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Sample records for blood glucose

  1. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  7. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  9. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Grant Money is Divided Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: ... they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs ...

  12. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  13. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  14. [Glucose homeostasis in children. I. Regulation of blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto Buczkowska, E; Szirer, G; Jarosz-Chobot, P

    2001-01-01

    The amount of glucose in the circulation depends on its absorption from the intestine, uptake by and release from the liver and uptake by peripheral tissues. Insulin and glucagon together control the metabolities required by peripheral tissues and both are involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Insulin is considered to be an anabolic hormone in that it promotes the synthesis of protein, lipid and glycogen. The key target tissues for insulin are liver, muscles and adipose tissue. Glucagon acts largely to increase catabolic processes. Between meals or during fast, the most tightly regulated process is the release of glucose from the liver. During fasting glucose is produced from glycogen and is formed by enzymes on the gluconeogenic pathway. Fetal metabolism is directed to ensure anabolism with formation of glycogen, fat and protein. Glucogen is stored in the liver and serves as the immediate source of new glucose during first few hours after birth. Glucose is the most important substrate for brain metabolism. Due to the large size of neonatal brain in relation to body weight cerebral glucose consumption is particularly high. Postnatal hormonal changes have a central role in regulating glucose mobilization through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The initial glucagon surge is the key adaptive change which triggers the switch to glucose production. The control of insulin and glucagon secretion is of fundamental importance during first hours after birth. Children have a decreased tolerance to starvation when compared with adults, they are more prone to develop hypoglycaemia after short fasting. The faster rate in the fall of blood glucose and gluconeogenic substrates and rapid rate of ketogenesis are characteristic features of fasting adaptation in children.

  15. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha C.Pande

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  16. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    discussions which allowed to receive direct feedback from the point of view of different disciplines. This book is based on the contributions of that workshop and is intended to convey an overview of the different aspects involved in the prediction. The individual chapters are based on the presentations given...... EEG signals to predict upcoming hypoglycemic situations in real-time by employing artificial neural networks. The results of a 30-day long clinical study with the implanted device and the developed algorithm are presented. The chapter “Meta-Learning Based Blood Glucose Predictor for Diabetic...... on the net effect of meals on the blood glucose concentration. By assuming that all major unexplained glycemic excursions can be vi Preface attributed to oral glucose ingestion, a meal vector is estimated which significantly improves the mathematical model. Results are shown on three patients during...

  17. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  18. Blood glucose concentration in pediatric outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonviboon, W; Kijmahatrakul, W

    1996-04-01

    Blood glucose concentration was measured in 84 pediatric patients who were scheduled for outpatient surgery at Chulalongkorn Hospital. They were allocated into 3 groups according to their ages, group 1:less than 1 year of age, group 2:1 to 5 years of age and group 3:over 5 years. The fasting times were approximately 8-12 hours. All patients received standard general anesthesia under mask. No glucose solution was given during operation. Preoperative mean blood glucose were 91.09 +/- 17.34, 89.55 +/- 18.69 and 82.14 +/- 16.14 mg/dl in group 1, 2 and 3 while the postoperative mean glucose values were 129.07 +/- 37.90, 115.62 +/- 29.63 and 111.53 +/- 23.07 mg/dl respectively. The difference between pre- and post-operative values were statistically significant difference (P postoperative glucose values may be due to stress response from surgery and anesthesia. We would suggest that the parents give the fluid to their children according to our instructions in order to prevent dehydration and hypoglycemia especially in small infants.

  19. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner ...

  20. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  1. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Kamat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner AD5933. AD5933 is then interfaced with microcontroller LPC1768 using I2C bus for displaying reading on LCD. Results can also be stored in database using UART interface of LPC1768.

  2. Metabolic ketoacidosis with normal blood glucose: A rare complication of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Ullah; Noman Khan; Hassan Zeb; Hassan Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Ketoacidosis is a significant and often a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus seen mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as occasionally in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually manifests with high blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL, but euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as ketoacidosis associated with blood glucose level less than 250 mg/dL. Normal blood glucose in such patients results in significant delay in diagnosis and management of diabeti...

  3. In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Shao

    Full Text Available We here propose a novel Raman spectroscopy method that permits the noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration. To reduce the effects of the strong background signals produced by surrounding tissue and to obtain the fingerprint Raman lines formed by blood analytes, a laser was focused on the blood in vessels in the skin. The Raman spectra were collected transcutaneously. Characteristic peaks of glucose (1125 cm(-1 and hemoglobin (1549 cm(-1 were observed. Hemoglobin concentration served as an internal standard, and the ratio of the peaks that appeared at 1125 cm(-1 and 1549 cm(-1 peaks was used to calculate the concentration of blood glucose. We studied three mouse subjects whose blood glucose levels became elevated over a period of 2 hours using a glucose test assay. During the test, 25 Raman spectra were collected transcutaneously and glucose reference values were provided by a blood glucose meter. Results clearly showed the relationship between Raman intensity and concentration. The release curves were approximately linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. This noninvasive methodology may be useful for the study of blood glucose in vivo.

  4. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  5. Metabolic ketoacidosis with normal blood glucose: A rare complication of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saad; Khan, Noman; Zeb, Hassan; Tahir, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ketoacidosis is a significant and often a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus seen mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as occasionally in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually manifests with high blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL, but euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as ketoacidosis associated with blood glucose level less than 250 mg/dL. Normal blood glucose in such patients results in significant delay in diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis, thus increasing mortality and morbidity. We present a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis secondary to canagliflozin in a type 2 diabetic patient. PMID:27928503

  6. Metabolic ketoacidosis with normal blood glucose: A rare complication of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ullah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ketoacidosis is a significant and often a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus seen mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as occasionally in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually manifests with high blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL, but euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as ketoacidosis associated with blood glucose level less than 250 mg/dL. Normal blood glucose in such patients results in significant delay in diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis, thus increasing mortality and morbidity. We present a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis secondary to canagliflozin in a type 2 diabetic patient.

  7. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring through signal attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; de Freitas, Anderson Z.

    2016-03-01

    Development of non-invasive techniques for glucose monitoring is crucial to improve glucose control and treatment adherence in patients with diabetes. Hereafter, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) may offer a good alternative for portable glucometers, since it uses light to probe samples. Changes in the object of interest can alter the intensity of light returning from the sample and, through it, one can estimate the sample's attenuation coefficient (μt) of light. In this work, we aimed to explore the behavior of μt of mouse's blood under increasing glucose concentrations. Different samples were prepared in four glucose concentrations using a mixture of heparinized blood, phosphate buffer saline and glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with a blood glucometer, for reference. We have also prepared other samples diluting the blood in isotonic saline solution to check the effect of a higher multiple-scattering component on the ability of the technique to differentiate glucose levels based on μt. The OCT system used was a commercial Spectral Radar OCT with 930 nm central wavelength and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 100 nm. The system proved to be sensitive for all blood glucose concentrations tested, with good correlations with the obtained attenuation coefficients. A linear tendency was observed, with an increase in attenuation with higher values of glucose. Statistical difference was observed between all groups (p<0.001). This work opens the possibility towards a non-invasive diagnostic modality using OCT for glycemic control, which eliminates the use of analytes and/or test strips, as in the case with commercially available glucometers.

  8. A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Holt, Tim A; Khovanova, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles.

  9. Prediction methods for blood glucose concentration design, use and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, John; Renard, Eric; Re, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    This book tackles the problem of overshoot and undershoot in blood glucose levels caused by delay in the effects of carbohydrate consumption and insulin administration. The ideas presented here will be very important in maintaining the welfare of insulin-dependent diabetics and avoiding the damaging effects of unpredicted swings in blood glucose – accurate prediction enables the implementation of counter-measures. The glucose prediction algorithms described are also a key and critical ingredient of automated insulin delivery systems, the so-called “artificial pancreas”. The authors address the topic of blood-glucose prediction from medical, scientific and technological points of view. Simulation studies are utilized for complementary analysis but the primary focus of this book is on real applications, using clinical data from diabetic subjects. The text details the current state of the art by surveying prediction algorithms, and then moves beyond it with the most recent advances in data-based modeling o...

  10. Blood glucose rise following prenatal vitamins in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, S P; Jovanovic-Peterson, L; Peterson, C M

    1993-10-01

    Optimal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is directly related to glucose control of the mother. If prenatal vitamins cause a large glycemic excursion, then the best prenatal vitamin would be one that produces the lowest blood glucose. Nine GDM women participated in two, 8-day test periods. Each subject ingested one of six prenatal vitamin-mineral preparations, a placebo, or a sucrose capsule, in random order. Blood glucose was determined by the One Touch System at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. The sucrose capsule contained 1 g sucrose (equivalent to highest glucose/carbohydrate content of any prenatal vitamin). The placebo contained 1 g table salt in the same color capsule. Relative glycemic index (RGI, defined as the area under glucose curve for the test substance divided by the area under glucose curve for 1 g sucrose) and maximum rise of blood glucose above time 0 were calculated for each preparation. RGI was significantly elevated for all vitamins: TRN 3.86, Natalins Rx 3.00, Filibon Forte 2.16, Prenatal Formula 2.10, Materna 1.66, Placebo 1.33, Stuartnatal 1 + 1 1.16. Two thousand mg vitamin C (n = 4) resulted in an RGI of 1.37. In conclusion, ingestion of prenatal vitamins produces a rise in blood glucose greater than that seen following ingestion of sucrose equal to the carbohydrate content of prenatal vitamins. The cause of the blood glucose rise is not known, but it would appear prudent to prescribe a prenatal vitamin with a low RGI.

  11. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  12. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L Silverman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bernard L Silverman1, Christopher J Barnes2, Barbara N Campaigne3, Douglas B Muchmore31Alkermes, Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2i3 Statprobe, Ann Arbor, MI; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, inhaled insulin, cardiovascular disease, blood glucose

  13. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L;

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin-converti......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin...

  14. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  15. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  16. Glycated hemoglobin in camel: Minimal correlation with blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi Mohammad D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb in the blood of camel (Camelus dromedarius and cow (Bos taurus were analyzed and compared with human values. Camel displayed high blood glucose concentration (9.7±2.8 mM but a low level of glycated-Hb (3.4± 0.23%.Cow blood samples did not show sufficient variations in glucose concentrations (5.7±0.73 mM or glycated Hb levels (3.2± 0.11% compared to human values. The low glycation of camel Hb at higher glucose concentrations suggest that certain factors protect the Hb from glycation at high glucose concentrations. Camel Hb also exhibited a higher electrophoretic mobility than normal hemoglobin of human or cow. Camel Hb migrated at a rate corresponding to that of human Hb-C. Bioinformatics tools were used to explore the biochemical basis for the difference in camel Hb migratory position and its apparent resistance to glycation.

  17. [Analysis of blood glucose levels in 746 cases of schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, An-Ming; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    The levels of blood glucose of 746 inpatients with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis were assayed last 3 years and the results were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the pure chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients and normal population. However, there was a significant difference between the chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients with viral hepatitis and normal population.

  18. Impact of diet composition on blood glucose regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, W.R.; Baka, A.; Bjorck, I.; Delzenne, N.; Gao, D.; Griffiths, H.R.; Hadjilucas, E.; Juvonen, K.; Lahtinen, S.; Lansink, M.; van Loon, L.; Mykkanen, H.; Ostman, E.; Riccardi, G.; Vinoy, S.; Weickert, M.O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycaemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This

  19. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  20. Glucose predictability, blood capillary permeability, and glucose utilization rate in subcutaneous, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2013-11-01

    This study suggests an approach for the comparison and evaluation of particular compartments with modest experimental setup costs. A glucose level prediction model was used to evaluate the compartment's glucose transport rate across the blood capillary membrane and the glucose utilization rate by the cells. The glucose levels of the blood, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were obtained in experiments conducted on hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats. After the blood glucose level had undergone a rapid change, the experimenter attempted to reach a steady blood glucose level by manually correcting the glucose infusion rate and maintaining a constant insulin infusion rate. The interstitial fluid glucose levels of subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were evaluated to determine the reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level, the interstitial fluid glucose level predictability, the blood capillary permeability, the effect of the concentration gradient, and the glucose utilization rate. Based on these data, the glucose transport rate across the capillary membrane and the utilization rate in a particular tissue were determined. The rates obtained were successfully verified against positron emission tomography experiments. The subcutaneous tissue exhibits the lowest and the most predictable glucose utilization rate, whereas the skeletal muscle tissue has the greatest glucose utilization rate. In contrast, the visceral fat is the least predictable and has the shortest reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level. The reaction delays obtained for the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle tissue were found to be approximately equal using a metric based on the time required to reach half of the increase in the interstitial fluid glucose level.

  1. Blood glucose rise after lactose tolerance testing in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, D M; Mellits, E D; Chiu, F Y; Davis, L; Bayless, T M; Cordano, A

    1978-02-01

    Lactose tolerance tests are used clinically to screen children and infants. It is assumed that absorption of a lactose challenge in infants would occur in a predictable pattern prior to weaning. Twenty-one infants from 3 to 12 months of age were studied. The maximum blood glucose rise over fasting levels ranged from 11.0 to 62.0 mg/100 ml; the mean was 32.6 mg/100 ml. Six infants had a maximum rise of less than 20 mg/100 ml. Eleven infants (52%) had a maximum rise of greater than 30 mg/100 ml. Signs of intolerance were not noted in any subject. Weight and length were normally disturbed. Results indicate the variance in glucose rise existing within a population of infants growing normally and consuming milk. Gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption may influence the blood glucose rise after a lactose test. Established glucose levels used as an index to lactose absorption in older children and adults may not accurately reflect lactase activity in infants.

  2. Microbiosensors for determination of glucose in the blood sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鹏; 谭久彬; 孙凯

    2002-01-01

    Describes the general design of Microbiosensors for determination of glucose in blood sample for medical purpose as an important branch of medical analysis instrument discusses the fabrication of microbiosensors. By the technology of microfabrication, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and enzyme immobilization, stresses their properties, such as improvement in system efficiency, shorter analysis time reduction of reagent waste and reduction of device sizes, which makes them suitable for bed-side monitor of emergency patients.

  3. Analysis of algorithms for intensive care unit blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, B Wayne

    2007-11-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) blood glucose control algorithms were reviewed and analyzed in the context of linear systems theory and classical feedback control algorithms. Closed-loop performance was illustrated by applying the algorithms in simulation studies using an in silico model of an ICU patient. Steady-state and dynamic input-output analysis was used to provide insight about controller design and potential closed-loop performance. The proportional-integral-derivative, columnar insulin dosing (CID, Glucommander-like), and glucose regulation for intensive care patients (GRIP) algorithms were shown to have similar features and performance. The CID strategy is a time-varying proportional-only controller (no integral action), whereas the GRIP algorithm is a nonlinear controller with integral action. A minor modification to the GRIP algorithm was suggested to improve the closed-loop performance. Recommendations were made to guide control theorists on important ICU control topics worthy of further study.

  4. Mibefradil reduces blood glucose concentration in db/db mice

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    Yujie Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Numerous recent studies suggest that abnormal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i is a common defect in diabetic animal models and patients. Abnormal calcium handling is an important mechanism in the defective pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. T-type Ca2+ channel antagonists lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism remains unknown. METHODS: We examined the effect of the Ca2+ channel antagonist mibefradil on blood glucose in male db/db mice and phenotypically normal heterozygous mice by intraperitoneal injection. RESULTS: Mibefradil (15 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d. caused a profound reduction of fasting blood glucose from 430.92±20.46 mg/dl to 285.20±5.74 mg/dl in three days. The hypoglycemic effect of mibefradil was reproduced by NNC 55-0396, a compound structurally similar to mibefradil but more selective for T-type Ca2+ channels, but not by the specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Mibefradil did not show such hypoglycemic effects in heterozygous animals. In addition, triglycerides, basal insulin and food intake were significantly decreased by mibefradil treatment in the db/db mice but not in the controls. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining showed a significantly increased expression of T-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 in liver and brain tissues from db/db mice compared to those from heterozygous animals. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggest that T-type Ca2+ channels are potential therapeutic targets for antidiabetic drugs.

  5. Capillary bedside blood glucose measurement in neonates: missing a diagnosis of galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Öcal, Murat; Tanrıverdi, Sibel; Baysal, Birsen; Deniz, Ahmet; Öncel, Kahraman; Demirbilek, Hüseyin

    2015-03-01

    A number of factors may lead to inaccuracy in measurement of capillary blood glucose with a glucometer. Measurement of other carbohydrate molecules such as galactose and fructose along with glucose can potentially be a cause of error. We report a newborn patient who was referred to our hospital with conjugated bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and high capillary blood glucose levels measured with a glucometer. Simultaneous biochemical measurements revealed normal blood glucose levels. Further investigation led to a diagnosis of classical galactosemia. Capillary blood glucose level measured with glucometer also dropped to normal values following cessation of breastfeeding and initiation of feeding with a lactose-free formula.

  6. Comparisons of home blood glucose testing and glycated protein measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P D; Sherman, L D; O'Day, M R; Rognerud, C L; Ou, C N

    1992-04-01

    We examined the relationships between 4 glycated protein assays and home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) in 26 children with poorly-controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during a period of improved management. At 2 week intervals for 6 visits (12 weeks in total), HBGM records were collected and a blood sample was obtained for measurement of glycated proteins and glucose. Assays included glycated hemoglobin (GHb) and glycated serum proteins (GP) by boronate affinity chromatography, hemoglobin A1C by PolyCAT A high performance liquid chromatography (HAC) and fructosamine (FA). All 4 glycated protein levels declined significantly over the 12 week period. Significant correlations between the glycated proteins and HBGM were observed over 2 week intervals. None of the 4 assays were affected by the glucose level in the sample. Changes in mean HBGM readings over 2 week intervals were correlated with both FA and GP with wide prediction intervals. Over cumulative 2 week intervals, which may more accurately reflect longitudinal trends, all 4 glycated proteins were correlated with mean HBGM readings. At each cumulative interval, GHb and GP showed the largest variation with MBG, while FA showed the least variation with MBG. Our data indicate that of the 4 assays tested, FA has limited clinical values as compared to other glycated protein assays, whereas assays based on boronate affinity chromatography (GHb and GP) provide the most useful clinical indicators of short-term changes in glycemic control. The clinical utility of a new HPLC method for determination of glycated hemoglobins is also demonstrated.

  7. Influence of cholesterol on non-invasive blood glucose sensing studied with NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zhang, Lingling; Gong, Qiliang; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing body of studies suggesting that NIR spectroscopy is feasible to be used to non-invasive blood glucose sensing. However, previous results reported that blood components are very complicated and in which glucose concentration is relatively low. This feature limited the practical application of NIR spectroscopy to in vivo blood glucose detection. This talk aims to elucidate how the cholesterol influences blood glucose sensing. Spectroscopic measurements show that cholesterol appears the similar absorbance peaks to those of glucose within NIR range. Furthermore, PLS modelling results demonstrate that the measurement concentrations of glucose are on the high side while containing cholesterol. For example, when the cholesterol concentration is 200mg/dl, the measurement result of glucose with near-infrared spectroscopy will increase 7.961882mg/dl comparing to cholesterol-free glucose solution. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps to reduce cholesterol's effects.

  8. A Simple Laboratory Experiment to Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    2008-01-01

    A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter, if this is available This experiment is proposed for use by students in a general chemistry, biology, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry…

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GLUCOMETER AND LABORATORY GLUCOSE OXIDASE METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Hypoglycemia is one of the most common metabolic problems encountered in neonates. Hypoglycemia in neonates can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Hypoglycemia is known to be associated with brain dysfunction and neuromotor developmental retardation. The gl ucose oxidase method used in the laboratory for determining the blood glucose concentration is precise and specific for glucose. As it is usually performed in the main laboratory, the results are not available quickly enough for timely appropriate manageme nt. The glucometers are often used for blood glucose estimation in NICU. Many studies have shown that their results co - relate well with the laboratory measured glucose levels in the normoglycemic and hyperglycemic range but are not satisfactory in the lowe r range. OBJECTIVES: This is a prospective study done to determine the efficacy of glucometer in estimation of blood glucose levels in neonates in comparison with the laboratory values. METHOD S : 250 neonates admitted in NICU, KIMS hospital, Bangalore with varied symptomatology were enrolled in this study. Blood glucose estimation was done by glucometer and laboratory method using the same venous sample at the time of admission. For the last 50 cases glucometer estimation of capillary blood was also done. St atistical analysis was done by using Pearson correlation. Hypoglycemia was defined as blood glucose level 45mg%[0.756] and when the value is <45mg%, there is just a moderate correlation[0.417] . Though the pick - up rate of hypoglycemia by venous blood glucometer [28%] was slightly better compared to the capillary blood glucometer value [22%] , the overa ll pick - up rate of hypoglycemia by glucometer is very low compared to the laboratory method [56%]. CONCLUSION : The glucometer as a sole measuring device to screen neonatal hypoglycemia is not satisfactory and confirmation with the laboratory measurements o f plasma glucose is still of up most importance.

  10. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  11. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...

  12. Blood Glucose Variability and Outcomes in Critically Ill Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranje, Kirti Mahadeorao; Poddar, Banani; Bhriguvanshi, Arpita; Lal, Richa; Azim, Afzal; Singh, Ratender K.; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To find the incidence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose [BG] ≥150 mg/dl), hypoglycemia (BG ≤60 mg/dl), and variability (presence of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia) in critically ill children in the 1st week of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and their association with mortality, length of ICU stay, and organ dysfunction. Materials and Methods: The design was a retrospective observational cohort study. Consecutive children ≤18 years of age admitted from March 2003 to April 2012 in a combined adult and pediatric closed ICU. Relevant data were collected from chart review and hospital database. Results: Out of 258 patients included, isolated hyperglycemia was seen in 139 (53.9%) and was unrelated to mortality and morbidity. Isolated variability in BG was noted in 76 (29.5%) patients and hypoglycemia was seen in 9 (3.5%) patients. BG variability was independently associated with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome on multivariate analysis (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6–31.1). Those with BG variability had longer ICU stay (11 days vs. 4 days, on log-rank test, P = 0.001). Insulin use was associated with the occurrence of variability (adjusted OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.8–7.0). Conclusion: Glucose disorders were frequently observed in critically ill children. BG variability was associated with multiorgan dysfunction and increased ICU stay.

  13. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  14. Application of transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the measurement of blood glucose concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenliang Chen(陈文亮); Rong Liu(刘蓉); Houxin Cui(崔厚欣); Kexin Xu(徐可欣); Lina Lü(吕丽娜)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) light in the palm tissue are analyzed,and the principle and feasibility of using transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose detection are presented. An optical probe suitable for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum of human palm and a non-invasive blood glucose detection system using NIR spectroscopy are designed. Based on this system, oral glucose tolerance tests are performed to measure the blood glucose concentrations of two young healthy volunteers. The partial least square calibration model is then constructed by all individual experimental data. The final result shows that correlation coefficients of the two experiments between the predicted blood glucose concentrations and the reference blood glucose concentrations are 0.9870 and 0.9854, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction of full cross validation are 0.54 and 0.52 mmol/1, respectively.

  15. Blood glucose control using an artificial pancreas reduces the workload of ICU nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibu, Kiyo; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2012-03-01

    Blood glucose management is one of the important therapies in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, blood glucose management using the sliding-scale method increases the workload of ICU nurses. An artificial pancreas, STG-22, has been developed to continuously monitor blood glucose levels and to maintain them at appropriate levels. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that compared to conventional methods, blood glucose management using the STG-22 reduces the workload of ICU nurses and has a positive impact on awareness regarding the management of blood glucose. This study included 45 patients who underwent elective surgery and were treated at the ICU postoperatively. The patients were separated into the following two groups: (1) blood glucose was maintained using the STG-22 (AP group) and (2) blood glucose was maintained using the sliding-scale method (SS group). In addition, a questionnaire was developed for an awareness survey of ICU nurses (N = 20). The frequency of blood sampling and number of double checks were significantly lower in the AP group (1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 8.9 ± 8.1 times/admission, P blood glucose.

  16. A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clovis S; Anzinger, Joshua J; Butterfield, Tiffany R; McCune, Joseph M; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-08-12

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that can be activated by pathogens and inflammation associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases. Activation of monocytes induces effector functions and a concomitant shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism that is accompanied by increased glucose transporter expression. This increased glycolytic metabolism is also observed for trained immunity of monocytes, a form of innate immunological memory. Although in vitro protocols examining glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake by monocytes have been described, none have been examined by multi-parametric flow cytometry in whole blood. We describe a multi-parametric flow cytometric protocol for the measurement of fluorescent glucose analog 2-NBDG uptake in whole blood by total monocytes and the classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocyte subpopulations. This method can be used to examine glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake for total monocytes and monocyte subpopulations during homeostasis and inflammatory disease, and can be easily modified to examine glucose uptake for other leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations within blood.

  17. Postprandial blood glucose level in maintenance hemodialysis patients predicts post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Friedl, A; Batrice, A; Auinger, M; Wolzt, M; Hörl, W H

    2010-03-01

    Post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent complication after kidney transplantation. One-hundred-and-seven patients with kidney transplantation were screened for the occurrence of PTDM. Of these, full data sets from 49 subjects were available with documented glucose concentrations during maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and regular clinical follow-up of 7-34 months. For assessment of glucose metabolism the response to a standard meal during MHD was used in normoglycemic patients based on fasting blood glucose. Abnormal postprandial blood glucose concentration was defined as >140 mg/dl 2 h after food intake.Twelve end stage renal disease patients had abnormal postprandial blood glucose on MHD. All 12 subjects but also four MHD patients with normal postprandial and fasting blood glucose values developed PTDM. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that abnormal postprandial blood glucose is a strong predictor for PTDM (Hazard ratio: 42.3 (IQR: 7.9-227.2); p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose (94 vs. 100 mg/dl) was not different between MHD patients who did (n=16) or did not (n=33) develop PTDM.This study suggests that measurement of postprandial blood glucose during MHD identifies patients who develop PTDM after kidney transplantation. It should be used for screening of patients at risk.

  18. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  19. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard;

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent o...

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. ...

  1. Fasting blood glucose--a missing variable for GFR-estimation in type 1 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Bjornstad

    Full Text Available Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR is one of the current clinical methods for identifying risk for diabetic nephropathy in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Hyperglycemia is known to influence GFR in T1D and variability in blood glucose at the time of eGFR measurement could introduce bias in eGFR. We hypothesized that simultaneously measured blood glucose would influence eGFR in adults with T1D.Longitudinal multivariable mixed-models were employed to investigate the relationships between blood glucose and eGFR by CKD-EPI eGFRCYSTATIN C over 6-years in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 diabetes (CACTI study. All subjects with T1D and complete data including blood glucose and cystatin C for at least one of the three visits (n = 616, 554, and 521, respectively were included in the longitudinal analyses.In mixed-models adjusting for sex, HbA1c, ACEi/ARB, protein and sodium intake positive associations were observed between simultaneous blood glucose and eGFRCYSTATIN C (β±SE:0.14±0.04 per 10 mg/dL of blood glucose, p<0.0001, and hyperfiltration as a dichotomous outcome (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07 per 10 mg/dL of blood glucose, p = 0.02.In our longitudinal data in subjects with T1D, simultaneous blood glucose has an independent positive effect on eGFRCYSTATIN C. The associations between blood glucose and eGFRCYSTATIN C may bias the accurate detection of early diabetic nephropathy, especially in people with longitudinal variability in blood glucose.

  2. Accuracy of point-of-care blood glucose measurements in critically ill patients in shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garingarao, Carlo Jan Pati-An; Buenaluz-Sedurante, Myrna; Jimeno, Cecilia Alegado

    2014-09-01

    A widely used method in monitoring glycemic status of ICU patients is point-of-care (POC) monitoring devices. A possible limitation to this method is altered peripheral blood flow in patients in shock, which may result in over/underestimations of their true glycemic status. This study aims to determine the accuracy of blood glucose measurements with a POC meter compared to laboratory methods in critically ill patients in shock. POC blood glucose was measured with a glucose-1-dehydrogenase-based reflectometric meter. The reference method was venous plasma glucose measured by a clinical chemistry analyzer (glucose oxidase-based). Outcomes assessed were concordance to ISO 15197:2003 minimum accuracy criteria for glucose meters, bias in glucose measurements obtained by the 2 methods using Bland-Altman analysis, and clinical accuracy through modified error grid analysis. A total of 186 paired glucose measurements were obtained. ISO 2003 accuracy criteria were met in 95.7% and 79.8% of POC glucose values in the normotensive and hypotensive group, respectively. Mean bias for the normotensive group was -12.4 mg/dL, while mean bias in the hypotensive group was -34.9 mg/dL. POC glucose measurements within the target zone for clinical accuracy were 90.2% and 79.8% for the normotensive and hypotensive group, respectively. POC blood glucose measurements were significantly less accurate in the hypotensive subgroup of ICU patients compared to the normotensive group. We recommend a lower threshold in confirming POC blood glucose with a central laboratory method if clinically incompatible. In light of recently updated accuracy standards, we also recommend alternative methods of glucose monitoring for the ICU population as a whole regardless of blood pressure status.

