cardiac output and regional blood flow. Furthermore, we described two experiments conducted to assess this technique for measurement of capillary blood flow in skin-flap research. Our experimental data thus far indicated that the radioactive microsphere technique provided highly reproducible measurements for determination of capillary blood flow in 4 X 10 cm acute and delayed random skin flaps constructed in pigs. The advantages and disadvantages of this laboratory technique were also discussed

  20. GLYCOSYLATED HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IS A DEFINITIVE PREDICTOR OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY- A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes Mellitus is a part of a metabolic syndrome, which leads to severe morbidity and mortality. It has emerged as an illness which is beset with numerous complications and incapacitation. Out of all complications Diabetic Nephropathy takes a heavy toll on our health system. Therefore, it is imperative to find not only a cure, but also a feature which predicts the onset of the disease. Fortunately, microalbuminaria (Excretion of minute quantities of albumin in urine is one such factor. Moreover, it is also linked to glycemic control which in turn is reflected by glycosylated haemoglobin levels which can be measured with reasonable accuracy. Also the stage of MA is reversible. Our study was an attempt at correlating the two factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 100 patients (50 T2DM patients without DN and 50 T2DM patients with DN who attended the Medical and Nephrology In-Patient and Out-Patient Departments of Gandhi Hospital. Clinical DN was diagnosed by the presence of albumin excretion and creatinine clearance. Estimation of glycosylated hemoglobin was done by Cation-Exchange chromatography. Micral-Test strip was used to screen for Microalbuminuria Percentage of hemoglobin was estimated by modified Sahli-Adam’s method. RESULTS Significant correlation was found between levels of HbA1c and occurrence of MA as all MA cases in patients of T2DM without DN had >8% HbA1c levels. Mean MA levels were compared between in T2DM and Diabetic Nephropathy which showed statistical significance. CONCLUSION Our study reiterates the correlation between glycosylated haemoglobin levels and microalbuminuria. As MA occurs prior to overt Diabetic Nephropathy, it predicts the onset of the latter. Also MA is a disturbance in renal function in early DN, which is reversible and hence can be targeted for preventive measures.

  1. Use of phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography to measure blood flow in the ophthalmic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (PC-MRA) to measure blood flow in the ophthalmic artery. PC-MRA was performed in 16 volunteers with no ophthalmic abnormalities and measurement of blood flow based on the results was attempted. It was possible to measure blood flow in the ophthalmic artery using PC-MRA in all 16 volunteers. The mean (±1 standard deviation) velocity was 9.17±2.28 cm/second, peak systolic velocity was 16.69±3.33 cm/second, and end diastolic velocity was 3.69±2.44 cm/second. The resistivity index was 0.79±0.12, the pulsatility index was 1.49±0.41, and flow was 6.25±2.33 ml/minute. It was possible to identify the ophthalmic artery and a portion of the artery in which blood flow could be measured using MR imaging, a preliminary step to blood flow measurement using MR angiography. In addition to the velocity of blood flow in the ophthalmic artery, measurement of the amount of flow was possible with PC-MRA, which is one advantage of this method. (author)

  2. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin S in high and moderate malaria transmission areas of Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segeja, M D; Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Kamugisha, M L; Akida, J A; Savaeli, Z X; Minja, D T; Msangeni, H A; Lemnge, M M

    2008-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and haemoglobin S (HbS) are very common genetic disorders in sub Saharan Africa, where malaria is endemic. These genetic disorders have been associated with protection against malaria and are therefore under strong selection pressure by the...... disease. In November-December 2003, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and HbS in the population and relate these to malaria infection and haemoglobin levels in lowland and highland areas of differing malaria transmission patterns of Muheza, Tanzania....... Blood samples from 1959 individuals aged 6 months to 45 years were collected. A total of 415 (21%) and 1181 (60%) samples were analysed for G6PD deficiency and HbS, respectively. Malarial parasite prevalence was 17.2% (114/1959) in the highlands and 39.6% (49/1959) in the lowlands. Lowlands had higher...

  3. Presión parcial de oxígeno, pH, hematocrito, hemoglobina e índice cardíaco en pollos de engorde a 2.600 metros sobre el nivel del mar Arterial blood oxygen partial pressure, hematocrit, haemoglobin, and cardiac index in broilers at 2600 m above sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. JIMENEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HP en pollosparrilleros constituye un problema económico importante. Dentrode los mecanismos de adaptación del organismo a la altitud se encuentran,además del aumento de la tensión arterial pulmonar, el incremento de la masa muscular ventricular derecha, la policitemía y posiblemente la hiperventilación con la subsecuente alcalosis respiratoria. Es factible que el alto nivel de energía en la ración incremente la hipoxemia derivada de la hipoxia; con lo anterior, el grado de policitemia se puede elevar y producirse un efecto agravante de la HP. Para establecer valores de pO2, Ht, Hb e IC en pollos parrilleros residentes a 2.600 m de altura sobre el nivel del mar, se estudiaron 24 aves de ambos sexos, de una población de 400 animales. Los valores promedios obtenidos fueron los siguientes: a pO2: 67.21 mmHg ± 5.21. Hubo diferencias estadísticas (pWideman y Buss (1985y Julian y col. (1985. La correlación inversa entre el IC y la pO2 arterial indican el efecto de la hipoxia de las vías aéreas en la hipoxemia y en el grado de hipertrofia e hiperplasia ventricular derecha.High incidence of cardiac failure in broilers due to hypoxic pulmonaryhypertension (PH, produces huge economical losses. Adaptive responsesinclude right ventricular hypertrophy and polycythemia. High energy levelin feed could increase hypoxemia and therefore the degree of polycythemia,thus increasing PH. To establish normal values in arterial oxygen partialpressure (pO2, pH, hematocrit (Ht, haemoglobin (Hb, and cardiacindex (CI, 24 broilers (12 males and 12 females, chosen at random, froma population of 400 birds, were studied in Bogotá, Colombia, 2600m above sea level. Mean values obtained were as follows: a pO2:67.21 ± 5.21 mmHg; statistical differences between sexes and among ages were found (p<0.05; b pH: 7.5 ± 0.05; c Ht: 37.13 ± 3.27%. In males, Ht values were higher at 24 and 37 days. In females, therewas a

  4. Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Myeongsu; Phillips, Zephaniah; Mai, Phuong Minh; Yeo, Chaebeom; Song, Cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-02-01

    A combined diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA)-near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system is proposed to simultaneously measure qualitative blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in human tissue. The system employs an optical switch to alternate two laser sources at two different wavelengths and a CCD camera to capture the speckle image. Therefore, an optical density can be measured from two wavelengths for NIRS measurements and a speckle contrast can be calculated for DSCA measurements. In order to validate the system, a flow phantom test and an arm occlusion protocol for arterial and venous occlusion were performed. Shorter exposure times (<1 ms) show a higher drop (between 50% and 66%) and recovery of 1/KS2 values after occlusion (approximately 150%), but longer exposure time (3 ms) shows more consistent hemodynamic changes. For four subjects, the 1/KS2 values dropped to an average of 82.1±4.0% during the occlusion period and the average recovery of 1/KS2 values after occlusion was 109.1±0.8%. There was also an approximately equivalent amplitude change in oxyhemoglobin (OHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (RHb) during arterial occlusion (max RHb=0.0085±0.0024 mM/DPF, min OHb=-0.0057±0.0044 mM/DPF). The sensitivity of the system makes it a suitable modality to observe qualitative hemodynamic trends during induced physiological changes.

  5. Blood Contamination in Saliva: Impact on the Measurement of Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Kamodyová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary oxidative stress markers represent a promising tool for monitoring of oral diseases. Saliva can often be contaminated by blood, especially in patients with periodontitis. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of blood contamination on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and were artificially contaminated with blood (final concentration 0.001–10%. Next, saliva was collected from 12 gingivitis and 10 control patients before and after dental hygiene treatment. Markers of oxidative stress were measured in all collected saliva samples. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, and antioxidant status were changed in 1% blood-contaminated saliva. Salivary AOPP were increased in control and patients after dental treatment (by 45.7% and 34.1%, p<0.01. Salivary AGEs were decreased in patients after microinjury (by 69.3%, p<0.001. Salivary antioxidant status markers were decreased in both control and patients after dental treatment (p<0.05 and p<0.01. One % blood contamination biased concentrations of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples with 1% blood contamination are visibly discolored and can be excluded from analyses without any specific biochemic detection of blood constituents. Salivary markers of oxidative stress were significantly altered in blood-contaminated saliva in control and patients with gingivitis after dental hygiene treatment.

  6. Should blood pressure be measured with the cuff on a bare arm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thien, T.; Keltjens, E.B.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Deinum, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the results of blood pressure (BP) measurements are affected by wearing clothing underneath the BP cuff during measurement. METHODS: Normotensive and hypertensive patients (n=133; 65 men) of an outpatient clinic participated in this study. BP was measured according to

  7. Regional blood flow during exercise in humans measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Olesen, J;

    2000-01-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the tracer indocyanine green (ICG), we quantified blood flow in calf muscle and around the Achilles tendon during plantar flexion (1-9 W). For comparison, blood flow in calf muscle was determined by dye dilution in combination with magnetic resonance...... imaging measures of muscle volume, and, for the peritendon region, blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. From rest to a peak load of 9 W, NIRS-ICG blood flow in calf muscle increased from 2.4+/-0.2 to 74+/-5 ml x 100 ml tissue(-1) x min(-1), similar to that measured by reverse dye (77+/-6 ml x 100...

  8. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  9. Measuring bovine mammary gland blood flow using a transit time ultrasonic flow probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorewit, R C; Aromando, M C; Bristol, D G

    1989-07-01

    Lactating cattle were used to validate a transit time ultrasonic blood flow metering system for measuring mammary gland arterial blood flow. Blood flow probes were surgically placed around the right external pudic artery. An electromagnetic flow probe was implanted in tandem with the ultrasonic probe in two cows for comparative measurements. The absolute accuracy of the implanted flow probes was assessed in vivo by mechanical means on anesthetized cows after 2 to 3 wk of implantation. The zero offset of the ultrasonic probes ranged from -12 to 8 ml/min. When the ultrasonic probe was properly implanted, the slopes of the calibration curves were linear and ranged from .92 to .95, tracking absolute flow to within 8%. The transit time instrument's performance was examined under a variety of physiological conditions. These included milking and hormone injections. The transit time ultrasonic flow meter accurately measured physiological changes in mammary arterial blood flow in chronically prepared conscious cattle. Blood flow increased 29% during milking. Epinephrine decreased mammary blood flow by 90 to 95%. Oxytocin doses increased mammary blood flow by 15 to 24%. PMID:2674232

  10. Use of dried blood for measurement of trans fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan Lakshmy; Dhatwalia Savita; Abraham Ransi; Gupta Ruby; Prabhakaran Dorairaj; Reddy Kolli

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fatty acid measurements especially trans fatty acid has gained interest in recent times. Among the various available biomarkers, adipose tissue is considered to be the best for the long term dietary intake but the invasive nature of tissue aspiration reduces its utility. Phlebotomy is a much less invasive method of sample collection when a large number of participants are involved in the study and therefore is an alternative, most suitable for large population based studie...

  11. Correlation of routine haematological parameters between normal maternal blood and the cord blood of healthy newborns in selected hospitals of karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine any significant correlation between the routine haematological parameters of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood of their respective newborns. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at four public and private hospitals of Karachi including Sindh Government Qatar Hospital, Sindh Government Hospital, Liaquatabad, Ziauddin University Hospital and Chinniot Maternity and Child Hospital, respectively from July 2006 to April 2008. Methodology: Three milliliters venous blood was collected in EDTA containing tube for complete blood count of mothers before delivery. Five milliliters cord blood was collected from the umbilical cord of the babies immediately after delivery by clamping and cutting the babies' end of the cord. For haematological parameters a standard coultergram was done including haemoglobin, RBCs count, haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell count, differential leukocyte count and platelet count. Pearson's correlation co-efficient was used to determine an association between the maternal and cord blood parameters. Results: A total of 404 maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were analyzed. All the blood parameters including haemoglobin, RBCs count, HCT, MCV, MCH, white blood cell count, differential leukocyte count and platelet count were found to be high in cord blood as compared to the maternal blood, but they showed a very weak to negligible correlation. Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), showed a moderate correlation. Conclusion: Routine haematological parameters of newborns are independent of maternal routine haematological parameters. (author)

  12. Absolute cerebral blood flow and blood volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging bolus tracking: comparison with positron emission tomography values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Smith, D F; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter;

    1998-01-01

    blood volume (CBV) estimates obtained using this normalization constant correlated well with values obtained by O-15 labeled carbonmonooxide (C15O) PET. However, PET CBV values were approximately 2.5 times larger than absolute MRI CBV values, supporting the hypothesized sensitivity of MRI to small...... hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of an empirical constant phi Gd, absolute regional CBF was calculated from MRI. The spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of CBF measurements by MRI were better than by the H215O-PET protocol. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral...

  13. Combining transcutaneous blood gas measurement and pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Patrick; Gisiger, P A; Gardaz, J P; Spahn, D R

    2002-01-01

    We are describing the preliminary results of tests performed in adult volunteers and in adult patients during and after general anesthesia with a miniaturized single sensor combining the continuous and non-invasive measurement of oxygen saturaiton by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and transcutaneous PCO2 (OxiCarbo sensor). The sensor is heated to 42 degrees C to arterialize the cutaneous tissue and is applied at the ear lobe with a special low-pressure clip. The results indicate a good agreement between ear lobe PCO2 and arterial PCO2 in the range 35 to 70 mmHg (10 patients, number of measurements 104, regression line TcPCO2 = 1.01 PaCO2 + 0.59 mmHg, bias 1.22 mmHg, SD 3.69 mmHg) and between ear lobe SpO2 and SaO2 (bias 0.44% with SD 0.77% in the range 80% to 100%, bias 1.39% with SD 1.43% in the range 60% to 80%). The ear lobe OxiCarbog sensor detects the SpO2 change 5 to 37 sec faster than a finger sensor and the PCO2 change 9 to 48 sec faster than a transcutaneous sensor fixed at the upper arm. Further improvements versus single sensors are a higher stability of the SpO2 signal and the possibility of performing long term SpO2 and PCO2 measurement at the ear lobe. PMID:11900043

  14. Measurement of cerebral blood flow rate and its relationship with brain function using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Dou, Shidan; Ma, Yushu; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    Activity of brain neurons will lead to changes in local blood flow rate (BFR). Thus, it is important to measure the local BFR of cerebral cortex on research of neuron activity in vivo, such as rehabilitation evaluation after stroke, etc. Currently, laser Doppler flowmetry is commonly used for blood flow measurement, however, relatively low resolution limits its application. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful noninvasive 3D imaging modality with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Furthermore, OCT can provide flow distribution image by calculating Doppler frequency shift which makes it possible for blood flow rate measurement. In this paper, we applied OCT to measure the blood flow rate of the primary motor cortex in rats. The animal was immobilized and anesthetized with isoflurane, an incision was made along the sagittal suture, and bone was exposed. A skull window was opened on the primary motor cortex. Then, blood flow rate changes in the primary motor cortex were monitored by our homemade spectral domain OCT with a stimulation of the passive movement of the front legs. Finally, we established the relationship between blood flow rate and the test design. The aim is to demonstrate the potential of OCT in the evaluation of cerebral cortex function.

  15. Preliminary investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism and association with morphometric traits in West African Dwarf goats in north central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmojeed Yakubu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic pool of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats using haemoglobin (Hb polymorphism, as well as the association of some morphological traits with the Hb variants. Blood samples were collected from a total of 104 mature goats of both sexes belonging to the WAD breed in north central Nigeria. The red cell lysates were subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific staining procedure to reveal the band patterns of haemoglobin. Three co-dominant alleles, causing the presence of three genotypes (AA, AB and AC were detected among individual goats. The frequencies of the A, B and C alleles were 0.69, 0.30 and 0.01, respectively. The corresponding genotype frequencies for AA, AB and AC in the goat population were 0.37, 0.61 and 0.02, respectively. The discrepancy between the observed and the expected genotype number was significant (P0.05 by Hb variants. There is a need for further study encompassing more number of goats covering larger areas, use of DNA markers and their relationship with economic traits as well as performance study for detailed understanding of breed characteristics, conservation and genetic improvement of WAD goats in north central Nigeria.

  16. Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T; Arnold, Mark A; Mermelstein, Carmen; Schmitz, Johannes; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Optical sensing of glucose would allow more frequent monitoring and tighter glucose control for people with diabetes. The key to a successful optical noninvasive measurement of glucose is the collection of an optical spectrum with a very high signal-to-noise ratio in a spectral region with significant glucose absorption. Unfortunately, the optical throughput of skin is low due to absorption and scattering. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a high-brightness tunable laser system for measurements in the 2.0-2.5 microm wavelength range. The system is based on a 2.3 microm wavelength, strained quantum-well laser diode incorporating GaInAsSb wells and AlGaAsSb barrier and cladding layers. Wavelength control is provided by coupling the laser diode to an external cavity that includes an acousto-optic tunable filter. Tuning ranges of greater than 110 nm have been obtained. Because the tunable filter has no moving parts, scans can be completed very quickly, typically in less than 10 ms. We describe the performance of the present laser system and avenues for extending the tuning range beyond 400 nm. PMID:16390586

  17. Speckle-based measurement of the light scattering by red blood cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, I.; Kaminsky, A.

    2011-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy approach, using non-coherent light sources, has become an important tool for non-invasive analysis in vivo. It is based on the assumption that biochemical characteristics of biological system can be determined through the optical coefficients of blood and tissue particles. Thus, in the framework of this approach, the major concern is to express the obtained optical signals in terms the optical coefficients of the single particle of blood or tissue. However, since the light propagation in tissue is dominated by the multiple-scattering component, a direct measurement of single scattering characteristics turns to be a very difficult task. Practically, only the relative changes of absorption and scattering coefficients are measured. We suggested to adopt the dynamic light scattering (DLS) or speckle technique for the determination of the light scattering coefficients of the red blood cells under stasis conditions in vivo. We assumed that under zero flow conditions the RBC movement is driven mostly by the Brownian motion. It was shown, that under appropriate measurement geometry, the measured optical signal can be decomposed into a few major components. The most dominant components are ascribed to the single backscattering and forward scattering coefficients of the red blood cells. In-vitro and in vivo experimental tests have shown a good correspondence between the theoretically estimated and experientially measured results. The obtained results indicate that the DLS technique can be adopted for the determination of blood particles scattering characteristics in addition to the movement and effective viscosity parameters measurement in vivo.

  18. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF.

  19. Tomographic non-invasive measurements of regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the regional cerebral bloodflow by means of the dynamic single-photon-emissioncomputed tomography is a method of examination which is completely free of risk for the patient, causes no inconvenience and can be repeated whenever it seems necessary. This method gives a quantitative explanation for the distribution of the effective cerebral perfusion and can only be substituted by the very complicated positron-emission-computed tomography. As well as the exact assessment of the hemodynamic relevance of cerebral vascular disease, this method enables us to prove whether or not in various types of psychiatric disorders an interference in the regional perfusion exists. This method can also contribute to the clarification of pathogenic mechanisms, as well as to the nosological classification of specific psychopathological conditions. (orig.)

  20. Correlation of Insulin Resistance with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Polyana Resende Silva; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Thiago de Souza Veiga; Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc Nogueira; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Povoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Ferreira, Vanessa Roriz; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood pressure is directly related to body mass index, and individuals with increased waist circumference have higher risk of developing hypertension, insulin resistance, and other metabolic changes, since adolescence. Objective to evaluate the correlation of blood pressure with insulin resistance, waist circumference and body mass index in adolescents. Methods Cross-section study on a representative sample of adolescent students. One group of adolescents with altered blood pressure detected by casual blood pressure and/or home blood pressure monitoring (blood pressure > 90th percentile) and one group of normotensive adolescents were studied. Body mass index, waist circumference were measured, and fasting glucose and plasma insulin levels were determined, using the HOMA-IR index to identify insulin resistance. Results A total of 162 adolescents (35 with normal blood pressure and 127 with altered blood pressure) were studied; 61% (n = 99) of them were boys and the mean age was 14.9 ± 1.62 years. Thirty-eight (23.5%) adolescents had altered HOMA-IR. The group with altered blood pressure had higher values of waist circumference, body mass index and HOMA-IR (p<0.05). Waist circumference was higher among boys in both groups (p<0.05) and girls with altered blood pressure had higher HOMA-IR than boys (p<0.05). There was a significant moderate correlation between body mass index and HOMA-IR in the group with altered blood pressure (ρ = 0.394; p < 0.001), and such correlation was stronger than in the normotensive group. There was also a significant moderate correlation between waist circumference and HOMA-IR in both groups (ρ = 0.345; p < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that HOMA-IR was as predictor of altered blood pressure (odds ratio - OR = 2.0; p = 0.001). Conclusion There was a significant association of insulin resistance with blood pressure and the impact of insulin resistance on blood pressure since childhood. The correlation and association between

  1. New possibilities for quantitative measurements of regional cerebral blood flow with gold-195m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously reported theory for quantitative cerebral blood flow measurement for nondiffusible radiotracers has been applied to patients after stroke and to volunteers undergoing a mental stimulation exercise. The energy spectrum of gold-195m shows two strong photon peaks, one at an energy level of 68 keV and a second at an energy-level of 262 keV. The low energy peak is suitable for perfusion studies in lateral views of the hemispheres; no look-through effect is seen. The high energy level is good for studies in posterior-anterior positions. Parametric images for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow can be generated. The area of occluded vessels in the case of stroke can be detected. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation can be generated. The results prove that, not only with freely diffusible indicators like xenon but also with nondiffusible indicators, it is possible to measure quantitatively cerebral blood flow patterns

  2. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... perfusion velocities, short-term ICCs were 0.79-0.82 and long-term ICCs were 0.06-0.11. Intersession increases in blood glucose were associated with reductions in perfusion velocities (arterial p = 0.0067; venous p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Oxygen reactivity testing supported that motion-contrast velocimetry is...... a valid method for assessing macular perfusion. Results were consistent with previous observations of hyperoxic blood flow reduction using blue field entoptic and laser Doppler velocimetry. Retinal perfusion seemed to be regulated around individual set points according to blood glucose levels...

  3. [Measurement of blood cholesterol, decentralized, using a Reflotron, or centralized in a laboratory. A comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T E; Agner, E; Jensen, S E; Jacobsen, K; Mahnfeldt, M S; Baastrup, A

    1990-11-01

    In connection with an extensive screening programme for blood cholesterol, the cholesterol values in 105 participants were measured on a sample of capillary blood employing a Reflotron and, simultaneously, samples of venous blood were examined by conventional enzymatic analysis in a laboratory. Whereas the day-to-day variation and the scatter involved were quite limited in the laboratory, the variation scatter between the two methods of measurement was 0.65 mmol/l. This figure was, however, no greater than that described between different laboratories in USA. Nevertheless, it is an important problem with the Reflotron method that even slight deviations from the recommended procedure of withdrawing blood involve a systematic risk for erroneously low cholesterol results. PMID:2238225

  4. Measurement of human blood brain barrier integrity using 11C-inulin and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 11C-inulin was demonstrated to be applicable to the clinical measurement of blood brain barrier permeability and cerebral interstitial fluid volume. Kinetic data were analyzed by application of a two compartment model, in which blood plasma and interstitial fluid spaces constitute the compartments. The blood activity contribution was subtracted from the PET count with the aid of the 11CO inhalation technique. The values we estimated in a human brain were in agreement with the reported values obtained for animal brains by the use of 14C-inulin. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of three methods of sampling trout blood for measurements of hematocrit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucke, Erwin W., Jr.; Schoettger, Richard A.

    1967-01-01

    Trout blood is frequently collected for hematocrit measurements by excising the caudal fin (Snieszko, 1960), but this technique is impractical if valuable fish are to be sampled or if repeated observations are desired. Schiffman (1959) and Snieszko (1960) collected blood from the dorsal aorta and the heart, but these methods are relatively slow and require the preparation of needles and syringes. The use of pointed capillary tubes for cardiac punctures increases the speed of sampling, but body fluids may dilute the blood (Perkins, 1957; Larsen and Snieszko, 1961; and Normandau, 1962). There is need for methods of sampling which are rapid and which neither influence hematological determinations nor harm the fish.

  6. The applicability of home blood pressure measurement in clinical practice: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J Verberk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Willem J Verberk, Abraham A Kroon, Heidi A Jongen-Vancraybex, Peter W de LeeuwUniversity Hospital Maastricht, Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM, Maastricht University, The NetherlandsPurpose: To review the literature on home blood pressure measurement (HBPM, to examine its validity and applicability for clinical practice and to provide recommendations regarding HBPM assessment.Findings: HBPM can eliminate the white coat effect and offers the possibility to obtain multiple measurements under standardized conditions, which increases knowledge of overall blood pressure value. Although it is not entirely capable of replacing ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM, HBPM correlates better with target organ damage and cardiovascular mortality than office blood pressure measurement (OBPM, it enables prediction of sustained hypertension in patients with borderline hypertension, and proves to be an appropriate tool for assessing drug efficacy. Additional advantages of HBPM are that it may increase drug compliance and patient’s awareness of hypertension. Overall, OBPM yield higher blood pressure values than HBPM. Differences between OBPM and HBPM tend to increase with age and are generally higher in patients without antihypertensive treatment than in patients with antihypertensive treatment.Recommendations: Measurements should be performed according to accepted guidelines and recordings should be performed with a memory equipped automatic validated device. From the data reviewed here, we recommend that HBPM be assessed monthly by taking two measurements in the morning within 1 hour after awakening and two in the evening for three consecutive days, the data from the first day should be dismissed. A subject should be labeled hypertensive if his/her HBPM value is equal to or greater than 137 mmHg systolic and/or 84 mmHg diastolic.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, self-measurement, home

  7. Examination of four different instruments for measuring the blood lactate concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Medbø, Jon Ingulf; Mamen, Asgeir; Olsen, Ole Holt; Evertsen, Frank

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is incomplete information on the performance of different instruments used to measure the blood lactate concentration. We have therefore examined instruments from Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI 23L and YSI 1500), and three cheaper and simpler instruments: Dr. Lange’s LP8+, Lactate Pro from Arkray, KDK, and Accusport from Boehringer Mannheim. First a number of blood samples were analysed by standard enzymatic photofluorometry (our control method) and in additi...

  8. Simultaneous Pulmonary and Systemic Blood Pressure and ECG Interval Measurement in Conscious, Freely Moving Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Markus; Weber, Edgar W; Hess, Patrick D

    2012-01-01

    Here we evaluated the ability of a new, dual blood-pressure telemetry transmitter to simultaneously measure pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and the electrocardiogram in rats. The transmitter was implanted in normotensive and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive Wistar rats, with sensing catheters placed in the pulmonary artery (channel 1) and descending aorta (channel 2). Biopotential electrodes were positioned to record an apex-based lead II electrocardiogram. Pulmonary and sys...

  9. Frequency dependence of speckle in continuous-wave ultrasound with implications for blood perfusion measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Tomas; Jurkonis, Rytis; Mast, T. Douglas; Persson, Hans W; Lindström, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    Speckle in continuous wave (CW) Doppler has previously been found to cause large variations in detected Doppler power in blood perfusion measurements, where a large number of blood vessels are present in the sample volume. This artifact can be suppressed by using a number of simultaneously transmitted frequencies and averaging the detected signals. To optimize the strategy, statistical properties of speckle in CW ultrasound need to be known. This paper presents analysis of the frequency separ...