  3. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city.METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288 of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics.RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively.CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved.

  4. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Mariana Cristina; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city. METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288) of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics. RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively. CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved. PMID:25493676

  5. Intraoperative blood glucose levels in neurosurgical patients : an evaluation of two fluid regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence that hyperglycaemia aggravates ischaemic cerebral injury, it has been suggested that blood glucose levels be kept within 200 mg/dL during intracranial neurosurgery. Hypoglycaemia, however, can be a serious problem if glucose-containing solutions are avoided during the first four hours, as suggested in some studies. In order to explore the possibility of administering glucose in moderation so that the blood glucose levels are within acceptable limits, but at the same time the risk of hyoglycaemia is eliminated, we compared two intraoperative fluid regimens. Of the 52 neurosurgical patients studied, 32 patients received alternately 500 ml of 5% dextrose in normal saline and Ringer′s lactate (DNS/RL Group and 18 patients received alternately 500 ml of Ringer′s lactate and normal saline (RL/NS Group. Blood glucose concentrations were determined at the end of each unit of fluid, until the patient received 4 units of fluid. In the DNS/RL group, blood glucose values peaked with the administration of each unit of DNS and tended to return towards the baseline with the subsequent RL, but remained higher than the previous control value. In the RL/NS group, there was a progressive increase in blood glucose values throughout the study period, but the increase was not statistically significant. The blood glucose levels were significantly different between the two groups after each unit of fluid except at the end of the fourth unit. Two patients in the RL/NS group had hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the DNS/RL regimen maintains blood glucose levels within acceptable limits while avoiding the risk of hyperglycaemia. Withholding glucose completely, lowers blood glucose levels, but carries a risk of hypoglycaemia in some patients.

  6. In vivo noninvasive measurement of preprandial and postprandial blood glucose using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xiyang; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Blood glucose concentration measurement is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. However, conventional glucose measurement methods are invasive and not suitable for real-time monitoring. This study demonstrated a noninvasive blood glucose measurement method using optical coherence tomography to image human lip in vivo. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive and depth-resolved technique capable of acquiring tissue structure images in real time. Human lip has very thin skin and is full of blood vessels, which is appropriate for noninvasive glucose measurement. To verify the feasibility of OCT for glucose concentration monitoring, two groups of OCT imaging data were obtained from human lips of normal people. In one group, OCT images of lip were acquired from people on an empty stomach. In the other group, the same sites of lip were observed by OCT 2 hours after breakfast. Evident differences were found from two groups of OCT images that correspond to preprandial glucose and 2- hour postprandial glucose, respectively. The relationship between OCT image and blood glucose concentration was investigated. The result indicates that OCT possesses considerable prospects in terms of noninvasive blood glucose measurement.

  7. Training to estimate blood glucose and to form associations with initial hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Riccardo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The will to eat is a decision associated with conditioned responses and with unconditioned body sensations that reflect changes in metabolic biomarkers. Here, we investigate whether this decision can be delayed until blood glucose is allowed to fall to low levels, when presumably feeding behavior is mostly unconditioned. Following such an eating pattern might avoid some of the metabolic risk factors that are associated with high glycemia. Results In this 7-week study, patients were trained to estimate their blood glucose at meal times by associating feelings of hunger with glycemic levels determined by standard blood glucose monitors and to eat only when glycemia was Conclusion Subjects could be trained to accurately estimate their blood glucose and to recognize their sensations of initial hunger at low glucose concentrations. These results suggest that it is possible to make a behavioral distinction between unconditioned and conditioned hunger, and to achieve a cognitive will to eat by training.

  8. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation...

  9. The Diabetes Assistant: A Smartphone-Based System for Real-Time Control of Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Keith-Hynes; Benton Mize; Antoine Robert; Jérôme Place

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and insulin must be injected daily to enable the body to metabolize glucose. Standard therapy for T1DM involves self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) several times daily with a blood glucose meter and injecting insulin via a syringe, pen or insulin pump. An “Artificial Pancreas” (AP) is a closed-loop control system that uses a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), a...

  10. Control of Blood Glucose for People with Type 1 Diabetes: an in Vivo Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    variations of patient's physiology and lack of accuracy of glucose sensors. In this paper we design and discuss an algorithm for overnight closed-loop control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The algorithm is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). We use an oset-free autoregressive model......Since continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology and insulin pumps have improved recent years, a strong interest in a closed-loop articial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes has arisen. Presently, a fully automated controller of blood glucose must face many challenges, such as daily...

  11. A meta-analysis of blood glucose effects on human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We identified 42 studies relating to 4 dimensions of decision making: willingness to pay, willingness to work, time discounting, and decision style. We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money. Low levels of blood glucose also increase the tendency to make more intuitive rather than deliberate decisions. However, this effect was only observed in situations unrelated to food. We conclude that blood glucose has domain-specific effects, influencing decision making differently depending on the relevance of the situation to acquiring food. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  13. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein and the mesen......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...... and the mesenteric artery and a flow probe around the portal vein to allow assessment of nutrient absorption using Fick's principle. In Exp. 1, six sows (mean LW = 202 ± 28 kg) were fed three diets containing 517, 216 or 225 g/kg DM of starch, respectively. In Exp. 2, six female pigs (mean LW = 59 ± 2 kg) were fed...... three different diets with similar contents of starch (470-506 g/kg DM). The diets in both studies differed regarding amount and solubility of fibre. Blood samples were collected repeatedly 0-10 h after morning feeding. Glucose was measured in whole blood using a glucometer (Accu-Chek®) and in plasma...

  14. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-07-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  15. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...

  16. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients.

  17. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  18. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Mathuradas Mohota College of Sciences, Nagpur-440009 (India); Dahikar, P. B., E-mail: pbdahikar@rediffmail.com [Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  19. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  20. Evaluation of artificial pancreas technology for continuous blood glucose monitoring in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Lee, Peter; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Nozawa, Satoshi; Azakami, Daigo; Momota, Yutaka; Makino, Yuki; Matsubara, Takako; Osaka, Motohisa; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2011-06-01

    Artificial pancreas technology, involving "closed-loop" controls with real-time blood glucose monitoring, has been increasing in reliability as its potential for clinical use and application grows. One such device, based on this technology, is the STG-22 (Nikkiso Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) artificial pancreas apparatus. In order to assess the reliability and accuracy of the device for measuring blood glucose, it is important to compare its readings to those obtained using a 'gold standard' method, such as the hexokinase method. Therefore, in the present study, canine blood [glucose] measurements using the STG-22 were compared to those obtained using a previously established commercial reagent, Quickauto-Neo GLU-HK. Furthermore, two different sample types (whole blood versus plasma constituent) were compared to determine which sample type results in more accurate and optimal readings with the STG-22. Given that the STG-22 was not primarily designed for canine blood samples, results for canine blood samples were not accurate. Measurements performed by the STG-22 with whole blood were significantly lower than reference [glucose] counterparts. Alternatively, an opposite trend was observed with plasma measurements that were significantly higher. A conversion format using the following formula, Hexokinase [glucose] = STG-22 [glucose] × 1.407 + 1.532, was observed with canine samples in our study.

  1. Influence of blood glucose on the expression of glucose transporter proteins 1 and 3 in the brain of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; FU Chun-li; ZHANG Wen-wen; CHEN Li; XIAN Yu-xin; ZHANG Li; LAI Hong; HOU Xin-guo; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; XU Fu-yu; SONG Jun

    2007-01-01

    Background The delivery of glucose from the blood to the brain involves its passage across the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), and then across the neural cell membranes, which is mediated by GLUT3. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic influence of hyperglycemia on the expression of these GLUTs by measuring their expression in the brain at different blood glucose levels in a rat model of diabetes. This might help to determine the proper blood glucose threshold level in the treatment of diabetic apoplexy.Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in 30 rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic group without blood glucose control (group DM1), diabetic rats treated with low dose insulin (group DM2),and diabetic rats treated with high dose insulin (group DM3). The mRNA and protein levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively.Results Compared with normal control rats, the GLUT1 mRNA was reduced by 46.08%, 29.80%, 19.22% (P<0.01) in DM1, DM2, and DM3 group, respectively; and the GLUT3 mRNA was reduced by 75.00%, 46.75%, and 17.89% (P<0.01)in DM1, DM2, and DM3 group, respectively. The abundance of GLUT1 and GLUT3 proteins had negative correlation with the blood glucose level (P<0.01). The density of microvessels in the brain of diabetic rats did not change significantly compared with normal rats.Conclusions Chronic hyperglycemia downregulates GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the rat brain, which is not due to the decrease of the density of microvessels. The downregulation of GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression might be the adaptive reaction of the body to prevent excessive glucose entering the cell that may lead to cell damage.

  2. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/kg BW 30 minutes later. Blood glucose levels were assessed using glucometer kit, from zero to 3 hours, at ½ hourly interval. These results analysed by one way ANOVA showed there were significant difference (p<0.05 between Ethanol extract of avocado leaves treated with mice (0.490, 0.980 g/kg BW and control groups. Furthermore, when Tukey’s test was performed, avocado treated mice (1.960g/kg BW reduce glucose level to 64.27%. The effectiveness of this treatment was not significantly different to those treated with glipizide (68.50%.

  3. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Mohammed S

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  4. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  5. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  6. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  7. High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or fatigue Blurred vision More frequent infections Slow healing cuts and sores Unexplained weight loss What causes high blood glucose? Too much food Too little exercise or physical activity Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin ...

  8. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos T Tsaousis

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study confirms that dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels are prevalent among the rural populations of Greece and therefore informative campaigns and structured screening programs are required to promote preventive health care.

  9. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  10. VIRTUAL DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE OBTAINED FROM FED RATS AND FROM 24-HOUR FASTED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Treis Trindade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The normal blood glucose in rats is 100 mg glucose / 100 ml of blood plasma. After a 24hhour fast, a decrease around 30% of this value occurs. This reduction can reach 45% in a prolonged fast. Several processes controlled by neurohormonal mechanisms prevent a more pronounced decrease in blood glucose of animals subjected to fast. These processes are hepatic glycogenolysis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, decrease of glucose utilization and increase of fatty acids use by muscle tissue, and ketone bodies utilization by the central nervous system. OBJECTIVES: This study presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which simulates the determination of blood glucose (glycemia obtained from fed rats and from 24-hour fasted rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first, cartoons were planned in order to show the biochemical and methodology fundamentals. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: The animated simulation of a standard glucose curve, followed by virtual evaluation of glucose in blood plasma samples were developed, associated with some questions. This object has been used by students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS since second semester of 2009. The navigation features, design and interactivity have been evaluated as excellent by about 80% of them. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this learning object can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/dosagemglicemia/

  11. Effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumi; Ogata, Hitomi; Omi, Naomi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Hibi, Masanobu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an association between breakfast skipping and body weight gain, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Time when meal is consumed affects postprandial increase in energy expenditure and blood glucose, and breakfast skipping may reduce 24 h energy expenditure and elevate blood glucose level. The present study evaluated the effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose. The skipped breakfast was compensated by following big meals at lunch and supper. In a randomized repeated-measure design with or without breakfast, eight males stayed twice in a room-size respiratory chamber. Blood glucose was recorded with a continuous glucose monitoring system. Breakfast skipping did not affect 24 h energy expenditure, fat oxidation and thermic effect of food, but increased overall 24 h average of blood glucose (83 ± 3 vs 89 ± 2 mg/dl, P breakfast skipping. These observations suggest that changes in glucose homeostasis precede that of energy balance, in the potential sequence caused by breakfast skipping, if this dietary habit has any effect on energy balance.:

  12. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  13. Glucometer as a chairside device to assess blood glucose in periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Bala Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common finding in the medical history of patients receiving treatment for periodontal disease. The incidence of diabetes is on the rise worldwide. Virtually, every dentist and especially the periodontist are likely to encounter an increasing number of undiagnosed diabetic patients. The conventional laboratory methods employed to detect blood glucose are time consuming and require elaborative equipment. The advent of blood glucose monitors allows the clinician to assess blood glucose at the chair side. Materials and Methods: The use of gingival capillary blood as a marker for blood glucose estimation using glucometer against the conventional laboratory method has been assessed in 60 diabetics and 70 controls. Results: The correlation between gingival and finger-stick blood was r = 0.996, P<0.001 in diabetics and controls. Correlation between gingival and laboratory method was r = 0.994, P<0.001 in cases and controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that capillary blood from the outer surface of gingiva provide an acceptable source for measuring blood glucose.

  14. Blood glucose regulation mechanism in depressive disorder animal model during hyperglycemic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Min; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-06-01

    Depression is more common among diabetes people than in the general population. In the present study, blood glucose change in depression animal model was characterized by various types of hyperglycemia models such as d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and drug-induced hyperglycemia models. First, the ICR mice were enforced into chronic restraint stress for 2h daily for 2 weeks to produce depression animal model. The animals were fed with d-glucose (2g/kg), forced into restraint stress for 30min, or administered with clonidine (5μg/5μl) supraspinally or spinally to produce hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level in depression group was down-regulated compared to that observed in the normal group in d-glucose-fed-, restraint stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia models. The up-regulated corticosterone level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group while the up-regulation of plasma corticosterone level is further elevated after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration in the depression group. The up-regulated insulin level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group. On the other hand, blood corticosterone level in depression group was up-regulated compared to the normal group after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration. Whereas the insulin level in depression group was not altered when mice were administered clonidine i.t. or i.c.v. Our results suggest that the blood glucose level in depression group is down-regulated compared to the normal group during d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia in mice. The down-regulation of the blood glucose level might be one of the important pathophysiologic changes in depression.

  15. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  16. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  17. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  18. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  19. Photoacoustic blood glucose and skin measurement based on optical scattering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllyla, Risto A.

    2002-07-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose determination has been investigated by more than 100 research groups in the world during the past fifteen years. The commonly optical methods are based on the capacity of near-IR light to penetrate a few hundreds micrometers or a few millimeters into human tissue where it interacts with glucose. A change of glucose concentration may modify the optical parameters in tissue, with the result that its glucose concentration can be extracted by analyzing the received optical signals. This paper demonstrates that glucose affects on the scattering coefficient of human blood, by applying the streak camera and pulsed photoacoustic techniques; and drinking water seems also affecting on PA signal from skin surface.

  20. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakmak HA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Altug Cakmak,1 Burcu Dincgez Cakmak,2 Ayse Ender Yumru,3 Serkan Aslan,4 Asim Enhos,1 Ali Kemal Kalkan,4 Ebru Inci Coskun,5 Abdullah Serdar Acikgoz,6 Suat Karatas3 1Department of Cardiology, Mustafakemalpasa Government Hospital, Bursa, 2Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Rize Kackar Government Hospital, Rize, 3Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Inonu University, Malatya, 6Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups.Results: Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003, and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001 were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001, and

  1. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  2. Proportional Insulin Infusion in Closed-Loop Control of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasman, Johan

    2017-01-01

    A differential equation model is formulated that describes the dynamics of glucose concentration in blood circulation. The model accounts for the intake of food, expenditure of calories and the control of glucose levels by insulin and glucagon. These and other hormones affect the blood glucose level in various ways. In this study only main effects are taken into consideration. Moreover, by making a quasi-steady state approximation the model is reduced to a single nonlinear differential equation of which parameters are fit to data from healthy subjects. Feedback provided by insulin plays a key role in the control of the blood glucose level. Reduced β-cell function and insulin resistance may hamper this process. With the present model it is shown how by closed-loop control these defects, in an organic way, can be compensated with continuous infusion of exogenous insulin. PMID:28060898

  3. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... was positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and blood glucose and inversely with very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride. Association with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), diastolic and systolic blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index were inconsistent...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...

  4. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : Professional Advice and Daily Practice of Patients With Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; van der Bijl, Jaap J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the advice given by diabetes educators in Europe, and the daily practice of Dutch patients with diabetes regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood and other aspects concerning self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Method During a diabetes conference in

  5. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  6. Effect of mitiglinide combined laser photocoagulation on blood glucose, blood lipid and vascular endothelial function in diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Yan Fan; Gui-Jun Luo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of mitiglinide combined laser photocoagulation on blood glucose, blood lipid and vascular endothelial function in diabetic retinopathy.Methods:A total of 106 patients with diabetic retinopathy treated in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were selected and assigned into the separate group and combined group. Fifty-three patients in the separate group only received oral mitiginide, while other 53 patients in the combined group received oral mitiglinide and laster photocoagulation surgery. Before and after treatment, the FBG, 2hPBG, HbA1c, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ET-1, VEGF, PEDF, ICAM-1, FMD of patients in the two groups were analyzed.Results: After treatment, the blood glucose and blood lipid indexes of patients in the two groups were improved significantly, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The ET-1, ICAM-1 and VEGF of patients in the two groups decreased, and the decrease of the combined group was more distinctly. The PEDF and FMD in the two groups all increased, and the combined group changed more obviously. The regression of the blood vessel and the recovery of visual acuity in the combined group were better than the separate group.Conclusions:Mitiglinide combined with laser photocoagulation can effectively improve the level of blood glucose and blood lipid, promote vascular endothelial function and inhibit the formation of retinal neovascularization so as to improve the visual acuity level.

  7. Comparison of Blood Glucose Values Using Two Glucose Meters and Standard Laboratory Method in Hospitalized Patients in a Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Aghakachoei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with a worldwide prevalence and its complications can be prevented with close monitoring of blood glucose. Quality of blood glucose monitoring utilizing glucometers in Iranian hospitalized patients has not been well published in the literature. We evaluated the accuracy and consistency of the results of two devices compared with the standard laboratory method used for measuring glucose levels in a teaching hospital.Methods: In this study 100 patients with the average age of 57.5 ±17.7 years were randomly selected from 19 wards and their blood glucose were simultaneously measured using Accu-Chek Active®(1 and Cleverchek®(2 (commonly used in the wards and the conventional laboratory method. Calibration was performed on both devices.Results: Absolute Mean Difference of the devices 1 and 2 from the laboratory values were 24.3±2.4,and 38.5±4.5, respectively (P: 0.003. Correlation coefficient of the obtained values by glucometers1 and 2 with lab, were 0.82 and 0.52, respectively. Calibration of the devices showed that device 1 was the most consistent device with the laboratory values, and Pearson correlation coefficient between the obtained values as a result of four reiterations for each sample in each device showed that the highest coefficient belonged to the device 1 and the least belonged to the device 2 used in the Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments.Conclusion: The device 2 used in different wards of the hospital must be calibrated periodically. Furthermore, the device 1 generated closest results to the ones obtained through the laboratory.

  8. Effects of Different Blood Sampling Methods on Value of Blood Glucose Measured by Rapid Blood Glucose Meter%采血方法对快速血糖测定仪测量值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东荣

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同采血方法对快速血糖测定仪测量值的影响。方法通过对60例糖尿病患者采用3种不同的采血方法,即自然流出法、热水热敷按摩法和手指挤血法,进行末梢血糖浓度的快速测定,同时利用大型生化分析仪测定其静脉血血糖浓度。结果自然流出法测定血糖值和静脉血糖值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),热水热敷按摩和手指挤血法测定血糖值均显著低于静脉血糖值,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论临床上使用快速血糖仪检测血糖值时,为保证结果的准确性,宜采用自然流出法采取末梢血。%ObjectiveTo assess the inlfuence of different methods of blood sampling on the results tested by rapid blood glucose meter.Methods Blood glucose of 60 patients with diabetes were tested by rapid blood glucose meter through 3 different methods of blood sampling, and compared with the value of blood glucose measured by taking glucose oxidation enzyme from venous blood.Results There was no statistical signiifcance in value of blood glucose between natural effusion group and venous blood (P>0.05). The values of blood glucose in hot water massage group and finger squeezing group were remarkably lower than those in venous blood group (P<0.05).Conclusion The natural blood out flow of fingers is the better way when value of blood glucose measured by rapid blood glucose meter in clinic.

  9. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  10. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  11. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  12. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaousis, Konstantinos T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study conducted as part of a screening program for the promotion of community health in the primary care setting of Ormos Korthi in Andros, Greece. The objective of this study was to identify the levels of glucose and total cholesterol in individuals without major cardiovascular problems in order to identify cases of undetected dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels, in a rural population located in the southern part of Andros Island, Greece. Methods: In total, 242 in...

  13. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated.

  14. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author).

  15. Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose sensing using optical coherence tomography technique: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V; Motamedi, Massoud; Ashitkov, Taras V; Esenaliev, Rinat O

    2003-05-21

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients would significantly reduce complications and mortality associated with this disease. In this paper, we experimentally and theoretically studied specificity of noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. OCT images and signals were obtained from skin of Yucatan micropigs and New Zealand rabbits. Obtained results demonstrate that: (1) several body osmolytes may change the refractive index mismatch between the interstitial fluid (ISF) and scattering centres in tissue, however the effect of the glucose is approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher; (2) an increase of the ISF glucose concentration in the physiological range (3-30 mM) may decrease the scattering coefficient by 0.22% mM(-1) due to cell volume change; (3) stability of the OCT signal slope is dependent on tissue heterogeneity and motion artefacts; and (4) moderate skin temperature fluctuations (+/- 1 degree C) do not decrease accuracy and specificity of the OCT-based glucose sensor, however substantial skin heating or cooling (several degrees C) significantly change the OCT signal slope. These results suggest that the OCT technique may provide blood glucose concentration monitoring with sufficient specificity under normal physiological conditions.

  16. Blood Glucose Prediction Algorithms for Hypoglycemic and/or Hyperglycemic Alerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gireesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM sensors able to monitor blood glucose concentration continuously (i.e. with a reading every 1-5 min for several days (up to 7 consecutive days, entered clinical research. The availability of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM sensors allows development of new strategies for the treatment of diabetes. CGM sensors are of two types, noninvasive (NI-CGM or minimally-invasive (MI-CGM. Irrespective of the type, CGM sensors can become smart by providing them with algorithms able to generate alerts, say, 20-30 min ahead of time, when glucose concentration is predicted to exceed the normal range thresholds (70-180 mg/dL. Such alerts would allow diabetes patients to take precautionary measures to prevent hypo/hyperglycemia. In this paper we review blood glucose prediction algorithms such as first-order autoregressive( AR(1 , Kalman Filtering and Feed Forward Neural Network. All these algorithms have demonstrated that blood glucose can be predicted ahead in time.

  17. [Achievement of the noninvasive measurement for human blood glucose with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Ding, Dong; Song, Li-qiang; Gu, Lin-na; Yang, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo

    2005-06-01

    The noninvasive measurement of human blood glucose was achieved with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method. The thumb fingertip NIR diffusion reflectance spectra of six different age healthy volunteers were collected using Nexus-870 and its NIR fiber port smart accessory. The test was implemented with changing the blood glucose concentration for the limosis and satiation of every volunteer. The calibration model was set up using PLS method with the smoothing, baseline correction and first derivatives pretreatment spectrum in the 7500-8500 cm(-1) region for single volunteer, the same age combination and that of different age. When the spectrum was obtained, the actual blood glucose value of every spectrun sample was demarcated using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The correlation between the calibration value and true value for single volunteer is better than that for the combination of volunteers, the correlative coefficients are all over 0.90471, RMSECs are all less than 0.171.

  18. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannon Mary C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet. Methods This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes. Results We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb. A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar

  19. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  20. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  1. Pinitol from soybeans reduces postprandial blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Jung-In; Yoon, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jae Cherl; Cha, In-June

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol (D-pinitol), purified from soybean, on the postprandial blood glucose response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was examined. Fifteen Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men, eight women; 60.3 +/- 3.1 years old) ingested cooked white rice containing 50 g of available carbohydrate with or without prior ingestion of soy pinitol. Pinitol was given either as a 1.2 g dose at 0, 60, 120, or 180 minutes prior to rice ingestion, or as a 0.6 g dose at 60 minutes prior to rice ingestion. Capillary blood glucose levels were monitored for 4 hours after rice consumption. The ingestion of 1.2 g of pinitol 60 minutes prior to rice consumption controlled postprandial capillary blood glucose most effectively, significantly diminishing the postprandial increase in plasma glucose levels measured at 90 and 120 minutes after rice consumption (P pinitol and rice was significantly lower than that for subjects who consumed only rice (P pinitol had no apparent effect on postprandial insulin levels. Therefore, soybean-derived pinitol may be useful in controlling postprandial increases in blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  3. Lanthanides' enhancing absorption of insulin and reduction of blood glucose of rat by pulmonary administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To explore the possibility of lanthanides as the enhancer of insulin absorption, the promoting effects of lanthanide ions on the absorption of intrapulmonary delivered insulin and reduction of blood glucose were investigated by means of two approaches, preadministration and coadministration of lanthanide ions with insulin. The results indicate that, compared with the results of those given insulin only, lanthanide ions can effectively enhance the level of insulin and the reduction of glucose level in blood. These effects are dependent on lanthanide species and their concentrations. The mechanism was discussed.

  4. Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurdan Acar,1 Hamit Ozcelik,1 Arif Alper Cevik,1 Engin Ozakin,1 Goknur Yorulmaz,2 Nur Kebapci,2 Ugur Bilge,3 Muzaffer Bilgin4 1Emergency Department, 2Endocrinology Department, 3Family Medicine Department, 4Biostatistics Department, Medical School, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Aim: In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over.Method: We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009.Results: The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients.Conclusion: In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in

  5. PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule for diabetic blood glucose management under nonmeal announcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy, S D; Quek, C; Lai, E M-K; Cinar, A

    2010-03-01

    Therapeutically, the closed-loop blood glucose-insulin regulation paradigm via a controllable insulin pump offers a potential solution to the management of diabetes. However, the development of such a closed-loop regulatory system to date has been hampered by two main issues: 1) the limited knowledge on the complex human physiological process of glucose-insulin metabolism that prevents a precise modeling of the biological blood glucose control loop; and 2) the vast metabolic biodiversity of the diabetic population due to varying exogneous and endogenous disturbances such as food intake, exercise, stress, and hormonal factors, etc. In addition, current attempts of closed-loop glucose regulatory techniques generally require some form of prior meal announcement and this constitutes a severe limitation to the applicability of such systems. In this paper, we present a novel intelligent insulin schedule based on the pseudo self-evolving cerebellar model articulation controller (PSECMAC) associative learning memory model that emulates the healthy human insulin response to food ingestion. The proposed PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule requires no prior meal announcement and delivers the necessary insulin dosage based only on the observed blood glucose fluctuations. Using a simulated healthy subject, the proposed PSECMAC insulin schedule is demonstrated to be able to accurately capture the complex human glucose-insulin dynamics and robustly addresses the intraperson metabolic variability. Subsequently, the PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule is employed on a group of type-1 diabetic patients to regulate their impaired blood glucose levels. Preliminary simulation results are highly encouraging. The work reported in this paper represents a major paradigm shift in the management of diabetes where patient compliance is poor and the need for prior meal announcement under current treatment regimes poses a significant challenge to an active lifestyle.

  6. Classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Li, Gang; Yan, Wen-Juan; Lin, Ling

    2014-11-01

    Developing noninvasive blood glucose monitoring method is an to immense need to alleviate the pain and suffering of diabetics associated with the frequent pricking of skin for taking blood sample. A hybrid algorithm for multivariate calibration is proposed to improve the prediction performance of classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy noninvasively. The algorithm is based on wavelet prism modified uninformative variable elimination approach (WP-mUVE) combined with least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), named as WP-mUVE-LSSVM. The method is successfully applied to diabetic classification experiment (in vivo) and blood glucose concentration measurement experiment (in vivo) respectively. Human tongue is selected as the measuring site in this study. To evaluate effectiveness of pretreatment method and quality of calibration models, several usually used pretreatment methods and kernel functions of LSSVM are introduced comparing with our method. Higher quality data is obtained by our pretreatment method owing to the elimination of varying background and noise of spectra data simultaneously. Better prediction accuracy and adaptability are obtained by LSSVM model with radial basis kernel function. The results indicate that WP-mUVE-LSSVM holds promise for the classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively based on human tongue using NIR spectroscopy.

  7. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  8. Glycemic index and postprandial blood glucose response to Japanese strawberry jam in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotobi, Tomoka; Fukuhara, Kimiaki; Inage, Hiroko; Kimura, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 30 healthy adults the glycemic index (GI) of five strawberry jams made from various sugar compositions. The jam containing the highest ratio of glucose showed a high GI, while that containing a high ratio of fructose, a jam made from polydextrose, showed a low GI. There was a high correlation (r=0.969, p=0.006) between the GI and the predicted GI calculated from the sugar composition of the jams. Moreover, the influence on postprandial blood glucose response after an intake of only 20 g of jam and one slice of bread with 20 g jam was measured in 8 healthy adults. The blood glucose level after an intake of 20 g of the high GI jam containing the high glucose ratio was higher than that of other jams at 15 min, but there was no significant difference after 30 min. Regardless of whether the GI was low or high, differences in the jams were not observed in the postprandial blood glucose level or the area under the curve after eating either one slice of bread (60 g) or one slice of bread with less than 20 g of jam.

  9. Melatonin Signaling Controls the Daily Rhythm in Blood Glucose Levels Independent of Peripheral Clocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Owino

    Full Text Available Melatonin is rhythmically secreted by both the pineal gland and retina in a circadian fashion, with its peak synthesis occurring during the night. Once synthesized, melatonin exerts its effects by binding to two specific G-protein coupled receptors-melatonin receptor type 1(MT1 and melatonin receptor type 2(MT2. Recent studies suggest the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis; however the ability of melatonin signaling to impart timing cues on glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report that the removal of MT1 or MT2 in mice abolishes the daily rhythm in blood glucose levels. Interestingly, removal of melatonin receptors produced small effects on the rhythmic expression patterns of clock genes within skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the loss of the daily rhythm in blood glucose observed in MT1(-/- and MT2(-/- mice does not occur as a consequence of 'disrupted' clocks within insulin sensitive tissues. Finally our results highlight a diurnal contribution of melatonin receptor signaling in the daily regulation of blood glucose levels.

  10. Effect of training on the performance of blood glucose monitoring using a reagent strip (Glucoprofil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Starostina, E G; Antsiferov, M B

    1990-11-01

    A relatively simple, new test-strip for blood-glucose monitoring, the Glucoprofil strip with a reaction-zone of film-foil, was evaluated by testing 100 different blood glucose concentrations between 2.1 and 29.7 mmol/l. The results were obtained visually before and after training to read the color changes of the strip according to the scale on the strip-container. Plasma glucose measurements with the Beckman Glucose-Analyzer were used for reference. The results show that the Glucoprofil-strip readings correlated well with the reference method (r = 0.97), thorough training provided. The mean deviation of the strip results was less than 1 mmol/l. Similar results were obtained using another blood glucose strip, the Haemoglukotest 20-800 R. Our study indicates that the performance of the Glucoprofil strip is satisfactory, and hence the strip may be useful for clinical purposes. Consistent with previous reports we could demonstrate that training improved the reading results of the Glucoprofil strip.

  11. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  12. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management.

  13. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2011-02-04

    Abstract Background To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Results Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  14. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. RESULTS: Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  15. Determination of time delay between blood and interstitial adipose tissue glucose concentration change by microdialysis in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, KJC; Schoonen, AJM

    2001-01-01

    For the development and use of subcutaneous glucose sensors it is important to know the time lag between changes in blood glucose and subcutaneous interstitial glucose concentration. To determine the time lag we inserted a microdialysis probe into the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy

  16. Feasibility of non-invasive optical blood-glucose detection using overtone circular dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Hokr, Brett H; Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most debilitating and costly diseases currently plaguing humanity. It is a leading cause of death and dismemberment in the world, and we know how to treat it. Accurate, continuous monitoring and control of blood glucose levels via insulin treatments are widely known to mitigate the majority of detrimental effects caused by the disease. The primary limitation of continuous glucose monitoring is patient non-compliance due to the unpleasant nature of "finger-stick" testing methods. This limitation can be largely, or even completely, removed by non-invasive testing methods. In this report, we demonstrate the vibrational overtone circular dichroism properties of glucose and analyze its use as a method of non-invasive glucose monitoring, capable of assuaging this trillion dollar scourge.

  17. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  18. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  19. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    : Diabetes confers about a two-fold excess risk for a wide range of vascular diseases, independently from other conventional risk factors. In people without diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration is modestly and non-linearly associated with risk of vascular disease. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation......, UK Medical Research Council, and Pfizer....

  20. Effect of miglitol (BAY m-1099) on fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sels, J P; Kingma, P J; Wolffenbuttel, B H; Menheere, P P; Branolte, J H; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose values are increased due to increased glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. As miglitol (BAY m-1099), an absorbable alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, can inhibit glycogenolysis, we investigated whether 200 mg miglitol ingested at bedtime could

  1. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  2. Bihormonal control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tárnik, Marían; Murgaš, Ján;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a bihormonal artificial pancreas (AP) for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) designed to provide a safe blood glucose control with minimal use of glucagon. The control algorithm uses insulin as well as glucagon to prevent hyper- and hypoglycemia. We employ a novel prediction...

  3. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in tablet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (ZODIAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanno; Hortensius, J.; Logtenberg, Susan; Slingerland, R. J.; Groenier, K. H.; Houweling, S. T.; Gans, R. O. B.; van Ballegooie, E; Bilo, H. J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whether self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not using insulin is questionable. Our aim was to investigate the effects of SMBG in patients with T2DM who were in persistent moderate glycaemic control whilst not

  4. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  5. Higher Blood Glucose within the Normal Range Is Associated with More Severe Strokes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Rolf J; Ratan, Rajiv R; Reding, Michael J;

    2012-01-01

    in normoglycemic patients with ischemic stroke in a median of 7 days after stroke when the initial glycemic stress response has resolved. Method and Material. Included were 361 nondiabetic ischemic stroke patients with admission fasting blood glucose within 70-130 mg/dL admitted into an acute stroke rehabilitation...

  6. Bihormonal model predictive control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tarnik, Marian; Murgas, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a bihormonal control system that controls blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We use insulin together with glucagon to mitigate the negative effects of hyper- and hypoglycemia. The system consists of a Kalman filter, a micro-bolus insulin and glucagon...

  7. Self-monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy: indications and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is an important tool to treat diabetes during pregnancy. However, proper implementation of SMBG in pregnant women requires understanding of its applications and limitations. This article reviews issues related to the implementation, efficacy, and accuracy of SMBG and discusses factors that can confound results of SMBG during pregnancy.

  8. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  9. Tracking blood glucose and predicting prediabetes in Chinese children and adolescents: a prospective twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Wang

    Full Text Available We examined the tracking of blood glucose, the development of prediabetes, and estimated their genetic contributions in a prospective, healthy, rural Chinese twin cohort. This report includes 1,766 subjects (998 males, 768 females aged 6-21 years at baseline who completed a 6-year follow-up study. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed for all subjects at both baseline and follow-up. We found that subjects with low fasting plasma glucose (FPG or 2 h post-load glucose (PG levels at baseline tended to remain at the low level at follow-up. Subjects in the top tertile of baseline plasma glucose tended to have a higher risk of developing prediabetes at follow-up compared to the low tertile: in males, 37.6% vs. 27.6% for FPG and 37.2% vs. 25.7% for 2hPG, respectively; in females, 31.0% vs. 15.4% for FPG and 28.9% vs. 15.1% for 2 h PG, respectively. Genetic factors explained 43% and 41% of the variance of FPG, and 72% and 47% for impaired fasting glucose for males and females, respectively; environmental factors substantially contribute to 2hPG status and impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, in this cohort of healthy rural Chinese children and adolescents, we demonstrated that both FPG and 2hPG tracked well and was a strong predictor of prediabetes. The high proportion of children with top tertile of blood glucose progressed to prediabetes, and the incidence of prediabetes has a male predominance. Genetic factors play more important role in fasting than postload status, most of which was explained by unique environmental factors.

  10. Impairment of brain endothelial glucose transporter by methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier dysfunction

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    Murrin L Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH, an addictive psycho-stimulant drug with euphoric effect is known to cause neurotoxicity due to oxidative stress, dopamine accumulation and glial cell activation. Here we hypothesized that METH-induced interference of glucose uptake and transport at the endothelium can disrupt the energy requirement of the blood-brain barrier (BBB function and integrity. We undertake this study because there is no report of METH effects on glucose uptake and transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB to date. Results In this study, we demonstrate that METH-induced disruption of glucose uptake by endothelium lead to BBB dysfunction. Our data indicate that a low concentration of METH (20 μM increased the expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1 in primary human brain endothelial cell (hBEC, main component of BBB without affecting the glucose uptake. A high concentration of 200 μM of METH decreased both the glucose uptake and GLUT1 protein levels in hBEC culture. Transcription process appeared to regulate the changes in METH-induced GLUT1 expression. METH-induced decrease in GLUT1 protein level was associated with reduction in BBB tight junction protein occludin and zonula occludens-1. Functional assessment of the trans-endothelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers and permeability of dye tracers in animal model validated the pharmacokinetics and molecular findings that inhibition of glucose uptake by GLUT1 inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB aggravated the METH-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. Application of acetyl-L-carnitine suppressed the effects of METH on glucose uptake and BBB function. Conclusion Our findings suggest that impairment of GLUT1 at the brain endothelium by METH may contribute to energy-associated disruption of tight junction assembly and loss of BBB integrity.

  11. Analysis on blood glucose excursions in well-controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Wuquan; Yu Qiongwu; Wang Fuhua; Ai Zhihua; Chen Bing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To probe glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients whose hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was kept ≤6.0%.Methods: Totally 36 cases with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with HbA1c≤6.0% and 30 cases with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) from December 2005 to December 2007 in our department were subjected prospectively. Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) was employed to record their continuous blood glucose level for 3 d. The blood glucose profiles including the mean blood glucose (MBG), standard differentiation (SD), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and absolute means of daily differences (MODD) were analyzed. Results: T2DM group had obviously postprandial hyperglycemia, in about 2 h after meal, especially after breakfast. Fifty-two hypoglycemic episodes occurred during the monitoring period in T2DM groups, of which 73.1% (38 episodes) were absence of symptomatic hypoglycemia with the lowest value of blood glucose only 2.0 mmol/L. And 20 episodes took place during the day hours, while 32 episodes observed during the night hours. Compared with NGT groups, SD, MAGE and MODD were all significantly higher in T2DM groups. MBG was significantly correlated with HbA1c in T2DM groups, but SD, MAGE, NGE and MODD were all independent of HbA1c. MAGE was independent of MODD. Conclusion: The amplitude of glycemic excursions is higher in normol-controlled T2DM groups than the NGT groups.Thus ideally glycemic control is not only to make HbA1c reach standard, but also to lessen glycemic excursions and reduce hypoglycemia episodes.

  12. PREANALITIC AND INTERPRETATION BLOOD GLUCOSE FOR DIAGNOSE DIABETIC MELITUS

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    Ida Bagus Wayan Kardika

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disorder disease which has been characterised by chronic hyperglycemia as well as abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins caused by abnormalities of insulin secretion, insulin resistance or both. The Diagnoses of diabetes mellitus in addition based on the clinical aspects of which include anamnesis, physical examination and diagnoses is required in the form of investigations the laboratory examination. The simplest laboratory examination is the examination of blood sugar. The stages of preanalitic and the interpretation of results examination of the blood sugar is worth noting in order to obtain meaningful results so that a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus can be enforced and for monitoring treatment outcomes. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Using the first drop of blood for monitoring blood glucose values in critically ill patients: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sunita; Kaur, Sukhpal; Das, Karobi; Saini, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Using the first drop or second drop of blood while measuring blood glucose (BG) values. Objective: The study was planned to compare the BG values from the first and second drops of blood. Research Settings: The study was conducted at the Main Intensive Care Unit, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. Research Design: This study was a comparative study. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients aged 2–93 years were enrolled in this study. BG values from the first and second drops of blood were taken and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Agreement between two drops was assessed using Bland–Altman analysis. A bias of <10 mg/dl was considered clinically acceptable. Linear regression of the mean difference (bias) with the BG readings was performed. Results: One thousand four hundred and seven pairs of BG readings were taken from the enrolled patients. BG values had a bias of 3.9 ± 14.9 mg/dl. Nearly 96.7% of BG readings were within the limits of agreement. The absolute difference between first and second drops of blood was calculated; nearly 75.4% of the readings had fallen between 0 and 10 mg/dl, i.e. clinically acceptable range. Conclusion: There is no compete concordance of values of blood glucose between the first and the second drops of blood; any of the drops can be used for measuring BG values as the difference is not statistically significant. However, if hands are visibly clean and to decrease the blood loss in the critically ill patients where the BG values are measured frequently, using the first drop of blood is advised. PMID:27994381

  14. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

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    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  15. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  16. Effects of electroacupuncture on microcirculatory blood flow and glucose transporter function in the hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lu; Bingbing Han; Shijun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Nerve cell metabolism in post brain ischemia depends on increased microcirculation perfusion and transport function of microvascular endothelial cells. In the present study, a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion was established to investigate the influence of electroacupuncture(EA)on hippocampal CA1 cerebral blood flow and glucose transporter 1(GLUT1)expression in the microvascular endothelial cp.lls. Following EA at Neiguan(PC 6), the cerebral blood flow in the ischemic hippocampal CA1 region was significantly elevated, the number and microvascular integrated absorbance of the GLUTl-positive cells were significantly increased, nerve cell damage was ameliorated, and GLUT1 protein expression in the ischemic hippocampus was significantly increased. Results demonstrate that EA increased the cerebral blood flow of the hippocampal CA1 region and improved the glucose transport function, thereby attenuating neuronal injuries.

  17. Blood concentrations of lactate, glucose and corticosterone in dispersing hatchling sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Pereira

    2012-11-01

    Natal dispersal of sea turtles is an energetically demanding activity that is fuelled primarily by aerobic metabolism. However, during intense exercise reptiles can use anaerobic metabolism to supplement their energy requirements. We assessed anaerobic metabolism in dispersing hatchling loggerhead and flatback turtles by measuring the concentrations of blood lactate during crawling and at different times during the first four hours of their frenzy swim. We also measured concentrations of blood glucose and corticosterone. Blood lactate (12.13 to 2.03 mmol/L, glucose (6.25 to 3.8 mmol/L and corticosterone (8.13 to 2.01 ng/mL concentrations decreased significantly over time in both loggerhead and flatback hatchlings and no significant differences were found between the species. These results indicate that anaerobic metabolism makes a significant contribution to the dispersal phase of hatchling sea turtles during the beach crawl and the first few hours of the frenzy swim.

  18. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  19. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-07-01

    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still provide a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an extremely important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient agents in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient agents in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient agents. This base line can

  20. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.

  1. New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting, October 28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Vigersky, Robert A; Schwartz, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Glucose meters (GMs) are routinely used for self-monitoring of blood glucose by patients and for point-of-care glucose monitoring by health care providers in outpatient and inpatient settings. Although widely assumed to be accurate, numerous reports of inaccuracies with resulting morbidity and mortality have been noted. Insulin dosing errors based on inaccurate GMs are most critical. On October 28, 2011, the Diabetes Technology Society invited 45 diabetes technology clinicians who were attending the 2011 Diabetes Technology Meeting to participate in a closed-door meeting entitled New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors. This report reflects the opinions of most of the attendees of that meeting. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the public, and several medical societies are currently in dialogue to establish a new standard for GM accuracy. This update to the FDA standard is driven by improved meter accuracy, technological advances (pumps, bolus calculators, continuous glucose monitors, and insulin pens), reports of hospital and outpatient deaths, consumer complaints about inaccuracy, and research studies showing that several approved GMs failed to meet FDA or International Organization for Standardization standards in postapproval testing. These circumstances mandate a set of new GM standards that appropriately match the GMs' analytical accuracy to the clinical accuracy required for their intended use, as well as ensuring their ongoing accuracy following approval. The attendees of the New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting proposed a graduated standard and other methods to improve GM performance, which are discussed in this meeting report.

  2. High prevalence of abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation and impaired glucose tolerance in adults with hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, K; Schnack, C; Mittermayer, F; Kopp, H P; Hofer, M; Kann, T; Schernthaner, G

    2005-09-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality from cardiovascular events. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure decline (non-dipping) and impaired glucose tolerance are considered as cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the role of these risk factors in patients with hypopituitarism we determined the 24-hour blood pressure regulation and glucose tolerance status in hypopituitary patients with and without growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Sixty-one hypopituitary subjects 5 +/- 3 years after brain surgery because of macroadenoma, 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 20 healthy controls were included. Forty-four hypopituitary patients were GH deficient and 28 of these on GH treatment. Non-dipping was observed in 41 % (n = 7) of hypopituitary subjects with normal GH release, in 46 % (n = 13) of patients on GH therapy, and in 69 % (n = 11) of untreated GH deficient patients. Untreated GH deficient patients had a higher systolic night/day ratio (1.00 +/- 0.03) compared to non GH deficient (0.92 +/- 0.02; p < 0.02) and GH treated hypopituitary patients (0.93 +/- 0.01; p < 0.02). The rate of non-dipping in hypopituitarism was comparable to that in T2DM. Pathologic glucose tolerance was diagnosed in 30 % of the hypopituitary patients. The prevalence of non-dipping was independent of glucose metabolism in hypopituitary patients. All controls had normal night time blood pressure fall and glucose metabolism. The high prevalence of nocturnal non-dipping and glucose intolerance detected in this cohort might contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of hypopituitary patients.

  3. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment.

  4. Blood glucose lowering effect of ophiopogonis tuber extract and mechanism of anti-insulin-resistance

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    Meng NING

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the hypoglycemic effect and insulin sensitization mechanism of ophiopogonis tuber extracts on the 3T3-L1-induced adipocytes, and also in rats with reproduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods  3T3-L1 cells were induced and differentiated into adipocytes. After the intervention with ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPSR and ophiopogonin (OPG, glucose consuming rate was detected for screening the extracts which may have effective hypoglycemic effects. The insulin resistance (IR adipocyte model was established by dexamethasone induction, and then it was treated with OPSR. The protein expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were detected by Western blotting. The T2DM rat model was reproduced and then treated with OPSR for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW, triglyeride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINs of the rats were measured respectively. Results  OPSR in dosage of 0.5-50mg/L promoted glucose consumption of adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, the glucose consumption ratios were 32.27%, 75.14% and 90.47% respectively. OPG of 50mg/L showed very weak activity with glucose consumption ratio of only 8.49%. OPSR could significantly promote the protein expression of leptin and adiponectin, and showed an inhibitory effect on the protein expression of resistin (P<0.05. After treatment with OPSR for 4 weeks, the BW of rats increased obviously, while TG, FBG and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions  OPSR may promote glucose transport and utilization of adipocytes, decrease the level of FBG and TG, and improve the condition of IR in T2DM rats. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering effect may be attributed to secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin by IR adipocytes.

  5. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  6. [Today data management in self-monitoring of blood glucose for diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermon, C

    2003-04-01

    Improving diabetes treatment needs intensive glucose monitoring which is restricting for patients and time-consuming for physicians. Up-to-date tools of data management were developed, following progress in computing technology and home computing. Glucometers with memory and softwares are able to improve data management of self blood glucose monitoring, personalized interactivity with physician. They are very important to develop telemedecine systems in diabetes care. These systems are designed to complement the daily care and intensive management of diabetics through telemonitoring and telecare services.

  7. Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration by Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks

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    Vajravelu Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early and non-invasive determination of blood glucose level is of great importance. We aimed to present a new technique to accurately infer the blood glucose concentration in peripheral blood flow using non-invasive optical monitoring system.Methods: The data for the research were obtained from 900 individuals. Of them, 750 people had diabetes mellitus (DM. The system was designed using a helium neon laser source of 632.8 nm wavelength with 5mW power, photo detectors and digital storage oscilloscope. The laser beam was directed through a single optical fiber to the index finger and the scattered beams were collected by the photo detectors placed circumferentially to the transmitting fiber. The received signals were filtered using band pass filter and finally sent to a digital storage oscilloscope. These signals were then decomposed into approximation and detail coefficients using modified Haar Wavelet Transform. Back propagation neural and radial basis functions were employed for the prediction of blood glucose concentration.Results: The data of 450 patients were randomly used for training, 225 for testing and the rest for validation. The data showed that outputs from radial basis function were nearer to the clinical value. Significant variations could be seen from signals obtained from patients with DM and those without DM.Conclusion: The proposed non-invasive optical glucose monitoring system is able to predict the glucose concentration by proving that there is a definite variation in hematological distribution between patients with DM and those without DM.

  8. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

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    Reed JW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James W Reed Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose

  9. Capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for blood plasma separation and on-chip glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Rakesh, P E; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2016-09-01

    We report capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for the separation of a plasma from sample blood and subsequent on-chip detection of glucose present in a plasma. A rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microchannel with hydrophilic walls (on three sides) achieved by using oxygen plasma exposure enables capillary flow of blood introduced at the device inlet through the microchannel. A hydrophobic region (on all four sides) in the microchannel impedes the flow of sample blood, and the accumulated blood cells at the region form a filter to facilitate the separation of a plasma. The modified wetting property of the walls and hence the device performance could be retained for a few weeks by covering the channels with deionised water. The effects of the channel cross-section, exposure time, waiting time, and location and length of the hydrophobic region on the volume of the collected plasma are studied. Using a channel cross-section of 1000 × 400 μm, an exposure time of 2 min, a waiting time of 10 min, and a hydrophobic region of width 1.0 cm located at 10 mm from the device inlet, 450 nl of plasma was obtained within 15 min. The performance of the device was found to be unaffected (provides 450 nl of plasma in 15 min) even after 15 days. The purification efficiency and plasma recovery of the device were measured and found to be comparable with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation process. Detection of glucose at different concentrations in whole blood of normal and diabetic patients was performed (using 5 μl of sample blood within 15 min) to demonstrate the compatibility of the device with integrated detection modules.

  10. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  11. The impact of high-dose vitamin C on blood glucose testing in ¹⁸F-FDG PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Rebekah L; Wilson, Don C

    2015-03-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies in addition to standard oncology protocols are commonly sought by cancer patients; however, few patients disclose their complementary treatments to their cancer care team. A lack of communication may result in unforeseen side effects and the potential for some alternative therapies to interfere with or inhibit conventional treatment. High-dose vitamin C therapy, in particular, may lead to an inability to measure a patient's blood glucose level before (18)F-FDG injection for PET/CT scanning. We report a case of a 52-y-old woman referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent colorectal cancer. The PET/CT scan immediately followed a single intravenous dose of 25 g of ascorbic acid from her naturopath. A glucometer that applies the glucose oxidase method for measuring fasting blood glucose was used, for which high doses of vitamin C are listed as a contraindication. The high concentration of ascorbic acid in the patient's blood sample interfered with the chemical reaction on the glucose strip, and therefore no blood glucose measurement could be attained. With more patients receiving alternative and complementary cancer therapies, it is important to know what the implications of orthomolecular therapy might be on routine blood glucose testing for (18)F-FDG PET scans. (18)F-FDG is in direct competition with glucose; therefore, elevated blood glucose levels will cause a decrease in (18)F-FDG absorption and may lead to a false-negative scan.

  12. Blood glucose regulation during fasting in rats under food restriction since birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Vitoriano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of severe food restriction since birth on regulation of fasting glycemia in male Wistar rats was investigated. The control group (CG had free supply of chow, while the restriction group (RG received 50% of the amount ingested by the CG. The experiments were done in adult (60 days overnight fasted rats in which glycemia, liver free glucose levels and hepatic glycogen concentration were measured. In part of the experiments in situ liver perfusion was done. The results showed that livers from the RG had higher glycogenolysis rates but lower gluconeogenesis rates from L-alanine (10 mM. Since RG showed maintained glycemia during fasting, it could be concluded that livers from RG produced glucose preferentially from glycogenolysis in detriment of gluconeogenesis. These findings demonstrated that in spite of severe caloric restriction, the metabolic adaptations of the liver did exist to assure the maintenance of blood glucose for brain supply during fasting.

  13. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors.

  14. Detection accuracy of three glucose meters estimated by capillary blood glucose measurements compared with venous blood evaluated by the diabetes unit of the Hospital Evangélico de Curitiba, Brazil

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    Camacho SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro Gama, Camile Fiorese Cruzeta, Ana Carolina Ossowski, Marina Rech Bay, Mariella Muller Michaelis, Stênio Lujan CamachoEndocrinology and Diabetes Service, Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, BrazilObjective: To compare capillary blood glucose measurements between three different glucose meters and with the serum glucose values of inpatients at the diabetes unit of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, Brazil.Materials and methods: A total of 132 non-intensive care unit patients admitted for medical and surgical pathologies were evaluated. All patients reported a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, were under 60 years of age, had no hematocrit alterations, remained hemodynamically stable during the time of data collection, and were given no ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, dopamine, or mannitol during follow-up. Capillary and serum blood glucose samples were collected simultaneously by finger-stick and venipuncture 2 hours after lunch, by the same observer, who was blinded to the serum glucose results. First, between July and November 2009, capillary glucose levels were measured using the blood glucose meters OneTouch SureStep® and MediSense Optium®. Between November 2009 and February 2010, capillary blood glucose levels were measured on the glucose meters OneTouch SureStep and Optium Xceed®. The capillary glucose readings were analyzed between meters and also in relation to the serum blood glucose values by the t-test for paired samples and the Mood two-sample test.Results: The patients’ mean age was 50.45 years. The blood glucose means obtained using the meters OneTouch SureStep, MediSense Optium, and Optium Xceed were, respectively, 183.87 mg/dL, 178.49 mg/dL, and 192.73 mg/dL, and the mean for the serum glucose values was 174.58 mg/dL. A significant difference was found between the capillary measurements taken by the glucose meters and the serum glucose measurements (P < 0.05, and no

  15. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  16. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

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    Marianne S. H. Lunde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO. Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (<.05, as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety.

  17. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  18. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

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    Stein Olav Skrøvseth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians.

  19. Ontogenetic oxygen changes alter zebra fish size, behavior, and blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, C; Kaut, K P; Moore, F B-G; Bagatto, B

    2012-01-01

    Four male and four female zebra fish were crossed in all possible combinations, resulting in 389 offspring. These offspring were divided among four treatments: normoxia for 90 d, hypoxia for 90 d, normoxia for 30 d followed by hypoxia for 60 d, and hypoxia for 30 d followed by normoxia for 60 d. The effects of early oxygen environment, later oxygen environment, and genotype were then assessed with respect to zebra fish behavior, size, and blood glucose. Fish were tested in an arena where they could shoal with conspecifics before, during, and after the introduction of a novel stimulus. Blood glucose and size were also measured. Early oxygen environment influenced fish size, time spent swimming, and reactivity to a novel stimulus. Environmentally induced plasticity was predominate, with little evidence of among-sire variation for any of the measured parameters.

  20. Effects of breakfast with different calorigenic amounts on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Su-xia(黄素霞); FU Yun-xing(傅运兴); WANG Hui-ming(王慧铭); GIANG Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between breakfast and serum glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations in order to establish a model breakfast appropriate for Chinese. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to four study groups: high carbohydrate breakfast, high fat and protein breakfast, the typical breakfast and fasting. Each subject had serum and urine samples collected while fasting and at 1,2 and 3.5 hours following the meal. The concentration of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon was measured. The levels of serum glucose in group A,B and C differed significantly at 1 and 2 hour after meal compared to those at fasting (P<0.05). The serum glucose in group A increased insignificantly after meal. The serum insulin levels were in group A,B and C significant different compared with control group(P<0.05).Those peaked at 1 hour after meal ,with group C rising the furthest. Compared with the fasting group, the serum glucagons rose and maintained the increase after breakfast in group A,B and C (P<0.05).The data suggested that various diets with different calorigenic amounts increased hormone concentration to various extents. We found that a breakfast rich in carbohydrates could maintain proper blood glucose level.

  1. Effect of Jiang Zhuo Mixture on Blood Glucose Level and Insulin Resistance in Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiabo; Wang Hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the knowledge of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine and modem biomedical sciences,Dr. Wang Hui (王晖) designed Jiang Zhuo Mixture (降浊合剂) , a preparation for treatment of fat diabetes type 2. Jiang Zhuo Mixture showed good actions of strengthening the spleen and stomach,separating the clear from the turbid, resolving the stasis and decreasing the blood glucose level. These were reported as follows.

  2. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there ...

  3. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  4. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

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    Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  5. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

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    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  6. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  7. Remote Blood Glucose Monitoring in mHealth Scenarios: A Review

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    Giordano Lanzola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient’s significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her. In all of these cases, a remote monitoring system, in charge of delivering the relevant information to the right player, becomes an important part of the sensing architecture. In this paper, we review how the remote monitoring architectures have evolved over time, paralleling the progress in the Information and Communication Technologies, and describe our experiences with the design of telemedicine systems for blood glucose monitoring in three medical applications. The paper ends summarizing the lessons learned through the experiences of the authors and discussing the challenges arising from a large-scale integration of sensors and actuators.