  10. Non invasive blood flow measurement in cerebellum detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy earlier than psychometric tests

    OpenAIRE

    Felipo, Vicente; Urios, Amparo; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Cauli, Omar; Andrés-Costa, Maria-Jesús; González, Olga; Serra, Miguel A; Sánchez-González, Javier; Aliaga, Roberto; Giner-Durán, Remedios; Belloch, Vicente; Montoliu Félix, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether non invasive blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling in several brain regions detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy.METHODS: Blood flow (BF) was analyzed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in different brain areas of 14 controls, 24 cirrhotic patients without and 16 cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Images were collected using a 3 Tesla MR scanner (Achieva 3T-TX, Philips, Netherlands). Pulsed ASL was performed. Patients showing MHE wer...

  11. Exploration of nurses' knowledge regarding correct way of blood pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskeui Gourni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP measurement by the use of sphygmomanometer and auscultation of brachial artery by stethoscope is the most widespread way of measurement in daily clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to explore nurses' knowledge regarding correct way of measurement of blood pressure by the use of a sphygmomanometer. Method and material: The sample –studied consisted of individuals from all levels of nursing personnel. Data were collected by the use the completion of a specially designed questionnaire which apart from demographic variables, it included items concerning knowledge about the correct way of blood pressure measurement. Results: From the 360 participants, 88% (316 were women, while the mean age of the sample-studied was 36,1 years old. 51,4% of the sample-studied was of tertiary education. In terms of the knowledge of participants, 79,6% knew the correct preparation, 98,6% knew that arm position for blood pressure measurement should be on a pillow or a side table and the 94,8% knew the back should be supported on a chair back. 60,9% of the sample-studied knew that at first time, blood pressure (BP should be measured in both arms, while 45,9% didn't know that BP should be measured in arm with higher measurement. 78,2% of the participants knew that the correct measurement includes the use of sphygmomanometer and auscultation of brachial artery by stethoscope. 67,9% knew that body and arm position should be in ankle of 45o degrees and that the cuff should be placed around the upper arm at the same vertical height as the heart. 59,8% knew that the cuff should be placed 2-3 cm above the point of auscultation of brachial artery. 45,1% considered that the arm cuff should be inflated manually until when the height of the column of mercury approaches 200 mmHg. 52,3% knew the correct rhythm (2-3 mmHg/sec that the pressure in the cuff should be released. 88,4% knew the sounds corresponding to the measurement of Systolic blood

  12. Reliable blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, C. H.; Rasmussen, Niels H;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients often fail to adhere to clinical recommendations when using current blood pressure self-measurement (BPSM) methods and equipment. As existing BPSM equipment is not able to detect non-adherent behavior, this could result in misdiagnosis and treatment error. To overcome this...... patients scheduled for self-measuring their blood pressure (BP) in the waiting room at an obstetrics department's outpatient clinic to perform an additional BPSM using ValidAid. We then compared the automatically measured and classified values from ValidAid with our manual observations. Results: We found...

  13. Inheritance of Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Haemoglobin (HPFH) in a Family of Western Odisha, India

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Siris; Dehury, Snehadhini; Purohit, Prasanta; Meher, Satyabrata; Das, Kishalaya

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary persistence of foetal haemoglobin (HPFH) is a rare inherited haemoglobin disorders in India. We encountered five cases of HPFH-3 in heterozygous condition in a single family of western Odisha, India. All the cases had raised % HbF (26.1±3.23%) with pancellular distribution of HbF in erythrocytes. There were no abnormalities found in the red cell indices. All the cases were asymptomatic till date with normal growth and development. Molecular confirmation of this haemoglobin disorder...

  14. Standardization of Blood Growth Hormone Levels Measured by Different Kits Using a Linear Structural Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Tomohiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Shimatsu, Akira; Katsumata, Noriyuki; HIZUKA, Naomi; Fujieda, Kenji; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and reliable determination of blood growth hormone level is essential in the diagnosis and treatment of short stature children. However, measured levels differed considerably among measurement kits available in Japan until 2003. Therefore, standardization of the measured values was attempted by measuring growth hormone levels in a sample of healthy adult individuals every year using the different kits. A standardization equation was developed for each kit through linear structural re...

  15. Aspects of the continuous clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure and cardiac output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors try to classify circulatory measurements as to certain characteristics such as ''activeness'', ''invasivenesss'', etc. Next they turn to defining some fundamental measurements in the blood circulation and focus attention on the continuous measurement of systemic arterial pressure and flow to finally emphasize the inaccuracy of clinical cardiac output methods. The conclusion is that clinical circulatory measurement methods have accuracies at least an order of magnitude worse than common physical methods used in electrical or mechanical engineering. (Auth.)

  16. Bone blood flow measured by 85 Sr microspheres and bone seeker clearances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates further the relationship between the initial bone clearance of a bone-seeking radioisotope or labeled substance and the bone blood flow. The bone blood flow of rats was modified over the widest possible range of physiological values by heating and cooling their hindlimbs. Osseous blood flow was measured by the arteriolar trapping of labeled microspheres of 15 micrometer diameter injected into the left ventricle. The plasma clearances of 45Ca and 99m Tc by bone were measured 10 min after the intravenous injection of radiocalcium and of 99m technetium pyrophosphate. The extraction ratio for 45Ca over the 10-min interval (45Ca clearance/bone plasma flow) was 0.60 for low blood flows, 0.40 for blood flows at rest, and 0.25 for high values of flow. The data for 99m Tc were, respectively, 0.68, 0.34, and 0.22. Initial bone clearances of either substance should not be used to measure the increases in bone blood flow over the values at rest

  17. [Accuracy of the oscillometric method to measure blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego Filho, E A; Mello, S F; Silva, C R; Vituri, D W; Bazoni, E; Gordan, L N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the substitution of the standard auscultatory method by the oscillometric blood pressure monitor, independently of the validity of the intraarterial blood pressure measurement. The accuracy of the automatic oscillometric monitor was compared to the auscultatory mercury manometer blood pressure measurement in apparently healthy school age children. METHODS: A device able to perform 3 simultaneous readings are used: one reading by the monitor and the others by two "blind" observers. We studied 72 school age children with the following characteristics: mean age 9.5 (6.1-16.1) and 39 males (54.2%). RESULTS: The difference for the systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained by the monitor was in average + 6.2 mmHg and + 10.0 mmHg, respectively, when compared to the observer's readings. There was neither a good correlation nor a good agreement between the two observers and the monitor in the blood pressure determination. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the substitution of the standard auscultatory method for the non-invasive oscillometric method to measure blood pressure in school age children can not be generally recommended. PMID:14685547

  18. The measurement of digital systolic blood pressure by strain gauge technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P E; Bell, G; Lassen, N A

    1972-01-01

    The systolic blood pressure on the finger, toe, and ankle has been measured by a strain gauge technique in 10 normal subjects aged 17-31 years and 14 normal subjects aged 43-57 years. The standard deviation in repeated measurements lies between 2 and 6 mm Hg. The finger pressure in the younger...

  19. Haemoglobin disorders in Australia: where are we now and where will we be in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, G; Wood, E; Scarborough, R; Ho, P J; Bowden, D

    2016-07-01

    Inherited disorders of haemoglobin (Hb), such as thalassaemia and sickle cell disease (SCD) are common and responsible for significant morbidity and mortality on a global scale. As Australia becomes increasingly ethnically diverse, their prevalence will increase. However, we lack important demographic and epidemiological data to manage these disorders and their consequences and to support affected individuals and communities. Thalassaemia and SCD are lifelong conditions. Affected individuals have reduced life expectancies, poorer quality of life and complex healthcare needs. Treatment strategies currently focus on prenatal diagnosis, red blood cell transfusion, iron chelation, management of iron-related complications, haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and hydroxyurea. Currently, the only curative therapy is HSCT; however, gene therapy offers the possibility of cure and trials are currently underway. These therapies are associated with significant complications and substantial costs; there is also evidence of variation in approaches to diagnosis and care. Optimal strategies for many aspects of management are not yet defined and more research is necessary to inform clinical care and health service delivery. PMID:27040044

  20. Heterogeneity in white blood cells has potential to confound DNA methylation measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn T Adalsteinsson

    Full Text Available Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50-179 and in two white blood cell fractions (n = 20, isolated using density gradient centrifugation, in four CGIs (CpG Islands located in genes HHEX (10 CpG sites assayed, KCNJ11 (8 CpGs, KCNQ1 (4 CpGs and PM20D1 (7 CpGs. Cellular heterogeneity (variation in proportional white blood cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, counted by an automated cell counter explained up to 40% (p<0.0001 of the inter-individual variation in whole blood DNA methylation levels in the HHEX CGI, but not a significant proportion of the variation in the other three CGIs tested. DNA methylation levels in the two cell fractions, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, differed significantly in the HHEX CGI; specifically the average absolute difference ranged between 3.4-15.7 percentage points per CpG site. In the other three CGIs tested, methylation levels in the two fractions did not differ significantly, and/or the difference was more moderate. In the examined CGIs, methylation levels were highly correlated between cell fractions. In summary, our analysis detects region-specific differential DNA methylation between white blood cell subtypes, which can confound the outcome of whole blood DNA methylation measurements. Finally, by demonstrating the high correlation between methylation levels in cell fractions, our results suggest a possibility to use a proportional number of a single white blood cell type to correct for this confounding effect in analyses.

  1. Measurement of anisotropic reflection of flowing blood using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Jeong, Bosu; Jung, In Oh; Ha, Hojin; Kim, Ki Hean; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-12-01

    Light reflectance of blood is a complex phenomenon affected by hematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation (rouleaux formation). According to the hypothesis that RBC rouleaux are aligned with the direction of blood flow, the spatial alignment of RBC rouleaux, as well as their size and quantity in the blood, may also affect light reflectance. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the spatial alignment and distribution of RBC rouleaux on light reflection using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Blood flow velocity and reflectance profiles in a rat jugular-femoral bypass loop were simultaneously measured using a Doppler swept-source OCT system at various incident angles from -30 to +30 deg. The reflectance profiles of flowing blood show nonmonotonous decay with a local negative peak at the center of the tube. The profiles vary depending on the incident angle. This angular dependence is stronger at a higher angle of incidence. The anisotropic reflectance of flowing blood is consistent with the hypothesis on the spatial alignment of RBC rouleaux.

  2. Non Invasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats: A Simple Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pauline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non invasive, simple and economical instrument to measure blood pressure in r365-ats is important in cardiovascular research. Methods: Systolic blood pressure measuring instrument was fabricated using a tail cuff, photoplethysmograph, pressure transducer and PC with Biopac Software for recording. Tail cuff was used to occlude the tail artery, photoplethysmograph picked the blood flow pulses in the rat tail and the pressure transducer measured the cuff pressure and converted it into analog voltage. PPG signals were converted into voltage and amplified by the recording system with two channel amplifiers and in addition it also amplified analog voltage converted by the pressure transducer. Results: Calibration of the instrument entailed a simple Bland Altman’s plot of pressure recorded as voltage changes against pressure changes in the mercury sphygmomanometer which is considered as gold standard. A regression value of r=0.9 and p=0.00 was obtained. A pilot study was done on ten female rats. Three blood pressure readings were taken on two occasions. Between - animal variation of BP was 123±7 (mean SD, CV=5.9% and within - animal variation of BP was 120 ±7, CV=5.5%. Conclusion: The tail cuff and PPG based technique to measure systolic blood pressure in rats is simple, economic, accurate and reliable.

  3. Prompt gamma-ray spectrometry for measurement of B-10 concentration in brain tissue and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron-10 (B-10) concentration in the brain tissue and blood was measured continuously for 24 hours after injection of the B-10 compound in live rabbits using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. Following injection of B-10 compound (Na2B12H11SH, 50mg/kg) dissolved in physiological saline, B-10 concentration was continuously measured in the brain tissue. Intermittently the concentration of B-10 in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. In 10 minutes after the injection of B-10 compound, the level of B-10 concentration reached the peak of 400-500 ppm in blood and 20-30 ppm in the normal brain tissue. In 60 minutes the level of B-10 concentration rapidly decreased and then a gradual decline was observed. The value was 15-30 ppm at 3 hours after injection, 5-10 ppm at 6 hours and 2-5 ppm at 24 hours in the blood. The concentration in the brain tissue was 3-8 ppm at 3 hours, 2-5 ppm at 6 hours and below 1.5 ppm at 24 hours. B-10 concentration in cerebro-spinal fluid was below 1 ppm. B-10 concentration was also measured in the brain tumor and blood in the human cases at boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). These data studied by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry are very important and useful to decide the irradiation time. (author)

  4. Factors affecting radioactive microsphere measurement of blood flow in pregnant guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S.; Sparks, J.W.; Makowski, E.L.

    1986-10-01

    Comparative blood flow studies were performed in pregnant guinea pigs using radioactive microspheres to test the effects of different sphere sizes on blood flow measurements and the relationship between flows obtained intraoperatively and those performed after 5 days of recovery from anesthesia and surgery. We observed that 1.5% of the cardiac output was shunted through the microcirculation of the carcass, gut, skin and endomyometrium when 15 mu microspheres were used. Intraoperative measurements of heart rate, cardiac output and placental blood flow are significantly lower than measurements made after 5 days recovery. These reductions were ameliorated with the addition of a continuous infusion of isoproterenol and the deletion of atropine from the anesthetic.

  5. MRI-compatible noninvasive continuous blood pressure measurement using fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harja, Juha; Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Myllylä, Risto A.; Elseoud, Ahmed A.; Nikkinen, Juha; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Tervonen, Osmo

    2010-02-01

    This report focuses on designing and implementing a non-invasive blood pressure measuring device capable of being used during magnetic resonance imaging. This device is based on measuring pulse wave velocity in arterial blood and using the obtained result to estimate diastolic blood pressure. Pulse transit times are measured by two fibre optical accelerometers placed over chest and carotid artery. The fabricated accelerometer contains two static fibres and a cantilever beam. The free end of the beam is angled at 90 degrees to act as a reflecting surface. Optical fibres are used for both illuminating the surface and receiving the reflected light. Acceleration applied to the sensor causes deflection of the beam, whereupon the amount of reflected light changes. The sensor output voltage is proportional to the intensity of the reflected light. Tests conducted on the electronics and sensors inside an MRI room during scanning proved that the device is MR conditional. No artifacts or distortions were detected.

  6. Factors affecting radioactive microsphere measurement of blood flow in pregnant guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative blood flow studies were performed in pregnant guinea pigs using radioactive microspheres to test the effects of different sphere sizes on blood flow measurements and the relationship between flows obtained intraoperatively and those performed after 5 days of recovery from anesthesia and surgery. We observed that 1.5% of the cardiac output was shunted through the microcirculation of the carcass, gut, skin and endomyometrium when 15 mu microspheres were used. Intraoperative measurements of heart rate, cardiac output and placental blood flow are significantly lower than measurements made after 5 days recovery. These reductions were ameliorated with the addition of a continuous infusion of isoproterenol and the deletion of atropine from the anesthetic

  7. Laser Doppler flowmetry is valid for measurement of cerebral blood flow autoregulation lower limit in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, Jan; Pryds, Anders; Larsen, Erik Hviid;

    2005-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a recent technique that is increasingly being used to monitor relative changes in cerebral blood flow whereas the intra-arterial 133xenon injection technique is a well-established method for repeated absolute measurements of cerebral blood flow. The aim of this st......Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a recent technique that is increasingly being used to monitor relative changes in cerebral blood flow whereas the intra-arterial 133xenon injection technique is a well-established method for repeated absolute measurements of cerebral blood flow. The aim...... in similar results. We conclude that even though LDF overestimated CBF during haemorrhagic shock caused by controlled haemorrhage, the lower limit autoregulation was correctly identified. The laser Doppler technique provides a reliable method for detection of a wide range of cerebral blood flow changes under...... CO2 challenge. Haemodilution influences the two methods differently causing relative overestimation of blood flow by the laser Doppler technique compared to the 133xenon method....

  8. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Catherine; Belanger, Marie C; Burns, Patrick M

    2014-08-01

    Two non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices (oscillometry and Doppler) were compared to invasive blood pressure using a Bland-Altman analysis, in anesthetized and conscious dogs. When considering the systolic arterial pressure only during general anesthesia, both NIBP devices slightly underestimated the systolic arterial blood pressure however the precision and the limits of agreement for the Doppler were of a greater magnitude. This indicates a worse clinical performance by the Doppler. The performance of both NIBP devices deteriorated as measured in conscious animals. In general, for the oscillometric device, determination of invasive diastolic and mean arterial pressures was better than the invasive systolic arterial pressure. Overall, the oscillometric device satisfied more of the criteria set by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement. Based upon these results, the oscillometric device is more reliable than the Doppler in the determination of blood pressure in healthy medium to large breed dogs. PMID:24924217

  9. Model for validation of radioimmunoassay kit reagents: measurement of follitropin and lutropin in blood and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured lutropin and follitropin in blood and urine with radioimmunoassay kits from Diagnostic Products Corporation and compared the results with those obtained by use of re agents from the National Institutes of health (NIH) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The urine standard (second IRP-HMG) from WHO, the blood standard (LER-907) from NIH, and the commercial standards all effected similar displacement of trace material when the commercial gonadotropin kit reagents were used. Highly significant correlations were achieved for these hormones in blood or urine on comparing commercial and NIH/WHO reagents. Serial dilutions of urine samples produced similar relative potencies with the commercial reagents. Conversion factors are presented to relate results for LER-907, second IRP, or commercial standards. Commercially available reagents can provide a practical and reliable means of gonadotropin radioimmunoassay in blood or urine

  10. Changes in the tryptophan fluorescence in gamma-irradiated human haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma-radiation on human haemoglobin was studied by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. Irradiation with doses in the range of 0-2.4 Mrad led to an increase in fluorescence intensity, and a red shift of the fluorescence maximum. Such spectral changes should be attributed mainly to a more polar environment of tryptophan residues in irradiation haemoglobin caused by protein unfolding and to a concomitant increase in separation between tryptophan residues and haem groups. Differences in fluorescence intensity but not spectral distribution between control and irradiated samples denatured in guanidinium hydrochloride indicate a radiation-induced decrease in tryptophan content. Fluorescence quenching by caesium ions was observed in irradiated haemoglobin but not in native haemoglobin. The Stern-Volmer constant calculated for caesium quenching indicates tht the fraction of tryptophan residues accessible to the quencher increases after irradiation. (author)

  11. In Vivo Measurements Of Coronary Blood Volumi By Dye And Inert Gas Dilution Technic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Wolpers, H. G.

    1984-10-01

    The application of a double fiberoptic device for measurements of arterial and coronary venous dye dilution curves facilitates the determination of coronary mean transit times even under clinical conditions. Since the dye, indocyanine green, is an intravascular tracer, the calculation of tissue blood flow would be possible if the intracoronary blood volume per unit of muscular weight is known. This study was therefore designed to investigate the physiologic range and the influence of coronary vasodilation and different hemodynamic conditions on the amount of myocardial blood volume. All experiments were carried out on anaesthetized close chest mongrel dogs in heart catheterization technic. Myocardial preload, afterload and inotropism and coronary vascular tone were varied by induction of hypo-, normo- and hypervolemia as well as by intravenous application of catecholamines, 13-blocking agents and vasodilating drugs. The determination of coronary blood volume was based on arterial and coronary venous kinetics of the intravascular tracer indocyanine green and the freely diffusible tracers helium and argon. Simultaneous measurements of the dye and the inert gases were obtained by a double fiberoptic system and a twin mass spectrometer, respectively. The intravascular and the tissue mean transit times as well as the coronary blood volume per unit of tissue weight were computed from the impulse response functions obtained by numerical deconvolution of the arterial and coronary venous indicator dilution curves. In contrast to reports of other authors coronary blood volume did not increase to a major extend during coronary vasodilation or elevated afterload. These new results suggest that the variation of coronary blood volume described in the literature is mainly due to methodological errors resulting from monoexponential extrapolation and distortion of the dye signal by the sampling catheter. These systematic errors, which, in particular, lead to an overestimation of

  12. Comparison of three measures of the ankle-brachial blood pressure index in a general population

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Cheng-Rui; Staessen, Jan A.; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2007-01-01

    The ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) predicts cardiovasular disease. To our knowledge, no study has compared manual ABI measurements with an automated electronic oscillometric method in a population sample. We enrolled 946 residents (50.8% women; mean age, 43.5 years) from 8 villages in JingNing County, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China. We computed ABI as the ratio of ankle-to-arm systolic blood pressures from consecutive auscultatory or Doppler measurements at the posterior tibial and ...

  13. Is it reliable to measure the forearm blood pressure in children?

    OpenAIRE

    Amar M. Taksande; Aishwarya Jadhav; Jyoti Nair

    2015-01-01

    Background: When the upper arm (UA) is inaccessible or a standard-sized blood pressure (BP) cuff is unavailable, some healthcare workers use the forearm (FA) to measure BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Objective: The objective was to determine the accuracy of BP measurement in the arm and FA. Design: Prospective, randomized study. Setting: Department of Pediatrics, JNMC, Sawangi (Meghe) Participants: A total of 72 children aged 5-15 years. Measurements: Mercury and Automatic (OMRON Tokyo, ...

  14. Context classification during blood pressure self-measurement using the sensor seat and the audio classification device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Rasmussen, Niels Holm; Ahrendt, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure self-measurement (BPSM) requires the patient to follow a range of recommendations. Patients must remain silent during measurements, be seated correctly with back support and legs uncrossed, and must have rested at least 5 minutes prior to taking the measurement. Current blood...... process, as well as a sensor seat for measuring patient posture and activity before and during the BPSM process....

  15. Continuous positive airway pressure increases haemoglobin O2 saturation after acute but not prolonged altitude exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    p. Agostoni, Caldara G, Bussotti M, Revera M, Valentini M, Gregorini F, Faini A, Lombardi C, Bilo G, Giuliano A, Veglia F, Savia G, P.A. Modesti, Mancia G, Parati G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: It is unknown whether subclinical high-altitude pulmonary oedema reduces spontaneously after prolonged altitude exposure. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) removes extravascular lung fluids and improves haemoglobin oxygen saturation in acute cardiogenic oedema. We evaluated the presence of pulmonary extravascular fluid increase by assessing CPAP effects on haemoglobin oxygen saturation under acute and prolonged altitude exposure. We applied 7 cm H2O CPAP for 30 min to he...

  16. Physical, biochemical and functional characterization of haemoglobin from three strains of Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Vasudevan; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2007-02-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, an inhabitant of coastal and inland salterns, encounter fluctuations in the salinity which in turn influences the oxygen availability of their habitat. Hence, experiments were performed to analyze variations in haemoglobin structure and patterns of three strains of Artemia from South India and also to reflect the effect of varying oxygen levels in their habitat. Haemoglobins were purified on a DEAE-Sephadex column and haemoglobin types were analyzed by comparing their relative mobility on a non-denaturing medium. Furthermore, their molecular masses were determined by gel filtration in Sepharose column and by dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results clearly reveal the presence of three distinct extracellular haemoglobins Hb I, Hb II and Hb III in Tuticorin strain while the other strains displayed only trails or the complete absence of Hb III and Hb II. Estimated molecular masses of these haemoglobins are 235,000-250,000 Da. Denaturation of the reduced and alkylated haemoglobins revealed apparently one polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 124,000 Da. Upon denaturing gel electrophoresis of native haemoglobin Hb II, it was found that the 124,000 Da, polypeptide was cleaved specifically into two unequally-sized fragments of 50,400 and 79,800 Da. With regard to oxygen affinity, Hb III has a very high affinity for oxygen, an almost negligible Bohr effect and a good physiological adaptation to temperature changes. By combining the three haemoglobins in different proportions Artemia strains must be able to withstand diverging environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of Hb III in Puthalam and its occurrence as a faint band in Thamaraikulam could be correlated to the oxygen levels of their habitats. PMID:17185017

  17. Red cell adhesion molecules, foetal haemoglobin and endothelial factors in sickle cell disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mundee, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SS) is a haemoglobinopathy involving production of sickle haemoglobin (HbS, β⁶Glu-->Val), which is able to polymerise leading to vaso-occlusion. Hydroxyurea (HU) treatment increases foetal haemoglobin (HbF) levels but decreases vaso-occlusion and red cell adhesion molecule (AM) expression, and therefore improves clinical symptoms. In this thesis, the contribution of AMs, HbF and endothelial factors to the severity of sickle cell disease has been studied....

  18. Measurement of cerebral blood flow in the pig by the Xe-133 clearance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Xe-133 clearance technique is used to measure cerebral blood flow in the pig, which often serves as an experimental animal for cardiovascular research. The clearance curves are fitted by a two-exponential model. However, the fitted parameters are incompatible with a two-compartmental model: the values found for the parameters depend on the length of the clearance curve analysed. The discrepancies are thought to be consequences of the heterogeneity of cerebral blood flow and of mathematical problems of parameter identification. The non-validity of the relative weight of the fast clearance component as an anatomical or functional parameter is demonstrated. The use of the mean time constant, mean transit time, mean decay constant and initial slope for determination of cerebral blood flow rates is discussed. The mean cerebral blood flow of the anaesthetized pig measured by the clearance technique is found to be lower than the blood flow measured by means of a flow probe around the common carotid artery (with the external carotid artery tied off). The existence of a significant arteriovenous shunt flow is postulated. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of oxygen saturation in venous blood by dynamic near IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Meir; Babchenko, Anatoly; Khanokh, Boris; Taitelbaum, Haim

    2000-04-01

    A method for the measurement of oxygen saturation in the venous blood, SvO2, based on optical measurements of light absorption in the infrared region is presented. The method consists of applying relatively low external pressure of 25 mm Hg on the forearm, thereby increasing the venous blood volume in the tissue, and comparing the light absorption before and after the external pressure application. SvO2 has been determined from light absorption measurements in two wavelengths, before and after the pressure application, using a formula derived for two adjacent wavelengths. The method has been applied to the hands and fingers of 17 healthy male subjects, using wavelengths of 767 and 811 nm. SaO2, the oxygen saturation for arterial blood, was also obtained from photoplethysmographic measurements in these two wavelengths (pulse oximetry) using the same formula. The mean (+/- SD) value of SaO2 was 94.5%(+/- 3.0). The mean value of SvO2 was 86.2%(+/- 4.1) for the finger and 80.0%(+/- 8.2) for the hand. These SvO2 values are reasonable for the finger and the hand where arterio-venous anastomoses exist. The method enables the measurement of SvO2 in the limbs, a parameter which is related to tissue blood flow and oxygen consumption.

  20. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komine Hidehiko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Because current methods of measuring arterial stiffness are technically demanding, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement. Methods Blood pressure was conventionally measured in the left upper arm of 173 individuals using an inflatable cuff. Using the time series of occlusive cuff pressure and the amplitudes of pulse oscillations, we calculated local slopes of the curve between the decreasing cuff pressure and corresponding arterial volume. Whole pressure-volume curve was derived from numerical integration of the local slopes. The curve was fitted using an equation and we identified a numerical coefficient of the equation as an index of arterial stiffness (Arterial Pressure-volume Index, API. We also measured brachial-ankle (baPWV PWV and carotid-femoral (cfPWV PWV using a vascular testing device and compared the values with API. Furthermore, we assessed carotid arterial compliance using ultrasound images to compare with API. Results The slope of the calculated pressure-volume curve was steeper for compliant (low baPWV or cfPWV than stiff (high baPWV or cfPWV arteries. API was related to baPWV (r = -0.53, P r = -0.49, P r = 0.32, P Conclusions These results suggest that our method can simply and simultaneously evaluate arterial stiffness and blood pressure based on oscillometric measurements of blood pressure.