  8. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (way ANOVA and post hoc Tuky-Krammer test were used for finding significant differences (P sleep duration at night (< 7 hrs) does not affect the blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  9. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

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    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  10. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  11. Chronic glucose infusion causes sustained increases in tubular sodium reabsorption and renal blood flow in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W; Bell, Tracy D; Rodriquez, Nancy A; Polavarapu, Praveen; Panteleyev, Dmitriy

    2009-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that inducing hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in dogs, by infusing glucose chronically intravenously, would increase tubular sodium reabsorption and cause hypertension. Glucose was infused for 6 days (14 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) iv) in five uninephrectomized (UNX) dogs. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF) were measured 18 h/day using DSI pressure units and Transonic flow probes, respectively. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased significantly on day 1 and remained decreased over the 6 days, coupled with a significant, sustained increase in RBF, averaging approximately 20% above control on day 6. Glomerular filtration rate and plasma renin activity (PRA) also increased. However, although MAP tended to increase, this was not statistically significant. Therefore, the glucose infusion was repeated in six dogs with 70% surgical reduction in kidney mass (RKM) and high salt intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin increased similar to the UNX dogs, and there was significant sodium retention, but MAP still did not increase. Interestingly, the increases in PRA and RBF were prevented in the RKM dogs. The decrease in UNaV, increased RBF, and slightly elevated MAP show that glucose infusion in dogs caused a sustained increase in tubular sodium reabsorption by a mechanism independent of pressure natriuresis. The accompanying increase in PRA, together with the failure of either RBF or PRA to increase in the RKM dogs, suggests the site of tubular reabsorption was before the macula densa. However, the volume retention and peripheral edema suggest that systemic vasodilation offsets any potential renal actions to increase MAP in this experimental model in dogs.

  12. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  13. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James W

    2016-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose control. PMID:27822054

  14. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  15. 糖尿病血糖精准监测%Accurate monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭淑芹

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Precision medicine is the medical model proposed in the era of big data,diabetes blood glucose monitoring is also affected by the impact of precision thinking.Based on adequate assessment of various means of monitoring blood glucose,blood glucose monitoring is recommended from the self monitoring of the"point"blood sugar,to dynamically monitor the blood glucose change curve,and then to reflect the total blood glucose level of three months of glycosylated hemoglobin under the present stage.Future artificial pancreas technology will achieve accurate blood glucose management.%精准医学是在大数据时代提出的医疗模式,糖尿病血糖监测也受到精准思维的影响。充分评估血糖监测手段精准性基础上,现阶段血糖监测推荐从自我监测的“点”血糖,到动态监测血糖变化“曲线”,再到反映3个月总体血糖水平的糖化血红蛋白。未来人工胰腺技术将实现精准的血糖管理。

  16. A Comparative Study of Blood Glucose Measurements Using Glucometer Readings and the Standard Method in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torkaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders, associated with severe complications. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and screening of hypoglycemia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine a cut-off value for blood glucose level in glucometer readings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 newborns at risk of hypoglycemia, admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran, Iran in 2012; the subjects were selected via simple sampling. After obtaining informed consents from the newborns’ parents, 1 cc blood samples were sent to the laboratory for measuring the blood glucose level. Moreover, venous blood samples, as well as heel-stick blood samples, were obtained for glucometer measurements. Blood glucose measurements were used to determine the cut-off value by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and make comparisons with the diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia in the literature. Results: A total of 238 infants with the mean weight of 2869±821.9 g were enrolled in this study. The mean (±SD blood glucose levels were 65.1±22.9, 82.9±24.7, and 84.4±24.8 mg/dl, based on the standard laboratory method, glucometer reading of venous blood samples, and glucometer reading of heel-stick capillary blood samples, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for hypoglycemia was determined as 65 mg/dl, using glucometer-based assessment of heel-stick blood samples. Conclusion: The significant difference in blood glucose levels measured by the laboratory method and outpatient glucometer readings highlights the importance of a cut-off value for rapid assessment and control of blood glucose and timely detection of hypoglycemia. In fact, the cut-off value introduced in the present study could facilitate such measurements.

  17. PET imaging of blood flow and glucose metabolism in localized musculoskeletal tumors of the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Paula, E-mail: paula.lindholm@tyks.f [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Sutinen, Eija [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Oikonen, Vesa [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Mattila, Kimmo [Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Tarkkanen, Maija [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kallajoki, Markku [Department of Pathology, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Aro, Hannu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Boehling, Tom [Department of Pathology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kivioja, Aarne [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, FI-00029 (Finland); Elomaa, Inkeri [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: Little is known about blood flow in sarcomas. Our purpose was to study glucose metabolism and blood flow in untreated localized musculoskeletal tumors of the extremities using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), oxygen-15 labeled water ([15O]H{sub 2}O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Six patients with high-grade osteosarcoma (OS), two with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) and one with aneurysmal bone cyst had PET studies with [15O]H{sub 2}O and FDG. Arterial blood sampling and autoradiography calculation method were used to define blood flow as milliliters per 100 g times minutes. Tumor FDG uptake was measured as standardized uptake values (SUVs) and regional metabolic rates for FDG (rMRFDG). Two patients also had FDG PET studies during (one patient) and after (two patients) preoperative chemotherapy. All patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The PET findings were compared with the clinical follow-up data and results of DCE-MRI. Results: Blood flow in bone tumors was 31.7-75.2 ml/(100 gxmin) and in STS 9.0-45.9 ml/(100 gxmin). [{sup 18}F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and rMRFDG in untreated bone tumors were 5.4-18.4 and 10.9-57.4 {mu}mol/100 g/min, respectively. [{sup 18}F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and rMRFDG in STS were 2.6-11.5 and 5.6-32.2 {mu}mol/100 g/min, respectively. Four of five sarcomas with SUV>9.0 have already relapsed. High blood flow in untreated OS was related to long overall survival, while the predictive power of glucose metabolism was less apparent. Good histopathological response to therapy was not associated with long survival. Conclusions: Measurement of blood flow in musculoskeletal tumors appears to be feasible by PET and [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O. The influence of tumor blood flow and glucose metabolism on the final outcome in sarcoma is variable and needs further research.

  18. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  19. Profile of blood glucose and ultrastucture of beta cells pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, and progressive changes of the structure of pancreatic islet histopathology. The objective of this research was to analyse the glucose level and histophatological feature in pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats. A total of ten male Spraque Dawley rats of 2 months old were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups: (1 negative control group (K-, and (2 positif induced alloxan group (diabetic group =DM. The rats were induced by a single dose intraperitonial injection of alloxan compound 120 mg/kg of body weight. The treatment was conducted for 28 days. Blood glucose levels of rats were analysed at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following treatment. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Pancreas was collected for analysis of histopathological study by Immunohistochemical technique, and ultrastructural study using transmission electron microscope (TEM. The result showed that Langerhans islet of diabetic rat (rat of DM group showed a marked reduction of size, number of Langerhans islet of diabetic rat decrease, and characterized by hyperglycemic condition. By using TEM, beta cells of DM group showed the rupture of mitochondrial membrane, the lost of cisternal structure of inner membrane of mitocondria, reduction of insulin secretory granules, linkage between cells acinar with free Langerhans islet, and the caryopicnotic of nucleus.

  20. Progressive artificial endocrine pancreas: The era of novel perioperative blood glucose control for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    Strict glycemic control needs to be maintained in critically ill surgical patients to reduce the mortality and morbidity due to hyperglycemia and associated infection. However, conventional intensive insulin therapy (IIT), which consists of intermittent blood glucose measurement and manually controlled infusions of insulin, tends to induce hypoglycemia and glucose variability. Many randomized clinical trials have been conducted to improve the efficacy of IIT, although some of these were stopped owing to frequent hypoglycemia. In pursuing safe and strict glycemic control for critically ill surgical patients, we found that a closed-loop glycemic control system was able to maintain appropriate blood glucose levels without hypoglycemia in more than 400 clinical cases. Considering the need for the perioperative and intensive care environment, a well-established artificial pancreas was modified into a new closed-loop glycemic control system, called the progressive artificial pancreas. The new device is slim in shape and shows clinical compatibility with the conventional artificial pancreas. We herein review this new closed-loop glycemic control system and the expectations for its future application in critically ill surgical patients.

  1. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for portable blood glucose meter (glucometer) use in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Karen L; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2016-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGM, glucometers) are a convenient, cost effective, and quick means to assess patient blood glucose concentration. The number of commercially available PBGM is constantly increasing, making it challenging to determine whether certain glucometers may have benefits over others for veterinary testing. The challenge in selection of an appropriate glucometer from a quality perspective is compounded by the variety of analytic methods used to quantify glucose concentrations and disparate statistical analysis in many published studies. These guidelines were developed as part of the ASVCP QALS committee response to establish recommendations to improve the quality of testing using point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld and benchtop devices in veterinary medicine. They are intended for clinical pathologists and laboratory professionals to provide them with background knowledge and specific recommendations for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC), and to serve as a resource to assist the provision of advice to veterinarians and technicians to improve the quality of results obtained when using PBGM. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather they provide a minimum standard for management of PBGM in the veterinary setting.

  2. The effect of moderate glycemic energy bar consumption on blood glucose and mood in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ingesting quality carbohydrates has been shown to be essential for dancers. Given that most dance classes take place in the morning, it has been recommended that dancers eat a well-balanced breakfast containing carbohydrates, fats, and protein as a means of fuelling this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a moderate glycemic index energy (MGI) bar or a fasting condition on dancers' blood glucose levels and perceived pleasure-displeasure response during the first dance class of the day. In a randomized counterbalanced design, 10 female preprofessional dance students took their regular scheduled contemporary dance class, on four separate occasions. On each occasion, they consumed either a commercially prepared carbohydrate (CHO)-dense energy bar (47.3 g CHO) or water (FAST). Plasma glucose responses and pleasure-displeasure affect were measured before and at two time points during the class. Dancers who consumed the MGI bar had significantly greater peak blood glucose levels at all time points than those who fasted (pdance class. Further, we conclude that skipping breakfast can have an unfavorable effect on the pleasure-displeasure state of dancers. These findings highlight the impact of breakfast on how one feels, as well as the physiological and metabolic benefits of CHO as an exogenous energy source in dancers.

  3. Development and Testing of a Plastic Optical Fiber Grating Biosensor for Detection of Glucose in the Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, M.; Eka, D.; Permata, A. N.; Ariningrum, D.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Marzuki, A.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to detect glucose content in human blood serum using optical fiber grating with LED wavelength corresponding to the absorption of glucose content in blood serum. The testing used a UV-Vis spectrometer and Rays spectrometers, in which in the ray spectrometer it was used optical fiber biosensor using optical fiber grating. The result obtained is the typical peak of glucose absorption in UV-Vis at 581 nm wavelength and rays spectrometer on green LED at 514.2 nm wavelength with linear regression result by 0.97 and 0.94, respectively.

  4. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  5. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kriebel

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5 and 0.047. In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1 was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5 and 3.0x10(-3. Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047. Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1 was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10(-9. Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and

  6. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, Jennifer; Herder, Christian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 3.0x10(-3)). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10(-9)). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes

  7. Alternate Immersion in an External Glucose Solution Differentially Affects Blood Sugar Values in Older Versus Younger Zebrafish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Victoria P; Baker, Cassandra; Fonde, Lauren; Gerardi, Emily; Slack, Carly

    2016-04-01

    Recently, zebrafish have been used to examine hyperglycemia-induced complications (retinopathy and neuropathy), as would occur in individuals with diabetes. Current models to induce hyperglycemia in zebrafish include glucose immersion and streptozotocin injections. Both are effective, although neither is reported to elevate blood sugar values for more than 1 month. In this article, we report differences in hyperglycemia induction and maintenance in young (4-11 months) versus old (1-3 years) zebrafish adults. In particular, older fish immersed in an alternating constant external glucose solution (2%) for 2 months displayed elevated blood glucose levels for the entire experimental duration. In contrast, younger adults displayed only transient hyperglycemia, suggesting the fish were acclimating to the glucose exposure protocol. However, modifying the immersion protocol to include a stepwise increasing glucose concentration (from 1% → 2%→3%) resulted in maintained hyperglycemia in younger zebrafish adults for up to 2 months. Glucose-exposed younger fish collected after 8 weeks of exposure also displayed a significant decrease in wet weight. Taken together, these data suggest different susceptibilities to hyperglycemia in older and younger fish and that stepwise increasing glucose concentrations of 1% are required for maintenance of hyperglycemia in younger adults, with higher concentrations of glucose resulting in greater increases in blood sugar values.

  8. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism following transient forebrain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsinelli, W A; Levy, D E; Duffy, T E

    1982-05-01

    Progressive brain damage after transient cerebral ischemia may be related to changes in postischemic cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU) were measured in adult rats prior to, during (only rCBF), and serially after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were subjected to 30 minutes of forebrain ischemia by occluding both common carotid arteries 24 hours after cauterizing the vertebral arteries. Regional CBF was measured by the indicator-fractionation technique using 4-iodo-[14C]-antipyrine. Regional CGU was measured by the 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method. The results were correlated with the distribution and progression of ischemic neuronal damage in animals subjected to an identical ischemic insult. Cerebral blood flow to forebrain after 30 minutes of moderate to severe ischemia (less than 10% control CBF) was characterized by 5 to 15 minutes of hyperemia; rCBF then fell below normal and remained low for as long as 24 hours. Post-ischemic glucose utilization in the forebrain, except in the hippocampus, was depressed below control values at 1 hour and either remained low (neocortex, striatum) or gradually rose to normal (white matter) by 48 hours. In the hippocampus, glucose utilization equaled the control value at 1 hour and fell below control between 24 and 48 hours. The appearance of moderate to severe morphological damage in striatum and hippocampus coincided with a late rise of rCBF above normal and with a fall of rCGU; the late depression of rCGU was usually preceded by a period during which metabolism was increased relative to adjacent tissue. Further refinement of these studies may help identify salvageable brain after ischemia and define ways to manipulate CBF and metabolism in the treatment of stroke.

  10. Non-invasive blood glucose detection system based on conservation of energy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Yong-Bo; Chen, Hong-Bo; Yin, Shi-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate. New methods to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BV are proposed, which combine the human body heat balance and characteristic signals of photoplethysmography as well dual elastic chambers theory. Four hundred clinical trials on real-time non-invasive BG monitoring under suitable experiment conditions were performed on different individuals, including diabetic patients, senior citizens and healthy adults. A multisensory information fusion model was applied to process these samples. The algorithm (we defined it as DCBPN algorithm) applied in the model combines a decision tree and back propagation neural network, which classifies the physiological and environmental parameters into three categories, and then establishes a corresponding prediction model for the three categories. The DCBPN algorithm provides an accuracy of 88.53% in predicting the BG of new samples. Thus, this system demonstrates a great potential to reliably detect BG values in a non-invasive setting.

  11. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanne Kleefstra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanne Kleefstra1, Johanna Hortensius1, Kornelis JJ van Hateren1, Susan JJ Logtenberg1, Sebastiaan T Houweling2, Rijk OB Gans3, Henk JG Bilo11Diabetes Centre, Isala Clinics, Zwolle, The Netherlands; 2Langerhans Medical Research Group, The Netherlands; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The NetherlandsIntroduction: The effectiveness of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG in noninsulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM remains unclear. We aimed to review the trials investigating the effects of SMBG in this population.Methods: Medline was searched until June 29, 2009. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of at least 12 weeks’ duration were included. Data on the following aspects were gathered: patient and study characteristics, effects on HbA1c, quality of life and treatment satisfaction, and methodological quality.Results: The search revealed 9 original RCTs. These studies were very heterogeneous, and 5 were classified as of high quality. The studies with the best methodology did not show an effect of SMBG on HbA1c, the studies with the worst methodological quality did. Two out of the 4 studies that assessed quality of life showed a significant change in favor of the control group, 1 study showed a significant change in favor of SMBG.Discussion and conclusion: We found an inverse relation between study quality and efficacy of SMBG. At this moment, there is no basis for general use of SMBG in noninsulin-treated T2DM patients.Keywords: blood glucose self-monitoring, diabetes mellitus, type 2, blood glucose, hemoglobin A, glycosylated

  12. Cost effectiveness and cost utility of the noncoding blood glucose meter CONTOUR® TS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Holko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Przemyslaw Holko, Pawal KawalecHTA Centre, Kraków, PolandAims: This study assessed the cost efficacy and cost utility of the automatic blood glucose meter CONTOUR® TS from the public payer (National Health Fund [NHF] and payer (patient and NHF perspectives over a 26-year analysis horizon.Methods: Clinical effectiveness data were obtained from prior clinical studies of automatic versus manually coded blood glucose meters. Cost data were obtained from the NHF. The probability of procedure use related to diabetic complications was obtained from four medical centers in Poland. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio related to 1 life year gained and the incremental cost-utility ratio related to 1 quality-adjusted life year gained were calculated.Results: Assuming co-funding from public funds, introduction of the CONTOUR® TS is associated with savings of Polish złoty (PLN 31,846.19 (€8916.93 and PLN 113,018.19 (€31,645.09 per life year gained from the payer and public payer perspectives, respectively. Cost utility analyses showed that the CONTOUR® TS is associated with savings of PLN 40,465.59 (€11,330.37 and PLN 11,434.82 (€3201.75 per quality-adjusted life year gained from the payer and the public payer perspectives, respectively.Conclusion: The CONTOUR® TS appears superior to manually coded meters available in Poland both from the payer and the public payer perspectives and may represent an improved strategy for glycemic control.Keywords: blood glucose self monitoring, costs and cost analysis, health care costs, diabetes mellitus, diabetes complications 

  13. Patient and healthcare professional satisfaction with a new, high accuracy blood glucose meter with color range indicator and wireless connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence B; Grady, Mike; Stewart, Lorna; Cameron, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. The OneTouch VerioFlex(™) (OTVF) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) was evaluated for accuracy in a clinical setting. Patients also used OTVF for a 1-wk trial period and reported their level of satisfaction with meter features. In a separate study, healthcare professionals used an on-line simulator of the BGMS and answered questions about its potential utility to their patients. OTVF was accurate over a wide glucose range and met lay user and system accuracy blood glucose standards described in ISO15197:2013 as well as the accuracy requirements to fulfill US FDA expectations for 510(k) clearance of BGMS. Patients and healthcare professionals felt the features of OTVF, which has the capability to connect wirelessly to mobile devices and interact wirelessly with diabetes management software, could provide significant benefits to them or their patients.

  14. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentrations by pet owners: a new tool in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Martina; Wess, Gerhard; Reusch, Claudia E

    2002-01-01

    Recently a new method for capillary blood sampling from the ears of dogs and cats was described, which allows the measurement of glucose concentration by means of portable glucose meters. The authors of this report evaluated the suitability of this method for use by pet owners and the potential technical problems. The owners of seven healthy dogs and seven healthy cats were asked to perform two glucose curves (measuring blood glucose concentration every 2 hours for a total of 12 hours). All dog owners and three cat owners were able to perform a reliable blood glucose curve. The most frequently encountered problems were inadequate formation of a blood drop due to excessive digital pressure on the pinna, repeatedly depressing the plunger of the lancet device instead of allowing the negative pressure to slowly build up, and failure to fill the test strip up to the mark. The authors conclude that these steps of the procedure need to be stressed during technique demonstration and that home monitoring of blood glucose concentrations may serve as a new tool in the management of diabetic dogs and cats.

  15. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Byoung Geun; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Elena E. Tchekneva; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Chieh Allen; Ebrahim, Benyamin; Raymond C Harris; Kern, Timothy S.; Wasserman, David H.; Breyer, Matthew D; Qi, Zhonghua

    2008-01-01

    The present studies examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose and Hb A1c in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and KK/HlJ mice with and without diabetes mellitus. Daily averaged blood glucose levels based on continuous glucose monitoring and effects of 6-h vs. overnight fasting on blood glucose were determined. Daily averaged blood glucose levels were highly correlated with Hb A1c, as determined with a hand-held automated device using an immunodetection method. R2 values were 0.90, 0.95, and 0.9...

  16. The Influence of Eleutheroside on Blood Glucose and Blood Lipid of D-Galactose-Induce Rats through Inhibiting Blood Superoxide Dismutase Activities

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    Ping Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at evaluation mechanisms of natural plant eleutheroside extracts for ameliorating the blood lipid and blood glucose. The eleutherosides derived from the roots of eleutheroccus senticosus and is purported to behave as an “adaptogen”, we assessed effects of eleutheroside at doses of 3.6, 7.2 and 14.4 g/(kg day on SD rats injected daily with D-gal (50 mg/(kg day. Eleutheroside-fed rats showed higher the level HDL-C, decrease the level of HCT, TG, TC, LDL-C compared with D-gal-treated rats. We further examined the mechanisms involved in effects of 3.63.6, 7.2 and 14.4 g/(kg day on rat blood. In summary, eleutheroside significantly increased Superoxide Dismutase (SOD activity and decreased the Malondialdehyde (MDA level.

  17. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio® by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio® system). Results were compared to a validated routine method......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...

  18. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

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    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  19. Obestatin and Ghrelin in Regulation of Blood Glucose%Obestatin、Ghrelin与血糖调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰辉

    2011-01-01

    Obestatin and ghrelin participate and antagonize each other in blood glucose regulation. Obestatin inhibits food intake, gastrointestinal evacuation and motility, and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, whereas ghrelin enhances appetite, gastrointestinal emptying and motility, decreases fat consumption, prevents apoptosis of pancreatic (β-cells and human islets thereby controlling insulin secretion. However, the mechanisms of both obestatin and ghrelin in blood glucose regulation remain controversial.%肥胖抑制素(obestatin)和生长激素释放肽(ghrelin)能互相拮抗,参与血糖的调节.其中obestatin与GPR-39(G-protein-coupled receptor 39)结合抑制摄食和胃肠排空、促进胰岛β细胞功能,影响胰岛素的分泌;而ghrelin与生长激素促分泌受体(GHSR1a)结合,促进食欲和胃肠排空,减少脂肪的利用,抑制胰岛细胞凋亡,调节胰岛素的分泌.但两者参与血糖调节的具体机制尚存在争议.

  20. EFFECT OF REGULAR GARLIC INGESTION ON BODY WEIGHT AND BLOOD GLUCOSE: A CASE STUDY IN MICE

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    F.T. Djankpa, A. Osonuga*, J. Ekpale, C.E. Quaye, P. Otoo, O.A. Osonuga and S.K. Amoah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic a perennial erect plant is known to have sulphur-containing compounds that act on the hypothalamus increasing the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to leptin which alters the set point at which satiety is reached causing an organism to eat less. Nine mice (six of which were obese were used in this study and grouped into three. Groups A and B were made of 3 obese mice each whereas group C consisted of 3 non-obese mice. For group A and group C mice, 20 ml aqueous garlic extract was added to their feed daily whereas no garlic was added to the feed of group B mice. The study was carried out over a period of 44 days. The weight and blood glucose was measured weekly and the average for each group was computed. Results indicated that Group A mice recorded a reduction in mean body weight by 46.5% (p<0.05. Group B mice had significant increase in mean body weight by 46.2% (p<0.05. The blood glucose level dropped significantly by 18.5% (p<0.05 in group A mice. Garlic had weight loss and hypoglycemic effect in obese mice. These effects were absent in non-obese mice.

  1. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

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    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  2. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  3. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

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    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  4. Effect of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose homeostasis related enzyme activities in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kwon-Il; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Yeo, Jiyoung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effect of curcumin on insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice and their age-matched lean non-diabetic db/+ mice. Both db/+ and db/db mice were fed with or without curcumin (0.02%, wt/wt) for 6 wks. Curcumin significantly lowered blood glucose and HbA 1c levels, and it suppressed body weight loss in db/db mice. Curcumin improved homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and elevated the plasma insulin level in db/db mice. Hepatic glucokinase activity was significantly higher in the curcumin-supplemented db/db group than in the db/db group, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities were significantly lower. In db/db mice, curcumin significantly lowered the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase, beta-oxidation, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme reductase, and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase. Curcumin significantly lowered plasma free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations and increased the hepatic glycogen and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase in db/db mice. Curcumin normalized erythrocyte and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthathione peroxidase) in db/db mice that resulted in a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. However, curcumin showed no effect on the blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose regulating enzyme activities in db/+ mice. These results suggest that curcumin seemed to be a potential glucose-lowering agent and antioxidant in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, but had no affect in non-diabetic db/+ mice.

  5. USING CAPILLARY WHOLE BLOOD GLUCOSE TEST IN SCREENING FOR GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-kai; LUO Lai-min; GU Jing-hong; LI Ping; HUANG Ya-juan; FENG Jie; ZHANG Rui

    2007-01-01

    Objective To discuss whether the capillary whole blood glucose (CBG) test can be used in glucose screening test (GST) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to the venous plasma glucose (VPG) method, and to determine the cutoff value of CBG. Methods This was a self-control test. The 50-g oral GST was conducted among 1 557 pregnant women between 24-28 weeks. Every woman was measured CBG and VPG at the same time and same arm. Three hundred and forty women underwent 100-g 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Receiver operation curve (ROC) was used to determine the potential cutoff level of CBG and VPG. Diagnose criteria of GDM was based on NDDG criteria. OGTT diagnosed GDM and VPG ≥ 7. 8 mmol/L were used as golden standard for ROC. Results There was good relationship between CBG and VPG ( P < 0.01 ). Correlation coefficient was 0. 86. The value of CBG was lower than VPG. The statistical and high-sensitivity cutoff values were 7. 4 mmol/L in CBG and 7. 8 mmol/L in VPG when GDM was used as golden standard. Cutoff value of CBG was 7. 0 mmol/L when VPG≥ 7. 8 mmol/L was used as golden standard. The pregnant outcomes of positive cases of three thresholds had no significant differences. But it was better in case of the pregnant woman when the CBG value was more than 7. 4 mmol/L. Conclusion CBG can be used in GST, the threshold of CBG was suggested as 7. 4 mmol/L. CBG test was more convenience and effective than VPG test.

  6. A PI-fuzzy logic controller for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, M

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript investigates different fuzzy logic controllers for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients. While fuzzy logic control is still intuitive and at a very early stage, it has already been implemented in many industrial plants and reported results are very promising. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) scheme was recently proposed for maintaining blood glucose level in diabetics within acceptable limits, and was shown to be more effective with better transient characteristics than conventional techniques. In fact, FLC is based on human expertise and on desired output characteristics, and hence does not require precise mathematical models. This observation makes fuzzy rule-based technique very suitable for biomedical systems where models are, in general, either very complicated or over-simplistic. Another attractive feature of fuzzy techniques is their insensitivity to system parameter variations, as numerical values of physiological parameters are often not precise and usually vary from patient to another. PI and PID controllers are very popular and are efficiently used in many industrial plants. Fuzzy PI and PID controllers behave in a similar fashion to those classical controllers with the obvious advantage that the controller parameters are time dependant on the range of the control variables and consequently, result in a better performance. In this manuscript, a fuzzy PI controller is designed using a simplified design scheme and then subjected to simulations of the two common diabetes disturbances--sudden glucose meal and system parameter variations. The performance of the proposed fuzzy PI controller is compared to that of the conventional PID and optimal techniques and is shown to be superior. Moreover, the proposed fuzzy PI controller is shown to be more effective than the previously proposed FLC, especially with respect to the overshoot and settling time.

  7. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanga Ranasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II, using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG (Groups 1 and 2 and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4 blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05. Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05. Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001. Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001. Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  8. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors in Sana’a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nood, Hafiz A.; Bazara, Fakiha A.; Al-Absi, Rashad; Habori, Molham AL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among Yemeni people from different regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a, giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemeni male blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank at the National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in the capital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used for screening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activity and separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype. Results Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into the study, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiency prevalence of 7.1%. None of these deficient donors had history of anemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2%) showed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10% of normal activity), and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PD-Mediterranean variant. Conclusion The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiency type in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could represent an important health problem through occurrence of hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed to determine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and should be extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen. PMID:22359725

  9. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, and decreased late postprandial secretion of ghrelin. CONCLUSION: Dietary thylakoids may be a novel agent in reducing the glycaemic responses to high carbohydrate and high glycaemic index foods. Thylakoids may in the future be promising for treatment and prevention of diabetes, overweight and obesity....

  10. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

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    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  11. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Darwich Gassan; Björgell Ola; Lindstedt Sandra; Jönsson Jenny; Hlebowicz Joanna; Almér Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 ...

  12. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  13. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

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    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  14. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  15. Effects of Petroselinum crispum extract on pancreatic B cells and blood glucose of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tabakoğlu-Oğuz, Ayse; Ozsoy-Saçan, Ozlem

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated both morphologically and biochemically whether parsley (Petroselinum crispum), which is used as a folk remedy to decrease blood glucose, has any antidiabetic effect on pancreatic B cells of rats. Parsley extract was given to male diabetic rats. In the diabetic group given parsley extract, it was detected that the number of secretory granules and cells in islets and other morphologic changes were not different from the control diabetic group, while the blood glucose levels in the diabetic group given the plant extract were reduced in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, a decrease was observed in the weight of the control diabetic group and the diabetic group given the plant extract. It is suggested that the plant therapy can provide blood glucose homeostasis and cannot regenerate B cells of the endocrine pancreas.

  16. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  17. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva; Pussinen, Christel;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when....... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio(®). Method. The OneTouch Verio(®) was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes...