  1. Optimal plane search method in blood flow measurements by magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel, Pawel; Orkisz, Maciej; Przelaskowski, Artur; Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Wolak, Tomasz

    2004-07-01

    This paper offers an algorithm for determining the blood flow parameters in the neck vessel segments using a single (optimal) measurement plane instead of the usual approach involving four planes orthogonal to the artery axis. This new approach aims at significantly shortening the time required to complete measurements using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques. Based on a defined error function, the algorithm scans the solution space to find the minimum of the error function, and thus to determine a single plane characterized by a minimum measurement error, which allows for an accurate measurement of blood flow in the four carotid arteries. The paper also comprises a practical implementation of this method (as a module of a larger imaging-measuring system), including preliminary research results.

  2. Blood Pressure Drop Prediction by using HRV Measurements in Orthostatic Hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Giovanna; Melillo, Paolo; Stranges, Saverio; De Pietro, Giuseppe; Pecchia, Leandro

    2015-11-01

    Orthostatic Hypotension is defined as a reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure within 3 minutes of standing, and may cause dizziness and loss of balance. Orthostatic Hypotension has been considered an important risk factor for falls since 1960. This paper presents a model to predict the systolic blood pressure drop due to orthostatic hypotension, relying on heart rate variability measurements extracted from 5 minute ECGs recorded before standing. This model was developed and validated with the leave-one-out cross-validation technique involving 10 healthy subjects, and finally tested with an additional 5 healthy subjects, whose data were not used during the training and cross-validation process. The results show that the model predicts correctly the systolic blood pressure drop in 80 % of all experiments, with an error rate below the measurement error of a sphygmomanometer digital device. PMID:26345451

  3. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, B. M.; O'Flynn, B.; Mathewson, A.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  4. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  5. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, B M; O' Flynn, B; Mathewson, A, E-mail: brian.mccarthy@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, UCC, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  6. Haemoglobin S and haemoglobin C: 'quick but costly' versus 'slow but gratis' genetic adaptations to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, David; Bancone, Germana; Ciminelli, Bianca Maria; Pompei, Fiorenza; Blot, Isa; Simporé, Jacques; Modiano, Guido

    2008-03-15

    Haemoglobin S (HbS; beta6Glu-->Val) and HbC (beta6Glu-->Lys) strongly protect against clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria. HbS, which is lethal in homozygosity, has a multi-foci origin and a widespread geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia whereas HbC, which has no obvious CC segregational load, occurs only in a small area of central West-Africa. To address this apparent paradox, we adopted two partially independent haplotypic approaches in the Mossi population of Burkina Faso where both the local S (S(Benin)) and the C alleles are common (0.05 and 0.13). Here we show that: both C and S(Benin) are monophyletic; C has accumulated a 4-fold higher recombinational and DNA slippage haplotypic variability than the S(Benin) allele (P = 0.003) implying higher antiquity; for a long initial lag period, the C alleles did apparently remain very few. These results, consistent with epidemiological evidences, imply that the C allele has been accumulated mainly through a recessive rather than a semidominant mechanism of selection. This evidence explains the apparent paradox of the uni-epicentric geographic distribution of HbC, representing a 'slow but gratis' genetic adaptation to malaria through a transient polymorphism, compared to the polycentric 'quick but costly' adaptation through balanced polymorphism of HbS. PMID:18048408

  7. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1997-01-01

    a high post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations with...... other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  8. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich;

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... output by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both...

  9. Measurement of Placental Blood Flow with 133Xe in Normal and Pathological Human Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most authors agree that changes in placental circulation play an important part in the genesis of chronic foetal disorders. However, until recently there was no technique by which a quantitative evaluation of placental haemodynamics could be obtained. Our method of measuring placental blood flow represents one application of the use of radioisotopes for measurements of local blood flows. We use 133Xe in solution in physiological serum. This radioactive gas has the advantage of being inert and instantly diffusible. After radiographic or ultrasonic localization of the placenta, 50 μCi of xenon are injected into it transabdominally. A scintillation detector is used to take the 133Xe clearance curve, which is recorded simultaneously on a linear writer and transmitted to a computer. We have made 111 measurements of placental blood flow - 45 in normal pregnancy, 59 in pathological pregnancy and 7 after perfusion of medication. The measurements made it possible to obtain, for the first time, a quantitative evaluation of placental blood flow in women. The value found for normal pregnancies between the thirty-second and the forty-first weeks was 145 ml/100 g per min. The measurements carried out in pathologically pregnant patients (with arterial hypertension, dysgravidity, urinary infection, diabetes, prolonged pregnancy) showed that such pregnancies are accompanied by a statistically significant diminution of placental blood flow, and that the magnitude of this diminution has a bearing on the clinical condition and the state of the child at birth. This method of measurement, which is easily reproducible in the same patient, is accordingly of interest from two points of view. As far as theoretical studies are concerned, it has made possible a quantitative evaluation of placental blood flow and has supplied proof that the maternal disorders which give rise to chronic foetal disorders are usually accompanied by a diminution in placental blood flow. From the practical

  10. Measurement of regional extravascular lung density and of pulmonary blood volume with positron emitting isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of pulmonary blood volume changes with exercice can be performed after labelling of the blood pool by 11CO inhalation. Positron transaxial tomography permits the quantitative study of density distribution of the chest and of the pulmonary blood volume. This paper represents our preliminary experience with these techniques on models and control patients. We have first verified the linearity of transmission for density distribution below one. The tomographic examination first records a transmission image, then an emission image on the same section. We next normalize emission and transmission values on a region of unit density corresponding to blood: then we substract the emission from the transmission values to measure the extravascular pulmonary density. With crystal probes we record pulmonary blood volume variations before, during and after exercise. Peripheral hemodynamic variations explain the change recorded at the begining and at the end of exercise. Combination of these two techniques should help us to better study the importance of the acute changes in the ''formation'' of pulmonary oedema and its influence on regional pulmonary blood volume

  11. Noninvasive measurement of nutrient portal blood shunting: an experimental study with [14C]ursodeoxycholic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All of the methods proposed for measuring portal blood flow are either invasive, estimate total rather than nutrient flow, and none has proved reliable in cirrhotic patients. A method has been derived from pharmacokinetic principles used for the calculation of bioavailability of drugs according to the route of administration (i.v. or p.o.) and tested experimentally in 20 pigs. A tracer dose of [14C]ursodeoxycholic acid, a biliary acid with a high-liver first-pass effect, is administered in the duodenum, and serial peripheral blood samples are taken. Later, the same dose of the same drug is administered i.v. The shunt fraction of portal blood F is obtained by the ratio of the areas under the plasma level vs. time curves (AUC) after p.o. and i.v. administrations: (see formula in text). The pigs were divided into three experimental groups. (i) Group I: undisturbed portal flow; (ii) Group II: total diversion of portal blood with an end-to-side portacaval shunt, and (iii) Group III: partial diversion of portal blood through a side-to-side portacaval shunt. Portal flow was measured during surgery with an electromagnetic flowmeter above and below the shunt and the degree of shunting calculated. Results show that the shunt fraction measured with ursodeoxycholic acid is well-correlated with hemodynamic data. No overlap between Groups I and III is observed. It is concluded that the shunt fraction of nutrient portal blood can be measured with this noninvasive method. Minute amounts of ursodeoxycholic acid were used in order to be completely metabolized by the liver, even in spite of hepatocellular dysfunction. Therefore, this method should be valid in cirrhotic patients and be useful to decide the type of portasystemic shunt to propose for the decompression of gastroesophageal varices

  12. Impact of red blood cell transfusion on global and regional measures of oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Russell S; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is common in critically ill patients. Although the goal of transfusion of red blood cells is to increase oxygen-carrying capacity, there are contradictory results about whether red blood cell transfusion to treat moderate anemia (e.g., hemoglobin 7-10 g/dL) improves tissue oxygenation or changes outcomes. Whereas increasing levels of anemia eventually lead to a level of critical oxygen delivery, increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction are homeostatic mechanisms the body uses to prevent a state of dysoxia in the setting of diminished oxygen delivery due to anemia. In order for cardiac output to increase in the face of anemia, normovolemia must be maintained. Transfusion of red blood cells increases blood viscosity, which may actually decrease cardiac output (barring a state of hypovolemia prior to transfusion). Studies have generally shown that transfusion of red blood cells fails to increase oxygen uptake unless oxygen uptake/oxygen delivery dependency exists (e.g., severe anemia or strenuous exercise). Recently, near-infrared spectroscopy, which approximates the hemoglobin saturation of venous blood, has been used to investigate whether transfusion of red blood cells increases tissue oxygenation in regional tissue beds (e.g., brain, peripheral skeletal muscle). These studies have generally shown increases in near-infrared spectroscopy derived measurements of tissue oxygenation following transfusion. Studies evaluating the effect of transfusion on the microcirculation have shown that transfusion increases the functional capillary density. This article will review fundamental aspects of oxygen delivery and extraction, and the effects of red blood cell transfusion on tissue oxygenation as well as the microcirculation. PMID:22238040

  13. Influence of blood donation on oxygen uptake kinetics during moderate and heavy intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D; Marshall, K; Connell, A; Barnes, R J

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a reduced whole body blood volume on the kinetic response of VO(2) during moderate and heavy intensity exercise. Six males and four females (age, 21+/-2 yrs; height, 175.2+/-5.1 cm; weight, 66.4+/-2.8 kg; VO(2)max, 53.0+/-4.1 ml x kg (-1) x min(-1)), completed a square-wave cycling ramp test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO(2max). Kinetics trials were completed 24 h pre and post donation of 450 cm (3) of blood. The kinetics trials were moderate intensity (80%VT) and heavy intensity (Delta50% VT - VO(2max)). Breath-by-breath gas exchange, heart rate, blood pressure, haemoglobin O(2) saturation, and blood [lactate] were measured throughout the trials. Post-donation haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte count were all significantly reduced (pexercise (p>or= 0.05), or in the amplitude of the slow component. The capacity of the cardiovascular system to meet the metabolic demands of skeletal muscle at the onset of exercise does not limit the oxygen uptake. PMID:20180178

  14. Evaluation of endoscopic laser Doppler flowmetry for measurement of human gastric blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoscopic measurement of gastric blood perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been evaluated in 28 patients and 15 healthy vounteers. During the recordings it was necessary to keep the probe in light contact with the mucosa to obtain stable curves and to avoid artificial Doppler signals caused by relative movements between the gastric wall and the probe. Gastric distention by air insufflation did not influence the recorded flow level significantly when air insufflation was moderate. The intravenous injection of 0.6 mg atropine did not cause any significant alteration in recorded blood flow, and this drug may be used as premedication before endoscopic blood flow measurements. Recordings with both 4 kHz and 12 kHz bandwidth of the LDF instruments showed a relative constant relationship for different flow levels, the flow values measured with 12 kHz being about twice the corresponding values measured with 4 kHz. With 12 kHz bandwith more of the disturbance signal is recorded, which makes analysis of endoscopic recorded flow curves difficult and inaccurate. It is therefore recommended to use 4 kHz bandwidth during endoscopic measurements in conscious humans. Blood flow measurements from both sides of the gastric wall were consistently of the same order of magnitude (r=0.91), and the endoscopically recorded output signal increased in three of five patients when a reflecting mirror was placed at the serosal side. The results indicate that endoscopic LDF usually represents blood perfusion in all layers of the gastric wall

  15. Measurement of blood flow volume of ocular muscles by Xe-133 clearance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood flow volume of the ocular muscles was measured in 8 normal volunteers and 12 cases with miscellaneous opthalmic diseases by Xe-133 clearance method. The average of blood flow volume in the normal subjects was 7.45 ± 2.07 ml/min/100 g, and the blood flow volume ratio of right eye to left eye was 0.94 ± 0.07. The blood flow volume of the ocular muscles was decreased in the cases with stenosis of the internal carotid artery (n = 4, 4.3 ± 2.1 ml/min/100 g), glaucoma (n = 3, 4.7 ± 4.1 ml/min/100 g), arterial scleroses (n = 2, 3.8 ± 0.2 ml/min/100 g) and Takayasu's disease (n = 2, 5.6 ± 0.4 ml/min/100 g), and was increased in the acute inflammatory disease (n = 2, 21.5 ± 2.5 ml/min/100 g). Measurement of the blood flow volume of the ocular muscles using Xe-133 clearance method is useful to evaluate the circulatory abnormality in the ophthalmic diseases. (author)

  16. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Cornelis H Hokke; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this st...

  17. In vitro and in vivo studies using BW12C: toxicity, haemoglobin modification and effects on the radiosensitivity of normal marrow and RIF-1 tumours in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BW12C binds to haemoglobin, shifting the oxygen saturation curve to the left, and is under investigation as an inducer of tumour hypoxia. The intrinsic cellular toxicity of the drug to RIF-1 and EMT6 cells in monolayer culture was studied, and IC50 values of 100 μg ml-1 for 24h exposure and 10 μg ml-1 for 4-day exposure were measured. (author)

  18. Definition, significance and measurement of quantities pertaining to the oxygen carrying properties of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG; Maas, AHJ; Moran, RF

    1996-01-01

    A consistent set of definitions is given of the principal quantities pertaining to the oxygen transport by the blood, and of their mutual relationships, in relation to the methods used in their measurement. At the core is the correct definition of oxygen saturation, the deviation of which has recent

  19. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING AND AFTER EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; BARENDSEN, GJ; LUBBERS, J; DEPATER, L

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions serious

  20. Portal blood flow volume measurement in schistosomal patients: evaluation of Doppler ultrasonography reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of Doppler ultrasonography in the measurement of portal blood flow volume in schistosomal patients. Materials and methods: Prospective, transversal, observational and self-paired study evaluating 21 patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis submitted to Doppler ultrasonography performed by three independent observers for measurement of portal blood flow. Pairwise interobserver agreement was calculated by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient, paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Interobserver agreement was excellent. Intraclass correlation ranged from 80.6% to 93.0% (IC at 95% [65.3% ; 95.8%]), with the Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging between 81.6% and 92.7% with no statistically significant interobserver difference regarding the mean portal blood flow volume measured by Doppler ultrasonography (p = 0.954 / 0.758 / 0.749). Conclusion: Doppler ultrasonography has demonstrated to be a reliable method for measuring the portal blood flow volume in patients with portal hypertension secondary to schistosomiasis, with a good interobserver agreement. (author)

  1. Sensorless Viscosity Measurement in a Magnetically-Levitated Rotary Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijikata, Wataru; Rao, Jun; Abe, Shodai; Takatani, Setsuo; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2015-07-01

    Controlling the flow rate in an implantable rotary blood pump based on the physiological demand made by the body is important. Even though various methods to estimate the flow rate without using a flow meter have been proposed, no adequate method for measuring the blood viscosity, which is necessary for an accurate estimate of the flow rate, without using additional sensors or mechanisms in a noninvasive way, has yet been realized. We have developed a sensorless method for measuring viscosity in magnetically levitated rotary blood pumps, which requires no additional sensors or mechanisms. By applying vibrational excitation to the impeller using a magnetic bearing, we measured the viscosity of the working fluid by measuring the phase difference between the current in the magnetic bearing and the displacement of the impeller. The measured viscosity showed a high correlation (R(2)  > 0.992) with respect to a reference viscosity. The mean absolute deviation of the measured viscosity was 0.12 mPa·s for several working fluids with viscosities ranging from 1.18 to 5.12 mPa·s. The proposed sensorless measurement method has the possibility of being utilized for estimating flow rate. PMID:25920684

  2. Quantitative measurement of blood circulation in tests of rats using nuclear medical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments show that is it is possible to quantitatively assess the blood circulation and, within limits, the germinative function of tests by measuring the impulses of an incorporated radionuclide (99-Tc-pertechnetate) using an uptake measuring instrument. This is a rapid and unbloody method to be adopted in human medicine. 'Acute tests' or pre-damaged tests can thus be exactly diagnosed. In the former case the circulation modification and in the latter the evaluation of the germinative function ability is of main interest. The most important measuring criterion is the 15-minute-uptake U; it represents the blood circulation in the tests measured. The germinative function ability is evaluated on the basis of the accumulation activity Nsub(max). (orig./MG)

  3. Differences in blood pressure measurements in the forearm and upper arm of obese otherwise healthy first year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Suganthi V, Navin Rajaratnam, Suzanne Maria D’cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Indian youth and obesity is associated with complications like systemic hypertension. Often, due to the non-availability of appropriate sized cuffs, standard cuff bladders are used to measure blood pressure in the forearms of obese young adults. Aim: To compare the upper arm arterial blood pressure measured using an appropriate cuff with the forearm arterial blood pressure measured using a standard cuff and conventional sphygmomanometry i...

  4. Adaptive ultrasonic measurement of blood vessel diameter and wall thickness: theory and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, K; Jaffe, J S

    1998-01-01

    An adaptive ultrasonic technique for measuring blood vessel diameter and wall thickness is presented. This technique allows one to use a target-specific transmitted waveform/receiver filter to obtain a larger signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the received signal than conventional techniques. Generally, SNR of a received wave increases as the intensity of the transmit wave increases; however, because of the FDA limitations placed on the amount of transmit energy, it is important to be able to make the most efficient use of the energy that is available to obtain the best possible SNR in the received signal. Adaptive ultrasonic measurement makes the most efficient use of the energy that is available by placing the maximum amount of energy in the largest target scattering mode. This results in more energy backscatter from a given target, which leads to a higher SNR in the received waveform. Computer simulations of adaptive ultrasonic measurement of blood vessel diameter show that for a SNR of 0 dB in the transmitted waveform, the standard deviation of the diameter measurements for a custom-designed transmitted waveform is about two orders of magnitude less than the standard deviation of the diameter measurements using more conventional waveforms. Diameter and wall thickness measurement experiments were performed on a latex tube and a bovine blood vessel using both custom-made and conventionally used transmitted waveforms. Results show that the adaptively designed waveform gives a smaller uncertainty in the measurements. The adaptive ultrasonic blood vessel diameter and wall thickness measuring technique has potential applications in examining vessels which are either too deep inside the body or too small for conventional techniques to be used, because of the low SNR in the received signal. PMID:18244211

  5. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Gu Choi; Keun-Ho Kim; Woo-Beom Lee; Dong-Hyun Nam; Il-Ho Son; You-Sik Hong; Sang-Suk Lee

    2011-01-01

    To measure precise blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The...

  6. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal). PMID:27214089

  7. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry and...... PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  8. Transcutaneous partial oxygen tension and skin blood flow monitoring: Continuous, noninvasive measures of cardiorespiratory change

    OpenAIRE

    Mark W. Greenlee; Akita, M.

    1985-01-01

    Transcutaneous partial oxygen tension (tc pO₂) and skin blood flow (via heat clearance) were measured noninvasively in 22 male subjects who performed stress-inducing tasks (i.e. hand-grip exercise, cold pressor test, breath holding, hyperventilation and mirror-tracing). An analysis of variance and covariance was conducted for tc pO₂ heat clearance, heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume and systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Results indicate that tc pO₂ can depict phasic cardioresp...

  9. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.;

    2008-01-01

    whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected and...... stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, and...

  10. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA)

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by ...

  11. Changes in the blood parameters of an air-breathing fish during different respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B R; Thakur, R N; Yadav, A N

    1976-01-01

    Some of the blood parameters recorded in an air-breathing eel, Amphipnous cuchia under normal respiratory condition during non-breeding period (September-April) are haemoglobin (Hb) concentration 19.26%, haematocrit value 56.16%, RBC number 1.71 million/mm3, RBC size 18.86 X 9.70 mum, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) 113.4 ng, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 34.2%, blood sugar 77 mg% and ascorbic acid 0.435 mg%. The higher concentration of haemoglobin (19.26%) appears to be related to its obligatory air breathing habit and habitat in a water of low oxygen content. Though a definite trend of increase in the haemoglobin and haematocrit concentration with an increase in the body weight of the fish was lacking, variations were clearly marked related to intrinsic activity of the fish connected with different respiratory conditions. Asphyxiation in a submerged but continuous flow of water (liter/h) for 5 1/2 h resulted in an increase in the above-mentioned parameters to an appreciable extent. These increases were 0.23 million/mm3 in the number of erythrocytes, 6.16% in haemoglobin concentration, 10% in haematocrit value, 20% in blood sugar and 35% in ascorbic acid content. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin showed a decline of 6.2%. Exclusive aerial breathing for 5 1/2 h also caused 7.4% increase in haemoglobin concentration, 9.4% in haematocrit value, 0.14 million/mm3 in RBC number, 20% in blood sugar level, 9% in ascorbic acid content but almost no change in mean corpuscular haemoglobin. The average surface area for diffusion of gases appeared to have reduced by 6.8 mum2 per RBC. PMID:61915

  12. Reproducibility of measuring cerebral blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yosuke; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Masamoto, Kazuto; Ikoma, Yoko; Seki, Chie; Taniguchi, Junko; Kanno, Iwao; Saeki, Naokatsu; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Laser-Doppler flowmetry has been widely used to trace hemodynamic changes in experimental stroke research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the day-to-day test-retest reproducibility of measuring cerebral blood flow by LDF in awake mice. The flux indicating cerebral blood flow (CBF), red blood cell (RBC) velocity, and RBC concentration were measured with LDF via cranial windows for the bilateral somatosensory cortex in awake mice. LDF measurements were performed three times, at baseline, 1 hour after, and 7 days after the baseline measurement. Moreover, breathing rate (BR) and partial pressure of transcutaneous CO₂ (PtCO₂) were measured simultaneously with LDF measurement. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw) were calculated. CBF, RBC velocity, and RBC concentration showed good day-to-day test-retest reproducibility (ICC: 0.61 - 0.95, CVw: 8.3% - 15.4%). BR and PtCO₂ in awake mice were stable during the course of the experiments. The evaluation of cerebral microcirculation using LDF appears to be applicable to long-term studies. PMID:24389142

  13. Volumetric liquid flow measurement through thermography to simulate blood flow in an artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Mora, Carlos; Rabell-Montiel, Adela; González-Vega, Arturo; Gutierrez-Juarez, Gerardo

    2015-09-01

    Encouraged to improve the procedure to measure the blood flow in cases with peripheral artery disease using thermography, that allows to evaluate several arteries simultaneously, it was developed an alternative to measure the volumetric flow through a conduit, it was studied the variation of the thermal energy computed from thermal images due to changes in flow at different temperatures, and it was observed that the measurement is not strongly influenced by the emissivity of the conduit, the ambient temperature and humidity, but that is necessary to establish an adequate calibration of the camera to can use it as measurement instrument.

  14. Optimized design of a facility for measuring sodium-24 in blood by using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Bo; Li, Rui; Liu, Zhi; Huang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code is adopted for numerical calculations and simulation analyses of the parameters for the designed irradiation facility for human blood (including the neutron moderator and its thickness, the neutron source's location, and the collimator's radius) and of the parameters for the unit for measuring human blood (such as the crystal thickness and radius of NaI) to measure the activity of 24Na in the human body exposed to neutron irradiation in nuclear accidents. Calculation results show that the most suitable parameters for the irradiation facility for human blood include 6-cm polyethylene as the neutron moderator, collimator radius of 7 mm, and a neutron source placed at the bottom of the collimator. However, the parameters for the unit to measure human blood are as follows: both the thickness and the radius of the crystal at the bottom of the NaI detector are 5 cm. The effectiveness of the design parameters was verified by using actual experiments.

  15. Measurement of local cerebral blood flow with (/sup 14/C)iodoantipyrine in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, T.M.; Lucignani, G.; Crane, A.M.; Jehle, J.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-02-01

    Local cerebral blood flow was measured in the mouse by means of the (/sup 14/C)iodoantipyrine method. This method has been previously used in the monkey, dog, cat, and rat, but its application to small mammals such as the mouse requires special attention to potential sources of error. The small size of the mouse brain requires special attention to the rapid removal and freezing of the brain to minimize effects of postmortem diffusion of tracer in the tissue. Because of the relatively low diameter/length ratios of the catheters needed for arterial sampling in small animals, substantial errors can occur in the determination of the time course of the (/sup 14/C)iodoantipyrine concentration in the arterial blood unless corrections for lag time and dead space washout in the catheter are properly applied. Local cerebral blood flow was measured in seven awake mice with appropriate care to minimize these sources of error. The values were found to vary from 48 ml/100 g/min in the corpus callosum to 198 ml/100 g/min in the inferior colliculus. The results demonstrate that the (/sup 14/C)iodoantipyrine method can be used to measure local cerebral blood flow in the mouse and that the values in that species are, in general, somewhat higher than those in the rat.

  16. Measurement of diabetic sugar concentration in human blood using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Rashid, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrates the use of Raman spectroscopy for the direct measurement of diabetic sugar in human blood using 532 nm laser system. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 21 individuals. We have elicited a reliable glucose signature in diabetic patients, and measured glucose levels in blood serum of normal, healthy diabetic and diabetic patients with other malignancies like cancer and hepatitis. Quantitative predictions of glucose spectra illustrate the predictions based on molecular information carried by the Raman light in highly light-scattering and absorbing media. Raman spectrum peaks for diabetic blood serum are observed at 1168, 1531, 1463, 1021 cm-1 with intensity level 17000 to 18500 pixels attributed to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, collagen, and skeletal C-C stretch of lipids acyl chains. Raman spectra for normal, diabetic patients having cancer and hepatitis were also recorded. This in vitro glucose monitoring methodology will lead in vivo noninvasive on-line monitoring having painless and at the same time the data will be displayed on-line and in real time. The measured Raman peaks provides detailed bio-chemical fingerprint of the sample and could confer diagnostic benefit in a clinical setting.

  17. Blood flow measurements in selected oral tissues in dogs using radiolabelled microspheres and rubidium-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelled microspheres and 86Rb were used in dogs to measure oral tissue blood flow. The tissues studied were mandibular alveolar and basal bone, oral mucosa, gingiva, lip, tongue and soft tissue of hard palate. A suspension of 6 x 106 cerium-141 labelled microspheres, 15 + - 5 μm in diameter was injected into the left ventricle through an arterial catheter in 9 healthy adult dogs. Cardiovascular stability was assessed during the catheterization and injection of microspheres. Following the microsphere injection, 500 μCi of 86Rb was injected intravenously and the animal was killed within 60s. Blood flow measured using 86Rb was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from radiolabelled microsphere flow in mandibular basal bone, oral mucosa and gingiva, suggesting that in these oral tissues nutritional or capillary exchange flow is similar to total blood flow. In mandibular alveolar bone, lip, tongue and soft tissue of hard palate, however, 86Rb measurements were significantly greater (p 86Rb shows promise for continued studies of blood flow in healthy and pathological oral tissues. (author)

  18. Red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity, agglutination and zeta potential measurements with double optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-02-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. There are techniques, however, to decrease the zeta potential to allow cell agglutination which are the basis of most of the tests of antigen-antibody interactions in blood banks. This report shows the use of a double optical tweezers to measure RBC membrane viscosity, agglutination and zeta potential. In our technique one of the optical tweezers trap a silica bead that binds strongly to a RBC at the end of a RBCs rouleaux and, at the same time, acts as a pico-Newton force transducer, after calibration through its displacement from the equilibrium position. The other optical tweezers trap the RBC at the other end. To measure the membrane viscosity the optical force is measured as a function of the velocity between the RBCs. To measure the adhesion the tweezers are slowly displaced apart until the RBCs disagglutination happens. The RBC zeta potential is measured in two complimentary ways, by the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied electric field, and the conventional way, by the measurement of terminal velocity of the RBC after released from the optical trap. These two measurements provide information about the RBC charges and, also, electrolytic solution properties. We believe this can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  19. Prognostic significance of distal blood pressure measurements in patients with severe ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, William; Tønnesen, K H

    1980-01-01

    The clinical course was followed and the ankle and toe blood pressures were measured with the strain gauge technique on 5 occasions during 2 years in 43 patients with pain at rest and/or ischaemic ulceration due to severe ischaemia of the legs on the basis of occlusive arterial disease. Although...... arteriosclerosis of the legs in non-diabetic patients is generally considered a benign disease from the standpoint of limb survival, the critical level of TPI (systolic toe blood pressure/systolic arm blood pressure) was found to be 0.07 as a TPI below this value was associated with an overall 82% risk of...... amputation. With TPI above 0.07, the chance of successful conservative therapy was about 40%. Diabetics with severe ischaemia must be regarded as a high risk group in respect of amputation (64%) and lethality (64%). A variance analysis was made on the pressure data: In patients with low pressure peripheral...

  20. Non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure pulse using multiple PPGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, John; Pennington, Gary

    Heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US, may be spotted early on by looking at photoplethysmogram (PPG) data. This experiment explores a new method of continuously monitoring the blood pressure pulse with PPG data. In contrast to the traditional sphygmomanometer (cuff) method, which yields only the systolic and diastolic pressure during measurement, this method tracks the blood pressure pulse wave in a non-invasive continuous manner. This procedure allows for fast, inexpensive, and detailed analysis of the patient's blood pressure implementable on a large scale. We also explore the second derivative of the PPG data. In combination with the above method, the patient's heart risk can be effectively detected. We acknowledge Fisher Endowment Grant support from the Jess and Mildred Fisher College of Science and Mathematics, Towson University.

  1. Measurement of blood velocity using laser Doppler method for the designing module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Liang; Lee, Jen-Ai; Lu, Tung-Wu; Chen, Zhao-Cheng; Chen, Chien-Ming

    2005-04-01

    We built the Dual Beam Mode of the LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) frame, set the photodetector at the same side with light source which collect the scattering light of blood cell. It's proper to reduce LDA optical path and convenient for our designing module. The concentration of chicken blood in this study is about 1% and we measured the relations actually between flood velocity and the angle of beams cross on particles, temperature, and the diameter of aqueduct. We found better results while the cross angle was less than 38.8 degree, diameter of aqueduct was 6 mm, and temperature of blood was set to 36 . These parameters can also provide important basis for the LDA module kit that we are designing.

  2. A laser flow aggregometer for measurement of white blood cell and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of aggregation of white blood cells and platelets is important in understanding cardiovascular disease. A new aggregometer has been developed, based on a laser flow cytometer. Pulses detected using a high speed photodiode are acquired to a computer and analysed. Tests based on separated white cells, platelets and whole blood samples have been carried out to evaluate this system. Results show that the laser flow cytometer system has a much better resolution and wider dynamic range than existing electronic flow cytometer instruments. As a result, more details of platelet and white blood cell aggregation profiles can be obtained. The new aggregometer is now being used in clinical trials on patients with vascular disease, for comparison with commercial systems. (author)

  3. Doppler ultrasound compared with strain gauge for measurement of systolic ankle blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Jette Bang; Juul, Søren; Abrahamsen, Jimmi;

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses measurement variation in the measurement of ankle systolic blood pressure (ABP) when measured with Doppler ultrasound and with the strain gauge method. Ninety-seven patients were included. ABP was measured with Doppler ultrasound and with the strain gauge method. The methods...... were compared graphically by scatterplots and analyzed by paired t test, analysis of variance, and Pitman's paired variance ratio test. ABP was measured by strain gauge in all extremities, whereas no Doppler signal was obtainable in 7 limbs (4%). There was no systematic difference in measurements...... between the means of the two measurements. However, a substantial difference of more than 25 mm Hg was found in 15% of limbs and more than 20 mm Hg in 20%. In the majority of patients, measurements of ABP by Doppler ultrasound and the strain gauge method give similar results, but for a minority the...

  4. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  5. Long-term Blood Pressure Measurement in Freely Moving Mice Using Telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Afaque; Parks, Cory; Mancarella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    During the development of new vasoactive agents, arterial blood pressure monitoring is crucial for evaluating the efficacy of the new proposed drugs. Indeed, research focusing on the discovery of new potential therapeutic targets using genetically altered mice requires a reliable, long-term assessment of the systemic arterial pressure variation. Currently, the gold standard for obtaining long-term measurements of blood pressure in ambulatory mice uses implantable radio-transmitters, which require artery cannulation. This technique eliminates the need for tethering, restraining, or anesthetizing the animals which introduce stress and artifacts during data sampling. However, arterial blood pressure monitoring in mice via catheterization can be rather challenging due to the small size of the arteries. Here we present a step-by-step guide to illustrate the crucial key passages for a successful subcutaneous implantation of radio-transmitters and carotid artery cannulation in mice. We also include examples of long-term blood pressure activity taken from freely moving mice after a period of post-surgery recovery. Following this procedure will allow reliable direct blood pressure recordings from multiple animals simultaneously. PMID:27286041

  6. Continuous blood pressure monitoring during exercise using pulse wave transit time measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, J; Meigas, K; Karai, D; Kattai, R; Kaik, J; Rossmann, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research, which is focused on the development of the convenient device for continuous non-invasive monitoring of arterial blood pressure. The blood pressure estimation method is based on a presumption that there is a singular relationship between the pulse wave propagation time in arterial system and blood pressure. The parameter used in this study is pulse wave transit time (PWTT). The measurement of PWTT involves the registration of two time markers, one of which is based on ECG R peak detection and another on the detection of pulse wave in peripheral arteries. The reliability of beat to beat systolic blood pressure calculation during physical exercise was the main focus for the current paper. Sixty-one subjects (healthy and hypertensive) were studied with the bicycle exercise test. As a result of current study it is shown that with the correct personal calibration it is possible to estimate the beat to beat systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise with comparable accuracy to conventional noninvasive methods. PMID:17272172

  7. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jonghee; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs.

  8. Comparison of oscillometric and intra-arterial blood pressure and pulse measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithalia, S V; Edwards, D

    1994-01-01

    Non-invasive oscillometric blood pressure and pulse measured by an Omron HEM-703CP monitor were compared with arterial values obtained from direct measurements of the radial artery. An excellent correlation and agreement was found between the two methods (systolic r = 0.99; diastolic r = 0.97; pulse r = 0.99), although there was some variability among individual subjects. The range of difference between them was 0 to 10 mmHg for systolic and -6 to +5 mmHg for diastolic pressures. When tested on the bench using the Metron QA-1280 non-invasive blood pressure analyser the HEM-703CP monitor rarely exhibited errors exceeding 2-3 mmHg over a measurement range of 50-200 mmHg. PMID:7776359

  9. In Vivo μPIV Measurements of Blood Flow in Small Vessels of a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Timothy; Conner, Nadine; Russell, John; Legac, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Ongoing research at the University of Wisconsin Medical School is addressing the effects of perfusion of glottal tissue on voice production. Building on the approach developed by Gharib's group at CalTech for embryonic zebra fish, we have modified μPIV to measure flow in capillaries and small blood vessels in a live rat model. In lieu of seeding particles, the DPIV correlation algorithm tracks the motion of red blood cells moving through these vessels. The methodology will be presented along with a video sequence showing measurements made from muscle tissue laid nominally flat on a microscope stage. Challenges of measurements in three-dimensional geometries, i.e. the throat, will be discussed.

  10. Reference values of capillary blood saturation in neonates and its difference from pulse oximetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ješić Miloš M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Haemoglobin saturation is an obligatory oxygen parameter in the assessment of neonatal oxygenation. Although, pulse oximetry is currently one of the major methods in the determination of haemoglobin saturation, capillary blood saturation is still present in the diagnostic process. As well known, haemoglobin saturation value of capillary blood is insufficiently accurate, but not as much as the difference in relation to the values determined by pulse oximetry. Until now published studies have reported that capillary samples are obtained according to a protocol by the principle of free blood outflow, which is practically almost unachievable in the neonate. Objective Determination of the reference values of oxygen saturation (ScO2 and partial pressure (pcO2 of capillary blood by squeezing of the foot. The determination of difference between ScO2 and pulse oximetry (SpO2. Methods In 134 term newborns, we determined SpO2 . Subsequently, we measured the values of ScO2 and pcO2 from the same extremity. While withdrawing a capillary sample, we exerted multiple squeezing of the foot. The mean value of ScO2, pcO2, SpO2 and the difference between ScO2 and SpO2 were determined. Results Mean ScO2 value was 80.5}8.5%, pcO2 was 48.2}11.4 mm Hg and SpO2 was 98}1.9%. The difference between ScO2 and SpO2 values was 17.5}8.6% (t=23.568; p=0.000. Conclusion There is a statistically highly significant difference between the values of ScO2 and SpO2. Having the knowledge of this difference can increase the accuracy of clinical evaluation and further diagnostics. Comparison in up-to-now conducted studies suggests that the squeezing of the foot for obtaining a capillary sample in relation to free blood outflow does not bear any significant influence on the resultant values of haemoglobin saturation. .

  11. A Method for Manipulating Blood Glucose and Measuring Resulting Changes in Cognitive Accessibility of Target Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, Marjorie L; Hill, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Much research in social psychology has investigated the impact of bodily energy need on cognition and decision-making. As such, blood glucose, the body's primary energy source, has been of special interest to researchers for years. Fluctuations in blood glucose have been linked to a variety of changes in cognitive and behavioral processes, such as self-control, political attitudes, and eating behavior. To help meet growing interest in the links between bodily energy need and these processes, this manuscript offers a simple methodology to experimentally manipulate blood glucose using a fasting procedure followed by administration of a sugar-sweetened, unsweetened, or artificially-sweetened beverage. This is followed by presentation of a method for measuring resulting changes in implicit cognition using a lexical decision-task. In this task, participants are asked to identify whether strings of letters are words or non-words and response latencies are recorded. Sample results from a recent publication are presented as an example of the applications for the experimental manipulation of blood glucose and the lexical decision task measures. PMID:27585282

  12. Quality control measures in cord blood banking in India - critical appraisal and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anuradha; Singhania, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a potential source of primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) available for clinical application to reconstitute the hematopoietic system in patients lacking conventional stem cell donors. In the last decade because the frequency of UCB stem cell transplantation has increased, the quality of UCB available in banks has become an important criterion for the success of any UCB stem cell transplant. Moreover, with the growing numbers of cord blood banks there is not only a need to improvise quality issues but to also develop a more homogenous approach in setting standards and regulations for assessing them. The present article provides an insight on the importance of cord blood banking in India and the impending requirement to provide clarity on certain issues regarding UCB banking. Furthermore, the article discusses about certain practical approaches which could perhaps be referred to as guidelines (and by no means be solely adopted as the only measures) by cord blood banks in India for establishing or maintaining a standard for quality control (QC) measures. PMID:24698987

  13. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  14. Measurement of specific renocortical blood flow using the 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific renocortical blood flow is measured in dogs after 133Xe inhalation and compared with intra-arterial injection of 133Xe. The results are very good. The correlation coefficient is 0.964. For 45 healthy test persons (106 kidneys) there is a standard range between 379 and 774 ml (2s range) with a mean value of 577 ml/100 g x min. The values obtained are somewhat higher than those reported for intra-arterial injection. In transplanted kidneys, continuous measurements of specific renocortical blood flow up to 21 days after surgery may make a decisive contribution to early detection of transplant rejection. Examples are given to demonstrate course control of specific renocortical blood flow in transplanted kidneys over several years with satisfactory function of the transplant, acute rejection, and chronic rejection. Even with satisfactory transplant function, specific renocortical blood flow will be about 25 to 30% below the mean value of the healthy test group. With chronic rejection, values are 30 to 70% below average. (orig.)

  15. Development of a wireless blood pressure measuring device with smart mobile device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan; Yıldız, İbrahim; Kayrak, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Today, smart mobile devices (telephones and tablets) are very commonly used due to their powerful hardware and useful features. According to an eMarketer report, in 2014 there were 1.76 billion smartphone users (excluding users of tablets) in the world; it is predicted that this number will rise by 15.9% to 2.04 billion in 2015. It is thought that these devices can be used successfully in biomedical applications. A wireless blood pressure measuring device used together with a smart mobile device was developed in this study. By means of an interface developed for smart mobile devices with Android and iOS operating systems, a smart mobile device was used both as an indicator and as a control device. The cuff communicating with this device through Bluetooth was designed to measure blood pressure via the arm. A digital filter was used on the cuff instead of the traditional analog signal processing and filtering circuit. The newly developed blood pressure measuring device was tested on 18 patients and 20 healthy individuals of different ages under a physician's supervision. When the test results were compared with the measurements made using a sphygmomanometer, it was shown that an average 93.52% accuracy in sick individuals and 94.53% accuracy in healthy individuals could be achieved with the new device. PMID:26626086

  16. Validation of an optical flow algorithm to measure blood flow waveforms in arteries using dynamic digital x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Kawal; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hawkes, David J.; Hamilton, George; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2000-06-01

    We have developed a weighted optical flow algorithm for the extraction of instantaneous blood velocity from dynamic digital x-ray images of blood vessels. We have carried out in- vitro validation of this technique. A pulsatile physiological blood flow circuit was constructed using sections of silicone tubing to simulate blood vessels with whole blood as the fluid. Instantaneous recording of flow from an electromagnetic flow meter (EMF) provided the gold standard measurement. Biplanar dynamic digital x-ray images of the blood vessel with injection of contrast medium were acquired at 25 fps using a PC frame capture card. Imaging of a Perspex calibration cube allowed 3D reconstruction of the vessel and determination of true dimensions. Blood flow waveforms were calculated off-line on a Sun workstation using the new algorithm. The correlation coefficient between instantaneous blood flow values obtained from the EMF and the x-ray method was r equals 0.871, n equals 1184, p less than 0.0001. The correlation coefficient for average blood flow was r equals 0.898, n equals 16, p less than 0.001. We have successfully demonstrated that our new algorithm can measure pulsatile blood flow in a vessel phantom. We aim to use this algorithm to measure blood flow clinically in patients undergoing vascular interventional procedures.

  17. Effectiveness of holographic optical element module sensor in measuring blood prothrombin time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-form-factor holographic optical element (HOE) module, which was mounted on a dual-stage seesaw actuator, was utilized to evaluate blood coagulation in real time. The method involved assessing the decrease in transmitted light of the blood sample surface when the clotting is formed. The prothrombin time (PT) was measured by illumining and focusing a 635 nm laser beam onto the sample. As the fibrinogen turned into non-solute fibrin, the transmitted efficiency and total intensity of the reflected light from the reflector changed. A low-pass filter suppressed the noise in the coagulation-related transient response to yield accurate signals. Finally, the PT measurements were compared to those made classically using other optical sensors. (paper)

  18. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff

    OpenAIRE

    Maltz, Jonathan S.; Tison, Geoffrey H; Alley, Hugh F.; Budinger, Thomas F; Owens, Christopher D.; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, lab-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arg...

  19. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis—their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. (topical review)

  20. Classification of peripheral occlusive arterial diseases based on symptoms, signs and distal blood pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Noer, Ivan; Paaske, William; Sager, P

    1980-01-01

    Systolic blood pressures at toe and ankle were measured in 459 consecutive patients with occlusive arterial disease. Fifty-eight per cent had intermittent claudication with arterial disease of all degrees of severity. Seventeen per cent complained of rest pain having toe systolic pressures below 30...... occlusive arterial disease which was located distally on the legs. A classification in three groups is suggested: (1) ischemia only during exercise; (2) ischemia at rest with or without ulcerations: and (3) diabetics with chronic ulcerations....

  1. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis--their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark; Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. PMID:19940350

  2. On Ultrasonic MTI Measurement of Velocity Profiles in Blood-Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn A.J. Angelsen

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis of Doppler frequency estimators proposed to be used in ultrasonic MTI measurements of velocity profiles in blood flow, is given. The estimators give an output in form of a single analogue voltage and the relation of the output to the Doppler spectrum is discussed. Three new estimators are also proposed. All estimators work fairly well for narrow-band Doppler spectra, but errors are found when broad-band spectra are present.

  3. Open Photoacoustic Cell for Blood Sugar Measurement: Numerical Calculation of Frequency Response

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Bernd; Wolff, Marcus; Teschner, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of the glucose concentration in human epidermis has been suggested recently. This method is based on photoacoustic (PA) analysis of human interstitial fluid. The measurement can be performed in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, may form the basis for a non-invasive monitoring of the blood sugar level for diabetes patients. It requires a windowless PA cell with an additional opening that is pressed onto the human skin. Since signals are...

  4. A 133-xenon inhalation system for cerebral blood-flow measurements in ventilated premature babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We constructed a Xenon-133 inhalation and trapping system in order to measure cerebral blood flow of ventilated premature babies by means of the noninvasive 133Xe clearance method. The completely lead-shielded inhalation device is a closed system driven by the baby's own respirator and can thus be safely used at the patients bedside in the intensive care unit. Reproducible proximal airway concentrations of 133Xe (with or without leaks around the endotracheal tube) were obtained by in vitro simulation. (orig.)

  5. MRI-based blood oxygen saturation measurements in infants and children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Vessel oxygen saturation can be determined with MR oximetry using an in vivo measurement of signal decay (T2) and the calibration curve relating T2 to blood oxygen saturation (%HbO2), where: 1/T2=1/T2O+K (1-%HbO2/100)2 and K is a constant parameter which correlates with measured fibrinogen levels. The ability to noninvasively measure %HbO2 in cardiac chambers and vessels has enormous potential in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Objective: The purpose of the study was to prospectively characterize the T2-%HbO2 relationship in infants where T2-%HbO2 is the realtionship between T2 and %HbO2 (blood oxygen saturation) expressed by the equation given above, and to determine whether adult values for K and T2O (where T2O is the T2 of fully oxygenated blood) can be extrapolated to pediatric patients with CHD. A second objective was to apply this method to calculate the %HbO2 in vivo using MR imaging in infants with CHD. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with CHD undergoing cardiac catheterization (9 male; 6 female), median age 8 months, were recruited for the calibration study. T2O and K were measured directly from blood samples, compared with the values estimated from adult population statistics, and plotted against hematocrit and fibrinogen, respectively. In four studies of infants with CHD, T2 measurements were converted to %HbO2 using the calibration curve. Results: The T2-%HbO2 relationship in infants correlated with the adult calibration statistics (1/T2O vs. hematocrit, r=0.77; K vs. fibrinogen, r=0.61). Our initial in vivo studies demonstrated that the MR oximetry reflected the expected oxygen saturations. Conclusion: Adult values for T2-%HbO2 calibration can be used to measure blood oxygen saturation in vivo in children with CHD. (orig.)

  6. Survival of primary irradiated patients with NSCLC in dependence of the pretherapeutical haemoglobin level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analysed the files of 96 primary radiated patients to evaluate the pre-therapeutic haemoglobin level as well as sex, age, histopathology, total dose and fractionation. The analysis of Karnofsky-status or patient condition was not performed as there was a lack of sufficient data in the patient files. Histopathology, sex, age as well as total dose and fractionation of the radiation treatment were similar in the cohort building 3 groups: Hb15 g/dl. The investigation resulted in the observation, that lower levels of initial serum haemoglobin concentration compared to levels over 15 g/dl are negative prognostic factors. Higher initial haemoglobin concentration is a high significant positive prognostic factor (p=0,0001). The applied total dose (>30 Gy, >50 Gy, >55 Gy) was not a significant prognostic factor in this patient material, where two thirds of the patients had an advanced cancer (stage IIIB or Stage IV). (orig./MG)

  7. Monitoring of rapid blood pH variations by CO detection in breath with tunable diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Diachenko, Alexander I.; Gurfinkel, Youri I.

    1997-06-01

    Detection of endogenous carbon monoxide content in breath with tunable diode lasers (TDL) was proposed for noninvasive monitoring of rapid blood pH variation. Applied approach is based on high sensitivity of the haemoglobin and myoglobin affinity for CO to blood pH value and an ability to detect rapidly small variations of CO content in expired air. Breath CO absorption in 4.7 micrometers spectral region was carefully measured using PbSSe tunable diode laser that can provide 1 ppb CO concentration sensitivity and 10 s time constant. Applied TDL gas analyzer was used to monitor expired air of studied persons in physiological tests including hyperventilation and physical load. Simultaneous blood tests were conducted to demonstrate correlation between blood and breath chemical parameters.

  8. The measurement of thermal neutron flux depression for determining the concentration of boron in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of targeted radiotherapy that relies on the uptake of the capture element boron by the volume to be treated. The treatment procedure requires the measurement of boron in the patient's blood. The investigation of a simple and inexpensive method for determining the concentration of the capture element 10B in blood is described here. This method, neutron flux depression measurement, involves the determination of the flux depression of thermal neutrons as they pass through a boron-containing sample. It is shown via Monte Carlo calculations and experimental verification that, for a maximum count rate of 1x104 counts/s measured by the detector, a 10 ppm 10B sample of volume 20 ml can be measured with a statistical precision of 10% in 32±2 min. For a source activity of less than 1.11x1011 Bq and a maximum count rate of less than 1x104 counts/s, a 10 ppm 10B sample of volume 20 ml can be measured with a statistical precision of 10% in 58±3 min. It has also been shown that this technique can be applied to the measurement of the concentration of any element with a high thermal neutron cross section such as 157Gd. (author)

  9. Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Mark P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma/retrieval patients are often in shock and hypothermic. Treatment of such patients usually involves restoring their blood volume with transfusion of blood (stored at 2°C – 6°C and/or crystalloids or colloids (stored at ambient temperature. Rapid infusion of these cold fluids can worsen or even induce hypothermia in these patients. Warming of intravenous fluids at accident sites has traditionally been difficult due to a lack of suitable portable fluid warmers that are not dependent on mains electrical or battery power. If latent heat, the heat released when a liquid solidifies (an inherently temperature limiting process can warm intravenous fluids, portable devices without a reliance on electrical energy could be used to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in trauma patients. Methods Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates. An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days. Results A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer. Conclusion Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.

  10. Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow on patients with early syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Ji-Jun; WU Jin-Chang; YANG Yi; TANG Jun; LIU Zeng-Li; SHI Xin

    2005-01-01

    To study quantitative change of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on patients with early syphilis, we have established a method on absolute measurement of rCBF by using SPECT with Ethyl Cysteinate Dimmer (ECD) as imaging agent, and the method was applied to measure rCBF on patients with early syphilis. The rCBF values measured by this method are highly consistent with the values measured by other classical methods such as SPECT (123I-IMP) and PET (15O-H2O). The rCBF values for early syphilis patients and the normal control show some statistical differences.A routine quantitative absolute measurement of rCBF featured with simple procedures is therefore on the way of maturation.

  11. Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow on patients with early syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study quantitative change of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on patients with early syphilis, the authors have established a method on absolute measurement of rCBF by using SPECT with Ethyl Cysteinate Dimmer (ECD) as imaging agent, and the method was applied to measure rCBF on patients with early syphilis. The rCBF values measured by this method are highly consistent with the values measured by other classical methods such as SPECT (123I-IMP) and PET(15O-H2O). The rCBF values for early syphilis patients and the normal control show some statistical differences. A routine quantitative absolute measurement of rCBF featured with simple procedures is therefore on the way of maturation. (authors)

  12. Crystallization and diffraction patterns of the oxy and cyano forms of the Lucina pectinata haemoglobins complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The native oxygen-carrier haemoglobins complex (HbII–III) is composed of haemoglobin II (HbII) and haemoglobin III (HbIII), which are found in the ctenidia tissue of the bivalve mollusc Lucina pectinata. This protein complex was isolated and purified from its natural source and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion and capillary counter-diffusion methods. The native oxygen-carrier haemoglobins complex (HbII–III) is composed of haemoglobin II (HbII) and haemoglobin III (HbIII), which are found in the ctenidia tissue of the bivalve mollusc Lucina pectinata. This protein complex was isolated and purified from its natural source and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion and capillary counter-diffusion methods. Oxy and cyano derivatives of the complex crystallized using several conditions, but the best crystals in terms of quality and size were obtained from sodium formate pH 5 using the counter-diffusion method in a single capillary. Crystals of the oxy and cyano complexes, which showed a ruby-red colour and nonsingular prismatic shapes, scattered X-rays to resolution limits of 2.15 and 2.20 Å, respectively, using a 0.886 Å synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal system, space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.07, c = 152.07 and a = b = 73.83, c = 152.49 Å for the oxy and cyano complexes, respectively. The asymmetric unit of both crystals is composed of a single copy of the heterodimer, with Matthew coefficients (VM) of 3.08 and 3.06 Å3 Da−1 for the oxy and cyano complexes, respectively, which correspond to a solvent content of approximately 60.0% by volume

  13. Measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography: Implication for noninvasive blood glucose concentration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for analysis. There have been enormous efforts by many scientific groups and companies to quantify glucose concentration noninvasively using different optical techniques. However, these techniques face limitations associated with low sensitivity, accuracy, and insufficient specificity of glucose concentrations over a physiological range. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a new technology, is being applied for noninvasive imaging in tissues with high resolution. OCT utilizes sensitive detection of photons coherently scattered from tissue. The high resolution of this technique allows for exceptionally accurate measurement of tissue scattering from a specific layer of skin compared with other optical techniques and, therefore, may provide noninvasive and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration with high accuracy. In this dissertation work I experimentally and theoretically investigate feasibility of noninvasive, real-time, sensitive, and specific monitoring of blood glucose concentration using an OCT-based biosensor. The studies were performed in scattering media with stable optical properties (aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk), animals (New Zealand white rabbits and Yucatan micropigs), and normal subjects (during oral glucose tolerance tests). The results of these studies demonstrated: (1) capability of the OCT technique to detect changes in scattering coefficient with the accuracy of about 1.5%; (2) a sharp and linear decrease of the OCT signal slope in the dermis with the increase of blood glucose concentration; (3) the change in the OCT signal slope measured during bolus glucose injection experiments (characterized by a sharp increase of blood glucose concentration) is higher than that measured in

  14. In vitro validation of volumetric blood flow measurement using Doppler flow wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, R; Kaufmann, P A; Jiang, Z; Attenhofer, C; Linka, A; Mandinov, L

    2000-10-01

    Determination of any volumetric blood flow requires assessment of mean blood flow velocity and vessel cross-sectional area. For evaluation of coronary blood flow and flow reserve, however, assessment of average peak velocity alone is widely used, but changes in velocity profile and vessel area are not taken into account. We studied the feasibility of a new method for calculation of volumetric blood flow by Doppler power using a Doppler flow wire. An in vitro model with serially connected silicone tubes of known lumen diameters (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 mm) and pulsatile blood flow ranging from 10 to 200 mL/min was used. A Doppler flow wire was connected to a commercially available Doppler system (FloMap(R), Cardiometrics) for online calculation of the zeroth (M(0)) and the first (M(1)) Doppler moment, as well as mean flow velocity (V(m)). Two different groups of sample volumes (at different gate depths) were used: 1. two proximal sample volumes lying completely within the vessel were required to evaluate the effect of scattering and attenuation on Doppler power, and 2. distal sample volumes intersecting completely the vessel lumen to assess the vessel cross-sectional area. Area (using M(0)) and V(m) (using M(1)/M(0)) obtained from the distal gates were corrected for scattering and attenuation by the data obtained from the proximal gates, allowing calculation of absolute volumetric flow. These results were compared to the respective time collected flow. Correlation between time collected and Doppler-derived flow measurements was 0.98 (p measurements in each individual tube. The mean paired flow difference between the two techniques was 1.5 +/- 9.0 mL/min (ns). Direct volumetric blood flow measurement from received Doppler power using a Doppler flow wire system is feasible. This technique may potentially be of great clinical value because it allows an accurate assessment of coronary flow and flow reserve with a commercially available flow wire system. PMID

  15. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  16. Trend overtime of total haemoglobin, iron metabolism and trace minerals in veal calves fed high amounts of two different solid feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lisa Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty Polish Friesian veal calves were administrated high amounts of two different solid feeds (maize grain and a mix diet containing 10% of straw and 8% of soy in addition to the traditional milk replacer diet. Compared to the mix diet, maize grain had a lower content of iron, copper and zinc and a minor fibre level. Effects of the two diets on calves’ blood haemoglobin, iron, iron metabolism parameters, copper and zinc concentrations were studied. Haemoglobin concentration resulted higher at the end of the fattening for calves fed the mix diet, as expected. Values remained, however, within ranges that allowed acceptable carcass paleness. Haematic iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC and total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels were not significantly different between the two solid feeds. Lower copper and zinc blood concentrations resulted for calves fed the mix diet were likely due to the feed fibre interfering with the bioavailability of the two minerals, according to what happens for iron.