  18. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Byoung Geun; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Tchekneva, Elena E; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Chieh Allen; Ebrahim, Benyamin; Harris, Raymond C; Kern, Timothy S; Wasserman, David H; Breyer, Matthew D; Qi, Zhonghua

    2008-10-01

    The present studies examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose and Hb A(1c) in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and KK/HlJ mice with and without diabetes mellitus. Daily averaged blood glucose levels based on continuous glucose monitoring and effects of 6-h vs. overnight fasting on blood glucose were determined. Daily averaged blood glucose levels were highly correlated with Hb A(1c), as determined with a hand-held automated device using an immunodetection method. R(2) values were 0.90, 0.95, and 0.99 in KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J, respectively. Six-hour fasting blood glucose correlated more closely with the level of daily averaged blood glucose and with Hb A(1c) than did blood glucose following an overnight fast. To validate the immunoassay-determined Hb A(1c), we also measured total glycosylated hemoglobin using boronate HPLC. Hb A(1c) values correlated well with total glycosylated hemoglobin in all three strains but were relatively lower than total glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic DBA/2J mice. These results show that 6-h fasting glucose provides a superior index of glycemic control and correlates more closely with Hb A(1c) than overnight-fasted blood glucose in these strains of mice.

  19. Association between self-monitoring of blood glucose and diet among minority patients with diabetes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McANDREW, Lisa M.; HOROWITZ, Carol R.; LANCASTER, Kristie J.; QUIGLEY, Karen S.; POGACH, Leonard M.; MORA, Pablo A.; LEVENTHAL, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is used to regulate glucose control. It is unknown whether SMBG can motivate adherence to dietary recommendations. We predicted that participants who used more SMBG would also report lower fat and greater fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods The present study was a cross-sectional study of 401 primarily minority individuals living with diabetes in East Harlem, New York. Fat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption were measured with the Block Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber and Fat Screeners. Results Greater frequency of SMBG was associated with lower fat intake (rs = −0.15; P < 0.01), but not fruit and vegetable consumption. The effects of SMBG were not moderated by insulin use; thus, the relationship was significant for those individuals both on and not on insulin. A significant interaction was found between frequency of SMBG and changing one’s diet in response to SMBG on total fat intake. The data suggest that participants who use SMBG to guide their diet do not have to monitor multiple times a day to benefit. Conclusion The present study found that the frequency of SMBG was associated with lower fat intake. Patients are often taught to use SMBG to guide their self-management. This is one of the first studies to examine whether SMBG is associated with better dietary intake. PMID:21599868

  20. Comprehensive experiment-clinical biochemistry: determination of blood glucose and triglycerides in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications.

  1. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy.

  2. Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y. T.; Kuang, Y. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Gu, P. C.; Wei, H. J.; Chen, K.

    2017-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to noninvasively monitor the blood glucose concentration (BGC) in healthy subjects with good accuracy and acceptable specificity. Based on this, the paper further considered the possibility of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients. The OCT signal slope (OCTSS) changed with variation of BGC. The correlation coefficient R between BGC and OCTSS in diabetic patients was 0.91; while the correlation coefficient R in healthy volunteers was 0.78. Thus, a better linear dependence of OCTSS on BGC in diabetic patients was presented in the experiment. The results showed that the capability and accuracy of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC of diabetic patients, and the noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients may be better than the monitoring in the healthy subjects.

  3. Effects of Flavonoids in Morus indica on Blood Lipids and Glucose in Hyperlipidemia-diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-qing; JIANG Zheng-ju; XU Shi-qiang; YU Xing; HU Xia-min; PAN Hong-yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of flavonoids extracted from Morus indica(FMI)on blood lipids and glucose.Methods The experimental hyperlipidemia-diabetic rats were induced by high-fat diet(HFD)and low dose of Streptozotocin(STZ).Flavonoids-treated rats were pretreated with FMI(50,100,and 200 mg/kg).The plasma,skeletal muscle,and livers were isolated for biochemical assays,HE staining,immunohistochemistry,and Western blotting analysis.Results The results showed that the body weight in flavonoidstreated(100 and 200 mg/kg)rats was reduced(P<0.05,0.01)compared to HFD-fed rats.FMI obviously reduced total cholesterol(P<0.01),triglycerides(P<0.05),and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(P<0.05),increased high-density lipoprotein(P<0.05),and significantly decreased the atherosclerosis index(P<0.01);FMI(100 and 200 mg/kg)also down-regulated the elevation of blood glucose induced by STZ(P<0.05,0.01);At the meantime,FMI increased hepatic superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and reduced hepatic malondialdehyde(MDA)content obviously.In addition,the results showed that the expression of hepatic CYP2E1 was markedly decreased while the expression of GLUT-4 in skeletal muscles was increased by FMI.Conclusion The above results demonstrate that the effect of FMI is related to its up-regulation of hepatic SOD activity,reduction of hepatic MDA content,down-regulation of hepatic CYP2E1 expression,and increase of GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle,which suggests that FMI may prevent or improve hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia caused by an excessive HFD.

  4. Blood glucose control in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki Hirasawa; Shigeto Oda; Masataka Nakamura

    2009-01-01

    The main pathophysiological feature of sepsis is the uncontrollable activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses arising from the overwhelming production of mediators such as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Such an uncontrollable inflammatory response would cause many kinds of metabolic derangements.One such metabolic derangement is hyperglycemia.Accordingly, control of hyperglycemia in sepsis is considered to be a very effective therapeutic approach. However, despite the initial enthusiasm, recent studies reported that tight glycemic control with intensive insulin therapy failed to show a beneficial effect on mortality of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. One of the main reasons for this disappointing result is the incidence of harmful hypoglycemia during intensive insulin therapy. Therefore, avoidance of hypoglycemia during intensive insulin therapy may be a key issue in effective tight glycemic control.It is generally accepted that glycemic control aimed at a blood glucose level of 80-100 mg/dL, as initially proposed by van den Berghe, seems to be too tight and that such a level of tight glycemic control puts septic patients at increased risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore,now many researchers suggest less strict glycemic control with a target blood glucose level of 140-180 mg/dL.Also specific targeting of glycemic control in diabetic patients should be considered. Since there is a significant correlation between success rate of glycemic control and the degree of hypercytokinemia in septic patients,some countermeasures to hypercytokinemia may be an important aspect of successful glycemic control. Thus,in future, use of an artificial pancreas to avoid hypoglycemia during insulin therapy, special consideration of septic diabetic patients, and control of hypercytokinemia should be considered for more effective glycemic control in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

  5. Are Tubes Containing Sodium Fluoride Still Needed for the Measurement of Blood Glucose in Hospital Laboratory Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Al-Kharusi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare glucose values obtained using sodium flouride (NaF tubes and serum separation tubes (SST in a tertiary care hospital laboratory setting.  Methods: This study was conducted at the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman. During the study period (1 September–30 November 2013, 50 pairs (one NaF tube and one SST of patient’s blood specimens were randomly collected. Following separation of plasma (NaF tubes and serum (SST, glucose concentrations were measured by hexokinase assay using the Architect c8000. Fifteen pairs of these tubes were kept in the refrigerator at 4°C and plasma/serum glucose concentrations were measured daily up to seven days after collection.  Results: Comparing plasma (NaF and serum (SST results of glucose values (n=50 showed an average difference of 0.00mmol/L (range -0.60 to +0.60mmol/L. Bland Altman analysis gave a non-significant constant bias of 0.10 ±0.195mmol/L (bias ±SD. Pearson correlation between plasma (NaF and serum (SST glucose concentrations revealed a significant correlation approaching unity with r2= 0.9991. No significant differences in glucose values were noted for both plasma and serum in 15 pairs of NaF and SST tubes when analyzed seven days following refrigeration. Hemolysis was observed in five (10% NaF tubes compared with two (4% SST.  Conclusion: There is no difference in glucose values collected from plasma NaF tubes or serum SST, and so SST can be used in hospital laboratory settings as there are practical advantages, including cost-effectiveness and reduction in blood volume drawn when utilizing these tubes for glucose and other tests from a single blood collection tube.

  6. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  7. Blood constituents trigger brain swelling, tissue death, and reduction of glucose metabolism early after acute subdural hematoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechli, Heidi; Behzad, Melika; Schreckenberger, Matthias; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Heimann, Axel; Kempski, Oliver; Alessandri, Beat

    2010-03-01

    Outcome from acute subdural hematoma is often worse than would be expected from the pure increase of intracranial volume by bleeding. The aim was to test whether volume-independent pathomechanisms aggravate damage by comparing the effects of blood infusion with those of an inert fluid, paraffin oil, on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), local cerebral blood flow (CBF), edema formation, glucose metabolism ([18F]-deoxyglucose, MicroPET ), and histological outcome. Rats were injured by subdural infusion of 300 muL venous blood or paraffin. ICP, CPP, and CBF changes, assessed during the first 30 mins after injury, were not different between the injury groups at most time points (n=8 per group). Already at 2 h after injury, blood caused a significantly more pronounced decrease in glucose metabolism in the injured cortex when compared with paraffin (P<0.001, n=5 per group). Ipsilateral brain edema did not differ between groups at 2 h, but was significantly more pronounced in the blood-treated groups at 24 and 48 h after injury (n=8 per group). These changes caused a 56.2% larger lesion after blood when compared with paraffin (48.1+/-23.0 versus 21.1+/-11.8 mm(3); P<0.02). Blood constituent-triggered pathomechanisms aggravate the immediate effects due to ICP, CPP, and CBF during hemorrhage and lead to early reduction of glucose metabolism followed by more severe edema and histological damage.

  8. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  9. Effect of local corticosteroid injection of the hand and wrist on blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Louis W; Glickel, Steven Z; Barron, O Alton; Harrison, Richard; Marshall, Astrid; Purcelli-Lafer, Marissa

    2012-12-01

    Locally administered corticosteroids are a common therapy in many hand and wrist disorders. Corticosteroids pose a theoretical risk to patients with diabetes mellitus by potentially raising blood glucose to hyperglycemic levels. Although oral corticosteroids are known to have an effect on blood glucose control, limited data exist on extra-articular administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the systemic impact of extra-articularly administered corticosteroids in the hand and wrist on serum glucose concentration in patients with diabetes mellitus.Twenty-three patients with diabetes mellitus received a 1-mL triamcinolone acetonide injection for de Quervain's tenosynovitis, trigger finger, flexor carpi ulnaris tendonitis, or carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients recorded their daily morning blood glucose levels for 1 week before injection and for 4 weeks after injection. Average blood glucose levels increased slightly from baseline after injection, reaching statistical significance 1, 5, and 6 days after injection, but were not clinically significant (average increase, 14.2, 9.7, and 32.7 mg/dL, respectively). Isolated increases more than 2 times the standard deviation of preinjection values occurred at least once in the majority of patients. The frequency of hyperglycemic episodes increased after injection, but the proportions of patients with at least 1 hyperglycemic episode before and after injection were not significantly different.These results suggest that local corticosteroid injections are a clinically safe treatment option for inflammatory processes of the hand and wrist in patients with diabetes mellitus. On average, patients experienced slight increases in blood glucose after receiving an injection. Most experienced isolated increases substantially beyond baseline and isolated hyperglycemic effects, but these did not pose an apparent clinical risk.

  10. Relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Chang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zou, X; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Lv, L; Liang, B

    2013-12-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. Despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. Based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have significantly higher body weight and fasting blood glucose concentration than female tree shrews (p < 0.001). The concentration of fasting blood glucose slightly increased with body weight in males (r = 0.152, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in females, the body weight, concentration of fasting blood glucose and waist circumference positively increased with age (p < 0.001). Additionally, 17 tree shrews with Lee index [body weight (g)*0.33*1000/body length (cm)] above 290 had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than non-obese tree shrews with a Lee index score below 290 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, 6 of 992 tree shrews (three males and three females, 2-4 years old) displayed impaired plasma triglycerides, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein and oral glucose tolerance test, suggestive of the early symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study provides the first clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews, further improving our understanding of this relationship in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the similarity of tree shrews to humans and non-human primates, this finding supports their potential use as an animal model in the research of MetS.

  11. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-07-07

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10-0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04-0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05-0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09-0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population.

  12. Effects of enalapril, losartan, and verapamil on blood pressure and glucose metabolism in the Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, T; Erlich, Y; Rosenmann, E; Cohen, A

    1997-06-01

    We undertook the present study to examine the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, the angiotensin II antagonist losartan, and calcium antagonist verapamil on systolic pressure and spontaneous blood glucose levels in rats from the Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive strain. Genetic hypertension and diabetes developed in this strain after crossbreeding of Cohen diabetic and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The new rat strain was fed their usual copper-poor sucrose diet, which is essential for the development of this model, and for 4 weeks received either enalapril, losartan, or verapamil. Systolic pressure was reduced significantly compared with controls in all treated groups. Chronic treatment with enalapril or verapamil, but not with losartan, succeeded in lowering spontaneous blood glucose, indicating improved diabetic control. Data suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by enalapril, but not angiotensin II antagonism by losartan, can improve glucose metabolism in addition to its hypotensive effect in a genetic diabetic hypertensive rat strain. This confirms that the drop in glucose with converting enzyme inhibition is highly dependent on bradykinin accumulation. Data further suggest that calcium channel blockade by verapamil can also improve glucose metabolism. The question remains whether the reduction in glucose by verapamil was a result of inhibition of glucogenesis.

  13. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  14. High glucose induces the expression of osteopontin in blood vessels in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjia; Ni, Leng; Liu, Xinnong; Wang, Zhanqi; Liu, Changwei

    2016-11-11

    Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in mineral metabolism and the inflammatory response while diabetes mellitus is associated with severe and extensive vascular calcification. Therefore, we speculated that OPN could be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of blood vessels exposed to high glucose. To identify the relationship between high glucose and OPN, we used high glucose medium to stimulate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in vitro and diabetic rats for in vivo analyses. As assessed by flow cytometry and western blots, SMC and VEC apoptosis levels increased with high glucose. Potassium and calcium uptake by cells were also increased with high glucose. These findings demonstrated the relationship between mineral metabolism and high glucose. Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that OPN increased in vitro with high glucose stimulation. The inflammatory factor ICAM1 and the inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) (Thr495) were also upregulated by high glucose. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2 and the activating phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser1177) were downregulated. Similar to the change of OPN, phosphorylated P38 was increased with high glucose. SB203580, an inhibitor of P38 phosphorylation, downregulated the expression of OPN and related inflammatory factors. Additionally, OPN was increased in the aortas and plasma of diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high glucose can induce the expression of OPN, which may be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of the vascular wall in diabetes.

  15. Clinical significance of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and its relationship with blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武秀玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) .Methods Totally 784 T2DM patients and 197 healthy controls were enrolled in this study.Age,duration,body mass index (BMI) ,systolic blood pressure (SBP) ,diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ,levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) ,postprandial blood glucose (PBG) ,hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglyceride (TG) ,

  16. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  17. [The net analyte preprocessing combined with radial basis partial least squares regression applied in noninvasive measurement of blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Bo; Huang, Zheng-Wei

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of quantitative analysis model in the near-infrared spectroscopy of blood glucose, this paper, by combining net analyte preprocessing (NAP) algorithm and radial basis functions partial least squares (RBFPLS) regression, builds a nonlinear model building method which is suitable for glucose measurement of human, named as NAP-RBFPLS. First, NAP is used to pre-process the near-infrared spectroscopy of blood glucose, in order to effectively extract the information which only relates to glucose signal from the original near-infrared spectra, so that it could effectively weaken the occasional correlation problems of the glucose changes and the interference factors which are caused by the absorption of water, albumin, hemoglobin, fat and other components of the blood in human body, the change of temperature of human body, the drift of measuring instruments, the changes of measuring environment, and the changes of measuring conditions; and then a nonlinear quantitative analysis model is built with the near-infrared spectroscopy data after NAP, in order to solve the nonlinear relationship between glucose concentrations and near-infrared spectroscopy which is caused by body strong scattering. In this paper, the new method is compared with other three quantitative analysis models building on partial least squares (PLS), net analyte preprocessing partial least squares (NAP-PLS) and RBFPLS respectively. At last, the experimental results show that the nonlinear calibration model, developed by combining NAP algorithm and RBFPLS regression, which was put forward in this paper, greatly improves the prediction accuracy of prediction sets, and what has been proved in this paper is that the nonlinear model building method will produce practical applications for the research of non-invasive detection techniques on human glucose concentrations.

  18. Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on large-bowel functions, blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in young healthy male subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wezendonk, B.; Srikumar, T.S.; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the intake of 15 g nondigestible oligosaccharides per day on various parameters of large-bowel function, as well as on blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in man. Design: Latin square, randomized, double-blind, diet-controlled. Setting: Metabolic resea

  19. Analysis article on the performance analysis of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnica, Bogdan

    2009-09-01

    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Chang and colleagues present the analytical performance evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose meter. This device is an advanced construction with a color display, used-strip ejector, no-button interface, and short assay time. Accuracy studies were performed using a YSI 2300 analyzer, considered the reference. Altogether, 349 pairs of results covering a wide range of blood glucose concentrations were analyzed. Patients with diabetes performed a significant part of the tests. Obtained results indicate good accuracy of OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system, satisfying the International Organization for Standardization recommendations and thereby locating >95% of tests within zone A of the error grid. Results of the precision studies indicate good reproducibility of measurements. In conclusion, the evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue meter revealed good analytical performance together with convenient handling useful for self-monitoring of blood glucose performed by elderly diabetes patients.

  20. Effects of L-lysine monohydrochloride on insulin and blood glucose levels in spinal cord injured rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-ling; ZHAO Yu-wu; LIU Xue-yuan; DING Su-ju

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia in brain and spinal cord could aggravate neurologic impairment. Recent studies showed that L-lysine monohydrochlonde (LMH) could increase the insulin secretion and regulate the blood glucose level. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of LMH on pancreatic islet B cells, the levels of endogenous insulin and blood glucose in spinal cord injured rats.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, namely, normal control group, model group, high-dose LMH group (621.5 mg/kg equal to LMH 1/8 LD50), and low-dose LMH group (310.8 mg/kg equal to LMH 1/16 LD50). The model of spinal cord injured rat was established by hemi-transection at the lower right thoracic spinal cord. LMH was administered via intraperitoneal injection once spinal cord injury was produced in rats. All rats were sacrificed 48 hours after spinal cord injured. The effects of LMH on pancreatic islet B cells, the content of endogenous insulin, end the level of blood glucose were observed with immunohistochemical method, radioimmunoassay method, end biochemical analyzer, respectively. Results The insulin immunohistochemical intensities of islet B cells were significantly weaker in model group then those in normal control group (P 0.05). Conclusion LMH, but dose-dependent, might participate in the regulation of pancreatic islet B cells, and then reduce the blood glucose levels in the spinal cord injured rats.

  1. Changes of hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus by water extracts of Azadirachta indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shori; Amal Bakr

    2012-01-01

    Presently,there is a growing interest in herbal remedies.Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been used in traditional medicine over centuries.In the present study,the effects of water extracts of Azadirachta indica seeds,stems,flowers and bark on the changes of hemoglobin content (Hb) and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus were investigated.Different doses of A.indica water extracts of seeds,stems,flowers and bark were injected to the tested animals every 48 h for 14 days.Significant decrease in both hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood samples in all groups of injected rats were compared to control group.However,in all groups higher decrease was shown in the rats injected with 1 g·mL-1 ofA.indica water extracts.In addition,the present study showed no significant relationship between decreased hemoglobin content and glucose levels in blood samples,and increased doses injected.In conclusion,A.indica has the potential to decrease both hemoglobin content and blood glucose levels.

  2. Impact of control of blood glucose level during treatment of sudden deafness in diabetics: relationship with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang-Ki; Shin, Ji-Ho; Chang, Mun-Young; Min, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Sei-Young; Yang, Hoon-Shik; Hong, Young-Ho; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of control of blood glucose level during treatment of sudden deafness. A retrospective study was performed involving 197 patients from January, 2011 to September, 2015. All patients were administrated prednisolone (Pharmaprednisolone tab(®), 5 mg/T; KoreaPharma) p.o under the following regimen: 60 mg/day for 4 days, 40 mg/day for 2 days, 30 mg/day for 1 day, 20 mg/day for 1 day, and 10 mg/day for 2 days. During treatment, pure tone audiometry and blood glucose level were investigated for each patient and the results were statistically analyzed. Mean hearing improvement was 19.2 dB for the non-diabetes group and 24.8 dB for the diabetes group. The greater improvement for diabetics was not statistically significant (p = 0.146). Hearing improvement was 25.1 dB for subjects with mean blood glucose 200 mg/dl; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.267). Mean blood glucose level was 200.8 mg/dl for subjects with hearing improvement >20 dB and 181.8 mg/dl for subjects with hearing improvement sudden deafness does not have a direct effect on prognosis.

  3. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  4. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  5. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  6. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs...

  7. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  8. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  9. Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 - evaluation of the effect of evidence based patient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Guido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient information (EBPI has been recognised as important tool for informed choice in particular in the matter of preventive options. An objective, on the best scientific evidence-based consumer information about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and primary prevention of diabetes, is not available yet. Thus we developed a web-based EBPI and aim to evaluate its effects on informed decision making in people 50 years or older. Methods/Design We conduct a web-based randomised-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of information about elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention on five specific outcomes: (i knowledge of elevated blood glucose level-related issues (primary outcome; (ii attitudes to a metabolic testing; (iii intention to undergo a metabolic testing; (iv decision conflict; (v satisfaction with the information. The intervention group receives a specially developed EBPI about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention, the control group information about this topic, available in the internet. The study population consists of people between 50 and 69 years of age without known diabetes. Participants will be recruited via the internet page of the cooperating health insurance company, Techniker Krankenkasse (TK, and the internet page of the German Diabetes Centre. Outcomes will be measured through online questionnaires. We expect better informed participants in the intervention group. Discussion The design of this study may be a prototype for other web-based prevention information and their evaluation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN22060616.

  10. Determination of the reference position in the near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2016-10-01

    Position-based reference measurement method is taken as one of the most promising method in non-invasive measurement of blood glucose based on spectroscopic methodology. Selecting an appropriate source-detector separation as the reference position is important for deducting the influence of background change and reducing the loss of useful signals. Our group proposed a special source-detector separation named floating-reference position where the signal contains only background change, that is to say, the signal at this source-detector separation is uncorrelated with glucose concentration. The existence of floating-reference position has been verified in a three layer skin by Monte Carlo simulation and in the in vitro experiment. But it is difficult to verify the existence of floating-reference position on the human body because the interference is more complex during in vivo experiment. Aiming at this situation, this paper studies the determination of the best reference position on human body by collecting signals at several source-detector separations on the palm and measuring the true blood glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) experiments of 3 volunteers. Partial least square (PLS) calibration model is established between the signals at every source-detector separation and its corresponding blood glucose levels. The results shows that the correlation coefficient (R) between 1.32 mm to 1.88 mm is lowest and they can be used as reference for background correction. The signal of this special position is important for improving the accuracy of near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  11. Review of Blood Glucose Detective Methods%血糖检测方法的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 张松; 杨琳

    2011-01-01

    The control of the blood glucose is an important way for understanding pathogenic condition and evaluating treatment effects of mellitus diabetes. In this paper, the invasive, minimally invasive and non-invasive blood glucose detecting techniques in clinic are summarized respectively. Advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are compared and analyzed from the technical aspect. The technical principles of the current blood glucose monitoring instruments are analyzed. Non-invasive detection methods and their development foreground are specially introduced. Although there are many types of non-invasive blood glucose detectors, there is a lack of a non-invasive, continuous, dynamic, accurate, good- repeatability product, which can be widely used in home health care, and replace the traditional invasive blood glucose detector. At present, every one of the invasive, minimally invasive or non-invasive blood glucose detecting technique has its characteristic, can not be substituted each other. The non-invasive technique is the future of blood glucose detector, which still needs studied in a multi-interdisciplinary subject.%掌握血糖的变化是了解糖尿病病情和评价治疗效果的重要途径.本文从有创、微创和无创三个方面对血糖检测方法及存在问题进行了陈述;从技术方面对目前的血糖仪进行分析,着重介绍了无创检测方式的原理及发展前景.虽然无创血糖检测方法很多,但目前仍然缺乏一种无创伤、连续、动态、准确、重复性良好的方法,使之能够广泛应用于家庭保健,并取代传统的有创血糖检测仪.有创、微创、无创血糖检测方法目前各有优劣,尚无法相互取代,而无创血糖检测是未来血糖检测技术发展的方向,有待于多学科的综合研究.

  12. Additional benefit of higher dose green tea in lowering postprandial blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Lahirin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea contains catechins that have inhibitory effects on amylase, sucrase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT which result in lowering of postprandial blood glucose (PBG. This beneficial effect has been widely demonstrated using the usual dose (UD of green tea preparation. Our study was aimed to explore futher lowering of PBG using high dose (HD of green tea in healthy adolescents.Methods: 24 subjects received 100 mL infusion of either 0.67 or 3.33 grams of green tea with test meal. Fasting, PBG at 30, 60, 120 minutes were measured. Subjects were cross-overed after wash out. PBG and its incremental area under the curve (IAUC difference between groups were analyzed with paired T-test. Cathecin contents of tea were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The PBG of HD group was lower compared to UD (at 60 minutes =113.70 ± 13.20 vs 124.16 ± 8.17 mg/dL, p = 0.005; at 120 minutes = 88.95 ± 6.13 vs 105.25 ± 13.85 mg/dL, p < 0.001. The IAUC of HD was also found to be lower compared to UD (2055.0 vs 3411.9 min.mg/dL, p < 0.001.Conclusion: Additional benefit of lowering PBG can be achieved by using higher dose of green tea. This study recommends preparing higher dose of green tea drinks for better control of PBG.

  13. In vivo measurements of brain glucose transport using the reversible Michaelis-Menten model and simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow changes during hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I Y; Lee, S P; Kim, S G; Gruetter, R

    2001-06-01

    Glucose is the major substrate that sustains normal brain function. When the brain glucose concentration approaches zero, glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier becomes rate limiting for metabolism during, for example, increased metabolic activity and hypoglycemia. Steady-state brain glucose concentrations in alpha-chloralose anesthetized rats were measured noninvasively as a function of plasma glucose. The relation between brain and plasma glucose was linear at 4.5 to 30 mmol/L plasma glucose, which is consistent with the reversible Michaelis-Menten model. When the model was fitted to the brain glucose measurements, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, Kt, was 3.3 +/- 1.0 mmol/L, and the ratio of the maximal transport rate relative to CMRglc, Tmax/CMRglc, was 2.7 +/- 0.1. This Kt is comparable to the authors' previous human data, suggesting that glucose transport kinetics in humans and rats are similar. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was simultaneously assessed and constant above 2 mmol/L plasma glucose at 73 +/- 6 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1). Extrapolation of the reversible Michaelis-Menten model to hypoglycemia correctly predicted the plasma glucose concentration (2.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) at which brain glucose concentrations approached zero. At this point, CBF increased sharply by 57% +/- 22%, suggesting that brain glucose concentration is the signal that triggers defense mechanisms aimed at improving glucose delivery to the brain during hypoglycemia.

  14. Effect of Aqueous-Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia polyacantha on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the blood glucose reducing effect (hypoglycemic effect of stem bark extract of Acacia polyacantha on normal wistar rats over a 24 h period. Three groups of previously fasted wistar rats, with each group made up of 5 rats each were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o of aqueous methanolic stem bark extract of A. polyacantha. The hypoglycemic effect of A . polyacantha stem bark aqueous methanolic extract was compared with that of Metformin (250 mg/kg in fasted normal rats. Following treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of A. polyacantha (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. produced a dose-dependent, significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. The three doses of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels after 2 h of extract administration. After 8 and 16 h of extract administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decreased the blood glucose levels when compared to control, while the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels after 4, 8 and 16 h of extract administration when compared with the control group. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 3807.9 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion the aqueous methanolic extract of Acacia polyacantha possesses hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic rats.

  15. Bio-enhancing effect of Piperine with Metformin on lowering blood glucose level in Alloxan induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Atal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21 st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL, Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg, Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg, and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg. All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28. Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14 th and 28 th day (P < 0.05. Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects.

  16. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  17. ACUTE EFFECT OF FLUCONAZOLE, ITRACONAZOLE AND VORICONAZOLE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE IN NORMOGLYCEAMIC & DIABETIC RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Amol, Nayak BB, Vakade Kiran P, Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Vijay Kumar AN, Vrushali Nibrad, Raul AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fungal and antimicrobials are frequently co-prescribed either to manage or treat either the secondary complications or other diseases. Among antifungal drugs Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriconazole are most commonly used. The present study was undertaken to further confirm the effect of Voriconazole as well as other antifungal drugs on blood Glucose level. Aim & Objectives: 1. To Study the effect of Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriaconazole in Normoglycemic & Diabetic Rats on Blood Glucose. 2. To compare the effects between all drugs. Material & Methodology: Grouping: Animals divided into 8 groups in each group 6 animals. Group 1- 4: Normoglycemic rats, Group 5-8 Diabetic rats (alloxan induced Group 1,5: received vehicle (Normal saline Group 2,6: received Fluconazole (18mg/kg BW, Group 3,7 received Itraconazole (18mg/kg BW Group 4,8 received Voriconazole (18mg/kg BW. The glucose levels were estimated by Glucometer method (Accu-check active at the interval of 0, ½ hr, 1hrs, 2hrs & 4hrs after drug administration. Results: Effect on blood glucose in Normoglycemic Rats: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value= 0.0102 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.0001. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in normoglycemic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole. Effect on blood glucose in Diabetic Rats: (Table 2: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value=0.013 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.001 in acute studies. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in diabetic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole treated. Conclusion: Itraconazole, Fluconazole can be safely used in diabetic with fungal infections. Voriconazole should be avoided in diabetics to

  18. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  19. Glucose supplementation has minimal effects on blood neutrophil functionand gene expression in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    During early lactation, glucose availability is low and the effect of glucose supply on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of glucose supplementation on the function and transcriptomic inflammatory respons...