  17. From pioneering to implementing automated blood pressure measurement in clinical practice: Thomas Pickering's legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Wizner, Barbara;

    2010-01-01

    Thomas G. Pickering spent most of his scientific career in carrying out research on clinical hypertension and blood pressure (BP) measurement. In our review of Pickering's seminal work, we first focused on white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension, two terms that he had introduced. Next, we...... involving white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension, diurnal BP variability, and self-measured BP. Recent studies validated Pickering's observations in terms of cardiovascular outcome and bridged the path from concept to application in clinical practice....

  18. Simplifying the xenon-enhanced CT technique for measuring cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present their study to simplify the xenon-enhanced CT technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) by monitoring the end-tidal expired-air xenon concentration (CXe) with use of CT scanning. Measurement of CBF with xenon CT requires that CXe be monitored as a function of time, and with conventional methods, specialized equipment (eg, thermoconductivity meters) is employed. In the proposed technique, CXe is monitored by scanning the patient's expired air concurrent with the brain tissue. A flexible breathing tube is used to channel the expired air through the scan field to enable sampling

  19. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindyck, J; Waldman, A; Zang, E; Oleszko, W; Lowy, M; Bianco, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether volunteers giving blood to the Greater New York Blood Program (GNYBP) cooperated with procedures implementing public health recommendations intended to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission by blood transfusion. Predonation medical screening was expanded to exclude donors who might be ill with AIDS. To exclude possible asymptomatic carriers of the disease, members of groups at increased risk of AIDS were asked either not to give blood or to give it for laboratory studies. A confidential questionnaire, administered to all donors after medical screening, provided the vehicle for donors to advise the GNYBP whether their donation was for laboratory studies or for patient transfusion. We found that the number of male donors decreased; AIDS-related questions in medical history led to a 2 percent increase in donor rejections; 97 percent of donors said their blood could be used for transfusions; 1.4 percent said their blood could be used for laboratory studies only; and 1.6 percent did not respond. Only units designated for transfusion were released to hospitals. People who indicated that their donation was for laboratory studies had a higher prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus and of antibodies to cytomegalovirus. White cell counts and helper/suppressor T lymphocyte ratios were not significantly different in the two groups. We conclude that volunteer donors have cooperated with the established procedures. None of the laboratory assays identified blood units donated by individuals who, based on information about AIDS high-risk groups, designated their donation for laboratory studies. PMID:3969698

  20. Epsilon haemoglobin specific antibodies with applications in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Draeby; Gonzalez Dosal, Regina; Jensen, Kim Bak;

    2009-01-01

    Invasive procedures for prenatal diagnosis are associated with increased risk of abortion; thus, development of noninvasive procedures would be beneficial. Based on the observation that embryonic nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) crosses the placenta and enters the circulation of pregnant women, the...... ability to identify such cell would allow development of such procedures. Identification of NRBCs in blood samples would be possible provided that specific antibodies are available. Here we have isolated recombinant antibodies using phage display. From the panel of antibody fragments specifically...... recognising epsilon-Hb, one was chosen for further characterization, DAb1. DAb1 binds to epsilon-Hb both in Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Several epsilon-Hb positive cells were detected in a blood sample taken as postchorionic villus sampling (CVS). To evaluate the sensitivity of the method, K562...

  1. A Comparative Study of Blood Glucose Measurements Using Glucometer Readings and the Standard Method in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torkaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders, associated with severe complications. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and screening of hypoglycemia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine a cut-off value for blood glucose level in glucometer readings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 newborns at risk of hypoglycemia, admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran, Iran in 2012; the subjects were selected via simple sampling. After obtaining informed consents from the newborns’ parents, 1 cc blood samples were sent to the laboratory for measuring the blood glucose level. Moreover, venous blood samples, as well as heel-stick blood samples, were obtained for glucometer measurements. Blood glucose measurements were used to determine the cut-off value by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and make comparisons with the diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia in the literature. Results: A total of 238 infants with the mean weight of 2869±821.9 g were enrolled in this study. The mean (±SD blood glucose levels were 65.1±22.9, 82.9±24.7, and 84.4±24.8 mg/dl, based on the standard laboratory method, glucometer reading of venous blood samples, and glucometer reading of heel-stick capillary blood samples, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for hypoglycemia was determined as 65 mg/dl, using glucometer-based assessment of heel-stick blood samples. Conclusion: The significant difference in blood glucose levels measured by the laboratory method and outpatient glucometer readings highlights the importance of a cut-off value for rapid assessment and control of blood glucose and timely detection of hypoglycemia. In fact, the cut-off value introduced in the present study could facilitate such measurements.

  2. Results of kidney function measurement and blood pressure in population from endemic region of Vitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stašević Zvonimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The analysis of frequency of kidney diseases, causes of terminal renal failure in patients subjected to repeated dialysis in major dialysis centers in the region of Kosovo and Metohija as well as mortality rate in these patients showed a stable number of patients with kidney diseases, evidencing that the populations of Vitina and Gnjilane were the most commonly affected. These towns are designated as regions with the highest incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy. The present analysis was aimed at: 1. establishing the incidence rate of hypertension and renal function impairment by using clinical and laboratory analyses in individuals from Vitina and neighboring villages, and 2. investigating the correlation between creatinine clearance, age and arterial blood pressure in the studied group. Material and methods. The analysis included 510 individuals (excluding diabetics over the one-month period during 2004 (201 males with their age ranging from 18 to 90 years. Blood pressure measurements were performed in all the individuals, while renal function was determined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR, as calculated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. Creatinine clearance was lower than 100 ml/min in 237 (46.5% individuals, out of whom 62 (12% had GFR below 60 ml/min. Among the remaining 273 (53.5% individuals with GFR above 100 ml/min, 68 individuals had GFR above 140 ml/min. The distribution of patients depending on their systolic blood pressure values revealed that systolic blood pressure was lower in 44 subjects and higher in 302 subjects (59%. The correlation test revealed significant association between the studied parameters. The positive correlation between patients' age and kidney function means the higher the age of subjects the lower creatinine clearance value (r=-0.622, p<0.001. The negative correlation of the systolic blood pressure value and kidney function was found, meaning that higher the systolic blood

  3. Augmented blood pressure measurement through the noninvasive estimation of physiological arterial pressure variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement methods, such as the oscillometric method, estimate the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) at two random instants in time and do not take into account the natural variability in BP. The standard for automated BP devices sets a maximum allowable system error of ±5 mmHg, even though natural BP variability often exceeds these limits. This paper proposes a new approach using simultaneous recordings of the oscillometric and continuous arterial pulse waveforms to augment the conventional noninvasive measurement by providing (1) the mean SBP and DBP over the measurement interval and the associated confidence intervals of the mean, (2) the standard deviation of SBP and DBP over the measurement interval, which indicates the degree of fluctuation in BP and (3) an indicator as to whether or not the oscillometric reading is an outlier. Recordings with healthy subjects demonstrate the potential utility of this approach to characterize BP, to detect outlier measurements, and that it does not suffer from bias relative to the conventional oscillometric method. (paper)

  4. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by intravenous administation of 133 xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewing the background and the theory for rCFB measurements the following conditions are established for the use of flow measurement with 133-Xenon as a reliable indicator for indirect measurements of cerebral functional activity. 1. There is a strict coupling between rCBF and regional metabolism. This condition can only be considered to be fulfilled in the normal non-anoxic bran tissue. 2. There is a close correlation between the tissue and the venous concentration of 133-Xenin which can be reliably approximated by the blood-brain partition coefficient. This condition can be considered to be fullfilled in the normal flow range, but not in pathological conditions such as cerebrovascular occlusions. 3. Intercompartment diffusion of 133-Xenon has no significant effect upon the measurement of rCBF values. This condition appear to share its limitations for fulfilement with condition 2. 4. There is no significant contamination by the extracerebral flow components at IH or IV rCBF measurements. 5. There is a negligible 'look through' effect from surrounding areas to region with focal high or low blood flow. (U.W.)

  5. Data analytics identify glycated haemoglobin co-markers for type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Stranieri, Andrew; Yatsko, Andrew; Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi

    2016-08-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is being more commonly used as an alternative test for the identification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or to add to fasting blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance test results, because it is easily obtained using point-of-care technology and represents long-term blood sugar levels. HbA1c cut-off values of 6.5% or above have been recommended for clinical use based on the presence of diabetic comorbidities from population studies. However, outcomes of large trials with a HbA1c of 6.5% as a cut-off have been inconsistent for a diagnosis of T2DM. This suggests that a HbA1c cut-off of 6.5% as a single marker may not be sensitive enough or be too simple and miss individuals at risk or with already overt, undiagnosed diabetes. In this study, data mining algorithms have been applied on a large clinical dataset to identify an optimal cut-off value for HbA1c and to identify whether additional biomarkers can be used together with HbA1c to enhance diagnostic accuracy of T2DM. T2DM classification accuracy increased if 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), an oxidative stress marker, was included in the algorithm from 78.71% for HbA1c at 6.5% to 86.64%. A similar result was obtained when interleukin-6 (IL-6) was included (accuracy=85.63%) but with a lower optimal HbA1c range between 5.73 and 6.22%. The application of data analytics to medical records from the Diabetes Screening programme demonstrates that data analytics, combined with large clinical datasets can be used to identify clinically appropriate cut-off values and identify novel biomarkers that when included improve the accuracy of T2DM diagnosis even when HbA1c levels are below or equal to the current cut-off of 6.5%. PMID:27268735

  6. The inherited diseases of haemoglobin are an emerging global health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fucharoen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalasseamia is one of the common genetic disorders. A genetic defect causes reduction of the globin chains leading to chronic haemolytic anaemia from birth. The mainstay of treatment is blood transfusion to maintain adequate levels of the haemoglobin. Secondary iron overload in β-thalassaemia patients is secondary to multiple blood transfusions and increased iron absorption. Excesses iron potentially catalyses free-radicals generation and impairment in cellular function and integrity. Extensive iron-induced injury develops in the heart, liver, pancreas and endocrine system. In regularly transfused patients, in the absence of iron-chelation therapy, death from iron-induced heart failure occurs by the mid-teenage years. Conventional treatment with the parenteral iron chelator desferrioxamine improves mortality but it is too expensive for middle and lowincome countries. Oral iron chelators, such as deferiprone (L1 and deferasirox, appear to be promising, however, they are still too expensive or need special monitoring. Serum ferritin has been used for many years as a guide for chelation therapy. However, recent studies demonstrated that using serum ferritin or liver iron measurements as a monitor of iron-chelation intensive therapy would have been discontinued long before the iron had cleared from the heart. There is evidence of the value of myocardial T2* measurements by MRI for the detection of early cardiac iron overload which cannot be predicted by liver iron or serum ferritin and for the monitoring of iron-chelation therapy. The major problem is the expensiveness of MRI measurement. In conclusion, the problem of iron chelation in low-income countries may be summarized as follows: i drugs, are not available in every countries that need the medicine, ii the cost of drugs is too high for most low income countries, iii there is poor education of doctor, parents/ patients and local government about the benefit of iron chelation, iv there is need

  7. The comparison of placental removal methods on operative blood loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On an average 1 litre of blood is lost during Caesarean Section. Many variable techniques have been tried to reduce this blood loss. Many study trials have shown the spontaneous delivery of placenta method to be superior over manual method because of reduced intra operative blood loss and reduced incidence of post operative endometritis. The main objective of our study was to compare the risk of blood loss associated with spontaneous and manual removal of the placenta during caesarean section. This study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Islamic International Medical Complex, Islamabad from September 2004 to September 2005. All Women undergoing elective or emergency caesarean section were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy below 37 weeks, severe maternal anaemia, and prolonged rupture of the membranes with fever, placenta praevia, placenta accreta and clotting disorders. Patients were allocated to the two groups randomly. Group A comprised of women in whom the obstetrician waited a maximum of 5 minutes till the placenta delivered spontaneously. In group B the obstetrician manually cleaved out the placenta as soon as the infant was delivered. The primary outcome measures noted were difference in haemoglobin of >2 gm/dl (preoperatively and postoperatively), time interval between delivery of baby and placenta, significant blood loss (>1000 cc), additional use of oxytocics, total operating time and blood transfusions. Data was analysed by SPSS. Statistical tests used for specific comparison were chi square-test and Student's t-test. One hundred and forty-five patients were allocated to two groups randomly. Seventy-eight patients were allocated to group A and 67 patients allocated to group B. Mean maternal age, birth weight, and total operating time were the same in two groups, but blood loss as measured by a difference in haemoglobin of greater then 2 grams/dl was statistically significant. Significant blood loss (>1000 cc

  8. Foetal scalp blood sampling during labour for pH and lactate measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonne, Bruno; Pons, Kelly; Maisonneuve, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Second-line methods of foetal monitoring have been developed in an attempt to reduce unnecessary interventions due to continuous cardiotocography (CTG), and to better identify foetuses that are at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. Very few studies directly compared CTG with foetal scalp blood (FBS) and CTG only. Only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) was published in the 1970s and had limited power to assess neonatal outcome. Direct and indirect comparisons conclude that FBS could reduce the number of caesarean deliveries associated with the use of continuous CTG. The main drawbacks of FBS are its invasive and discontinuous nature and the need for a sufficient volume of foetal blood for analysis, especially for pH measurement, resulting in failure rates reaching 10%. FBS for lactate measurement became popular with the design of test-strip devices, requiring <0.5 mL of foetal blood. RCTs showed similar outcomes with the use of FBS for lactates compared with pH in terms of obstetrical interventions and neonatal outcomes. In conclusion, there is some evidence that FBS reduces the need for operative deliveries. However, the evidence is limited with regard to actual standards, and large RCTs, directly comparing CTG only with CTG with FBS, are still needed. PMID:26253238

  9. Human cerebral blood volume measurements using dynamic contrast enhancement in comparison to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important parameter for the assessment of brain tumors, usually obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI. However, this method often suffers from low spatial resolution and high sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and usually does not take into account the effect of tissue permeability. The plasma volume (vp) can also be extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCE can be used for the measurement of cerebral blood volume in place of DSC for the assessment of patients with brain tumors. Twenty-eight subjects (17 healthy subjects and 11 patients with glioblastoma) were scanned using DCE and DSC. vp and CBV values were measured and compared in different brain components in healthy subjects and in the tumor area in patients. Significant high correlations were detected between vp and CBV in healthy subjects in the different brain components; white matter, gray matter, and arteries, correlating with the known increased tissue vascularity, and within the tumor area in patients. This work proposes the use of DCE as an alternative method to DSC for the assessment of blood volume, given the advantages of its higher spatial resolution, its lower sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, and its ability to provide additional information regarding tissue permeability. (orig.)

  10. High-resolution in-situ LDV monitoring system for measuring velocity distribution in blood vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Abe, Shotaro; Ishida, Hiroki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Takada, Yogo; Teranishi, Tsunenobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    We herein describe a cross-sectional multiple-point laser Doppler velocimetry (CS-MLDV) system for monitoring blood vessels that are sutured and connected during an operation. In order to observe the condition of a blood vessel during an operation, the previously developed linear MLDV (L-MLDV) system can realize velocity distribution imaging of the carotid artery in a living mouse by means of traverse laser light. We subsequently developed a CS-MLDV system, which can measure the instantaneous two-dimensional (2D) flow velocity, by upgrading the optical components and signal processing used in L-MLDV. The validity of the CS-MLDV results was verified through comparison with the results of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The results of the CFD analysis were similar to the experimental results obtained under the same flow field condition. Moreover, an instantaneous 2D velocity distribution can be obtained even for the case of flowing blood. Finally, we carried out in-vivo measurement in a mesenteric vessel of a mouse in order to demonstrate the potential of the CS-MLDV for use in surgery.

  11. Human cerebral blood volume measurements using dynamic contrast enhancement in comparison to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad; Vitinshtein, Faina; Aizenstein, Orna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Nadav, Guy [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important parameter for the assessment of brain tumors, usually obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI. However, this method often suffers from low spatial resolution and high sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and usually does not take into account the effect of tissue permeability. The plasma volume (v{sub p}) can also be extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCE can be used for the measurement of cerebral blood volume in place of DSC for the assessment of patients with brain tumors. Twenty-eight subjects (17 healthy subjects and 11 patients with glioblastoma) were scanned using DCE and DSC. v{sub p} and CBV values were measured and compared in different brain components in healthy subjects and in the tumor area in patients. Significant high correlations were detected between v{sub p} and CBV in healthy subjects in the different brain components; white matter, gray matter, and arteries, correlating with the known increased tissue vascularity, and within the tumor area in patients. This work proposes the use of DCE as an alternative method to DSC for the assessment of blood volume, given the advantages of its higher spatial resolution, its lower sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, and its ability to provide additional information regarding tissue permeability. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of MR angiography and blood flow measurement in abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the characteristics of blood flow measurement with MR Angiography (MRA) to evaluate the status of vascular stenoses, two or three dimensional time-of-flight MRA and velocity-encoded cine MR were performed in the 230 segments of 35 patients, with abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. In 11 of these 35 patients digital subtraction angiography was additionally underwent, and the stenotic findings was compared with MRA. There were 17 segments in which the velocity could not be measured, because the blood flow exceeded the upper limit of peak-encoded velocity (VENC) which was set at 120 cm/sec. Therefore, it is necessary to set the upper limit of VENC at higher than 120 cm/sec. There were 11 stenotic findings in DSA and 20 stenotic findings in MRA. Pulsatility Index (PI=(max velocity-min. velocity)/average velocity) were used for evaluating the blood flow waveform, and there were significant difference between the 11 stenotic findings of DSA and the others'. In summery, MRA was considered as useful examination to assess the degree of the vascular stenoses in abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (author)

  13. Evaluation of MR angiography and blood flow measurement in abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, Kenji [Dokkyo Univ. School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    To assess the characteristics of blood flow measurement with MR Angiography (MRA) to evaluate the status of vascular stenoses, two or three dimensional time-of-flight MRA and velocity-encoded cine MR were performed in the 230 segments of 35 patients, with abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. In 11 of these 35 patients digital subtraction angiography was additionally underwent, and the stenotic findings was compared with MRA. There were 17 segments in which the velocity could not be measured, because the blood flow exceeded the upper limit of peak-encoded velocity (VENC) which was set at 120 cm/sec. Therefore, it is necessary to set the upper limit of VENC at higher than 120 cm/sec. There were 11 stenotic findings in DSA and 20 stenotic findings in MRA. Pulsatility Index (PI=(max velocity-min. velocity)/average velocity) were used for evaluating the blood flow waveform, and there were significant difference between the 11 stenotic findings of DSA and the others'. In summery, MRA was considered as useful examination to assess the degree of the vascular stenoses in abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (author)

  14. Observational study comparing non-invasive blood pressure measurement at the arm and ankle during caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M J P; Hill, J S

    2013-05-01

    Upper-arm non-invasive blood pressure measurement during caesarean section can be uncomfortable and unreliable because of movement artefact in the conscious parturient. We aimed to determine whether ankle blood pressure measurement could be used instead in this patient group by comparing concurrent arm and ankle blood pressure measured throughout elective caesarean section under regional anaesthesia in 64 term parturients. Bland-Altman analysis of mean difference (95% limits of agreement [range]) between the ankle and arm was 11.2 (-20.3 to +42.7 [-67 to +102]) mmHg for systolic arterial pressure, -0.5 (-21.0 to +19.9 [-44 to +91]) mmHg for mean arterial pressure and -3.8 (-25.3 to +17.8 [-41 to +94]) mmHg for diastolic arterial pressure. Although ankle blood pressure measurement is well tolerated and allows greater mobility of the arms than measurement from the arm, the degree of discrepancy between the two sites is unacceptable to allow routine use of ankle blood pressure measurement, especially for systolic arterial pressure. However, ankle blood pressure measurement may be a useful alternative in situations where arm blood pressure measurement is difficult or impossible. PMID:23480469

  15. Dynamic exploration of myocardial perfusion by coronary blood flow radioisotopic measurement during auricular pacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproducibility of the radiocardiographic method using 42 Potassium has been verified. Coronary blood flow has so been measured in 50 control subjects and coronary heart disease patients, at steady state and during auricular pacing at 150 beats per minute. In control subjects group, under auricular pacing coronary blood flow increases by a mean value of 15%; on the other hand it decreases by a mean value of 32% in coronary heart disease patients bearing obvious coronarography lesions. The cardiac output coronary fraction increases by a mean value of 27% in the control subjects group; it remains unchanged in coronary heart disease patients. On the contrary this coronary fraction increases in a significant way after functional aortocoronary bypass

  16. Measurement of utero-placental blood flow with /sup 113m/In in diabetic pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, K.; Kirsch, G.; Zoellner, P.; Fuhrmann, K.; Jutzi, E. (Zentralinstitut fuer Diabetes, Karlsburg (German Democratic Republic); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1985-01-01

    In 122 diabetic pregnancies the placental blood flow has been estimated determining the half-life of the activity inflow (2 MBq /sup 113m/In-transferrin) into the placenta. A highly sensitive detector (modified pinhole collimator) and a computer-supported evaluation were used. 259 flow measurements were compared to the risk of complication in the course of diabetic pregnancy. The half-life values in the diabetic group, calculated by a gamma camera computer system by means of an iterative regression analysis, were significantly different compared to a control group (12 pregnancies without risk.) Severe diabetic angiopathic complications (classes D, F, and R according to White) are accompanied by higher half-life values (placental blood flow reductions) and perinatal complications. Even in pregnant women with gestational diabetes of disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism disturbed placental hemodynamics is to be found.

  17. Measurement of utero-placental blood flow with /sup 113m/In in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 122 diabetic pregnancies the placental blood flow has been estimated determining the half-life of the activity inflow (2 MBq /sup 113m/In-transferrin) into the placenta. A highly sensitive detector (modified pinhole collimator) and a computer-supported evaluation were used. 259 flow measurements were compared to the risk of complication in the course of diabetic pregnancy. The half-life values in the diabetic group, calculated by a gamma camera computer system by means of an iterative regression analysis, were significantly different compared to a control group (12 pregnancies without risk.) Severe diabetic angiopathic complications (classes D, F, and R according to White) are accompanied by higher half-life values (placental blood flow reductions) and perinatal complications. Even in pregnant women with gestational diabetes of disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism disturbed placental hemodynamics is to be found. (author)

  18. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Reidpath, Daniel D.; Ling, Mei Lee; Yasin, Shajahan; Rajagobal, Kanason; Allotey, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers usin...

  19. Factors Associated With Adherence to Blood Pressure Measurement Recommendations at Pediatric Primary Care Visits, Minnesota and Colorado, 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Emily D; Sinaiko, Alan R; Daley, Matt F.; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Trower, Nicole K.; Tavel, Heather M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Magid, David J.; Margolis, Karen L.; O’Connor, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood pressure in childhood may predict increased cardiovascular risk in young adulthood. The Task Force on the Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood pressure in Children and Adolescents recommends that blood pressure be measured in children aged 3 years or older at all health care visits. Guidelines from both Bright Futures and the Expert Panel of Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents recommend annual ...

  20. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Gu Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.

  1. Radionuclide assessment of peripheral hemodynamics: a new technique for measurement of forearm blood volume and flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todo, Y.; Tanimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Iwasaki, T.

    1986-02-01

    A new peripheral hemodynamic measurement system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells has been developed. This method was carried out on 22 normal subjects, 29 with coronary artery disease, and two with dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripheral hemodynamic indices obtained from this method included forearm blood volume (FBV), venous capacity (FVC), venous capacity index (VCI), blood flow (FBF), and vascular resistance (FVR), and were compared with the central hemodynamic parameters of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP), cardiac output (CO), and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) obtained with an invasive technique. The normal values were FBV 8.54 +/- 2.04 ml/100 ml; FVC 4.54 +/- 1.23 ml/100 ml; VCI 65.5 +/- 3.8%; FBF 4.26 +/- 0.56 ml/100 ml/min; and FVR 20.9 +/- 4.4 mmHg/ml/100 ml/min. These values were in good agreement with the values reported using conventional plethysmography. The 16 patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class II or III) showed significantly lower FBV, FVC, and FBF values and significantly higher VCI and FVR values than the healthy subjects. Capacitance vessel parameters (FBV, FVC, and VCI) and LVFP, FBF and CO, and FVR and TSVR each showed significant correlation; reproducibility was also good. The advantages of this method are (a) the detector does not come in contact with the region being measured; (b) it is possible to ascertain the absolute quantity of blood in the tissue; (c) extravasation of the plasma component can be ignored; and (d) data processing is simple.

  2. Radionuclide assessment of peripheral hemodynamics: a new technique for measurement of forearm blood volume and flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new peripheral hemodynamic measurement system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells has been developed. This method was carried out on 22 normal subjects, 29 with coronary artery disease, and two with dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripheral hemodynamic indices obtained from this method included forearm blood volume (FBV), venous capacity (FVC), venous capacity index (VCI), blood flow (FBF), and vascular resistance (FVR), and were compared with the central hemodynamic parameters of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP), cardiac output (CO), and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) obtained with an invasive technique. The normal values were FBV 8.54 +/- 2.04 ml/100 ml; FVC 4.54 +/- 1.23 ml/100 ml; VCI 65.5 +/- 3.8%; FBF 4.26 +/- 0.56 ml/100 ml/min; and FVR 20.9 +/- 4.4 mmHg/ml/100 ml/min. These values were in good agreement with the values reported using conventional plethysmography. The 16 patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class II or III) showed significantly lower FBV, FVC, and FBF values and significantly higher VCI and FVR values than the healthy subjects. Capacitance vessel parameters (FBV, FVC, and VCI) and LVFP, FBF and CO, and FVR and TSVR each showed significant correlation; reproducibility was also good. The advantages of this method are (a) the detector does not come in contact with the region being measured; (b) it is possible to ascertain the absolute quantity of blood in the tissue; (c) extravasation of the plasma component can be ignored; and (d) data processing is simple

  3. The contribution of hookworm and other parasitic infections to haemoglobin and iron status among children and adults in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anette; Magnussen, P.; Ouma, J.H.;

    1998-01-01

    hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency......hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency...

  4. Comparative clinical evaluation of glycosylated haemoglobin level in healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A chairside diagnostic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Background: Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c level can consequently be interpreted as an average of the blood glucose present over the past 3-4 months. Periodontitis is associated with glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of HbA1c in healthy and periodontitis patients who were previously not diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected for study and divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with a healthy periodontium, and Group 2 included patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Finger stick blood was collected by special collection unit (A1CNOW +® Bayer Health Care, Tarrytown New York, USA, for estimating level of HbA1c. Result: Both groups showed similar HbA1c levels clinically with slight increase in levels in the test group, but was statistically significant (test - 5.66 ± 0.35%, control - 5.17 ± 0.3% P = 0.003. Conclusion: Indians are at a high-risk of developing periodontitis and diabetes. These data suggest a possible link between periodontitis and glycemic control in nondiabetic individuals, periodontal disease may be a potential contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  5. A study on regional cerebral blood flow measurement by 133FXe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental and clinical investigations were performed on reliability of Fourier analysis of head clearance curves in regional cerebral blood flow measurement by 133Xe inhalation methods as compared with conventional Obrist analysis. Fourier analysis revealed better reproducibilities determined by computer simulated curves and repetitive measurements in man than Obrist analysis. In the studies of the changes of regional cerebral blood flow from the resting conditions to the conditions of finger movement, listening to verbal material or music and reading aloud in right-handed normal subjects, both F1 (a flow of the fast component of two compartmental model) and ISI (Initial Slope Index: calculated from the initial slope of the wash out curves corrected for recirculation) of Fourier analysis were more sensitive to detect significant changes than Obrist analysis. On the basis of the fact mentioned above, it was concluded that ISI of Fourier analysis was the best index of regional cerebral blood flow. Age-matched normal values of ISI of Fourier analysis were calculated from 132 measurements in 105 normal right-handed subjects, aged 19 to 80 years old (mean 42 years). Mean brain ISI showed significant negative correlation with advancing age (r = -0.70, p < 0.001). The regression line and 95% confidence interval were Y = -0.32X + 69.6 and +- 11.2, respectively. In comparison with the measured values of the patients with cerebrovascular disorders, this age-matched normal values were proved to be sufficient for practical use. Regional ISI also showed significant negative correlations with advancing age in the entire brain (p < 0.001). The regional reduction of ISI with advancing age was significantly greater in the regional distribution of the middle cerebral arteries bilaterally, compared with regions in the distributions of either the anterior cerebral, the posterior cerebral or vertebrobasilar arteries (p < 0.05). (J.P.N.)

  6. Accuracy of PET RCBF measurements: effect of time shift between blood and brain radioactivity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytic expressions were derived for estimating the error in PET RCBF measurements associated with the time lag between brain and blood radioactivity following bolus H215O injection and during non-steady-state CO15O inhalation. This lag time reflects the physiological difference in arrival times of 15O activity at brain and radial arterial sampling site as well as the experimentally introduced resistance to flow offered by the arterial catheter/stopcock assembly. Multiple measurements of this time lag ranged between 1 and 10 s. For non-steady-state CO15O PET measurements, estimated errors in RCBF ranged from 0.02 to 30% for delays of 2-8 s and scan lengths of 30-180 s. In the range 20-100 ml min-1 per 100 g, variations in RCBF only marginally affected these errors. Errors increased with longer delays but decreased sharply with scan durations greater than 60 s. For 30-180 s scans, even larger errors are associated with the H215O injection technique (peak blood activity at 10 s): 1-60% for delays of 2-8 s. A 'slow' bolus peaking at 20 s decreased the error by 40%. For the H215O method it is essential to estimate the time shift to within 2 s if accurate flow measurements (error less than 5%) are to be obtained from 40-60 s scans. (author)

  7. Microfluidic assay for precise measurements of mouse, rat, and human neutrophil chemotaxis in whole-blood droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline N; Hoang, Anh N; Martel, Joseph M; Dimisko, Laurie; Mikkola, Amy; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Kuriyama, Naohide; Yamada, Marina; Hamza, Bashar; Kaneki, Masao; Warren, H Shaw; Brown, Diane E; Irimia, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Animal models of human disease differ in innate immune responses to stress, pathogens, or injury. Precise neutrophil phenotype measurements could facilitate interspecies comparisons. However, such phenotype comparisons could not be performed accurately with the use of current assays, as they require the separation of neutrophils from blood using species-specific protocols, and they introduce distinct artifacts. Here, we report a microfluidic technology that enables robust characterization of neutrophil migratory phenotypes in a manner independent of the donor species and performed directly in a droplet of whole blood. The assay relies on the particular ability of neutrophils to deform actively during chemotaxis through microscale channels that block the advance of other blood cells. Neutrophil migration is measured directly in blood, in the presence of other blood cells and serum factors. Our measurements reveal important differences among migration counts, velocity, and directionality among neutrophils from 2 common mouse strains, rats, and humans. PMID:26819316

  8. Measurement of fT4, T4, T3 and TSH in cord blood of 1026 newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a clinical investigation TSH, T3, T4 and fT4 were measured in cord blood of 1026 newborns. Normal ranges were calculated for the region of Mannheim-Heidelberg. The study revealed one case of a congenital transient hypothyroidism. The newborn showed a typical clinical picture. Measurement of fT4 was an important parameter in cord blood and in later blood specimens as well. TSH-Screening at the 5. day post partum proved to be useful and accurate. Further field studies are to be performed in order to evaluate the definite significance of fT4 measurement for screening of congenital hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  9. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  10. Development of a laser speckle imaging system for measuring relative blood flow velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael S. D.; Packulak, Ernie F.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2006-09-01

    Determining the viability of damaged or surgically reconstructed tissue is critical in most plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. Information about tissue blood flow in the region in question can make this determination much easier. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is one technique that could potentially aid in making this determination. LSI is a non-contact full-field imaging technique with simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution. Tissue is illuminated with diffuse red laser light and the spatial and/or temporal statistics of the resulting speckle pattern can be used to calculate relative flow velocities. We have developed a LSI system that produces relative velocity blood flow images. Bench tests of the system indicate that it may be used to distinguish between normal, decreased, and increased blood flow states of a human finger. The system has also been used to take some initial laboratory measurements using an animal model - an epigastric free flap on a rat. Preliminary results indicate that the method may be used to distinguish states of venous or arterial occlusion from unoccluded states of the skin flap. While further experimentation is necessary, these initial results indicate that LSI could be a useful aid to the plastic surgeon for assessing tissue viability.

  11. Measuring properties of nanoparticles in embryonic blood vessels: Towards a physicochemical basis for nanotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Aisling A.; Gregoriou, Yiota; Yaehne, Kristin; Cramb, David T.

    2010-03-01

    The developing field of nanotoxicology aims to relate the physical properties of nanomaterials to potential risk when organisms are exposed to those materials. Regulators are interested in whether a nanoformulation would alter the risk of the native material. It may be that due to the physical nature of embryonic blood vessels (i.e. they are angiogenic and therefore leaky), embryos are at greater risk for bioaccumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) than mature organisms. To study the physicochemical nature of nanoparticle accumulation from embryonic blood vessels, one needs to measure the NP properties in situ, because these properties could be significantly dependent on environment. We have undertaken a study of the dynamics of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and polystyrene nanospheres in the blood vessels of the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We show proof of principle that fluorescence correlation spectroscopy can be used in this system to determine the concentrations and hydrodynamic radii of NP solutions micro-injected into the CAM.

  12. Microalbuminuria Measured by three Different Methods, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Swedish Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Florvall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalbuminuria is associated with hypertension and is a strong risk factor for subsequent chronic disease, both renal and coronary heart disease (CHD, Presently there are several methods available for measurement of microalbuminuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the three different methods gave similar information or if one of the assays were superior to the others. Blood pressure, inflammatory markers and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity were correlated with urine albumin analysed with a point-of-care testing (POCT instrument, nephelometric determination of albumin and albumin/creatinine ratio in elderly males. The study population consisted of 103 diabetic and 603 nondiabetic males (age 77 years in a cross-sectional study. We analyzed urine albumin with a HemoCue® Urine Albumin POCT instrument and a ProSpec® nephelometer and albumin/creatinine ratio. There were strong correlations between both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and all three urine albumin methods (p < 0.0001. There were also significant correlations between the different urine albumin measurements and serum amyloid A component, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. The three different urine albumin methods studied provided similar information in relation to cardiovascular disease. There was a strong correlation between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and microalbuminuria in both the whole study population and in nondiabetic males emphasizing the role of hypertension in glomerular damage. The good correlation between the studied urine albumin measurements show that all three methods can be used for monitoring urine albumin excretion.

  13. a New Approach of Dynamic Blood Pressure Measurement Based on the Time Domain Analysis of the Pulse Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimei, Su; Wei, Xu; Hui, Yu; Fei, Du; Jicun, Wang; Kexin, Xu

    2009-08-01

    In this study the pulse wave characteristics were used as a new approach to measure the human blood pressure. Based the principle of pulse wave and theory of the elastic vascular, the authors analyzed the characteristic of the pulse waveforms and revealed the characteristics points which could be used to represent the blood pressure. In this investigation the relevant mathematical feature was used to identify the relationship between the blood pressure and pulse wave parameters in a more accurate way. It also provided an experimental basis to carry out continuing non-invasive blood pressure monitoring using the pulse wave method.

  14. Validation of a new non-invasive blood pressure measurement method on mice via pulse wave propagation time measurement on a cuff

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Xuan P.; Kronemayer, Ralf; Herrmann, Peter; Mejía, Atila; Daw, Zamira; Nguyen, Xuan D.; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we describe the validation of a new non-invasive method for measuring blood pressure (BP) which also enables to determine the three BP values: systolic, diastolic and mean value. Our method is based on the pulse transit time (PTT) measurement along an artery directly at the BP cuff. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by comparison with the direct simultaneous measurement of blood pressure from 40 anesthetized female mice. Close correlation ...

  15. Characterization of haemoglobin from actinorhizal plants--an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanghati; Sen, Arnab; Thakur, Subarna; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-11-01

    Plant haemoglobins (Hbs), found in both symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants, are heme proteins and members of the globin superfamily. Hb genes of actinorhizal Fagales mostly belong to the non-symbiotic type of haemoglobin; however, along with the non-symbiotic Hb, Casuarina sp. posses a symbiotic one (symCgHb), which is expressed specifically in infected cells of nodules. A thorough sequence analysis of 26 plant Hb proteins, currently available in public domain, revealed a consensus motif of 29 amino acids. This motif is present in all the members of symbiotic class II Hbs including symCgHb and non-symbiotic Class II Hbs, but is totally absent in Class I symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs. Further, we constructed 3D structures of Hb proteins from Alnus and Casuarina through homology modelling and peeped into their structural properties. Structure-based studies revealed that the Casuarina symbiotic haemoglobin protein shows distinct stereochemical properties from that of the other Casuarina and Alnus Hb proteins. It also showed considerable structural similarities with leghemoglobin structure from yellow lupin (pdb id 1GDI). Therefore, sequence and structure analyses point to the fact that symCgHb protein shows significant resemblance to symbiotic haemoglobin found in legumes and may thus eventually play a similar role in shielding the nitrogenase from oxygen as seen in the case of leghemoglobin. PMID:24287657

  16. Use of a topical haemoglobin spray for oxygenating pressure ulcers: healing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Joy; Bateman, Sharon Dawn

    2015-12-01

    A published evaluation ( Tickle, 2015 ) of the use of a topical haemoglobin spray plus standard care in 18 patients with pressure ulcers showed that, following 4 weeks of treatment, the wound size reduced in 17 wounds and there was a progression toward healing in all 18. All but one of the wounds were over 2 months in duration at baseline. This article reports the results of the healing rates at 3 months of the 11 patients who continued to be treated with the haemoglobin spray. Nine of the 11 wounds healed, and 2 reduced in size by week 12 (i.e. 1 wound reduced from 30 cm(2) at baseline to 7 cm(2), while the other reduced from 6 cm(2) to 4 cm(2)). Of the 10 patients who were experiencing wound pain at baseline, 9 were pain free by week 8. Rapid elimination of slough was observed in all patients. The 82% healing rate achieved at 3 months and the fact that most patients continued to receive the same standard care as they had in the 4 weeks before recruitment into the evaluation increases the likelihood that the clinical outcomes observed here can be attributed to the haemoglobin spray. Topical haemoglobin shows promise in terms of its ability to accelerate healing in chronic pressure ulcers. PMID:26639069

  17. Haemoglobin electrophoresis in diagnosing a case of sickle cell anaemia associated with β-thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldine, M; Justin, V.; Sheila, U; Venkatesh, T.

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline haemoglobin electrophoresis is a useful tool in diagnosing β-thalassemia and sickle-cell anaemia. In this report, using this simple technique, β-thalassemia associated with sickle-cell anaemia is diagnosed. This is the first case we have diagnosed in our laboratory using agarose gel electrophoresis.

  18. Thermal fluctuations of haemoglobin from different species: adaptation to temperature via conformational dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, A.M.; Garvey, C J; Bocahut, A.; Sacquin-Mora, S.; Digel, I.; Schneider, G. J.; Natali, F.; Artmann, G. M.; Zaccai, G.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic stability, configurational motions and internal forces of haemoglobin (Hb) of three endotherms (platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus; domestic chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus and human, Homo sapiens) and an ectotherm (salt water crocodile, Crocodylus porosus) were investigated using circular dichroism, incoherent elastic neutron scattering and coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations. The experimental results from Hb solutions revealed a direct correlation between protein re...

  19. Elevated third-trimester haemoglobin A 1c predicts preterm delivery in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, Pia; Damm, Peter; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of preterm delivery is considerably elevated in women with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) as a predictor of preterm delivery. Two hundred thirteen consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion...

  20. Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona MR; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb 

  1. Haemoglobin modulates salicylate and jasmonate/ethylene-mediated resistance mechanisms against pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Sivakumaran, Anushen; Mandon, Julien;

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in defence against hemibiotrophic pathogens mediated by salicylate (SA) and also necrotrophic pathogens influenced by jasmonate/ethylene (JA/Et). This study examined how NO-oxidizing haemoglobins (Hb) encoded by GLB1, GLB2, and GLB3 in Arabidopsis could influence both...

  2. Relationship between blood pressure measurements recorded on patients' charts in family physicians' offices and subsequent 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birtwhistle Richard

    2004-03-01

    chart were uncontrolled according to 24 hour ABPM criteria. This suggests that the white coat effect makes blood pressure measurements in the doctor's offices, at least as currently done, not sufficiently accurate for determining treatment endpoint.

  3. DETECTION OF BLOOD VESSELS AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSEL WIDTH FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sukanya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proposed method measures the retinal blood vessel diameter to identify arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous (AV nicking, branching coefficients to detect early diabetic retinopathy. It utilizes the vessel centerline and edge information to measure the width for a vessel segment. From the input retinal image, the vascular network is extracted using the local entropy thresholding method. The vessel boundaries are extracted using sobel edge detection method. The skeletonization operation is applied to the vascular network and mapping the vessel boundaries and the skeleton image. The branching point detection method is then performed to localize all crossing locations. A rotational invariant mask to search the pixel pairs from the edge image, and calculate the shortest distance pair which provides the vessel width (or diameter for that cross-section. Variation in the width measurement identifies the diabetic retinopathy.

  4. A pitfall in the measurement of arterial blood pressure in the ischaemic limb during elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate if elevation of the ischaemic limb above heart level is an alternative to the conventionally applied method with external counterpressure for estimation of skin perfusion pressure, femoral and popliteal artery pressures were measured directly in eight patients with occlusion of...... the superficial femoral artery. The measurements were done in the horizontal position and during elevation of the calf above heart level. During elevation relative blood flow, measured by arterio-venous oxygen saturation differences, decreased compared with the horizontal position. In contrast the...... lower extremity cannot be determined non-invasively by elevation of the extremity, probably due to collapse of segments of the vascular bed increasing the vascular resistance considerably....

  5. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in...... after omitting the data from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, with mean values of 113 U/ml for FVII:Ag and 110 U/ml for FVII:Am (p < 0.01). In a linear regression analysis, the intercept (alpha=-21.50) was different from zero (p < 0.0001) and the slope (beta=1.16) was different from 1.0 (p < 0...

  6. Portable dynamic light scattering instrument and method for the measurement of blood platelet suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth [Canadian Blood Services and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Centre for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Brown, Keddie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Labrie, Audrey [Canadian Blood Services and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Centre for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Marziali, Andre [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Glatter, Otto [Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University, Graz (Austria)

    2006-08-07

    No routine test exists to determine the quality of blood platelet transfusions although every year millions of patients require platelet transfusions to survive cancer chemotherapy, surgery or trauma. A new, portable dynamic light scattering instrument is described that is suitable for the measurement of turbid solutions of large particles under temperature-controlled conditions. The challenges of small sample size, short light path through the sample and accurate temperature control have been solved with a specially designed temperature-controlled sample holder for small diameter, disposable capillaries. Efficient heating and cooling is achieved with Peltier elements in direct contact with the sample capillary. Focusing optical fibres are used for light delivery and collection of scattered light. The practical use of this new technique was shown by the reproducible measurement of latex microspheres and the temperature-induced morphological changes of human blood platelets. The measured parameters for platelet transfusions are platelet size, number of platelet-derived microparticles and the response of platelets to temperature changes. This three-dimensional analysis provides a high degree of confidence for the determination of platelet quality. The experimental data are compared to a matrix and facilitate automated, unbiased quality testing.

  7. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  8. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  9. Cumulated blood activity measurements and modelling in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: the purpose of the radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) formulated by the EANM Therapy Committee is to provide advice to nuclear medicine clinicians on how to ablate thyroid remnant or treat inoperable advanced DTC or both employing large 131-iodine activities. The therapy of DTC with radioactive iodine is a standard procedure for the ablation of remnant thyroid tissue following surgery and for the treatment of iodine avid metastases. The level of administered activity in radionuclide therapy is often limited by hematological toxicity resulting from the absorbed dose delivered to the bone marrow. The purpose of this study is to validate models for calculation of an effective half-life (Teff) of 131I, blood and bone marrow dose in patients with DTC. Materials and method: the measurements of 131I concentration in blood samples have been used to estimate the marrow absorbed dose. The administered activity was 100-103 mCi (about 3.7 GBq). In 328 patients, the measurement of the exposure rate was performed at 4, 8, 18, 24, 30, 42, 54, 66 hours after administration of Na131I using well counter ISOMED 1010 for studying the absorbed dose (according to the MIRD schema) and Teff evaluation. To obtain cumulated activity in blood/red marrow two mathematical models of radioisotope elimination were used: mono-exponential and bi-exponential. Results: the majority of the activity is excreted by the patients in the first 24 hours after Na131I administration. The effective half-life of 131I ranged from 2 to 37 hours due to the first model. According to the administrated activity, the evaluation of the total absorbed dose by patients to red marrow ranged from 5.5*10-4 to 3.1*10-1 Gy. Bi-exponential model allows estimating an initial income of the 131I concentration, as well as later excretion. More precise model found 2 subgroups of patients: with fast (∼37%) and slow (∼63%) kinetics of the 131I in the blood

  10. Field validation of an EIA kit for progesterone measurement in milk and blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EIA kit for the measurement of progesterone in blood plasma and skim milk was validated and compared with the FAO/IAEA RIA kit at the FAO/IAEA Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf and 9 other laboratories in developed and developing countries. The EIA kit performed well at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory. In the other laboratories high intra-assay variations and poor colour development were observed. The RIA kit performed satisfactory in all participating laboratories. It was concluded that the EIA kit should not be routinely supplied to FAO/IAEA counterpart staff. Some recommendations for further development of the EIA kit were given. (author). 3 refs, 5 tabs

  11. Measurements of cerebral blood flow in vertebrobasilar artery territory determined by direct injection of 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct injection of 133Xe has been used for measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in internal carotid arterial territory, but little is known as to whether this technique can be utilized for measurements of CBF within the vertebrobasilar artery system. This study investigated a validity of 133Xe injection into the vertebral artery for CBF measurement of infratentorium. A catheter was inserted into either left or right vertebral artery through the femoral artery under florescopic control to directly inject 1 - 2 mCi of 133Xe. Similar catheter procedures were used for CBF measurement for the internal carotid artery. Four probes as well as seven probes fitted with colimaters of 40 mm length and 17 mm diameter were placed respectively over posterior fossa and cerebral hemisphere. Cerebral blood flow values for vertebrobasilar arterial system (V-CBF) and for internal carotid arterial system (I-CBF) were calculated from the initial part of clearrance curves. Measurements were made in 7 patients with infra-tentorial stroke. The patients' clinical severities were of different degrees. The results obtained could be summarized as follows: (1) The more severe the grade of disturbed consciousness, the more apparent the decrease of V-CBF. (2) In patients with mild disturbance of consciousness, the decrease of V-CBF was more prominent compared to I-CBF. (3) In comatose or semicomatose patients. I-CBF and V-CBF were markedly reduced showing indentical values. These results indicate the possibility and clinical usefulness of V-CBF measurement in stroke patients. (author)

  12. Development of a method for measuring blood coagulation using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and an alternating magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for measuring blood coagulation using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The 3rd and 5th harmonic signals from SPIONs mixed with blood induced by AMF were detected using a gradiometer coil. Blood coagulation was induced artificially by adding CaCl2 solution to whole blood of sheep at various temperatures and hematocrits. We calculated the coagulation rate (k) and normalized signal intensity at infinite time (Sinf) by fitting the time course of the normalized 3rd harmonic signal to S(t)=(1-Sinf)exp(-kt)+Sinf. The k values increased significantly with increasing temperature and decreased significantly with increasing hematocrit. The Sinf values decreased significantly with increasing temperature and tended to increase with increasing hematocrit. Blood anticoagulation was induced by adding heparin to the whole blood sampled from mice. There were significant differences in both the 3rd and 5th harmonic signals between groups with and ...

  13. Differences in blood pressure measurements in the forearm and upper arm of obese otherwise healthy first year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi V, Navin Rajaratnam, Suzanne Maria D’cruz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Indian youth and obesity is associated with complications like systemic hypertension. Often, due to the non-availability of appropriate sized cuffs, standard cuff bladders are used to measure blood pressure in the forearms of obese young adults. Aim: To compare the upper arm arterial blood pressure measured using an appropriate cuff with the forearm arterial blood pressure measured using a standard cuff and conventional sphygmomanometry in obese otherwise healthy first year medical students. Materials and Methods: Blood pressure was measured in 27 obese otherwise healthy first year medical students after five minutes of rest using a mercury sphygmomanometer with the subjects seated and the arm and forearm at heart level, using an appropriate sized cuff for the upper arm according to American Heart Association standards and a standard cuff for the fore arm. Results: A statistically significant difference in both systolic [t-test (paired = -6.921; df = 26; sig = .000 (2- tailed] and diastolic blood pressure [t-test (paired = -8.508; df = 26; sig = .000 (2- tailed] was found, with the blood pressure readings being higher in the forearm. The correlations between upper arm and forearm systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 0.785 (p = .000 and 0.870 (p = .000. Conclusion: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were significantly higher in the forearm. Further studies with larger sample size should be conducted to confirm that forearm blood pressure measurements using standard cuff bladders cannot be considered equal to upper arm measurements made using an appropriate sized cuff in all young obese individuals

  14. Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewbart, Gregory A; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Brothers, J Roger; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan Pablo; Denkinger, Judith; Vinueza, Luis; García, Juan; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    The marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is an iconic lizard endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, but surprisingly little information exists on baseline health parameters for this species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 35 marine iguanas captured at three locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, lactate, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)), percentage O2 saturation, haematocrit, haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium and glucose. Parameter values affected by temperature were auto-corrected by the iSTAT. Standard laboratory haematology techniques were employed for differential white blood cell counts and haematocrit determination; resulting values were also compared with the haematocrit values generated by the iSTAT. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and body measurements were also recorded. Body length was positively correlated with several blood chemistry values (HCO3 (-) and glucose) and two haematology parameters (haemoglobin and manually determined haematocrit). A notable finding was the unusually high blood sodium level; the mean value of 178 mg/dl is among the highest known for any reptile. This value is likely to be a conservative estimate because some samples exceeded the maximal value the iSTAT can detect. For haematocrit determination, the iSTAT blood analyser yielded results significantly lower than those obtained with high-speed centrifugation. The values reported in this study provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among marine iguanas affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic threats. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease. PMID:27293719

  15. Blood flow measurement in human brain by 133Xe inhalation and single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerbral blood flow (rCBF) was studied tomographically in 39 volunteers in the resting state by single photon emission computed tomography with inhalation of 133Xe. In each study, rCBF in 3 slices of 2 cm thickness was measured simultaneously and changes of radioactivity in the brain were stored on the magnetic disk in 32 x 32 matrix. Activity in the arterial blood was measured by a stationary collimated scintillation detector kept over the upper chest on the right side. The algorithm for calculation of tomographic rCBF was based on a combination of ''sequence of picture method'' and ''early picture method''. Mean rCBF and its standard deviation were obtained in each pixel calculated from the rCBF value. The tomographic rCBF map having a resolution element of 17 x 17 x 20 mm were symmetrical in left and right pattern. The average cerebral and, cerebellar blood flow was 56+-8 and 54+-6 ml/100g/min respectively. Correlation between rCBF and PaCO2 was significant (P<0.01; r=0.7) and the one between rCBF and age was also significant (P<0.05; r=-0.3). When visual activation was made in one volunteer, rCBF in the occipital lobe increased and a slight increase was also noted in the frontal area. In auditory activation, rCBF in the temporal lobe increased on both sides. In stroke patients, abnormal findings appeared earlier in the rCBF study than in X-ray CT scan. (J.P.N.)

  16. Cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility studied with MRI: measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, Anders

    2012-07-01

    During each cardiac cycle pulsatile arterial blood inflates the vascular bed of the brain, forcing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and venous blood out of the cranium. Excessive arterial pulsatility may be part of a harmful mechanism causing cognitive decline among elderly. Additionally, restricted venous flow from the brain is suggested as the cause of multiple sclerosis. Addressing hypotheses derived from these observations requires accurate and reliable investigational methods. This work focused on assessing the pulsatile waveform of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flows. The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility using MRI, with respect to measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects.Two-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D PCMRI) was used to assess the pulsatile waveforms of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flow. The repeatability was assessed in healthy young subjects. The 2D PCMRI measurements of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF pulsatility were generally repeatable but the pulsatility decreased systematically during the investigation. A method combining 2D PCMRI measurements with invasive CSF infusion tests to determine the magnitude and distribution of compliance within the craniospinal system was developed and applied in a group of healthy elderly. The intracranial space contained approximately two thirds of the total craniospinal compliance. The magnitude of craniospinal compliance was less than suggested in previous studies. The vascular hypothesis for multiple sclerosis was tested. Venous drainage in the internal jugular veins was compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients using 2D PCMRI. For both groups, a great variability in the internal jugular flow was observed but no pattern specific to multiple sclerosis could be found. Relationships between regional brain volumes and potential biomarkers of intracranial cardiac-related pulsatile

  17. Cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility studied with MRI: measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During each cardiac cycle pulsatile arterial blood inflates the vascular bed of the brain, forcing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and venous blood out of the cranium. Excessive arterial pulsatility may be part of a harmful mechanism causing cognitive decline among elderly. Additionally, restricted venous flow from the brain is suggested as the cause of multiple sclerosis. Addressing hypotheses derived from these observations requires accurate and reliable investigational methods. This work focused on assessing the pulsatile waveform of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flows. The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility using MRI, with respect to measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects.Two-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D PCMRI) was used to assess the pulsatile waveforms of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flow. The repeatability was assessed in healthy young subjects. The 2D PCMRI measurements of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF pulsatility were generally repeatable but the pulsatility decreased systematically during the investigation. A method combining 2D PCMRI measurements with invasive CSF infusion tests to determine the magnitude and distribution of compliance within the craniospinal system was developed and applied in a group of healthy elderly. The intracranial space contained approximately two thirds of the total craniospinal compliance. The magnitude of craniospinal compliance was less than suggested in previous studies. The vascular hypothesis for multiple sclerosis was tested. Venous drainage in the internal jugular veins was compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients using 2D PCMRI. For both groups, a great variability in the internal jugular flow was observed but no pattern specific to multiple sclerosis could be found. Relationships between regional brain volumes and potential biomarkers of intracranial cardiac-related pulsatile

  18. Nurses' knowledge and skill of blood pressure measurement technique in a private hospital setting / Hanette du Toit

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Hanette

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nurses are responsible for the monitoring and assessment of blood pressure in the clinical setting. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that inaccurate measurement technique often leads to the misclassification of large numbers of individuals as hypertensive. The impact of untreated or poorly treated hypertension, due to misclassification of patients, is a major contributor to the overall burden of adult diseases in any population. Accurate measurement of blood pressure relies on...