  20. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays.

  1. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  2. Aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum decreases levels of blood glucose in induced hyperglycemic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amilcar Arenal; Leonardo Martn; Nestor M Castillo; Dainier de la Torre; Ubaldo Torres; Reinaldo Gonzlez

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate, in hyperglycemic tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus)], the effect of this aqueous extract on blood glucose levels.Methods:The hyperglycemia inO. niloticus was induced by adding glucose to fish pond water.An aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum (O. tenuiflorum) was prepared by boiling fresh leaves and the doses of0,40,80,200 and400 mg per liter of pond water were tested.Results:The blood sugar concentration for tilapia with hyperglycemic induced was an average of50% higher than the control group.The blood glucose levels in tilapia after the induction of hyperglycemia were higher than the control group for 90 min after the treatment.The treatment with the aqueous extract ofO. tenuiflorum dropped the serum glucose level of hyperglycemic tilapia until it was similar to that of the control group and was dose dependent.Conclusions:The results indicated that O. tenuiflorum was endowed with anti-hyperglycemic activity.To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of fish as a diabetes model to test natural extracts from plants.

  3. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

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    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  4. Influence of peritoneal transfer status on fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic nephropathy patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xu-fang; ZHOU Yun-fei; FENG Ling; ZHANG Dong-liang; LIU Wen-hu

    2009-01-01

    Background Extra glucose load in peritoneal dialysis is an important cause of newly-occurred diabetic mellitus, which initiates insulin treatment in some of the dialytic patients.The purpose of this study was to discuss the influence of the peritoneal transfer status on fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic nephropathy patients who are on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).Methods One hundred and forty-five patients with total KT/V per week over 2.0 were recruited, including 60 males and 85 females. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood albumin, blood lipid profile and blood C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed at the beginning of the peritoneal dialysis and after 12 months. A peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was carried out at the 3rd month of CAPD, and meantime residual renal function, peritoneal solute clearance rate, ultrafiltration volume and urine volume were also evaluated.Results Twenty-one cases were identified as a low transfer group (L), 32 cases as a low average transfer group (LA), 58 cases as a high average transfer group (HA) and 34 cases as a high transfer group (H). At the end of the 12th month, 83 cases had elevated FBG Through stepwise multiple regression analysis we found the FBG level in these patients was positively related to glucose load and CRP, and negatively related to glucose absorption in the peritoneum (D/D_0) and blood albumin (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis during a 48-month follow-up found the morbidity of hyperglycemia to be 17/34 cases (50.1%) in the high transfer group, 20/58 cases (34.5%) in the high average transfer group, 11/32 cases (34.3%) in the low average transfer group, and 1/21 cases (5.4%) in the low transfer group.Conclusions Patients with high peritoneal transfer capacity might have the highest morbidity from hyperglycemia among patients with these four different peritoneal transfer status. Glucose load, baseline CRP and FBG level before peritoneal dialysis, and

  5. Related research of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zeng; Jie Ou; Yun-Mei He; Chun-Yu Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between levels of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus so as to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods:A total of 240 cases of patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus receiving physical examinations in our hospital from March 2014 to March 2015 were selected and divided into three groups. The control group was consisted of type 2 diabetes patients without lower-extremity arterial disease, the observation group 1 included type 2 diabetes patients with mild or moderate lower-extremity arterial disease, and the observation group 2 was formed by type 2 diabetes patients with severe lower-extremity arterial disease. Each group contained 80 cases. Then, the heights, weights, waist and hip circumferences of patients in the three groups were determined and the body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated; the fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2 h PG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c) in two groups were detected; and the levels of serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and cystatin C (CysC) in two groups were also tested.Results:Compared with the control group, the WHR, FBG, HOMA-IR, 2 h PG, HBA1c, LDL-C, apoB and CysC all increased significantly, and the differences were statistically significant. Besides, there were statistically significances existing between the observation groups 1 and 2. What’s more, the serum levels of TC, HDL-C, TG and apoA1 in the observation groups were not significantly different from those of the control group.Conclusions: There is a close relationship between blood glucose, blood lipid, serum cystatin C level and lower-extremity arterial

  6. Blood glucose test in the fast blood glucose meter and the value of conventional biochemical instrument analysis%血糖检验中快速血糖仪和常规生化仪的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡政兵; 刘宁

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨快速血糖仪和常规生化仪在临床血糖检验中应用的价值差异。方法:某院收治的82例患者为研究对象,对所有患者均采用快速血糖仪和常规生化仪检验血糖,对比两种方法的应用价值的差异。结果:快速血糖仪单次检测的血糖值为(6.20±1.18)mmol/L,多次检测的血糖值为(5.53±1.03)mmol/L,常规生化仪单次检测的血糖值为(5.69±1.12)mmol/L,多次检测的血糖值为(5.81±0.96)mmol/L。经统计学分析,两种方法比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:快速血糖仪具有常规生化仪在检验血糖方面的准确性,而且使用更简易可行和经济实用,能一定程度上减轻患者的身心负担和经济压力,利于医生及时确诊和给予救治措施,具有一定的临床推广和应用价值。%Objective:To study the fast blood glucose meter and conventional biochemical instrument in clinical application value of differences in blood sugar test. Methods: 82 cases of patients as the research object, adopt the fast blood glucose meter for all patients and normal biochemical analyzer test blood sugar, compared the difference of the value of the application of the two methods. Results:blood sugar value of fast blood glucose meter single detection (6.20±1.18)mmol/L, repeatedly testing blood glucose value is (5.53± 1.03) mmol/L;Routine biochemistry analyzer the blood sugar value of single detection (5.69 ± 1.12) mmol/L, multiple testing blood glucose value is (5.81 ± 0.96) mmol/L.After statistical analysis, P>0.05 there was no statistically significant difference comparing the two methods. Conclusion:fast blood glucose meter with conventional biochemical analyzer in the accuracy of the test blood glucose, and more simple and feasible and economical and practical to use, and to a certain extent, reduce the patient's physical and mental burden and economic pressures, conducive to the doctor in time

  7. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.

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    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  8. Effect of Desmodium gangeticum extract on blood glucose in rats and on insulin secretion in vitro.

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    Govindarajan, Raghavan; Asare-Anane, Henry; Persaud, Shanta; Jones, Peter; Houghton, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    Desmodium gangeticum is widely used in the indigenous system of medicine in India and is reported to contain flavone and isoflavonoid glycosides. It forms the ingredient of many Ayurvedic formulations used for diabetes. The present study was thus aimed at evaluating the insulin secretion and antidiabetic activity of Desmodium gangeticum. Treatment of diabetic rats with aerial parts of D. gangeticum extract (DG, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. D. gangeticum extract caused a significant increase in insulin secretion from MIN6 cells grown as monolayers and as pseudoislets, indicating that the antidiabetic activity may be as a result of increased insulin secretion. It also had a role on the lipid profile of the rats by causing reductions in cholesterol and triglycerides and increasing the HDL significantly (p < 0.05). This works supports the traditional use of D. gangeticum in the treatment of diabetes and this is likely to be due, at least in part, to its stimulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic islet cells.

  9. Fasting Blood Glucose Profile among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

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    I. O. Oluwayemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the past two decades there has been an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children. Baseline data is needed to assess the impact of changing lifestyles on Ado-Ekiti, a previously semiurban community in Southwest Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to assess the fasting blood glucose (FBG of adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study involving 628 adolescents from three different secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. With parental consent, volunteers completed a structured questionnaire, and an overnight FBG was measured. Results. There were 346 males and 282 females (male : female ratio = 1.2 : 1. Their ages ranged from 10 to 19 years (mean age: 14.2±1.7 years. Four hundred and forty-four (70.7% had normal FBG, while 180 (28.7% and 4 (0.6% had FBG in the prediabetic and diabetic range, respectively. Female gender, age group 10–14 years, and family history of obesity were significantly associated with impaired FBG (P value <0.001, <0.001, and 0.045, resp.. Conclusion. Impaired FBG is common among secondary school adolescents and it is more prevalent among younger female adolescents (10–14 years with positive family history of obesity.

  10. Zonisamide prevents olanzapine-associated hyperphagia, weight gain, and elevated blood glucose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Nicholas M; Sinnayah, Puspha; Bymaster, Frank P; Gadde, Kishore M; Krishnan, Ranga K; McKinney, Anthony A; Landbloom, Ronald P; Tollefson, Gary D; Cowley, Michael A

    2008-11-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), one of the second-generation atypical antipsychotics (SGAs), has shown relative advantages in patient adherence and outcomes. However, OLZ has also been associated with a higher incidence of weight gain than most other SGAs. Excessive weight gain may in turn contribute to long-term health concerns for some individuals. Zonisamide (ZNS), a medication approved in the United States as an adjunct in the management of epilepsy, has a diverse pharmacological profile, including sodium channel blockade, monoamine enhancement, and inhibition of carbonic anhydrase. ZNS has also been reported to cause weight loss in both humans and rodents. We hypothesized that this profile might be beneficial when co-administered with OLZ. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of OLZ on body weight, as well as the pathways known to regulate feeding behavior and arousal in the Sprague-Dawley rat. As indicated via c-Fos expression, we found an OLZ-induced activation in the nucleus accumbens and orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. An OLZ-associated development of hyperphagia, weight gain and elevated blood glucose in the rat was also found. These outcomes were attenuated and reversed in the presence of concomitant ZNS. These results suggest the hypothesis that ZNS may effectively treat or prevent weight gain or metabolic changes associated with the SGAs. Future studies of this combination in patients through appropriately designed human clinical studies are encouraged.

  11. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (ppollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues.

  12. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  13. Red blood transfusion in preterm infants: changes in glucose, electrolytes and acid base balance

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    Shereen Abdelghaffar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm neonates comprise the most heavily transfused group of patients, and about 85% of extremely low birth weight newborns receive a transfusion by the end of their hospital stay. The aim of this study was to assess the possible metabolic effects of RBC transfusion on preterm infants, especially during the first 2 weeks of life, and its relation to blood volume. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 preterm neonates with gestational age of less than or equal to 34 weeks. They received RBCs transfusion during first 2 weeks of life. Venous blood samples of infants were collected 2 to 4 hours before and 1 hour after the end of transfusion to evaluate hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrit, acid-base, electrolytes, and glucose status. Then, infants were classified into two main groups: those who received RBCs volume less than or 20 ml/kg and those who received RBCs volume more than 20 ml/kg. Results: Infants received a mean volume of 20.38 ± 3.2 ml/kg RBCs (range, 10.9 - 26.6 ml/kg at a median age of 9.8 ± 3.6 days. After transfusion, a significant increase of mean Hb (P<0.001, mean Hct (P<0.001, pH (P<0.001, pO 2 (P<0.05, and a significant decrease of the pCO2 (41.46 ± 8.8torr vs 35.4 ± 9.34 torr; P<0.001 were observed. In addition, there was a significant increase of serum K + (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of Ca +2 (P<0.001. A positive correlation was found between the K + intake and the changes of kalemia (r = 0.99; P = 0.00. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between the patients′ calcium intake and the changes of calcemia (r = -0.35; P = 0.02. On comparing the changes in clinical and biochemical variables between two groups after transfusion, we observed a significant increase in mean Hb and Hct associated with a significant decrease in mean serum Ca +2 (P<0.001 in the group receiving the larger blood volume. Conclusion: RBC transfusion was effective in improving anemia, oxygenation, increasing

  14. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

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    Tuba Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs. Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15 and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05. The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  15. Blood glucose control and medication adherence among adult type 2 diabetic Nigerians attending a primary care clinic in under-resourced environment of eastern Nigeria

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    Iloh GU Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the evidence that goal blood glucose control reduces preventable emergency hospitalizations, the control of blood glucose has been variable in Nigeria. Aim: The study was designed to determine the blood glucose control and medication adherence among adult type 2 diabetic Nigerians attending a primary care clinic in under-resourced environment of Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 120 adult type 2 diabetic patients who were on treatment for at least 3 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have a goal blood glucose control if the fasting blood glucose was 70-130 mg/dL. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire on self-reported therapy. Operationally, an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. The reasons for non-adherence were documented. Results: The blood glucose control and medication adherence rates were 61.7% and 72.5%, respectively. Blood glucose control was significantly associated with adherence to treatment (P=0.025 and medication duration ≥3 years (P=0.045. The most common reason for non-adherence was financial constraints (P=0.033. Conclusion: Glycaemic control and medication adherence among the study population were good and should constitute logical targets for intervention.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEMOGLOBIN A1C AND BLOOD GLUCOSE THROUGHOUT THE DAY IN WELL-GLYCEMIC CONTROLLED MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY ALONE TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin A1 c ( HbA1 c) and blood glucose levels of eight different points throughout the day in well-glycemic-controlled medical nutrition therapy (MNT) alone type 2 diabetic patients.Methods Data were collected as capillary blood glucose value of eight different sample points among sixteen observing days in thirty MNT alone type 2 diabetic patients. The correlation between HbA1 c and capillary blood glucose value was evaluated by Pearson's correlation method.Results The r-values between HbA1 c and capillary blood glucose of 3: 00, 6: 00, and bedtime (22:00-23:00)were 0. 81,0. 79, and 0. 78, respectively(P<0.001). The best correlation was found between the mean value of 8-point blood glucose value throughout the day and HbA1 c (r=0.84, P<0.001).Conclusion Fasting blood glucose and postabsorptive blood glucose have better correlations with HbA1 c compared with other points in this group of well-glycemic-controlled MNT alone type 2 diabetic patients.

  17. The Role of Untimed Blood Glucose in Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a High Prevalent Diabetic Population

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    Sarah Cuschieri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global prevalence increase of diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes (GDM has led to increased awareness and screening of pregnant women for GDM. Ideally screening for GDM should be done by an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT, which is laborious and time consuming. A randomized glucose test incorporated with anthropomorphic characteristics may be an appropriate cost-effective combined clinical and biochemical screening protocol for clinical practice as well as cutting down on oGTTs. A retrospective observational study was performed on a randomized sample of pregnant women who required an OGTT during their pregnancy. Biochemical and anthropomorphic data along with obstetric outcomes were statistically analyzed. Backward stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics curves were used to obtain a suitable predictor for GDM without an oGTT and formulate a screening protocol. Significant GDM predictive variables were fasting blood glucose (p=0.0001 and random blood glucose (p=0.012. Different RBG and FBG cutoff points with anthropomorphic characteristics were compared to carbohydrate metabolic status to diagnose GDM without oGTT, leading to a screening protocol. A screening protocol incorporating IADPSG diagnostic criteria, BMI, and different RBG and FBG criteria would help predict GDM among high-risk populations earlier and reduce the need for oGTT test.

  18. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (ppalm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  19. 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): April 16-18, 2015, Republic of Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Homberg, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 8(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) with a focus on personalized diabetes management. The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2015 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures.

  20. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Shadvar, Kamran; Beigmohammadi, Mohammadtaghi; Iranpour, Afshin; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001). Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2). Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:27076705

  1. Community pharmacy-based intervention to improve self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Müller U

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is clearly correlated with increased life expectancy and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective: The objective of our study was to record and assess the errors patients make in preparing, performing, and processing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG. Furthermore, the study aimed to determine to what extent a single standardized SMBG instruction session in a community pharmacy might reduce the number of patients making errors or the number of errors per patient. Methods: Between May and October 2005, SMBG of 462 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes was monitored in 32 pharmacies specialized in diabetes care. The patients performed blood glucose self-tests using their own blood glucose meters. Self-testing was monitored using a standardized documentation sheet on which any error made during the performance of the test was recorded. If necessary, patients were instructed in the accurate operation of their meter and the use of the necessary equipment. Additionally, patients obtained written instructions. Six weeks later, assessment of the quality of patient’s SMBG was repeated.Results: During the first observation, 383 patients (83% made at least one mistake performing SMBG. By the time of the second observation, this frequency had fallen to 189 (41% (p<0.001. The average number of mistakes fell from 3.1 to 0.8 per patient. Mistakes that may potentially have led to inaccurate readings were initially recorded for 283 (61% and at study end for 110 (24% patients (p<0.001. Conclusion: It is important to periodically instruct type 2 diabetic patients in the proper SMBG technique in order to ensure accurate measurements. In this study it was shown that community pharmacies specialized in diabetes care can provide this service effectively.

  2. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

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    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM. In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001. Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01. Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2. Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia.

  3. GUAR GUM EFFECTS ON BLOOD SERUM LIPIDS AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS OF WISTAR DIABETIC RATS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea DARIO FRIAS

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture on diabetic rats were studied concerning food intake, body weight gain, blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The effect of gum on indexes of protein absorption and utilization was also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w guar gum were fed to diabetic rats for 28 days. In spite of the fact that diabetes elevated blood lipids in all animals, guar gum diet significantly decreased (p Os efeitos da goma guar derivada do endosperma de Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% fibra solúvel, 7,6% fibra insolúvel, 2,16% proteína bruta, 0,78% lipídios totais, 0,54% cinza e 9,55% umidade foram estudados em relação à ingestão de alimento, ganho de peso corporal, concentrações séricas de colesterol, triacilgliceróis, glicose, HDL e LDL-colesterol. O efeito da goma sobre índices de absorção e utilização de proteína também foi investigado. Dietas contendo 0%, 10% e 20% de goma guar foram utilizadas na alimentação de ratos diabéticos por 28 dias. Apesar do diabetes ter elevado os lipídios sangüíneos em todos animais, as dietas com goma guar decresceram significantemente (p <0,05 as concentrações séricas de colesterol e triacilgliceróis. Além disso, foi encontrado um aumento no nível de HDL-colesterol, com uma elevação substancial na relação de HDL/LDL colesterol. O resultado mais significativo deste ensaio, foi a drástica redução da glicose sangüínea nos ratos diabéticos tratados com dietas contendo goma guar. A goma promoveu uma melhora geral nas condições dos animais diabéticos, no ganho de peso corporal e nos índices de absorção e utilização protéica. Os resultados desta pesquisa sugerem que a goma guar, em concentrações igual ou superiores a 10%, podem ser

  4. Glucose concentration and blood acid-basis status in high-yielding dairy cows during heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanac Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effect of heat stress on glucose and pH values in blood of high-yielding dairy cows in the early stage of lactation, as well as to determine whether the changes in these parameters are interdependent under such conditions. An experiment was performed on high-yielding dairy cows during the summer and the spring periods. Forty cows were selected, twenty each for the two periods under investigation. In the course of the experiment, the temperature humidity index (THI was determined for the entire period of investigations, and then also the average daily THI, nightmorning THI (average value of hourly THI measured from 22h on the previous day until 10h of the current day, as well as the day-night THI (average value of hourly THI measured during the period from 10h to 22h of the current day. The pH and glucose concentration were determined in blood samples taken in the morning and afternoon of days 30, 60, and 90 of lactation during the spring and summer periods of the investigations. Based on the results for the THI, it was established that the animals were not exposed to the effect of extreme heat stress during the spring period of investigations, while they were periodically exposed to moderate but also extreme heat stress during the summer, in particular in the afternoon hours. It can be concluded from the results obtained for the blood pH that the cows were in respiratory alkalosis during the summer in the morning and afternoon hours on day 30, in the afternoon hours of days 60 and 90 of lactation, as well as in the afternoon on day 90 of lactation during the spring period of investigations. During the summer period, there were no statistically significant differences between the pH value determined in the morning and afternoon hours on day 30 of lactation, while the pH value was significantly higher in the afternoon hours than in the morning hours on days 60 and 90 of lactation. There were no

  5. Effect of basal insulin combined with acarbose on blood glucose level and complications in patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing Guo; Chen-Ru Zhang; Ai-Ge Yang; Fan Liu; Shan-Shan Dong; Yan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of basal insulin combined with acarbose on blood glucose level and complications in patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes.Methods:A total of 135 cases of patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes who were treated in our hospital from July 2012 to January 2015 were enrolled as research subjects and divided into observation group 66 cases and control group 69 cases according to different treatment methods. Control group received acarbose therapy alone, observation group received basal insulin combined with acarbose therapy, and then differences in blood glucose level, oxidative stress indicators, nerve conduction velocity, vascular injury and inflammatory factor levels of two groups were compared.Results:FPG, 2hPG and HbA1C levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; AGE-P, MDA and NADPH levels were lower than those of control group, and SOD level was higher than that of control group; median MNCV, ulnar MNCV, tibial MNCV, median SNCV and sural SNCV levels were higher than those of control group; sVCAM-1, hs-CRP and IL-6 levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusion:Basal insulin combined with acarbose therapy for patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes can effectively optimize the levels of blood glucose and complication-related factors, and it has active clinical significance.

  6. Self-reported discrimination, diabetes distress, and continuous blood glucose in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with continuous glucose levels and variability in individuals with diabetes, and whether diabetes distress mediated these associations. Seventy-four Black and White women with type 2 diabetes completed the Experience of Discrimination scale, a measure of lifetime racial discrimination, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes, a measure of diabetes distress. Participants wore a continuous glucose monitor for 24 h after 8 h of fasting, a standard meal, and a 4-h run in period. Higher discrimination predicted higher continuous mean glucose and higher standard deviation of glucose. For both mean and standard deviation of glucose, a race × discrimination interaction indicated a stronger relationship between discrimination and glucose for Whites than for Blacks. Diabetes distress mediated the discrimination-mean glucose relationship. Whites who report discrimination may be uniquely sensitive to distress. These preliminary findings suggest that racial discrimination adversely affects glucose control in women with diabetes, and does so indirectly through diabetes distress. Diabetes distress may be an important therapeutic target to reduce the ill effects of racial discrimination in persons with diabetes.

  7. Development of a high-sensitivity and portable cell using Helmholtz resonance for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, K; Okada, K; Kobayashi, R; Ishihara, Y

    2016-08-01

    We describe the possibility of high-sensitivity noninvasive blood glucose measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The demand for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement has increased due to the explosive increase in diabetic patients. We have developed a noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on PAS. The conventional method uses a straight-type resonant cell. However, the cell volume is large, which results in a low detection sensitivity and difficult portability. In this paper, a small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell is proposed to improve detection sensitivity and portability by reducing the cell dead volume. First, the acoustic property of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was evaluated by performing an experiment using a silicone rubber. As a result, the detection sensitivity of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was approximately two times larger than that of the conventional straight-type resonant cell. In addition, the inside volume was approximately 30 times smaller. Second, the detection limits of glucose concentration were estimated by performing an experiment using glucose solutions. The experimental results showed that a glucose concentration of approximately 1% was detected by the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell. Although these results on the sensitivity of blood glucose-level measurement are currently insufficient, they suggest that miniaturization of a resonance cell is effective in the application of noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement.

  8. Basal insulin therapy strategy is superior to premixed insulin therapy in the perioperative period blood glucose management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qing-xian; LOU Fu-chen; WANG Ping; LIU Qian; WANG Kun; ZHANG Li; ZHU Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background The probability and risk of operations increase in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.For diabetic patients,blood glucose control is a key factor to improving the prognosis of surgery.During perioperative period,insulin therapy is usually advised to be used for surgical patients with type 2 diabetes.However,the insulin regimen which one is better remains controversial.In this study,we estimated the efficacy,safety and advantage of different insulin therapy strategy during perioperative period.Methods A total of 1086 cases of surgical patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in the present study.According to the glucose level at admission,all patients were divided into relatively high glucose group (group A,fasting blood glucose (FBG) <13.9 mmol/L) and higher glucose group (group B,FBG >13.9 mmol/L).Patients in group A randomly accepted premixed insulin twice a day,or basal insulin plus oral medications,and were divided into group A1 and A2 respectively.Patients in group B randomly received premixed insulin twice daily,basal insulin plus oral hypoglycemic agents,or basal insulin plus preprandial insulin,and were divided into group B1,B2 and B3 respectively.The data of the preoperative preparation time,the daily doses of insulin used in different periods,postoperative incision healed installments,hypoglycemic events,the total hospitalization time,postoperative complications were all collected and statistically analyzed.Results Compared the main outcome measures in groups treated by premixed insulin therapy,both in preoperative preparation and postoperative period,the daily insulin dosage and the frequency of hypoglycemic events were decreased in groups treated by basal insulin therapy (P <0.05).The preoperative preparation time and the total hospitalization time in groups with basal insulin therapy were shorter than that in groups with premixed insulin therapy (P <0.05).The incision healing rate of stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ among different

  9. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of the Foods with Different Glycemic Indices on Blood Glucose and Serum Free Fatty Acids in Cycling, Male Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi, J. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Carbohydrates are considered as the major source of energy in physical activity. Studies show that consumption of carbohydrate foods before exercise can balance blood glucose and free fatty acids and increase athletes’ performance. In this study , we compared the effect of three kinds of foods with different glycemic indices on blood glucose (BG and serum free fatty acids (FFA in cycling ,male athletes. Material and Methods: In this clinical trial, 21 members of national cycling team randomly allocated to three equal groups of glucose (low glycemic index ، lentil (low glycemic index and potato (high glycemic index. First, Fasting blood samples (5ml were obtained to measure BG and FFA . Then the subjects were asked to eat their foods. After 45 mins of rest, they pedaled with maximal oxygen consumption VO2max for two hours and again their blood samples were taken to compare with the levels of before interventions. Results: Glucose consumption resulted in a significant decrease in FFA level after 2 hours of pedaling (P = 0.01 but no significant change in BG level. Plasma glucose was higher after eating lentil than that of potato (P<0.05, but it was not true for FFA level of both groups. Conclusion: Based on the results, the pre-exercise use of low glycemic index (lentil compared to high glycemic index (potato can better lead to increased blood glucose during exercise. Keywords: Glycemic Index; Blood Glucose; Serum Free Fatty Acids; Cyclists

  10. An experimental research of the individual correlation between saliva glucose and blood glucose%唾液葡萄糖与血糖个体相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琳; 李玲; 李蒙; 项贵明; 蒲晓允

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同个体唾液葡萄糖和血糖值的相关性及重复性,为制定血糖个性化监测化方案奠定基础.方法 选取临床确诊糖尿病患者为研究对象,用自制2,4,6-三溴-3-羟基苯甲酸为显色底物,在Hitachi-7150上测定不同个体餐前唾液葡萄糖与血糖浓度,计算不同个体两者的关系数.结果 不同糖尿病患者唾液葡萄糖与血糖相关系数有较大差别,餐前相关系数平均为0.85,餐后相关系数平均为0.79,餐前相关系数3个月内的变异系数CV<5%.结论 糖尿病患者餐前唾液葡萄糖浓度与血糖浓度相关系数较高,而且比较稳定,可用餐前唾液葡萄糖浓度替代血糖浓度,开展无创快速检测.%Objective To explore the individual correlation between saliva glucose and blood glucose and its reproducibility to establish foundation for formulate individual monitoring scheme of blood glucose. Methods Patients with definitely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were enrolled and the levels of fasting saliva glucose and fasting blood glucose were detected on Hitachi7150, using self-made 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid(TBHBA) as chromogenic substrate. The correlation coefficient between saliva and blood glucose were calculated for every subjects. Results The individual correlation coefficients between saliva glucose and blood glucose varies greatly between different patients. The average fasting correlation coefficient was 0. 85,the average postprandial correlation coefficient was 0. 79 and the coefficient of variability of fasting correlation coefficient was less than 5% within three months. Conclusion The individual fasting correlation coefficient between saliva glucose and blood glucose could be relatively high and stable. Fasting blood glucose could be replaced by fasting saliva glucose for the noninvasive and fast detection.

  11. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available. This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research.

  12. Adolescents with clinical type 1 diabetes display reduced red blood cell glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Becker, Dorothy J; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-11-01

    Type 1 diabetic (T1D) adolescent children on insulin therapy suffer episodes of both hyper- and hypoglycemic episodes. Glucose transporter isoform GLUT1 expressed in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and red blood cells (RBC) compensates for perturbed circulating glucose toward protecting the supply to brain and RBCs. We hypothesized that RBC-GLUT1 concentration, as a surrogate for BBB-GLUT1, is altered in T1D children. To test this hypothesis, we measured RBC-GLUT1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in T1D children (n = 72; mean age 15.3 ± 0.2 yr) and control children (CON; n = 11; mean age 15.6 ± 0.9 yr) after 12 h of euglycemia and during a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp with a nadir blood glucose of ~3.3 mmol/L for 90 min (clamp I) or ~3 mmol/L for 45 min (clamp II). Reduced baseline RBC-GLUT1 was observed in T1D (2.4 ± 0.17 ng/ng membrane protein); vs. CON (4.2 ± 0.61 ng/ng protein) (p increasing during acute hypoglycemia over the durations examined, may demonstrate a vulnerability of impaired RBC glucose transport (serving as a surrogate for BBB), especially in those with the worst control. We speculate that this may contribute to the perturbed cognition seen in T1D adolescents.