  19. Measurement of Androgen and Estrogen Concentrations in Cord Blood: Accuracy, Biological Interpretation and Applications to Understanding Human Behavioural Development

    OpenAIRE

    LaurenPHollier; JeffreyAKeelan; MarthaHickey

    2014-01-01

    Accurately measuring hormone exposure during prenatal life presents a methodological challenge and there is currently no ‘gold standard’ approach. Ideally, circulating fetal hormone levels would be measured at repeated time points during pregnancy. However, it is not currently possible to obtain fetal blood samples without significant risk to the fetus, and therefore surrogate markers of fetal hormone levels must be utilized. Umbilical cord blood can be readily obtained at birth and largely r...

  20. Trimester-specific reference intervals for haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Catherine

    2011-11-26

    Abstract Background: Diabetes in pregnancy imposes additional risks to both mother and infant. These increased risks are considered to be primarily related to glycaemic control which is monitored by means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). The correlation of HbA(1c) with clinical outcomes emphasises the need to measure HbA(1c) accurately, precisely and for correct interpretation, comparison to appropriately defined reference intervals. Since July 2010, the HbA(1c) assay in Irish laboratories is fully metrologically traceable to the IFCC standard. The objective was to establish trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnancy for IFCC standardised HbA(1c) in non-diabetic Caucasian women. Methods: The authors recruited 311 non-diabetic Caucasian pregnant (n=246) and non-pregnant women (n=65). A selective screening based on risk factors for gestational diabetes was employed. All subjects had a random plasma glucose <7.7 mmol\\/L and normal haemoglobin level. Pregnancy trimester was defined as trimester 1 (T1, n=40) up to 12 weeks +6 days, trimester 2 (T2, n=106) 13-27 weeks +6 days, trimester 3 (T3, n=100) >28 weeks to term. Results: The normal HbA(1c) reference interval for Caucasian non-pregnant women was 29-37 mmol\\/mol (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; DCCT: 4.8%-5.5%), T1: 24-36 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.3%-5.4%), T2: 25-35 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.4%-5.4%) and T3: 28-39 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.7%-5.7%). HbA(1c) was significantly decreased in trimesters 1 and 2 compared to non-pregnant women. Conclusions: HbA(1c) trimester-specific reference intervals are required to better inform the management of pregnancies complicated by diabetes.

  1. Is it reliable to measure the forearm blood pressure in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar M Taksande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: When the upper arm (UA is inaccessible or a standard-sized blood pressure (BP cuff is unavailable, some healthcare workers use the forearm (FA to measure BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Objective: The objective was to determine the accuracy of BP measurement in the arm and FA. Design: Prospective, randomized study. Setting: Department of Pediatrics, JNMC, Sawangi (Meghe Participants: A total of 72 children aged 5-15 years. Measurements: Mercury and Automatic (OMRON Tokyo, 108-0075 Japan BP measurements were recorded from the arm and FA at 2 min intervals. Results: In our study, 72 children of both sexes were enrolled. The mean age of the children was 10.13 ± 2.82 years, and 48% were females. Pearson′s correlation coefficient between FA and UA systolic BP (SBP measured by mercury was 0.782, and for diastolic BP (DBP it was 0.824. Similarly, Pearson′s correlation coefficient between FA and UA SBP measured with an automated device (OMRON was 0.843, and for DBP it was 0.846. The average readings for the SBP and DBP were higher in the FA than in the UA by approximately 3 mmHg. There was a statistically significant difference in both SBP and DBP. Conclusions: The FA is an acceptable method of BP monitoring when the UA cannot be accessed. The pressure from FA is probably higher than it would be from UA.

  2. TSH measurements from blood spots on filter paper: a confirmatory screening test for neonatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, J H; Parlow, A; Letarte, J; Guyda, H; Laberge, C

    1976-10-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for the measurement of TSH in the eluate of blood spotted on filter paper has been developed. The method is consistently sensitive to 0.1 to 0.25 muU of TSH and enables the detection of values equivalent to 6 to 15 muU/ml of serum. The measurement of TSH in the filter paper spot in all infants with low filter paper spot T4 has permitted rapid confirmation of 10 cases of neonatal hypothyroidism. However, cases of hypothalamic hypothyroidism with low or normal filter paper spot TSH concentrations would have been missed using only this method. Since these patients represent approximately 10% of our neonatal hypothyroid population, we do not recommend this method as a primary screening procedure, but rather as a confirmatory test which will accelerate the diagnosis and therefore the onset of therapy. PMID:956996

  3. Factor analysis of multigated cardiac blood pool scintigram for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was measured by factor analysis (FA) of multigated cardiac blood pool scintigram in 38 consecutive patients, and compared with that measured by the variable ROI method (EFVROI) with automated left ventricular contour detection. FA was automatically performed without operator intervention with a success rate of 100%. The correlation of EF with EFVROI was significant in the group of 22 patients with normal wall motion (r=0.65, p<0.001), and the entire group of patients (r=0.70, p<0.001), but not significant (p=0.19) in the group of 16 patients with abnormal wall motion. In conclusion, left ventricular ejection fraction can be estimated by factor analysis of MUGA in patients with normal wall motion. (author)

  4. Open Photoacoustic Cell for Blood Sugar Measurement: Numerical Calculation of Frequency Response

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Bernd; Teschner, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of the glucose concentration in human epidermis has been suggested recently. This method is based on photoacoustic (PA) analysis of human interstitial fluid. The measurement can be performed in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, may form the basis for a non-invasive monitoring of the blood sugar level for diabetes patients. It requires a windowless PA cell with an additional opening that is pressed onto the human skin. Since signals are weak, advantage is taken of acoustic resonances of the cell. Recently, a numerical approach based on the Finite Element (FE) Method has been successfully used for the calculation of the frequency response function of closed PA cells. This method has now been adapted to obtain the frequency response of the open cell. Despite the fact that loss due to sound radiation at the opening is not included, fairly good accordance with measurement is achieved.

  5. Damage induced in red blood cells by infrared optical trapping: an evaluation based on elasticity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos A. S.; Moura, Diógenes S.; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E.

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the damage caused to optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) after 1 or 2 min of exposure to near-infrared (NIR) laser beams at 785 or 1064 nm. Damage was quantified by measuring cell elasticity using an automatic, real-time, homemade, optical tweezer system. The measurements, performed on a significant number (hundreds) of cells, revealed an overall deformability decrease up to ˜104% after 2 min of light exposure, under 10 mW optical trapping for the 785-nm wavelength. Wavelength dependence of the optical damage is attributed to the light absorption by hemoglobin. The results provided evidence that RBCs have their biomechanical properties affected by NIR radiation. Our findings establish limits for laser applications with RBCs.

  6. Stable xenon CT measurement of cerebral blood flow in cardiac transplantation candidates: Correlation with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen consecutive unselected patients with NYHA class 4 cardiac failure referred for cardiac transplantation underwent neurologic examination and cerebral blood flow measurement (rCBF) using the stable xenon enhanced CT method on a GE9800 system. Eleven men and two women were studied (mean age = 43.8 +- 6.1). On neurological examination, six of the patients demonstrated normal mental function; the remaining seven patients demonstrated memory, language, or learning impairment. There was no difference in mean cardiac output between the groups (4.9 L/min +- 1.68 vs. 4.2L/min +- 1.57). rCBF was significantly reduced in the impaired group. Cognitive impairment in patients with cardiac failure can be correlated with cerebral ischemia. Stable xenon CT measurement of rCBF in transplant candidates may help identify patients requiring more rapid transplantation to prevent permanent cerebral injury

  7. Measurement of cerebral blood flow the blood sampling method using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. Simultaneous scintigram scanning of arterial blood samples and the brain with a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Inugami, Atsushi [Rehabilitation Center for Physically Disabled Persons and Medical Center for Mental Health-Akita, Kyowa (Japan); Iida, Hidehiro; Mizuta, Yoshihiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Inoue, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    To measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by blood sampling using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD we devised a method of measuring the radioactive concentration in arterial blood sample with a gamma camera. In this method the head and a blood sample are placed within the same visual field to record the SPECT data of both specimens simultaneously. The results of an evaluation of the counting rate performance, applying the 30 hours decaying method using {sup 99m}Tc solution showed that this method is not comparable to the well-type scintillation counter and in clinical cases the active concentration in arterial blood sample remained well within the dynamic range. In addition, examination of the influence of scattered radiation from the brain by the dilution method showed that it was negligible at a distance of more than 7.5 cm between the brain and the arterial blood sample. In the present study we placed a head-shaped phantom next to the sample. The results of the examinations suggested that this method is suitable for clinical application, and because it does not require a well-type scintillation counter, it is expected to find wide application. (author)

  8. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahida Vilsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ≤10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, χ2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood

  9. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers using mercury sphygmomanometers. Method: Fifty-six adult volunteers participated in the research. Data were collected by five qualified health workers, and six non-health workers. Participants were randomly allocated to have their blood pressure measured on four consecutive occasions by alternating a qualified health worker with a non-health worker. Descriptive statistics and graphs, and mixed effects linear models to account for the repeated measurement were used in the analysis. Results: Blood pressure readings by non-health workers were more reliable than those taken by qualified health workers. There was no significant difference between the readings taken by qualified health workers and those taken by non-health workers for systolic blood pressure. Non-health workers were, on average, 5–7 mmHg lower in their measures of blood pressure than the qualified health workers (95%HPD: −2.9 to −10.0 for diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The results provide empirical evidence that supports the practice of non-health workers using electronic devices for BP measurement in community-based research and screening. Non-health workers recorded blood pressures that differed from qualified health workers by no more than 10 mmHg. The approach is promising, but more research is needed to establish the generalisability of the results.

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement with intravenous [15O]water bolus and [18F]fluoromethane inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 20 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, classic migraine, or angiomas, we compared paired dynamic positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow using both [15O]water and [18F]fluoromethane as tracers. Cerebral blood flow was also determined according to the autoradiographic technique with a bolus injection of [15O]water. There were reasonable overall correlations between dynamic [15O]water and [18F]fluoromethane values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.82) and between dynamic and autoradiographic [15O]water values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.83). We found a close correspondence between abnormal pathologic findings and visually evaluated cerebral blood flow tomograms obtained with the two tracers. On average, dynamic [15O]water cerebral blood flow was 6% lower than that measured with [18F]fluoromethane. There also was a general trend toward a greater underestimation with [15O]water in high-flow areas, particularly in hyperemic areas, probably due to incomplete first-pass extraction of [15O]water. Underestimation was not detected in low-flow areas or in the cerebellum. Absolute cerebral blood flow values were less closely correlated between tracers and techniques than cerebral blood flow patterns. The variability of the relation between absolute flow values was probably caused by confounding effects of the variation in the circulatory delay time. The autoradiographic technique was most sensitive to this type error

  11. Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

    2005-09-10

    Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

  12. Simultaneous measurement of blood flow and glucose metabolism by autoradiographic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mies, G.; Niebuhr, I.; Hossmann, K.A.

    A double tracer autoradiographic technique using 131I-iodo-antipyrine and 14C-deoxyglucose is presented for the simultaneous measurement of blood flow and cerebral glucose utilization in the same animal. 131I is a gamma emitting isotope with a half life of 8.06 days and can be detected with adequate resolution on standard autoradiographic films. Autoradiograms are made before and after decay of 131I; the time interval between the 2 exposures and the concentration of the 2 tracers is adjusted to avoid significant cross-contamination. In this way, 2 film exposures are obtained which can be processed quantitatively like single tracer autoradiograms. The validity of the method for the investigation of local coupling of flow and metabolism was tested under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Coupling was tight in barbiturate-anesthetized healthy animals, but not under halothane anesthesia where uncoupling occurred in various subcortical structures. Focal seizures induced by topical application of penicillin on the cortical surface led to a coupled increase of metabolism and flow in thalamic relay nuclei but not at the site of penicillin administration where increased glucose utilization was not accompanied by similar increase in blood flow. Both coupled and uncoupled increases in local glucose utilization were observed in spreading depression and in circumscribed areas of experimental brain tumors. The results obtained demonstrate that double tracer autoradiography allows allows the very precise local assessment of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization, and, therefore, is particularly suited to the study of regional coupling processes under various experimental conditions.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of blood flow and glucose metabolism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double tracer autoradiographic technique using 131I-iodo-antipyrine and 14C-deoxyglucose is presented for the simultaneous measurement of blood flow and cerebral glucose utilization in the same animal. 131I is a gamma emitting isotope with a half life of 8.06 days and can be detected with adequate resolution on standard autoradiographic films. Autoradiograms are made before and after decay of 131I; the time interval between the 2 exposures and the concentration of the 2 tracers is adjusted to avoid significant cross-contamination. In this way, 2 film exposures are obtained which can be processed quantitatively like single tracer autoradiograms. The validity of the method for the investigation of local coupling of flow and metabolism was tested under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Coupling was tight in barbiturate-anesthetized healthy animals, but not under halothane anesthesia where uncoupling occurred in various subcortical structures. Focal seizures induced by topical application of penicillin on the cortical surface led to a coupled increase of metabolism and flow in thalamic relay nuclei but not at the site of penicillin administration where increased glucose utilization was not accompanied by similar increase in blood flow. Both coupled and uncoupled increases in local glucose utilization were observed in spreading depression and in circumscribed areas of experimental brain tumors. The results obtained demonstrate that double tracer autoradiography allows allows the very precise local assessment of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization, and, therefore, is particularly suited to the study of regional coupling processes under various experimental conditions

  14. A new sensor for stress measurement based on blood flow fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, I.; Kaminsky, A. V.; Shenkman, L.

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that effective stress management could have a dramatic impact on health care and preventive medicine. In order to meet this need, efficient and seamless sensing and analytic tools for the non-invasive stress monitoring during daily life are required. The existing sensors still do not meet the needs in terms of specificity and robustness. We utilized a miniaturized dynamic light scattering sensor (mDLS) which is specially adjusted to measure skin blood flow fluctuations and provides multi- parametric capabilities. Based on the measured dynamic light scattering signal from the red blood cells flowing in skin, a new concept of hemodynamic indexes (HI) and oscillatory hemodynamic indexes (OHI) have been developed. This approach was utilized for stress level assessment for a few usecase scenario. The new stress index was generated through the HI and OHI parameters. In order to validate this new non-invasive stress index, a group of 19 healthy volunteers was studied by measuring the mDLS sensor located on the wrist. Mental stress was induced by using the cognitive dissonance test of Stroop. We found that OHIs indexes have high sensitivity to the mental stress response for most of the tested subjects. In addition, we examined the capability of using this new stress index for the individual monitoring of the diurnal stress level. We found that the new stress index exhibits similar trends as reported for to the well-known diurnal behavior of cortisol levels. Finally, we demonstrated that this new marker provides good sensitivity and specificity to the stress response to sound and musical emotional arousal.

  15. Nocturnal haemoglobin oxygen desaturation in urban and rural East African paediatric cohorts with and without sickle cell anaemia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    L'Esperance, V.S.; Ekong, T.; Cox, S E; Makani, J.; Newton, C R; Soka, D.; Komba, A.; Kirkham, F. J.; Hill, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94-100)%); p

  16. Effects of external pressure loading on human skin blood flow measured by 133Xe clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forearm skin blood flow was measured during external pressure loading in normal human subjects using 133Xe washout from intracutaneous injection sites. Pressures ranging between 5 and 150 mmHg were applied through a 3-cm-diameter disc placed over the site of flow determination. The pressure was maintained constant by a servo-controlled loading mechanism. Flow decreased with pressures from 5 to 10 and 30 to 150 mmHg, but remained constant with pressures from 10 to 30 mmHg. Reactive hyperemia occurred following removal of pressures of 90 mmHg or greater, but did not occur following removal of lower pressures. The pressure-flow curve for parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects closely paralleled the pressure-flow curve of normal skin at pressures tested: 5 to 15 mmHg. These data are interpreted to demonstrate autoregulation of skin blood flow. Autoregulation in parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects suggests a peripheral mechanism. The occurrence of hyperemia at pressures which exceed the ability of skin to autoregulate suggests that both autoregulation and post occlusion hyperemia may have the same mechanism

  17. Alpha- and beta-cell abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, Salvatore; Scicali, Roberto; Di Pino, Antonino;

    2014-01-01

    , respectively. Ten subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes, i.e. HbA1c from 5.7 to 6.4 % (39-46 mmol/mol), eight newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes [HbA1c ≥6.5 % (≥48 mmol/mol)], and ten controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7 % (<39 mmol/mol), were studied. Blood was sampled over 4 h on two......New recommendations for the use of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to diagnose prediabetes and type 2 diabetes have changed the constitution of the two populations. We aimed to investigate the pathophysiological characteristics of individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes......-diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The patients with type 2 diabetes showed lower insulinogenic index (P = 0.0003), disposition index (P < 0.0001), and glucagon suppression compared with the controls. The incretin effect was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes...

  18. Quantitative measurement of total cerebral blood flow using 2D phase-contrast MRI and doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare of quantitative measurement of the total cerebral blood flow using two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound. In 16 volunteers (mean age, 26 years; mean body weight, 66 kg) without abnormal medical histories, two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging was performed at the level of the C2-3 inter vertebral disc for flow measurement of the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries. Volume flow measurements using Doppler ultrasound were also performed at the internal carotid arteries 2cm above the carotid bifurcation, and at the vertebral arteries at the level of the upper pole of the thyroid gland. Flows in the four vessels measured by the two methods were compared using Wilcoxon's correlation analysis and the median score. Total cerebral blood flows were calculated by summing these four vessel flows, and mean values for the 16 volunteers were calculated. Cerebral blood flows measured by 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasounds were 233 and 239 ml/min in the right internal carotid artery, 250 and 248 ml/min in the left internal carotid artery, 62 and 56 ml/min in the right vertebral artery, and 83 and 68 ml/min in the left vertebral artery. Correlation coefficients of the blood flows determined by the two methods were 0.48, 0.54, 0.49, and 0.62 in each vessel, while total cerebral blood flows were 628±68 (range, 517 to 779) ml/min and 612±79 (range, 482 to 804)ml/min, respectively. Total cerebral blood flow was easily measured using 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound, and the two noninvasive methods can therefore be used clinically for the measurement of total cerebral blood flow

  19. Validation of the i-STAT system for the analysis of blood gases and acid-base status in juvenile sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T S; Morrison, P R; Mandelman, J W; Rummer, J L; Farrell, A P; Brill, R W; Brauner, C J

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of blood gases and acid-base status require an array of sophisticated laboratory equipment that is typically not available during field research; such is the case for many studies on the stress physiology, ecology and conservation of elasmobranch fish species. Consequently, researchers have adopted portable clinical analysers that were developed for the analysis of human blood characteristics, but often without thoroughly validating these systems for their use on fish. The aim of our study was to test the suitability of the i-STAT system, the most commonly used portable clinical analyser in studies on fish, for analysing blood gases and acid-base status in elasmobranchs, over a broad range of conditions and using the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) as a model organism. Our results indicate that the i-STAT system can generate useful measurements of whole blood pH, and the use of appropriate correction factors may increase the accuracy of results. The i-STAT system was, however, unable to generate reliable results for measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and the derived parameter of haemoglobin O2 saturation. This is probably due to the effect of a closed-system temperature change on PO2 within the i-STAT cartridge and the fact that the temperature correction algorithms used by i-STAT assume a human temperature dependency of haemoglobin-O2 binding; in many ectotherms, this assumption will lead to equivocal i-STAT PO2 results. The in vivo partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in resting sandbar sharks is probably below the detection limit for PCO2 in the i-STAT system, and the measurement of higher PCO2 tensions was associated with a large measurement error. In agreement with previous work, our results indicate that the i-STAT system can generate useful data on whole blood pH in fishes, but not blood gases. PMID:27293687

  20. Test-Retest Repeatability of Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements using Rubidium-82 Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efseaff, Matthew

    Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been proposed for routine myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification. Few studies have investigated the test-retest repeatability of this method. Same-day repeatability of rest MBF imaging was optimized with a highly automated analysis program using image-derived input functions and a dual spillover correction (SOC). The effects of heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and subject hemodynamics on test-retest repeatability were investigated at rest and during hyperemic stress. Factors affecting rest MBF repeatability included gender, suspected coronary artery disease, and dual SOC (p stress, and 0.95 for stress / rest myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Subjects with heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and hemodynamic conditions had significantly less repeatable MBF measurements at rest, stress, and stress/rest flow reserve (p < 0.05).

  1. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    (SPPH) as measured with a photocell. Thirty-two patients (35 feet with ulcerations) had diabetes mellitus. The treatment was conservative. In 42 feet the ulcers healed after an average period of 5.8 months; in 24 feet major amputation became necessary after an average of 4.3 months. The frequency of...... cases (9%) healed. Of the 11 cases with SDBP of 20 to 29 mmHg seven cases (64%) healed and of the 33 cases with SDBP of30 mmHg or above all cases (100%) healed. There was no significant difference between the 35 diabetic feet and the 31 non-diabetic feet as regards the healing rates, although infection...... and peripheral neuropathy were frequent in the diabetic group. The data show that the systolic digital blood pressure is a particularly valuable prognostic parameter....

  2. Concentration measurement of lysosome enzymes in blood by fluorimetric analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strinadko, Marina M.; Strinadko, Elena M.

    2002-02-01

    The diagnostics of heritable disease series and sugar diabetes, myocardial infarction, collagenosis and kidney diseases widely uses the measurement of lysosomic enzymes in blood. In the present research work the definition procedure of concentration (beta) -glucuronidase with the help of fluorimetric analysis is offered, which allows using microamounts of biological fluids and samples with low enzyme activity which is especially important in paediatric practice. Due to the sharp sensibility of fluorimetric analysis and high speed of luminescent reactions the procedure gives an opportunity to obtain the result in the minimum terms as well as the use of small amounts of reaction mixture. The incubation in large dilution leads thereby to the elimination of influence of endogenic inhibitors and activators.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement by N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with hemiplegia in chronic stages were studied with N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) comparing with X-ray CT findings. In three patients, focal decreases of IMP were observed and these areas were larger than the abnormal areas found by X-ray CT. In the other five patients, hemispherical low perfusion of IMP was observed by SPECT, but X-ray CT showed severe atrophy with normal density. In two patients, cerebral angiography showed no abnormalities in the arterial phase. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement using IMP would be of great value in evaluating abnormal cerebral functions in the chronic state of acute infantile hemiplegia and cerebral palsy. (author)

  4. Measurement of microbial DNA polymerase activity enables detection and growth monitoring of microbes from clinical blood cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Zweitzig

    Full Text Available Surveillance of bloodstream infections (BSI is a high priority within the hospital setting. Broth-based blood cultures are the current gold standard for detecting BSI, however they can require lengthy incubation periods prior to detection of positive samples. We set out to demonstrate the feasibility of using enzymatic template generation and amplification (ETGA-mediated measurement of DNA polymerase activity to detect microbes from clinical blood cultures. In addition to routine-collected hospital blood cultures, one parallel aerobic blood culture was collected and immediately refrigerated until being transported for ETGA analysis. After refrigeration holding and transport, parallel-collected cultures were placed into a BACTEC incubator and ETGA time-course analysis was performed. Of the 308 clinical blood cultures received, 22 were BACTEC positive, and thus were initially selected for ETGA time course analysis. The ETGA assay detected microbial growth in all 22 parallel-positive blood cultures in less time than a BACTEC incubator and also yielded genomic DNA for qPCR-based organism identification. In summary, feasibility of detecting microbes from clinical blood culture samples using the ETGA blood culture assay was demonstrated. Additional studies are being considered towards development of clinically beneficial versions of this methodology.

  5. A venous outflow method for measurement of rapid changes of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, B; Siesjö, B K

    1983-01-01

    A technique for continuous measurement of cerebral venous outflow in the rat is described. The method involves cannulation of one retroglenoid vein close to its exit from the skull, and diversion of cerebral venous blood through a closed extracorporal circuit with a drop recording device, the blood being returned to the central venous circulation via a catheter in the external jugular vein. Occlusion of the contralateral retroglenoid vein increases measured flow and minimizes extracerebral contamination of the diverted cerebral venous blood. The venous outflow system is not further isolated from cerebral or potential extracerebral collaterals. Thus, the mass of tissue drained cannot be exactly defined anatomically. However, the experiments involving changes of PP, arterial CO2 tension, and induction of epileptic seizure activity, and simultaneous indirect measurements with radioactive tracer technique, indicate that significant extracerebral contamination does not occur and that in short term measurements the venous outflow represents cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a constant mass of (dorsal and central, mainly forebrain) cerebral tissue. Measurement of arterial blood pressure and pressure in the cisterna magna allows calculation of cerebral perfusion pressure (PP). By simultaneous measurement of arterial and cerebral venous oxygen content changes in cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) can be calculated. The method has been applied to document several situations of transient CBF and CMRO2 changes. PMID:6658967

  6. Optimal velocity encoding during measurement of cerebral blood flow volume using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of velocity encoding on measurement of brain blood flow and blood volume of inflow and outflow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography. A single two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography slice was applied perpendicular to the internal carotid artery and the vertebral artery at C2 level. For each subject, the velocity encoding was set from 30 to 90 cm/s with an interval of 10 cm/s for a total of seven settings. Various velocity encodings greatly affected blood flow volume, maximal blood flow velocity and mean blood flow velocity in the internal carotid artery, but did not significantly affect vertebral arteries and jugular veins. When velocity encoding was 60-80 cm/s, the inflow blood volume was 655 ± 118 mL/min, and the outflow volume was 506 ± 186 mL/min. The ratio of outflow/inflow was steady at 0.78-0.83, and there was no aliasing in any of the images. These findings suggest that velocity encodings of 60-80 cm/s should be selected during measurement of cerebral blood flow volume using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography.

  7. In vivo Raman measurement of levofloxacin lactate in blood using a nanoparticle-coated optical fiber probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shupeng; Rong, Ming; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Na; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun; Yan, Jianshe

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring drug concentrations in vivo is very useful for adjusting a drug dosage during treatment and for drug research. Specifically, cutting-edge "on-line" drug research relies on knowing how drugs are metabolized or how they interact with the blood in real-time. Thus, this study explored performing in vivo Raman measurements of the model drug levofloxacin lactate in the blood using a nanoparticle-coated optical fiber probe (optical fiber nano-probe). The results show that we were able to measure real-time changes in the blood concentration of levofloxacin lactate, suggesting that this technique could be helpful for performing drug analyses and drug monitoring in a clinical setting without repeatedly withdrawing blood from patients. PMID:27231590

  8. Gingival blood flow under total combs by functional pressure evaluated with laser-Doppler flowmetry, a non-invasive method of blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingival blood flow under total-combs by functional pressure evaluated with Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, a non-invasive method of blood flow measurement. Microcirculation of gum's capillary system can be measured non-invasive by Laser-Doppler-Flowmetry (LDF). Circulation, defined by the number of floating erythrocytes per unit of time, is measured by a fibro-optical Laser-Doppler-Flowmetry. The task was to examine, if there is any change of gum's circulation during strain and relief. Circulation on defined measurepoints, divided on the four quadrants, was determined among maximal strain and subsequent relief, on one probationer (complete denture bearer). Before every measure session systemic pressure was taken. LDF-value was taken on top of jaw-comb, in doing so, to get reproducible result and a satisfying fixation of the probe, there was made an artificial limb of the upper and lower comb. In the upper comb a dynamometer-box, which determined minimal and maximal comb pressure, was integrated. The received results of the LDF-measurement, expressed as perfusion units (PU) were lower under applied pressure than by pressure points more distant. Hyperemia, resulting during relief, seemed the more intense, the less perfusion was before. This new, non-invasive kind of circulation measurement seems to be quite predestined to be used for gingival diagnostic under artificial limb in the future. (author)

  9. Electroanalysis of Hydrogen Peroxide at Boron Doped Diamond Electrode Modified by Silver Nanoparticles and Haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical detection of H2O2 using boron doped diamond electrode modified by silver nanoparticles and haemoglobin is reported. Silver nanoparticle obtained from electrodeposition in the presence of cetyl hexadecylthmoniom bromide (CTAB) surfactant shows the best combination of detection limit, sensitivity and reproducibility. The presence of Ag nanoparticles helps bind haemoglobin to the electrode in an active form, leading to a significantly further increase of electrode response to H2O2. Detection limits below 1 μM are achieved by a synergistic effect of both modifiers, and a good linear signal response is seen up to 8 mM. Interferences from glucose, uric acid, ascorbic acid and dopamine at typical physiological levels are shown to be negligible

  10. Measurement of Mercury Species in Human Blood using Triple Spike Isotope Dilution with SPME-GC-ICP-DRC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Yuliya L.; Verdon, Carl P.; Fresquez, Mark R.; Ward, Cynthia D.; Wood, Elliott B.; Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of different mercury compounds in human blood can provide valuable information about the type of mercury exposure. To this end, our laboratory developed a biomonitoring method for the quantification of inorganic (iHg), methyl (MeHg) and ethyl (EtHg) mercury in whole blood using a triple spike isotope dilution (TSID) quantification method employing capillary gas chromatography (GC) and inductively coupled dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). We used a robotic C...

  11. [How Much Blood and What Components does the Patient need Intra- and Perioperatively?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, M U; Meyer, F

    2016-02-01

    By the optimised availability of less expensive and safe red cell packs and other blood products over the last 20 years, numerous surgical interventions have become possible without any demand for comments on the precise need. However, a number of publications indicates that blood transfusion may also induce disadvantageous effects on the postoperative course by immunomodulation, which requires a rather restrictive indication for transfusion. Furthermore, demographic development leads to a decrease in that portion of the population with the potential for blood donation accompanied simultaneously by an increase of the percentage of older patients with more need of blood products during medical treatment. This makes blood-sparing measures necessary. In addition, costs for red cell packs have increased, in particular, for the generally compatible blood group 0 - an extra amount for rhesus negative blood. The present narrative review highlights, therefore, important news from the clinical transfusion medicine, immunohaematology and haemostaseology and their impact on daily transfusion practice. In this context, "blood management" is considered as one of the very effective blood-sparing measures, which focusses especially i) on the substitution of iron in case of depressed preoperative haemoglobin as well as ii) to elucidate disorders of coagulation by structured medical history and, subsequently, to balance possible need by a specific plan for substitution. Simultaneously, prospective studies are initiated to investigate how far the transfusion trigger of a patient can be lowered down to a still appropriate level. As far as consolidated findings are already available, they are described with regard to the single blood components and taking into account the cross-sectional guidelines of the "Bundesärztekammer" (Federal Physicians Chamber). Finally, initial evidence is provided characterising patient- and blood donor-specific, blood group-dependent features of a

  12. Anaemia, haemoglobin level and cause-specific mortality in people with and without diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Pascal Kengne; Sébastien Czernichow; Mark Hamer; G David Batty; Emmanuel Stamatakis

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both anaemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are common in people with diabetes. While individually both characteristics are known to raise mortality risk, their combined influence has yet to be quantified. In this pooling project, we examined the combined impact of baseline haemoglobin levels and existing CVD on all-cause and CVD mortality in people with diabetes. We draw comparison of these effects with those apparent in diabetes-free individuals. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A ...

  13. Obstructive uropathy due to extramedullary haematopoiesis in beta thalassaemia/haemoglobin E.

    OpenAIRE

    Intragumtornchai, T.; Arjhansiri, K.; Posayachinda, M.; Kasantikul, V.

    1993-01-01

    An 18 year old woman with beta thalassaemia/haemoglobin E developed a large pelvic tumour resulting in bilateral obstructive uropathy. Technetium-99m sulphur colloid marrow image, computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and needle biopsy of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of extramedullary haematopoiesis. Although radiation is the treatment of choice for decompression, the mass in this patient did not respond satisfactorily due to its multiple area of tumour autoinfarction. Obstructive urop...

  14. Iron intake, haemoglobin and risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Helin, Annika; Kinnunen, Tarja Inkeri; Raitanen, Jani; Ahonen, Suvi; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Luoto, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible association between total daily iron intake during pregnancy, haemoglobin in early pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women at increased risk of GDM. Design A prospective cohort study (based on a cluster-randomised controlled trial, where the intervention and the usual care groups were combined). Setting Primary healthcare maternity clinics in 14 municipalities in south-western Finland. Participants 399 Pregnant women who wer...

  15. Cross-sectional study of glycosylated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of South Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin SM

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The study provides a reliable cutoff of glycated haemoglobin (6.45% among South Indian population which is in accordance with the ADA recommendations. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1439-1442

  16. From tissue iron retention to low systemic haemoglobin levels, new pathophysiological biomarkers of human abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Pinna, Roxanna; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Madrigal-Matute, Julio;

    2014-01-01

    cell (RBC)-borne iron retention and transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin expression was observed in AAA tissue compared to control aorta (immunohistochemistry and western blot). In contrast, decreased circulating iron, transferrin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and...

  17. Blood flow velocity vector field reconstruction from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler OCT measurements in retinal veins

    OpenAIRE

    Aschinger, Gerold C.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Rainer A. Leitgeb; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Gröschl, Martin; René M. Werkmeister

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the actual blood flow velocity vector field in retinal microvessels from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography measurements. First, for a better understanding of measured phase patterns, several flow situations were simulated on the basis of the known dual beam measurement geometry. We were able to extract the vector field parameters that determine the measured phase pattern, allowing for the development of an...

  18. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Tison, Geoffrey H; Alley, Hugh F; Budinger, Thomas F; Owens, Christopher D; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, laboratory-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arguably, comparable (but complementary) value in the assessment of cardiovascular health. Widespread deployment of EFMA assessment is thus a desirable clinical goal. To this end, we propose a device based on modifying the measurement protocol of a standard electronic sphygmomanometer. The protocol involves inflating the cuff to sub-diastolic levels to enable recording of the pulse waveform before and after vasodilatory stimulus. The mechanical unloading of the arterial wall provided by the cuff amplifies the distension that occurs with each pulse, which is measured as a pressure variation in the cuff. We show that the height of the rising edge of each pulse is proportional to the change in lumen area between diastole and systole. This allows the effect of vasodilatory stimuli on the artery to be measured with high sensitivity. We compare the proposed cuff flow-mediated dilation (cFMD) method to ultrasound flow-mediated dilation (uFMD). We find significant correlation (r = 0.55, p = 0.003, N = 27) between cFMD- and uFMD-based metrics obtained when the release of a 5 min cuff occlusion is employed to induce endothelial stimulus via reactive hyperemia. cFMD is approximately proportional to the square of uFMD, representing a typical increase in sensitivity to vasodilation of 300-600%. This study illustrates the potential for an individual to conveniently measure his/her EFMA by using a low-cost reprogrammed home sphygmomanometer. PMID:26393958

  19. Capillary crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of haemoglobin II from the clam Lucina pectinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The haemoglobin II from the clam L. pectinata has been crystallized using counter-diffusion in single capillary in the presence of agarose to improve crystal quality. Initial phases have been obtained by molecular replacement. Haemoglobin II is one of three haemoglobins present in the cytoplasm of the Lucina pectinata mollusc that inhabits the Caribbean coast. Using HBII purified from its natural source, crystallization screening was performed using the counter-diffusion method with capillaries of 0.2 mm inner diameter. Crystals of HbII suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown in the presence of agarose at 0.1%(w/v) in order to improve their quality. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 152.35 Å, and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. The asymmetric unit is a homodimer with a corresponding Matthews coefficient (VM) of 3.15 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 61% by volume

  20. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Brouwer, M.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the G

  1. Cerebral Blood Flow and Transcranial Doppler Sonography Measurements of CO(2)-Reactivity in Acute Traumatic Brain Injured Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinstrup, Peter; Ryding, Erik Hilmer; Asgeirsson, Bogi; Hesselgard, Karin; Unden, Johan; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements are helpful in managing patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and testing the cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2) provides information about injury severity and outcome. The complexity and potential hazard of performing CBF measurements lim...

  2. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M;

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  3. Febrile Convulsion among Hospitalized Children Aged Six Months to Five Years and Its Association With Haemoglobin Electrophoretic Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Adeboye, M; Ojuawo, A; Adeniyi, A; Ibraheem, RM; Amiwero, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsion and sickle cell disease are common in tropical countries and both are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, Nigeria has the highest prevalence of sickle cell disease. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on the haemoglobin electrophoresis in patients with febrile convulsions. Methods This was a hospital based, descriptive, cross-sectional study of the relationship between haemoglobin genotype and febrile convulsion at the University o...

  4. New insights into bioprotective effectiveness of disaccharides: an FTIR study of human haemoglobin aqueous solutions exposed to static magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Magazù, Salvatore; Calabrò, Emanuele; Campo, Salvatore; Interdonato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the investigation of static magnetic field effects on haemoglobin secondary structure and the bioprotective effectiveness of two disaccharides, sucrose and trehalose. Samples of haemoglobin aqueous solutions, in the absence and in the presence of sucrose and trehalose, were exposed to a uniform magnetic field at 200 mT, which is the exposure limit established by the ICNIRP recommendation for occupational exposure. Spectral analysis by FTIR spectroscopy after 3 and 7 ...

  5. Near infrared spectroscopy for non-invasive assessment of intracranial haemoglobin oxygenation in an in vitro model of the calf head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, J; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1998-01-01

    An in vitro model of the calf head was used to examine the ability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to non-invasively determine oxygenation events within the calf head. The brains were removed from 16 calf skulls and replaced with oxygenated dilutions of calf blood that had the oxygen progressively decreased from PO2 > 110 mmHg to damping effect on the NIRS signal when compared with the bare skull (Pdamping effect between black and white coloured skin. All but the two thickest skulls (13 and 14 mm frontal bone thickness) appeared to allow sufficiently strong NIRS signals of changes in haemoglobin oxygenation. This study showed that NIRS can be used for non-invasive study of oxygenation events within the cranial cavity of calves, and established some guidelines and limitations for its use in this species. PMID:9839886

  6. Doppler measurements of feto-placental blood stream in pregnant smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Doppler analysis of the feto-placental and fetal circulation give dynamic information on the condition of the bloodstream during pregnancy, and early detection of fetal hypoxia. The objectives of the study were: testing whether there is influence of smoking on feto-placental circulation; determining whether there is a link to a number of smoked cigarettes during the day; assessing the benefits of Doppler ultrasonographic screening in detection of fetal hypoxia in pregnant women who smoke during pregnancy.Methods: 300 pregnancies were included in the prospective research. With regard to a number of smoked cigarettes the pregnant women were divided into three groups: I. the first group (moderate smokers consisted of 100 pregnant women who smoked up to 15 cigarettes a day during pregnancy; II. the second group (heavy smokers 100 pregnant women who smoked more than 15 cigarettes a day during pregnancy and III. the third group (control group 100 pregnant women who did not smoke during pregnancy. All pregnant women underwent Doppler measurements of blood circulation (determination of resistance index – RI in the umbilical artery, fetal aorta and middle cerebral artery.Results: The intensity of smoking has influence to circulation because RI in the umbilical artery and fetal aorta is increased and RI is decreased in the middle cerebral artery in pregnant women heavy smokers in comparison to pregnant women moderate smokers.Conclusion: Doppler sonography of the blood vessels could have an important role in detection of hypoxia and monitoring of the condition of the fetus of pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy.

  7. Measurement of changes in blood oxygenation using Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) allows assessment of tumor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Michal R.; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Joseph, James; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to evaluate tumor oxygenation in the clinic could indicate prognosis and enable treatment monitoring, since oxygen deficient cancer cells are more resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. MultiSpectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is a hybrid technique combining the high contrast of optical imaging with the spatial resolution and penetration depth similar to ultrasound. We aim to demonstrate that MSOT can be used to monitor the development of tumor vasculature. To establish the relationship between MSOT derived imaging biomarkers and biological changes during tumor development, we performed MSOT on nude mice (n=10) bearing subcutaneous xenograft U87 glioblastoma tumors using a small animal optoacoustic tomography system. The mice were maintained under inhalation anesthesia during imaging and respired oxygen content was modified between 21% and 100%. The measurements from early (week 4) and late (week 7) stages of tumor development were compared. To further explore the functionality of the blood vessels, we examined the evolution of changes in the abundance of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin in the tumors in response to a gas challenge. We found that the kinetics of the change in oxygen saturation (SO2) were significantly different between small tumors and the healthy blood vessels in nearby normal tissue (p=0.0054). Furthermore, we showed that there was a significant difference in the kinetics of the gas challenge between small and large tumors (p=0.0015). We also found that the tumor SO2 was significantly correlated (p=0.0057) with the tumor necrotic fraction as assessed by H&E staining in histology. In the future, this approach may be of use in the clinic as a method for tumor staging and assessment of treatment response.

  8. [An automatic non-invasive method for the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, D; Suter, P

    1981-01-01

    A new automatic apparatus for the measurement of arterial pressure by a non-invasive technique was compared with direct intra-arterial measurement in 20 adult patients in a surgical intensive care unit. The apparatus works on the basis of the principle of oscillometry. Blood pressure is determined with a microprocessor by analysis of the amplitude of the oscillations produced by a cuff which is inflated then deflated automatically. Thus mean arterial pressure corresponds to the maximum amplitude. Systolic and diastolic pressures are deduced by extrapolation to zero of the amplitudes on either side of the maximum reading. Mean arterial pressure (AP) proved to be very reliable within the limits studied: 8.0 - 14.7 kPa (60 - 110 mmHg) with a difference in mean direct AP and indirect AP of 0,09 +/- 0.9 kPa SD (0.71 +/- 7 mmHg) and a coefficient of linear correlation between the two methods of r = 0.82. This non-invasive technique determined systolic arterial pressure (sAP) in a less reliable fashion than AP when compared with the invasive technique, with a tendency to flatten the extreme values. The correlation coefficient here was 0.68. Finally, diastolic arterial pressure (dAP) showed a better degree of agreement through with a difference in mean indirect AP and mean direct AP of 1.0 +/- 0.8 kPa (7.6 +/- 6.0 mmHg). These results indicate a good degree of agreement for measurements of mean arterial pressure, clinically the most important, between the two methods used. Measurements of diastolic pressure and above all of diastolic pressure seemed to be less in agreement. This difference could be due to an error in determination of the automatic apparatus tested or to the peripheral site (radial artery) of the intra-arterial catheter used, itself falsifying the humeral arterial pressure. PMID:6113805

  9. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement: values, problems and applicability in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietsch, M; Einspanier, A

    2015-07-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, C. j.) is an established primate model in biomedical research and for human-related diseases. Monitoring of cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) is important for the health surveillance of these experimental animals and the quantification of diseases or pharmaceutical substances influencing BP. Measurement guidelines for C. j. do not exist yet; therefore, the present study was carried out to establish a practicable protocol based on recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). Furthermore, BP data of 49 marmosets (13.8-202.4 months of age) were obtained via high-definition oscillometry to further knowledge of physiological parameters and gender-related differences in this primate. The thighs proved to be the most suitable measurement localization, since systolic values were less variable (left 4.03 ± 2.90%, right 5.96 ± 2.77%) compared with the tail (12.7 ± 6.96%). BP values were similar in the morning and in the afternoon (P > 0.05). Data were highly reproducible within and between several sessions on three consecutive days (P > 0.05) as well as over the course of 20 months (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the measurement time for females was significantly shorter than for males (5:14 ± 1:59 min versus 6:50 ± 1:58 min, P = 0.007). Measurement recommendations for the common marmoset were successfully established. Standardized values enabled a reliable comparison of BP parameters, e.g. for cardiovascular, toxicological or metabolic research. PMID:25552521

  10. Formation of an artificial blood vessel: adhesion force measurements with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoener, Gregor; Campbell, Julie H.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2004-10-01

    We are investigating the formation of a tissue capsule around a foreign body. This tissue capsule can be used as an autologous graft for the replacement of diseased blood vessels or for bypass surgery. The graft is grown in the peritoneal cavity of the recipient and the formation starts with the adhesion of cells to the foreign body. We identify the cell type and measure the adhesion of these cells to foreign materials using optical tweezers. Cell adhesion to macroscopic samples and microspheres is investigated. No difference in the adhesion force was measurable for polyethylene, silicon and Tygon on a scale accessible to optical tweezers. The density of adherent cells was found to vary strongly, being highest on polyethylene. The mean rupture forces for cell-microsphere adhesion ranged from 24 to 39 pN and changed upon preadsorption of bovine serum albumin. For plain microspheres, the highest mean rupture force was found for PMMA, which also showed the highest adhesion probability for the cell-microsphere interaction.

  11. Free thyroxin measured in dried blood spots from normal, low-birth-weight, and hypothyroid neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, F; Masson, J; Laroche, D; Travert, J; Travert, G

    1991-12-01

    We have adapted a new radioimmunoassay for free thyroxin (FT4) measurement in dried blood spots for use in neonatal screening for hypothyroidism. The method is easy, fast, and cheap. Within-assay and between-assay CVs are respectively 9.6% and 13.2%. In 997 neonates three days postpartum with normal thyrotropin concentrations, the mean FT4 concentration was 27.2 pmol/L (SD 7.3 pmol/L). There was no significant difference in mean FT4 concentration between boys and girls. FT4 concentrations increased linearly with birth weight or with gestational age, as expressed by multiple linear regression: FT4 (pmol/L) = 0.0016 birth weight (g) + 0.6931 gestational age (weeks) - 4.8772. Only gestational age significantly affected the FT4 value. For five hypothyroid infants tested on day three postpartum, FT4 values were all below the 1st percentile of values from healthy neonates. Thus, when the neonatal concentration of thyrotropin is above normal, FT4 measured in the same sample can provide a reliable earlier diagnosis of hypothyroidism. PMID:1764786

  12. Techniques for the measurement and monitoring of carbon dioxide in the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttmann, Sophie E; Windisch, Wolfram; Storre, Jan H

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between an elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) and reduced alveolar ventilation resulting from respiratory failure primarily affecting the respiratory pump was first reported during the 1952 Copenhagen polio epidemic. Several methods for Pco2 estimation, such as blood gas analyses, capnography, and transcutaneous Pco2 measurements, have since been developed to assess alveolar ventilation. The clinical setting in which CO2 measurement is valuable includes acute and chronic respiratory failure, transport, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, patient-controlled analgesia, and procedural sedation. The techniques that are currently available differ considerably regarding their accuracy, capacity to facilitate continuous assessment, side effects, availability, and their ability to assess additional information. Importantly, each technique has its own spectrum of indications and applications. Therefore, the different techniques are not competitive but, rather, complementary. As a consequence, it is reasonable to combine different techniques depending on specific clinical scenarios. This review summarizes the physiological background, historical development, instrument-specific technical aspects, and current recommendations for the clinical application of Pco2 assessment. PMID:24701974

  13. PET measured evoked cerebral blood flow responses in an awake monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a method to measure task-related regional cerebral blood flow (BF) responses in an awake, trained monkey using positron emission tomography (PET) and H215O. We trained an animal with operant conditioning using only positive reinforcement to climb unassisted into a modified primate chair that was then positioned in the PET scanner. A special headholder and acrylic skull cap permitted precise placement and accurate repositioning. We measured BF qualitatively with bolus injection of H215O and 40-s scan. Each session included scans at rest interposed with scans during vibration of a forepaw. Regional responses were identified using subtraction image analysis. After global normalization, a resting image was subtracted on a pixel-by-pixel basis from a comparable image collected during vibration. The region of peak response occurred in contralateral sensorimotor cortex with a mean magnitude of 11.6% (+/- 3.2%) of the global mean value for 10 separate experiments, significantly greater than the mean qualitative BF change (0.4 +/- 3.6%; p less than 0.00001) in the same region for seven rest-rest pairs. This newly developed technique forms the basis for a wide variety of experiments

  14. Relationship between measurements of blood oxidative metabolites and skin reaction in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, oxidative metabolites have been able to be measured by simple small device. It has been reported that the value of oxidative metabolites increases under several conditions such as hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, etc. Radiation used in radiotherapy also causes free radicals and oxidative metabolites, and irradiation causes dermatitis and sometimes causes skin ulcer in the irradiated site. We analyzed the relationships between the value of oxidative metabolites and skin reactions. A certain doses of radiation were irradiated to the right thigh of rats, and oxidative metabolites of rat's blood from caudal vein were measured by d-reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) test using an exclusive device. Skin reactions were evaluated according to a skin-reaction grading system from the day before irradiation to day 38 after irradiation. As a results, a significant correlation was shown between irradiation dose and skin grade. And a significant correlation was also shown between the value of oxidative metabolites and irradiation dose. The increase in oxidative metabolites was seen in the Day 16 after irradiation, and that corresponded with the appearance of skin reaction. It was suggested that the value of oxidative metabolites seems to be useful for estimating degree of skin reaction and time to appear skin reaction after irradiation. (author)

  15. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring membrane viscosity with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Heloise P.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-09-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycoproteins embedded in a fluid lipid bilayer that are responsible for cell agglutination. Manipulating RBCs rouleaux with a double optical tweezers, we observed that the cells slide easily one over the others but are strongly connected by their edges. An explanation for this behavior could be the fact that when the cells slide one over the others, proteins are dragged through the membrane. It confers to the movement a viscous characteristic that is dependent of the velocity between the RBCs and justifies why is so easy to slide them apart. Therefore, in a first step of this work, by measuring the force as a function of the relative velocity between two cells, we confirmed this assumption and used this viscous characteristic of the RBC rouleaux to determine the apparent membrane viscosity of the cell. As this behavior is related to the proteins interactions, we can use the apparent membrane viscosity to obtain a better understanding about cell agglutination. Methods related to cell agglutination induced by antigen-antibody interactions are the basis of most of tests used in transfusion centers. Then, in a second step of this work, we measured the apparent membrane viscosity using antibodies. We observed that this methodology is sensitive to different kinds of bindings between RBCs. Better comprehension of the forces and bindings between RBCs could improve the sensibility and specificity of the hemagglutination reactions and also guides the development of new potentiator substances.

  16. Numerical analysis of stress distribution in the upper arm tissues under an inflatable cuff: Implications for noninvasive blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhipeng; Liang, Fuyou

    2016-07-01

    An inflatable cuff wrapped around the upper arm is widely used in noninvasive blood pressure measurement. However, the mechanical interaction between cuff and arm tissues, a factor that potentially affects the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measurement, remains rarely addressed. In the present study, finite element (FE) models were constructed to quantify intra-arm stresses generated by cuff compression, aiming to provide some theoretical evidence for identifying factors of importance for blood pressure measurement or explaining clinical observations. Obtained results showed that the simulated tissue stresses were highly sensitive to the distribution of cuff pressure on the arm surface and the contact condition between muscle and bone. In contrast, the magnitude of cuff pressure and small variations in elastic properties of arm soft tissues had little influence on the efficiency of pressure transmission in arm tissues. In particular, it was found that a thickened subcutaneous fat layer in obese subjects significantly reduced the effective pressure transmitted to the brachial artery, which may explain why blood pressure overestimation occurs more frequently in obese subjects in noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

  17. Prognostic value of blood pressure measured during hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction: an insight from survival trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, J Martin; Malik, Marek; Torp-Pedersen, Christian Tobias; Køber, Lars; Connolly, Stuart J; Gallagher, Mark M; Camm, A John

    2007-01-01

    , CAMIAT, SWORD, TRACE and DIAMOND-MI studies with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% or asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmia surviving more than 45 days after MI were pooled. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse pressures were measured soon after MI (median 6 days, range 0-53 days......BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of blood pressure measured during hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction (MI) has not been investigated, particularly with regard to arrhythmic death. METHODS: A total of 3311 placebo patients (2612 men, median age 64 years; range 23-92) from the EMIAT...... pressure measured during hospitalization after acute MI significantly increased the risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) for 10% increase in systolic blood pressure 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.90; P < 0.001] and arrhythmic mortality (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.86; P = 0.001). Reduced...

  18. Heat-washout measurements compared to distal blood pressure and perfusion in orthopaedic patients with foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Mette; Azad, B.B.S.; Broholm, R;

    2015-01-01

    Distal blood pressure and local skin perfusion pressure were compared to measurement of blood flow rate (BFR) measured by the heat-washout method in orthopaedic patients with and without diabetes, all with a foot ulcer in one foot, compared to healthy controls. The correlation was good between heat......-washout and distal blood pressure in patients with diabetes with and without an ulcer (P = 0·024 and 0·059, respectively). The correlation was weak in patients without diabetes with and without an ulcer, most probably due to power problems (P = 0·118 and 0·116, respectively). The correlation in the healthy...... oxygen from the surrounding tissue, and therefore, measurements are easier made in these subjects. BFR in the first toe increased significantly in all patients when the foot was moved from heart level to 50 cm below heart level (P = between 0·03 and 0·05) as previously seen in patients with claudication...

  19. THE STUDY OF DEFERRED BLOOD DONORS AT TERTIARY LEVEL HOSPITAL BASED BLOOD BANK OF SOUTH GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre - donation donor screening is must for the safety of the blood donor and recipient. Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors and blood units available for transfusion purposes. AIM: T o record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferral in our tertiary care hospital based blood bank to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted by retrospective data analysis of whole blood donors ( V oluntary/ R eplacement , arrived for donating bloo d at blood bank and in outdoor camps , during the period 1 st July 2010 to 30 th June 2014. The donor selection was done by pre - donation screening tests like questionnaire followed by physical examination and haemoglobin estimation. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of donors. The deferred donor’s data was analyzed statistically. RESULT: Out of 34380 blood donors who came to donate blood, 31049 (89 . 63 %, out of which 97 . 51 % voluntary donors were eligible for d onation and 3331 (10 . 37% blood donors were deferred. The deferral rate among male population 7 . 47% and female population 42 . 09% were observed. Odds ratio for deferral in female donors was 8 . 99, implying thereby that chance of deferral in females is nearly 9 times higher as compared to males. The five leading causes for male donor deferral were low haemoglobin, hypertension, medication, and malaria & alcohol intake in last 48 hours & for the female donor deferral were low haemoglobin, menstruation, medication, low weight & hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Studying the frequency and the different causes of donor deferral will help to identify sections of the population which could be targeted for increasing and retaining of the existing pool of voluntary blood donors and also to guide and provide the necessary essential database for the policy design and programme implementation at local, regional, and national level.

  20. Time-resolved blood flow measurement in the in vivo mouse model by optical frequency domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Mueller, Gregor; Meissner, Sven; Cimalla, Peter; Homann, Hanno; Morawietz, Henning; Koch, Edmund

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that phase-resolved Doppler optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is very suitable to quantify the pulsatile blood flow within a vasodynamic measurement in the in vivo mouse model. For this, an OFDI-system with a read-out rate of 20 kHz and a center wavelength of 1320 nm has been used to image the time-resolved murine blood flow in 300 μμm vessels. Because OFDI is less sensitive to fringe washout due to axial sample motion, it is applied to analyze the blood flow velocities and the vascular dynamics in six-week-old C57BL/6 mice compared to one of the LDLR knockout strain kept under sedentary conditions or with access to voluntary wheel running. We have shown that the systolic as well as the diastolic phase of the pulsatile arterial blood flow can be well identified at each vasodynamic state. Furthermore, the changes of the flow velocities after vasoconstriction and -dilation were presented and interpreted in the entire physiological context. With this, the combined measurement of time-resolved blood flow and vessel diameter provides the basis to analyze the vascular function and its influence on the blood flow of small arteries of different mouse strains in response to different life styles.