  13. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  14. High “Normal” Blood Glucose Is Associated with Decreased Brain Volume and Cognitive Performance in the 60s: The PATH through Life Study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Type 2 diabetes is associated with cerebral atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. We recently showed higher glucose levels in the normal range not to be free of adverse effects and to be associated with greater hippocampal and amygdalar atrophy in older community-dwelling individuals free of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether blood glucose levels in the normal range (

  15. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of aqueous Lenzites betulina extracts from the Philippines on the blood glucose levels of the ICR mice(Mus musculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faizal Rajeeb Mangudadatu Hussin; Rodel Jonathan Santos Vitor Ⅱ; Julie Ann Oraa Joaquin; Melody Mendoza Clerigo; Anamy Ma.Caterial Paano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the anti-hyperglycemic effects of aqueous Lenzites betulina(L. betulina) extracts on normoglycemic glucose-loaded mice.Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract from L. betulina were administered to 45 ICR mice(Mus musculus) to determine whether there was an effect of L. betulina extracts on the blood glucose level of the ICR mice. Aqueous extracts of L. betulina were orally gavaged to mice using oral glucose tolerance test. A total of five groups were used to determine the effect of the fungi on blood glucose of the mice. Group A(positive control)was given 16.7 mg/kg glimepiride; Group B(negative control) was given distilled water;Group C(low dosage) was given 200 mg/kg aqueous extract; Group D(mid dosage) was given 400 mg/kg aqueous extract and Group E(high dosage) was given 800 mg/kg aqueous extract. Baseline blood glucose value was firstly acquired before induction of hyperglycemia through D-glucose, after which another check on blood glucose was made after 0.5 h. Immediately, after the acquisition of hyperglycemic blood glucose level, the individual administration of treatments were done. After that, three blood collections were done spanning 3 h with 1 h interval.Results: The low dose(200 mg/kg) and the mid dose(400 mg/kg) of L. betulina extracts were significantly different(P 0.05) from its corresponding baseline value, acting faster than the positive control(glimepiride), which only became significantly different(P < 0.05) at the 2nd hour.Conclusions: Aqueous L. betulina extract is able to produce hypoglycemic effects on the mice with all doses, which are able to normalize blood glucose levels at varying times.

  16. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen;

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications a....... This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research....

  17. Effects of melatonin on streptozotocin-induced retina neuronal apoptosis in high blood glucose rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Maonian; Tang, Weiqiang

    2013-03-01

    One of the main pathological symptoms of early diabetic retinal neuropathy is retina neuronal apoptosis. In the present work we investigated the effects of indoleamine hormone melatonin, a powerful free radical scavenger, on streptozotocin-induced retina neuronal cell apoptosis in high blood glucose rat. After melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg/day), tunel detection was used to monitor the apoptosis rate of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer; reversed quantitative PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of retinal caspase-3, Mn superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and Cu-Zn SOD; and the activities of total SOD (T-SOD) and sub-type SOD was detected using xanthine oxidase enzymatic detection. Our data showed that melatonin treatment leads to a decrease of retinal cell apoptosis and the apoptotic index was (1.67 ± 0.54) % and (7.73 ± 0.95) % at 8 and 12 weeks after treatment. The relative quantitative (RQ) value for caspase-3 mRNA expression was (6.996 ± 1.192) and (7.267 ± 1.178) in melatonin group, which are much lower than the values of diabetic group (12.566 ± 2.272 and (14.297 ± 2.110) at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) under the same condition. mRNA expression of Mn SOD and Cu-Zn SOD as well as their activities all decreased in the diabetic group compared with the control group. While melatonin treatment induced the expression of Mn SOD mRNA and a continual increase of Mn SOD activity as well as the activity and mRNA expression of Cu-Zn SOD at 12 weeks. Therefore, our results demonstrate that melatonin treatment prevented the decrease in mRNA expression of SOD and the increase in caspase-3 mRNA expression induced by diabetes thus exerts a beneficial effect on retina neuronal apoptosis.

  18. Impact of admission blood glucose on outcomes of nondiabetic patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (from the German Acute Coronary Syndromes [ACOS] Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Christoph K; Mehta, Rajendra H; Jünger, Claus; Zeymer, Uwe; Wienbergen, Harm; Sabin, Georg V; Erbel, Raimund; Senges, Jochen; Gitt, Anselm

    2009-03-01

    High blood glucose in patients with acute coronary syndromes have been associated with adverse short-term outcomes in patients without diabetes. However, the relation of admission glucose to long-term outcomes in these patients was less well established. Accordingly, consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) without diabetes enrolled at 155 sites from July 2000 to November 2002 in the ACOS Registry were evaluated. Patients were categorized into tertiles based on admission blood glucose. Clinical end points of interest were 1-year mortality and composite of death, reinfarction, stroke, or rehospitalization (major adverse cardiac clinical events [MACCEs]) in the hospital and after discharge. Of 5,866 patients with STEMI, 36.9% had blood glucose 150 mg/dl. Admission blood glucose was significantly related to increased risk of not only in-hospital events (death, glucose >150 vs 150 vs 150 vs 150 vs <120 mg/dl, adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.71, p <0.0001). In conclusion, high blood glucose at admission to the hospital independently correlated with short- and midterm mortality in patients with STEMI.

  19. 定期血糖监测对糖尿病患者血糖控制及生活方式的影响%Impact of Regular Blood Glucose Monitoring on Blood Glucose Control and Lifestyle of Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨竹洁; 龚伟; 王稼颖; 陈亦如; 陈亮

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨定期血糖监测对糖尿病血糖控制及生活方式的影响.方法:随机抽取我中心2010-2011年度确诊的老年2型糖尿病患者110例,随机分为干预组和对照组,每组各55例;2组均接受正规降糖药物治疗及生活方式指导,干预组每周进行一次血糖监测,每3个月测一次糖化血红蛋白,对照组按患者意愿测定血糖指标,通过12个月的观察,研究两组患者在血糖控制及生活方式上的差异.结果:干预组患者空腹血糖(FPG)由定期监测血糖前的(7.26± 1.36 )mmol/L降至(6.68± 1.10) mmol/L;餐后2小时血糖(2HPG)由定期监测血糖前的(12.34±2.29 )mmol/L降至(11.09±1.98) mmol/L;糖化血红蛋白由监测前的(7.99±1.61)%降至(6.60±0.87)%;差异具有显著性(P<0.05);生活方式亦有明显改善,差异具有显著性(P<0.05);而对照组的改变不如干预组.结论:通过定期血糖监测可以有效地控制血糖、糖化血红蛋白,促使老年2型糖尿病患者改变不良生活方式.%Objective: To investigate the impact of regular blood glucose monitoring on diabetic blood glucose control and lifestyle. Methods: We randomly selected 110 cases of elderly type 2 diabetic patients who have been confirmed by CHSC(Community Health Service Center) in 2010-2011. They were randomly divided into intervention and control groups, 55 cases respective. Both groups received regular Glucose-lowering drugs and life style directions. The intervention group also received regular blood glucose monitoring every week and Glycosylated hemoglobin assay every 3 months, while the control group had glycemic index test according to their own wishes. Observe them for 12 months and study the difference of glycemic control and lifestyle between the two groups. Results: The intervention group had the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) decreased from7.26± 1.36 mmol/L to 6.68 ± 1.10 mmol/L, and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2hPG)from 12.34± 2.29 mmol/L to 11.09± 1

  20. Over-the-counter analgesics normalize blood glucose and body composition in mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Eric L; Schneider, Scott N; Clegg, Deborah J; Genter, Mary Beth; Shertzer, Howard G

    2008-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) develops from a pre-diabetic condition that is characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, and is exacerbated by obesity. In this study, we compared the ability of over-the-counter analgesic drugs (OTCAD) [acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); naproxen (NAP); aspirin (ASA)], to protect against the development of a pre-diabetic state in mice fed a high fat diet. After 10 weeks on the high fat diet, mice had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, but exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment with 20 mg OTCADs/kg body weight improved glucose tolerance, with the order of efficacy, APAP=ASA>IBU, while NAP proved ineffective. Mice fed the high fat diet also exhibited increases in weight gain associated with an increase in body fat. OTCADs prevented in part this increase in body fat, in the order of efficacy, APAP=IBU>NAP=ASA. In isolated liver mitochondria, OTCADs inhibited succinate-dependent H2O2 production, while in white adipose tissue, APAP inhibited NADPH-oxidase mediated H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation. Thus, OTCADs diminish pro-oxidant processes that might otherwise exacerbate inflammation and a pre-diabetic state. We conclude that OTCADs, especially APAP and IBU, may be valuable tools to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes from a pre-diabetic condition.

  1. RUMINAL FERMENTATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE AT LOW AND HIGH LEVEL INTAKE OF GROWING AND MATURE KACANG GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luthfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare ruminal Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA concentration andblood glucose in young and mature Kacang goats at different feeding levels. Eigth male young Kacanggoats weights at 12.75±2.68 kg (6-7 months and male mature goat weights at ± 17.34±3.32 kg (8-12months were used in this study. The pelleted complete feed was formulated to give 18,8% of CrudeProtein (CP and 78.82% of total digestible nutrients (TDN. The experiment design was nested designexperimental 2x2 with 4 replications. The main factors (based on nested were young and mature goatsand the second factor was low feeding (near maintenance level and high feeding (2X maintenance.Data measured were daily feed intake, feed digestibilities, ruminal VFA concentration and bloodglucose. The data obtained were analyzed by using analysis of variance. The results showed that drymatter intake (DMI, digestible carbohydrates, digestible crude fiber, and digestible organic matter wasaffected by age (P<0.05, as well as level of feeding (P<0.001, but age and feeding level has no effecton digestibility (P>0.05. Ruminal VFA and blood glucose concentrations were found similar (P>0.05 neither in young and mature goats. However, VFA and concentration on the 3 and 6 h on high feeding aswell as blood glucose on 3 h in high feeding were higher than those on low feeding.

  2. The importance of plasma free insulin and counterregulatory hormones for the recovery of blood glucose following hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Hilsted, J; Krarup, T

    1985-01-01

    After induction of hypoglycaemia in 31 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) patients, the 10 patients with the slowest recovery of blood glucose from hypoglycaemia were arbitrarily compared with the 10 patients with the fastest recovery of blood glucose. No differences were found between the two groups...... binding antibodies, acting as a depot of circulating insulin, may be a risk factor of prolonged hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetics....

  3. Comparison of a human portable glucometer and an automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    OpenAIRE

    Summa, Noémie M.; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Larrat, Sylvain; Brown, Dorothy C.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucometer and a validated laboratory analyzer in venous blood samples of 20 pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Correlation and agreement were evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot method and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient. Blood glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer and the glucometer ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mmol/L and from 0.9 to 9.2 mmol/L, respectively. The glucometer had a poor...

  4. Oral Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose concentrations and promotes cardiac function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-02-01

    Impaired regulation of blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and the associated elevation of blood glucose levels are known to increase the risk of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). In the present study, a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32, was evaluated for its potential to reduce blood glucose levels and to provide protection against DC risks in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rats. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-induced DM rats when treated with L. reuteri GMN-32 decreased from 4480 to 3620 mg/l (with 10⁷ colony-forming units (cfu)/d) and 3040 mg/l (with 10⁹ cfu/d). Probiotic treatment also reduced the changes in the heart caused by the effects of DM. Furthermore, the Fas/Fas-associated protein with death domain pathway-induced caspase 8-mediated apoptosis that was observed in the cardiomyocytes of the STZ-induced DM rats was also found to be controlled in the probiotic-treated rats. The results highlight that L. reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose levels, inhibits caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and promotes cardiac function in DM rats as observed from their ejection fraction and fractional shortening values. In conclusion, the administration of L. reuteri GMN-32 probiotics can regulate blood glucose levels, protect cardiomyocytes and prevent DC in DM rats.

  5. Effects of Tephrosia purpurea aqueous seed extract on blood glucose and antioxidant enzyme activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Sethupathy, S; Santha, K; Manoharan, S

    2008-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of "TpASet" at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that "TpASet" has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from "TpASet".

  6. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF “WAKOUBA '' ON THE LIPID PROFILE, SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE (SBP DIASTOLIC (DBP AND BLOOD GLUCOSE IN HYPERTENSIVE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiekpa Wawa J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the effects of Wakouba, an extract of the fronds of oil palm tree Elaeis guineensis (Jacq traditionally used in the treatment of high blood pressure, on lipid profile, urea, creatinine, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic (DBP and heart rate (HR in hypertensive rabbits. Methods: Twenty four rabbits (24 divided into six (06 groups of four rabbits each weighing between 1.5 ±3.0 to 2± 1.5 kg were used. Group 1 served as witness, group 2 sick and untreated control, groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 were used as experimental groups (sick+treatment. Throughout the experiment the witness group received distilled water; adrenaline was administered to the sick control group. After 10 days of adrenaline injection, hypertension has been stabilized in sick groups (group 2 to 6 and blood was taken for the determination of urea, creatinine, and lipids. Four (04 of the five (05 groups of hypertensive rabbits were treated with two (2 doses of " Wakouba " 950 and 2500 mg / kg bw and two ( 02 doses of ténordate 10 and 20 mg / kg BW, two(2 group by two(2 group . After ten (10 days of treatment, the SBP and DBP and HR were measured, blood was collected for determination of the same biochemical parameters. Results: The study of the effect of Wakouba and ternodate on the changes in systolic blood pressure SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR showed a significant decrease (P up to normalization of these parameters after 10 days of treatment. Similarly, the measurement of serum lipid profile in hypertensive rabbits treated with Wakouba (950mg / kg bw and tenordate (20 mg / kg bw showed a significant reduction in (P values of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in contrast to HDL cholesterol which has increased significantly compared to the control group. Same doses also normalize serum glucose, urea and creatinine. Histological sections performed on the kidney and the heart of hypertensive rabbit showed congestion of

  7. Ghrelin signalling in β-cells regulates insulin secretion and blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, T; Damdindorj, B; Rita, R S; Kurashina, T; Ando, A; Taguchi, M; Koizumi, M; Sone, H; Nakata, M; Kakei, M; Dezaki, K

    2014-09-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells is stimulated by glucose. Glucose-induced insulin release is potentiated or suppressed by hormones and neural substances. Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino acid peptide, was isolated from the stomach in 1999 as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R). Circulating ghrelin is produced predominantly in the stomach and to a lesser extent in the intestine, pancreas and brain. Ghrelin, initially identified as a potent stimulator of GH release and feeding, has been shown to suppress glucose-induced insulin release. This insulinostatic action is mediated by Gα(i2) subtype of GTP-binding proteins and delayed outward K⁺ (Kv) channels. Interestingly, ghrelin is produced in pancreatic islets. The ghrelin originating from islets restricts insulin release and thereby upwardly regulates the systemic glucose level. Furthermore, blockade or elimination of ghrelin enhances insulin release, which can ameliorate glucose intolerance in high-fat diet fed mice and ob/ob mice. This review focuses on the insulinostatic action of ghrelin, its signal transduction mechanisms in islet β-cells, ghrelin's status as an islet hormone, physiological roles of ghrelin in regulating systemic insulin levels and glycaemia, and therapeutic potential of the ghrelin-GHS-R system as the target to treat type 2 diabetes.

  8. Effect of insulin in combination with selenium on blood glucose and GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of low-dose insulin [1 U/(kg·d)] in combination with selenium [180 g/(kg·d)] on general physiological parameters and glucose transporter (GLUT4) level in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetic rats were treated with insulin,selenium,and insulin and selenium in combination for four weeks. The level of blood glucose was determined using One Touch SureStep Blood Glucose meter and the level of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle was examined by immu...

  9. Effects of cake made from whole soy powder on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Nakamura, Mariko; Takasugi, Ayako; Hashiguchi-Ishiguro, Michiru; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the glycemic index (GI) and the insulinemic index (II) of cake made from whole soy powder (SBC) and the suppressive effects of SBC on the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by other carbohydrate foods. Furthermore, breath hydrogen excretion was simultaneously investigated. Twenty subjects were given 114 g SBC, 144 g cooked paddy-rice, and 60 g SBC with 144 g cooked paddy-rice in random order using a within-subject, repeated-measures design. Blood and end-expiratory gas were collected at the indicated periods after ingestion. The GI and the II of SBC were 22+/-6 and 48+/-29, respectively. The elevation of blood glucose by cooked paddy-rice was significantly suppressed by the addition of 60 g SBC, although the insulin secretion did not decrease. Breath hydrogen excretion by the addition of SBC to 144 g cooked paddy-rice was not significantly increased in comparison with cooked paddy-rice alone. SBC was of low GI and low II, but the postprandial insulin secretion in response to cooked paddy-rice was not suppressed.

  10. Sweetened blood sweetens behavior. Ego depletion, glucose, guilt, and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanyi; Bègue, Laurent; Sauve, Laure; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-10-01

    Although guilt feels bad to the individual, it is good for society because guilty feelings can prompt people to perform good deeds. Previous research shows that fatigue decreases guilty feelings and helpful behavior. This present research tests whether glucose restores guilty feelings and increases helpful behavior. Depleted participants watched a movie about butchering animals for their meat or skin and were told to express no emotions, whereas non-depleted participants watched the same movie, but could express their emotions. Afterwards they drank a glucose or placebo beverage. Having participants play a game in which another person was punished for their errors induced guilt. Finally, participants played a dictator game in which they could leave lottery tickets for the next participant. Depleted participants felt less guilty and helped less than non-depleted participants, and those who consumed a placebo beverage felt less guilt and helped less than those who consumed a glucose beverage.

  11. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study of healthy subjects showed that intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduced postprandial blood glucose and the gastric emptying rate (GER) without affecting satiety. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on GER, postprandial blood...... glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)], the ghrelin response, and satiety in healthy subjects. DESIGN: GER was measured by using real-time ultrasonography after ingestion of rice pudding...... with and without 1 or 3 g cinnamon. Fifteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. RESULTS: The addition of 1 or 3 g cinnamon had no significant effect on GER, satiety, glucose, GIP, or the ghrelin response. The insulin response at 60 min and the area under the curve (AUC) at 120 min were...

  12. Blood glucose testing in the hospital: error sources and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James H

    2011-01-01

    Glucose testing in the hospital with point-of-care devices presents multiple opportunities for error. Any device can fail under the right conditions. For glucose monitoring in the hospital, with thousands of operators, hundreds of devices, and dozens of locations involved, there is ample opportunity for errors that can impact the quality of test results. Errors can occur in any phase of the testing process: preanalytic, analytic, or postanalytic. Common sources of meter error include patient or methodology interferences, operator mistakes, environmental exposure, and device malfunction. Early models of glucose meters had few internal checks or capability to warn the operator of meter problems. The latest generation of glucose monitors has a number of internal checks and controls engineered into the testing process to prevent serious errors or warn the operator by suppressing test results. Some of these control processes are built into the software and data management system of the meters, others require the hospital to do something, such as regularly clean the meter or analyze control samples of known glucose concentration, to verify meter performance. Hospitals need to be aware of the potential for errors by understanding weaknesses in the testing process that could lead to erroneous results and take steps to prevent errors from occurring or to minimize the harm to patients when errors do occur. The reliability of a glucose result will depend on the balance of internal control features available from manufacturers in conjunction with the liquid control analysis and other control processes (operator training, device validation, and maintenance) utilized by the hospitals.

  13. Effect of VCO to leucocyte differential count, glucose levels and blood creatinine of hyperglycemic and ovalbumin sensitized Mus musculus Balb/c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBEN DHARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Handajani NS, Dharmawan R. 2009. Effect of VCO to leucocyte differential count, glucose levels and blood creatinine of hyperglycemic and ovalbumin sensitized Mus musculus Balb/c. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 1-8. Chemical medicines and insulin can decrease glucose blood level on hyperglycemic patients with macro vascular side effect. Diabetes and allergy incidences are influenced by quality and quantity of leucocytes. Lauric acid within VCO reports decreased glucose blood level of diabetes and some allergy incidents. The purpose of the study is to know the effect of VCO on glucose blood level, differential leucocytes count and creatinine blood level on hyperglycemic and normoglicemic ovalbumin sensitized mice. Forty five (45 male (mice of Mus musculus Balb/c with average weight of 35 g are divided into 9 groups with 5 repetitions, those are 4 non alloxan groups and 5 alloxan induced hyperglycemic groups. On 22nd day to 36th day they are sensitize to ovalbumin as allergen. Blood sample was obtained by orbital vena using heparin as anti coagulant in order measuring glucose blood level by GOD method to 6 times, on 1st, 4th, 18th, 22nd, 32nd and 37th days, then are tested by ANOVA followed by DMRT 0.05. On 37th day, differential leucocytes are determined, blood level are counted, and then compared to normal value. The result of this study were that within differential leucocytes count of hyperglycemic mice, neutrophile percentage were much lower than the normal value (3.22%, and lymphocyte percentage were much higher than the normal value (94.54%. Consumed 0.003 mL/35 g VCO more 18 days decreased glucose blood level on hyperglycemic mice, decreased basophile percentage of ovalbumin sensitized mice, normalized neutrophile percentage no increased creatinine blood level.

  14. Clinical significance of barriers to blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients with insufficient glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki T

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Takeo Suzuki,1 Ryoko Takei,2 Toyoshi Inoguchi,2,3 Noriyuki Sonoda,2,3 Shuji Sasaki,2 Toshihiko Kaise,1 Ryoichi Takayanagi21Development and Medical Affairs Division, GlaxoSmithKline K.K., Tokyo, 2Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess actual barriers to blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to investigate barrier-related factors in an exploratory manner.Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated as outpatients at medical institutions within Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Barriers to blood glucose control were examined in patients with glycated hemoglobin ≥6.9% using a nine-item questionnaire. Answers were also obtained from physicians in charge of the patients for seven of nine questions.Results: Seven hundred and thirteen patients answered the questionnaire. Many physicians and patients described barriers that involved difficulty in complying with diet therapy. For six of the seven barriers, patient awareness was lower than physician awareness. Patient-reported lack of concern for diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among patients with macrovascular complications. Patients who reported difficulty in compliance with exercise therapy and fear of hypoglycemia were more likely to suffer from microvascular complications.Conclusion: For many of the barriers to blood glucose control, patients were less aware than physicians, suggesting that we need to take action to raise patient awareness. Of interest are the observations that the relevant barriers differed for macrovascular and microvascular complications and that the relationship between presence of macrovascular complications and lack of concern about diabetes mellitus.Keywords: epidemiology, patient education, patient behavior, patient

  15. Short-term application of low-dose growth hormone in surgical patients: Effects on nitrogen balance and blood glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Ming Zhang; Xiao-Ting Wu; Yong Zhou; Kun Qian; Ya-Min Zheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in postoperative patients.METHODS: A total of 48 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal operations were randomized to receive either subcutaneous rhGH (0.15 IU/kg) or placebo (menstruum) injections daily for 7 d after surgery. The two groups had similar nutritional intake. Blood samples for serum fibronectin, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin and the total lymphocyte count, as well as glucose levels were collected to study the rhGH effect. Basal laboratory evaluation, and nutritional status were estimated on d 1before as baseline and d 3 and 10 after operation using standard laboratory techniques. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 3 to 9 after operation.RESULTS: The cumulative nitrogen balance was significantly improved in rhGH group compared with the placebo group (11.37±16.82 vs -9.11±17.52, P = 0.0003).Serum fibronectin was also significantly higher in the rhGH group than in the placebo group (104.77±19.94vs 93.03±16.03, P<0.05), whereas changes in serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin and total lymphocyte counts were not statistically significant. Mean blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the rhGH group from d 3 to 6 after operation.CONCLUSION: If blood glucose can be controlled, lowdose growth hormone together with hypocaloric nutrition is effective on improving positive nitrogen balance and protein conservation and safe is in postoperative patients.

  16. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test and record how much sugar (called glucose) is in your ...

  17. Associations between blood glucose and carotid intima-media thickness disappear after adjustment for shared risk factors: the KORA F4 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Kowall

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The association between blood glucose and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT is considered to be established knowledge. We aimed to assess whether associations between different measures of glycaemia and CIMT are actually independent of anthropometric variables and metabolic risk factors. Moreover, we checked published studies for the adjustment for shared risk factors of blood glucose and CIMT. METHODS: Fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, HbA1c, and CIMT were measured in 31-81-years-old participants of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA F4 study in Southern Germany (n = 2,663. CIMT was assessed according to the Rotterdam protocol. Linear and logistic regression models with adjustment for age, sex, anthropometric measures, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia were fitted to assess the association between continuous measures of glycaemia, and categories of glucose regulation, respectively, with CIMT. RESULTS: We found a 0.10 mm increase (95%-confidence interval: 0.08-0.12 in CIMT in subjects with compared to subjects without diabetes in crude analysis. This increase was not significant in age-sex adjusted models (p = 0.17. Likewise, neither impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.22 nor impaired glucose tolerance (p = 0.93 were associated with CIMT after adjustment for age, sex, and waist circumference. In multivariable adjusted models, age, sex, hypertension, waist circumference, HDL and LDL cholesterol, but neither fasting glucose nor 2-hour glucose nor HbA1c were associated with elevated CIMT. Literature findings are inconclusive regarding an independent association of glucose levels and CIMT. CONCLUSION: CIMT is highly dependent on traditional cardiovascular risk factors, but no relationships between blood glucose and CIMT were found after adjustment for age, sex, and anthropometric variables.

  18. Prevalence of Blood Pressure, Blood Glucose and Serum Lipids Abnormalities Among Ethiopian Immigrants: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadzadeh, Maryam; Demerath, Ellen W; Tura, Yisehak

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypertension, glucose and blood lipid abnormalities among a community of Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota. This cross-sectional study used data from the parish nursing program 2007-2012. A total of 673 encounters were included in this study. Various dependent variables including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (BG), and serum lipids were examined. High blood pressure was defined as a mean SBP equal to or higher than 140 mm/Hg and/or DBP equal to or higher than 90 mmHg. Elevated fasting glucose defined as levels equal to or higher than 126 mg/dL. High level of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were defined as ≥240, ≥200, ≥160 and ≤40 mg/dL, respectively. General linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship of participants' age and gender, to the continuously distributed response variables, which included systolic and DBP, BG, TC, TG, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. This is a nonrandom sample of adult Ethiopian church members who were invited to participate in a parish nurse cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor screening program. Participants in this sample were 43 % male and 57 % female. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 30.1 % with a cut off mark of 140/90 mm/Hg. The prevalence of hypertension was 33 and 24 % among men than among women, respectively (p 240 mg/dL) were observed in 15 % of the women and 10 % of the men (p = 0.2). Higher SBP and DBP were significantly higher in male participants than their female counterparts (p  0.05). This opportunity sample suggests high prevalence of CVD risk factors in a community of Ethiopian-American adults, and a pressing need for more comprehensive and systematic assessment of chronic disease health needs in this growing community.

  19. Glycated haemoglobin may in future be reported as estimated mean blood glucose concentration--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R.; Nerup, J.; Nathan, D.M.;

    2009-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) is widely used to determine levels of chronic glycaemia, to judge the adequacy of diabetes treatment and to adjust therapy. HbA 1c results are expressed as the percentage of HbA that is glycated. Day-to-day management is guided by self-monitoring of capillary glucose...

  20. Optimizing insulin injection technique and its effect on blood glucose control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Grassi, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Targeted individualized training in IT, including the switch to a 4 mm needle, is associated with improved glucose control, greater satisfaction with therapy, better and simpler injection practices and possibly lower consumption of insulin after only a three month period.

  1. Effect of meals with varying glycemic index on blood glucose response in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulik S. Nayak

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: It was concluded in the study that Plasma Glucose shows a positive response to high GI foods and this may aggravate the hyperglycemia already present in Type 2 DM. Low GI diets may be helpful in reducing risks related to Type 2 DM. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3444-3448

  2. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  3. Roche Portable Blood Glucose Meter for Clinical Application and Quality Control%便携式血糖仪临床应用与质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丹华

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a lifelong disease is stil no cure at present, timing determination of glucose, strict control of blood glucose is the key to the treatment of diabetes melitus. Diabetes ideal blood glucose test is weekly 1~2 times, but generaly patients with no conditions to the hospital for frequent blood glucose testing, and the portable blood glucose meter provides great convenience for patients, the portable blood glucose meter for each ward monitoring blood glucose in patients with circadian changes and outpatient diabetes screening, increasingly the attention of medical workers and patients in this paper, Glucose meter in the clinical diagnosis of practical value in clinical application, quality assessment.%糖尿病是目前尚不能根治的终身性疾病,定时测定血糖值,严格控制血糖是糖尿病治疗的关键。糖尿病理想的血糖测试是每周1~2次,但一般患者没条件到医院作频繁的血糖测试,而便携式血糖仪为患者提供了很大的方便。便携式血糖仪因适合各病房昼夜监测患者血糖变化及门诊患者糖尿病筛查,日益受到医务工作者和患者的重视,本文从临床应用、质量检测评估方面阐述血糖仪在临床诊断的实用价值。

  4. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, E G; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-four volunteers, mean age 78, including eight mildly non-insulin-dependent diabetics, were randomly allocated to one of two groups and were fed (daily for 8 wk) 9 g of either chromium-rich brewers' yeast (experimental) or chromium-poor torula yeast (control). Before and after yeast supplementation, the serum glucose and insulin response to 100 g oral glucose was measured at 30 min intervals for 2 h. Fasting serum cholesterol, total lipids, and triglycerides were also determined. In the total experimental group (normals + diabetics) and in both the diabetic and nondiabetic experimental subgroups, glucose tolerance improved significantly and insulin output decreased after supplementation. Cholesterol and total lipids fell significantly after supplementation in the total experimental group. The cholesterol decrease was particularly marked in hypercholesterolemic subjects (cholesterol > 300 mg/dl). In the control group, no significant change in glucose tolerance, insulin, triglycerides, or total lipids was found. Cholesterol was significantly lowered in the nondiabetic but not in the diabetic group. Thus, chromium-rich brewers' yeast improved glucose tolerance and total lipids in elderly subjects, while chromium-poor torula yeast did not. An improvement in insulin sensitivity also occurred with brewers' yeast supplementation. This supports the thesis that elderly people may have a low level of chromium and that an effective source for chromium repletion, such as brewers' yeast, may improve their carbohydrate tolerance and total lipids. The improvement in serum cholesterol in some control subjects, as well as in the total experimental group, also suggests the presence of a hypocholesterolemic factor other than chromium in both brewers' and torula yeast.

  5. Daily variation of food-induced changes in blood glucose and insulin in the rat and the control by the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the vagus nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, J.H.; Alingh Prins, A.J.; Bruggink, Jan; Steffens, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Rats were provided with permanent cardiac catheters allowing free movement and blood sampling without anaesthesia. During food intake the increments of plasma insulin and blood glucose were smaller and more slowly increasing in the light phase than during the dark phase. After vagal blockade the inc

  6. Blood glucose measurement in vivo using hollow-fiber based, mid-infrared ATR probe with multi-reflection prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    An attenuated-total-reflection (ATR), mid-infrared spectroscopy system that consists of hollow optical fibers, a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism, and a conventional FT-IR spectrometer has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Owing to the low transmission loss and high flexibility of the hollow-optical fiber, the system can measure any sites of the human body where blood capillaries are close to the surface of mucosa, such as inner lips. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. The results of in-vivo measurement of human inner lips showed the feasibility of the proposed system, and the measurement errors were within 20%.

  7. Understanding the connection between spiritual well-being and physical health: an examination of ambulatory blood pressure, inflammation, blood lipids and fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Steffen, Patrick R; Sandberg, Jonathan; Jensen, Bryan

    2011-12-01

    Growing research has demonstrated a link between spiritual well-being and better health; however, little is known about possible physiological mechanisms. In a sample of highly religious healthy male and female adults (n = 100) ages 19-59 (m = 28.28) we examined the influence of spiritual well-being, as measured by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp-Ex), on physiological risk factors for heart disease. Specifically we examined 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP), inflammation (hs-C-reactive protein), fasting glucose, and blood lipids. Regression analyses reveal that higher levels of spiritual-wellness (total FACIT-Sp-Ex score) was significantly related to lower systolic ambulatory BP (β = -.345; P < .001), diastolic ambulatory BP (β = -.24; P = .02), hs-C-reactive protein (β = -.23; P = .04), fasting glucose (β = -.28; P = .006), and marginally lower triglycerides (β = -.21; P = .09) and VLDL (β = -.21; P = .10) controlling for age, gender, and church attendance. Results remained generally consistent across the Meaning, Peace, Faith and Additional Spiritual Concerns subscales of the FACIT-Sp-Ex. Spiritual well-being may be cardio protective.

  8. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA pvulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and blood glucose%慢性阻塞性肺疾病和血糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高惠丽; 姚婉贞

    2008-01-01

    To analyze Chinese and foreign advancement documents recently published for the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) and blood glucose. COPD and asthma influenced differently with glucose. COPD patients are discussed with changes such as inflammatory factor,erythrocyte alterations,glucose metabolism, hypoxemia, dyscrasia ect. Hyperglycaemia more emerges with in COPD patients than other patients. Hyperglycaemia is a risk factor of acute exacerbation COPD.%分析近期发表的中外文献,研究慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)和血糖的相互关系.COPD和支气管哮喘对血糖的不同影响.COPD患者中炎症因子、红细胞改变、葡萄糖的代谢、低氧血症和恶液质等改变进行论证,阐明COPD易出现高血糖.高血糖是COPD急性加重的独立危险因素之一.

  10. Improved Extended Multiplicative Scatter Correction Algorithm Applied in Blood Glucose Noninvasive Measurement with FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the predictive accuracy of human blood glucose quantitative analysis model with fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, this paper uses a method named improved extended multiplicative scatter correction (Im-EMSC, which can effectively eliminate the scattering effects caused by human body strong scattering. The principal components of the differential spectra are used instead of the pure spectra of the analytes in this algorithm. Calibrate the unwanted physical characteristic through the shape of the curve of principal components, and extract the original glucose concentration information. Im-EMSC can efficiently remove most of the pathlength difference and baseline shift influences. Firstly, Im-EMSC is used as a preprocessing method, and then partial least squares (PLS regression method is adopted to establish a quantitative analysis model. In this paper, the result of Im-EMSC is compared with those popular scattering correction algorithms of multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and extended multiplicative scatter correction (EMSC preprocessing methods. Experimental results show that the prediction accuracy has been greatly improved with Im-EMSC method, which is helpful for human noninvasive glucose concentration detection technology.

  11. Enzymatic etching of gold nanorods by horseradish peroxidase and application to blood glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa, Laura; Coronado-Puchau, Marc; Pavlov, Valeri; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have become some of the most used nanostructures for biosensing and imaging applications due to their plasmon-related optical response, which is highly sensitive toward minute changes in the AuNR aspect ratio. In this context, H2O2 has been used to trigger the chemical etching of AuNRs, thereby inducing a decrease of their aspect ratio. However, special conditions and relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are usually required, preventing the applicability of the system for biodetection purposes. To overcome this limitation we have introduced a biocatalytic species, the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) that is able to induce a gradual oxidation of AuNRs in the presence of trace concentrations of H2O2. Interestingly, the presence of halide ions has also been found to be essential for this process. As a consequence, other enzymatic reactions, such as those catalyzed by glucose oxidase, can be easily coupled to HRP activity, allowing the detection of different amounts of glucose. On the basis of these findings, we developed a highly sensitive and simple colorimetric assay that can be read out by the naked eye and allows the detection of physiological glucose concentrations in human serum.Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have become some of the most used nanostructures for biosensing and imaging applications due to their plasmon-related optical response, which is highly sensitive toward minute changes in the AuNR aspect ratio. In this context, H2O2 has been used to trigger the chemical etching of AuNRs, thereby inducing a decrease of their aspect ratio. However, special conditions and relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are usually required, preventing the applicability of the system for biodetection purposes. To overcome this limitation we have introduced a biocatalytic species, the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) that is able to induce a gradual oxidation of AuNRs in the presence of trace concentrations of H2O2. Interestingly, the presence of

  12. A STUDY TO FIND THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SIX MINUTES WALK DISTANCE AND BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

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    Swadita Dinakar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity has been recommended for patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM as it provides enormous physiological benefits by reducing the risk factors for development of complications, improves blood glucose control, overall health and quality of life. Formulation of an individualized exercise prescription based on exercise capacity and baseline plasma glucose levels is mandatory, as an exercise intensity which is considered moderate for one might turn out to be extremely rigorous for another patient with T2DM. Materials and Methods: The relationship between 6 minute walk test (6MWT & some correlates of T2DM was investigated in order to formulate an exercise prescription. This observational study of 102 T2DM patients from whom an informed consent was obtained, was conducted at the diabetic clinic of Sri Ramachandra medical college and research institute. The patients were instructed and made to perform a 6MWT according to ATS guidelines. The measurements included the 6-Minute Walk Distance (6MWD for exercise capacity and the T2DM correlates including age, gender, fasting blood glucose, post prandial blood glucose, HbA1C, duration of diabetes, BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR. Results: The relationships between the parameters were determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient at a significance level of 0.05. The participants consisted of 55 males (53.1% & 47 females (46.1%. The mean 6MWD for males was 353.73±53.750mts & females was 317.55±58.037mts.The 6MWD correlated significantly (P 0.05 with WHR (r = 0.191 (females,r=-0.058 (males,duration of diabetes (r = -0.020 and age( r = -0.112. Conclusion: Thus low exercise capacity in patients with T2DM was associated with higher adiposity & poor glycaemic control. Therefore these factors should be given consideration when prescribing exercises for patients with T2DM in order to ensure safety and efficiency of the exercise session.

  13. [Medical and administrative neglect of high blood glucose levels; comments on a decision by a medical disciplinary tribunal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelens, D W

    1997-04-26

    A 41-year-old man died in 1995 during ketoacidotic coma. He suffered from chronic manic depression, used lithium carbonate, and consulted the psychiatrist and the general practitioner (GP) frequently. Diabetes had not been diagnosed. Late in 1994 the situation worsened, the patient complaining of general illness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, thirst and excessive drinking of soft drinks. The GP referred the patient to a neurologist who found no neurological disorder but who asked for determination of blood glucose and lithium levels, and of thyroid function. The day afterwards the neurologist went on holiday. The blood glucose level proved to be elevated (16.9 mmol/1) but nobody took any action and the GP was not informed. Six days after returning from his holiday, the neurologist who had an administration backlog, found the laboratory findings only after he had been informed that the patient had just died. The court gave the neurologist a warning. Lessons are that somatic problems should be treated as such, even in a psychiatric patient, and that a good administrative signalling system is a prerequisite for quality in medical practice.

  14. Time-Series Analysis of Continuously Monitored Blood Glucose: The Impacts of Geographic and Daily Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean T. Doherty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggregated time-series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA are used to explore patient BG variation throughout the day and over space. The ARIMA models revealed a wide variety of BG correlating factors related to specific activity types, locations (especially those far from home, and travel modes, although the impacts were highly personal. Traditional variables related to food intake and medications were less often significant. Overall, the time-series analysis revealed considerable patient-by-patient variation in the effects of geographic and daily lifestyle factors. We would suggest that maps of BG spatial variation or an interactive messaging system could provide new tools to engage patients and highlight potential risk factors.

  15. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  16. Oligosaccharide and creatine supplementation on glucose and urea nitrogen in blood and serum creatine kinase in basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Daling

    2005-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide and creatine (Cr) supplementation on glucose, lactic acid and urea nitrogen levels in blood and activity of serum creatine kinase (CK) were explored. Twenty CUBA male athletes were divided into 4 groups: group A (supplementation of Cr alone), group B (supplementation of oligosaccharide), group C (supplementation of oligosaccharide and Cr) and group D (placebo control group). By using orthogonal L4 table (2(3)), the experiment was performed. There were factors including oligosaccharide (carbohydrate, CHO), Cr and their correlation. Each factor had two levels: supplementation and no-supplementation. The results showed that the supplementation of CHO or Cr alone, combined supplementation of CHO and Cr could significantly reduce the glucose, urea nitrogen levels in blood and serum CK activity after competition in the athletes. Moreover, the effects of combined supplementation of CHO and Cr were more satisfactory. It was concluded that supplementation of CHO and Cr could promote the recovery of physical performance and athletic abilities after athletics in basketball athletes.

  17. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

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    K R Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group: normal control (NC, alcohol treatment (At, diabetic control (DC, diabetic plus alcohol treatment (D + At, diabetic plus glibenclamide treatment (D + Gli. Alcohol treatment was given to the diabetic rats for 30 days. During the period the blood glucose levels, and body weight changes were observed at regular intervals. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were assayed in the liver and kidney tissues. Results: The blood glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001 elevated and body weight significantly (P < 0.001 decreased in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. SOD and CAT activities were decreased and the MDA level increased significantly (P < 0.001 in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed that alcohol damages the liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These finddings concluded that the consumption of alcohol in diabetic rats worsens the condition. So the consumption of alcohol by diabetic subjects may be potentially harmful.

  18. Oligosaccharide and Creatine Supplementation on Glucose and Urea Nitrogen in Blood and Serum Creatine Kinase in Basketball Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide and creatine (Cr) supplementation on glucose, lactic acid and urea nitrogen levels in blood and activity of serum creatine kinase (CK) were explored. Twenty CUBA male athletes were divided into 4 groups: group A (supplementation of Cr alone), group B (supplementation of oligosaccharide), group C (supplementation of oligosaccharide and Cr) and group D (placebo control group). By using orthogonal L4 table (23), the experiment was performed. There were factors including oligosaccharide (carbohydrate, CHO), Cr and their correlation. Each factor had two levels: supplementation and no-supplementation. The results showed that the supplementation of CHO or Cr alone, combined supplementation of CHO and Cr could significantly reduce the glucose, urea nitrogen levels in blood and serum CK activity after competition in the athletes. Moreover, the effects of combined supplementation of CHO and Cr were more satisfactory. It was concluded that supplementation of CHO and Cr could promote the recovery of physical performance and athletic abilities after athletics in basketball athletes.

  19. Effect of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark extracts on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats

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    Faiyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy, as well as on the health care system. Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae, commonly known as palash, is widely used in the treatment of various diseases and disorders including diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extracts of B. monosperma leaves and bark in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six rats, viz. control, diabetic control, leaf extract-treated and bark extract-treated groups. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. The biochemical estimations included blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Histopathology of pancreas was also performed. Results: The results indicated that both leaf and bark extracts of B. monosperma produced insignificant antihyperglycemic activity. The leaf and bark extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent of 28% and 11%, respectively. It was also evidenced that both leaf and bark extracts did not increase insulin synthesis or secretion and did not improve pancreatic architecture as reflected by the histopathologic studies. Conclusions: The findings of the study emphasize that B. monosperma does not possess significant antidiabetic activity in severe experimental diabetes at the dosage tested.

  20. Effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived triterpenes on postprandial blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following carbohydrate challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andile Khathi

    carbohydrate diet and therefore can be an important strategy in the management of postprandial blood glucose levels in NIDDM patients.

  1. Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Fruit Pulp Extract of Adansonia digitata on Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Yalwa Gwarzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the hypoglycemic properties of the methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp on blood glucose. Forty eight of the rats were randomly distributed into six. Group one served as the normal control and Group two rats were administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg intraperitoneally and served as the diabetic control. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg once daily for 4weeks. Group six rats were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks. The serum concentration of glucose of all the rats in each group was determined after the 14th and 28th dose of treatment. There was significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose in the three groups of rats administered with methanolic extract of fruit pulp at second and fourth week of the treatment. The group of animal treated with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose compared to most effective dose of the methanolic extract (300 mg/kg during the second and fourth week of the treatment. The result of qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp indicated the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. This result suggests that the methanolic fruit pulp extract of Adansonia digitata possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  2. Effect of Vit C Supplement on Fasting Blood Glucose and Plasma Lipid Level in Type II Diabetic Patients

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    Mehri Delvarianzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic people are more at risk of diseases such as vascular, kidneys and eye diseases, compared with normal people. Since Vit C competitively replaces glucose in most chemical reactions; so inhibit on non enzymatic glycosylation such as hemoglobin and lipoproteins, it seems that Vit C can be effective to prevent diabetic complications .In this study effect of Vit C supplements on blood sugar and fats level in type II diabetic patients was investigated. Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial using paired random sampling on 136 type II diabetic patients. At first, the patients weights, age, type of diet were recorded .Then their fasting blood glucose (FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAIC, Cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL were measured. After that the patients were divided in two randomized groups. The first group (control was subject of administration of Vit C supplement (1250 mg, 5 times a day, for a period of 3 months and the second group received placebo. Data were analyzed by paired t- test and SPSS Software. Results: In this study most of patients were women (62.2% of control group and 64.7% of placebo group. The mean age between the control group and placebo group were reported 51.2 ± 6.8 and 50.37± 9.71 years respectively. At the end of study , after 3 months of administration of Vit C supplement to control group, the mean concentration of FBS, LDL triglyceride Cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin has been reduced significantly with respect to the placebo group and the mean value of HDL has been increased as well. Conclusion: The finding shows that Vit C supplements might reduce the amount of glucose, lipids and glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its consumption in diabetic patients can be recommended and as a result patient complications will be significantly reduced.

  3. Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Holloway, Brittany; Nemoseck, Tricia; Cole, Sarah; Petrisko, Yumi; Hong, Mee Young; Kern, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted.

  4.  Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors inSana’a City, Yemen

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    Molham AL-Habori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G-6-PD deficiency among Yemeni people fromdifferent regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a,giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemenimale blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank atthe National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in thecapital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used forscreening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activityand separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype.Results: Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into thestudy, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiencyprevalence of 7.1�20None of these deficient donors had history ofanemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2�howed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10�0of normalactivity, and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PDMediterraneanvariant.Conclusion: The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiencytype in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could representan important health problem through occurrence of hemolyticanemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed todetermine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and shouldbe extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen.

  5. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Seval; Savaş, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Karadağ, Gülendam

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of self-controlled cohort studies comparing body weights, blood levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose levels before and after Ramadan taking into account gender differences. Several databases were searched up to June 2012 for studies showing an effect of Ramadan fasting in healthy subjects, yielding 30 articles. The primary finding of this meta-analysis was that after Ramadan fasting, low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -1.67, 95 % CI = -2.48 to -0.86) and fasting blood glucose levels (SMD = -1.10, 95 % CI = -1.62 to -0.58) were decreased in both sex groups and also in the entire group compared to levels prior to Ramadan. In addition, in the female subgroup, body weight (SMD = -0.04, 95 % CI = -0.20, 0.12), total cholesterol (SMD = 0.05, 95 % CI = -0.51 to 0.60), and triglyceride levels (SMD = 0.03, 95 % CI = -0.31, 0.36) remained unchanged, while HDL levels (SMD = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.11 to 1.61, p = 0.03) were increased. In males, Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss (SMD = -0.24, 95 % CI = -0.36, -0.12, p = 0.001). Also, a substantial reduction in total cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI = -0.77 to -0.11) and LDL levels (SMD = -2.22, 95 % CI = -3.47 to -0.96) and a small decrease in triglyceride levels (SMD = -0.35, 95 % CI = -0.67 to -0.02) were observed in males. In conclusion, by looking at this data, it is evident that Ramadan fasting can effectively change body weight and some biochemical parameters in healthy subjects especially in males compared to pre-Ramadan period.

  6. EFFECT OF MULTICOMPONENT CEREAL MIXTURES ON GLUCOSE LEVEL IN BLOOD OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Vloshchinskiy, Pavel; Berezovikova, Irina; Kolpakov, Arkadiy; Klebleeva, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    Recipes of multicomponent mixtures of cereals with proteins of high biological value were developed. In experiments, 35 adult male Wistar rats were used. Prior to the experiment, all animals were fed with powdered milk, grain or grain waste, germinated oats, and comprehensive multivitamin preparations, in addition to the standard balanced diet. Against this background, blood was collected from the animals for biochemical studies (control group, n = 20). Blood collection from tail vein was per...

  7. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

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    Eslami J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods: Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results: The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀ (were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/ dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors.

  8. 高血压患者血脂血糖与正常人群的对照分析%Analysis of blood lipid, blood glucose control in patients with hypertension and normal people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海英

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigating the blood lipid, blood glucose in patients with hypertension, and provide reference for prevention and control of hypertension. Methods the future I hospital for treatment of hypertensive patients and normotensive healthy subjects were divided into two groups, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride were measured, and compared, analyzed its have no statistical difference. Results the hypertension group compared with the control group, the blood glucose and blood lipid were higher than that in control group, there was significant difference. Conclusion the blood pressure in hypertensive patients was associated with increased in patients with abnormal blood lipid and fasting blood glucose.%目的:调查高血压患者的血脂、血糖情况,为高血压的综合防治提供参考。方法将来我院就诊的高血压患者和血压正常的健康体检者分为2组,分别测定其空腹血糖、胆固醇、甘油三酯等指标,并进行对照分析。结果高血压组与对照组比较,血糖和血脂均升高,存在显著差异。结论高血压患者的血压增高与血脂异常及空腹血糖增高有关。

  9. Nanobiotechnology advanced antifouling surfaces for the continuous electrochemical monitoring of glucose in whole blood using a lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher, Maria M; Küpcü, Seta; Huang, Chun-Jen; Dostalek, Jakub; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Ertl, Peter

    2013-05-07

    In the current work we have developed a lab-on-a-chip containing embedded amperometric sensors in four microreactors that can be addressed individually and that are coated with crystalline surface protein monolayers to provide a continuous, stable, reliable and accurate detection of blood glucose. It is envisioned that the microfluidic device will be used in a feedback loop mechanism to assess natural variations in blood glucose levels during hemodialysis to allow the individual adjustment of glucose. Reliable and accurate detection of blood glucose is accomplished by simultaneously performing (a) blood glucose measurements, (b) autocalibration routines, (c) mediator-interferences detection, and (d) background subtractions. The electrochemical detection of blood glucose variations in the absence of electrode fouling events is performed by integrating crystalline surface layer proteins (S-layer) that function as an efficient antifouling coating, a highly-oriented immobilization matrix for biomolecules and an effective molecular sieve with pore sizes of 4 to 5 nm. We demonstrate that the S-layer protein SbpA (from Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177) readily forms monomolecular lattice structures at the various microchip surfaces (e.g. glass, PDMS, platinum and gold) within 60 min, eliminating unspecific adsorption events in the presence of human serum albumin, human plasma and freshly-drawn blood samples. The highly isoporous SbpA-coating allows undisturbed diffusion of the mediator between the electrode surface, thus enabling bioelectrochemical measurements of glucose concentrations between 500 μM to 50 mM (calibration slope δI/δc of 8.7 nA mM(-1)). Final proof-of-concept implementing the four microfluidic microreactor design is demonstrated using freshly drawn blood. Accurate and drift-free assessment of blood glucose concentrations (6. 4 mM) is accomplished over 130 min at 37 °C using immobilized enzyme glucose oxidase by calculating the difference between

  10. At the centennial of Michaelis and Menten, competing Michaelis-Menten steps explain effect of GLP-1 on blood-brain transfer and metabolism of glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Gejl; Rungby, Jørgen; Brock, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic incretin hormone with pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects. Studies reveal significant effects in regions of brain tissue that regulate appetite and satiety. The effects cause that mimetics of GLP-1 serves as treatment of type 2 diabete...... and in vivo, as in pancreas. The apparent neuroprotective potential of GLP-1, indirectly acting through changes of cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism or brain glucose concentration, or all of these, is worthy of close attention....

  11. The impact of a low glycaemic index (GI diet on simultaneous measurements of blood glucose and fat oxidation: A whole body calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Consumption of LGI meals was capable of attenuating 24-hour blood glucose profiles and decreasing postprandial glucose excursions in healthy Asian males. Additionally, LGI mixed meals were able to promote fat oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation when compared to HGI mixed meals. The consumption of low GI meals may be a strategic approach in improving overall glycaemia and increasing fat oxidation in Asians consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  12. A high isoflavone diet decreases 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation and does not correct selenium-induced elevations in fasting blood glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Michael T; Cardon, Brandon R; Hardman, Jeremy M; Bliss, Tyler A; Brunson, Scott E; Hart, Chris M; Swiss, Maria D; Hepworth, Squire D; Christensen, Merrill J; Hancock, Chad R

    2014-04-01

    Selenium (Se) has been implicated as a micronutrient that decreases adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and may increase diabetes risk by reducing insulin sensitivity. Soy isoflavones (IF) are estrogen-like compounds that have been shown to attenuate insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, adiposity, and increased AMPK activation. We hypothesized that a high IF (HIF) diet would prevent the poor metabolic profile associated with high Se intake. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in basal glucose metabolism and AMPK signaling in response to an HIF diet and/or supplemental Se in a mouse model. Male FVB mice were divided into groups receiving either a control diet with minimal IF (low IF) or an HIF diet. Each dietary group was further subdivided into groups receiving either water or Se at a dose of 3 mg Se/kg body weight daily, as Se-methylselenocysteine (SMSC). After 5 months, mice receiving SMSC had elevated fasting glucose (P < .05) and a tendency for glucose intolerance (P = .08). The increase in dietary IF did not result in improved fasting blood glucose. Interestingly, after 6 months, HIF-fed mice had decreased basal AMPK activation in liver and skeletal muscle tissue (P < .05). Basal glucose metabolism was changed by SMSC supplementation as evidenced by increased fasting blood glucose and glucose intolerance. High dietary IF levels did not protect against aberrant blood glucose. In FVB mice, decreased basal AMPK activation is not the mechanism through which Se exerts its effect. These results suggest that more research must be done to elucidate the role of Se and IF in glucose metabolism.

  13. A method for the determination of carbon 13 content in glucose and glycerol of blood plasma; Methode pour la determination de la teneur en carbone 13 du glucose et du glycerol dans les plasmas sanguins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziet, J. [Centre de Recherche Pernod-Ricard, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1994-12-31

    The coupled gaseous chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach was first validated on beet and maize glucose and glycerol aqueous solutions containing variable carbon 13 content. Then human plasma was used to prepare samples where glucose and glycerol were labelled with small amounts of (1.3-{sup 13}C{sub 2})-glycerol and D-(U{sup 13}-C{sub 6})-glucose. The samples are then de-proteinized with acetone before lyophilization and acetylation in order to be able to measure them in the form of acetates. Carbon 13 content evaluation should then take into account the exogenous carbons from the acetyl radicals. This method appears well adapted to the simultaneous metabolic monitoring of glycerol and glucose in the blood plasma. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  14. 自我血糖监测对预测糖调节异常者与糖尿病患者的日内血糖波动的价值%Estimating lntraday Blood Glucose Variability Through Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose in People with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽芳; 王椿; 刘关键; 陈大伟; 陈利鸿; 李永恒; 周健; 贾伟平; 冉兴无

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨自我血糖监测(self-monitoring of blood glucose,SMBG)值与日内血糖波动参数之间的关系,并用SMBG值建立预测日内血糖波动参数的方程.方法 用动态血糖监测系统(continuous glucose monitoring system.CGMS)对一组糖调节异常(IGR)和新诊断为2型糖尿病(T2DM)的受试者行72 h持续血糖监测,得出两组受试者的平均血糖波动幅度(MAGE),平均餐后血糖漂移幅度(MPPGE)和血糖水平的标准差(sBG),同时行每日7次SMBG[即空腹血糖(FBG)、早餐后血糖(BGAB)、午餐前血糖(BGBL)、午餐后血糖(BGAL)、晚餐前血糖(BGBS)、晚餐后血糖(BGAS)和睡前血糖(BGBR)]得出相应的点值血糖.随机抽取80%的受试者进行多元逐步回归分析,以CGMS测定的血糖波动指标为应变量,受试者的年龄和SMBG值为自变量,建立上述指标的回归方程,然后用剩余20%的受试者对回归方程进行回代验证.结果 在IGR受试者,预测所有日内血糖波动指标的回归方程中均包括了BGAS、BGAB、BGAL和FBG,但预测MPPGE、SBG的回归方程中还包括了年龄;在T2DM受试者,预测所有日内血糖波动指标的回归方程中均包括了BGAs和BGAL.但预测MAGE的回归方程还包括了年龄,预测MPPGE的回归方程中包括了BGBL和BGBS,预测SBG的回归方程中包括了FBG.在回代验证中,MAGE的预测值与测量值之间的平均差异在IGR、T2DM组分别为4.1%和8.2%;MPPGE的预测值与测量值之间的平均差异在IGR、T2DM组分别为23.1%和1.3%;SBG的预测值与测量值之间的平均差异在IGR、T2DM组分别为1.2%和6.8%;除IGR组MPPGE的预测值与测量值之间的吻合程度较差外,两组人群其余指标的预测值与测量值之间的吻合程度较好.结论 IGR人群的MAGE、SBG和T2DM人群的MAGE、MPPGE、SDBG可以通过年龄与每日7次SMBG值来预测.%Objective To investigate the associations between the patterns of change of self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and the

  15. Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seeds Lowers Postprandial Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyasurya Daniel Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of fenugreek on postprandial plasma glucose (PPG and satiety among overweight and obese individuals. Fourteen subjects were studied in the morning after overnight fasts on four separate occasions. Glycaemic responses elicited by 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread and jam with or without 5.5 g of fenugreek and fried rice with or without 5.5 g fenugreek were determined over 2 h. The primary endpoint was the incremental area under the plasma glucose response curve (IAUC. Adding fenugreek to both foods significantly reduced the IAUC compared to the food alone: white bread and jam, 180 ± 22 versus 271 ± 23 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001; fried rice, 176 ± 20 versus 249 ± 25 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001. Fenugreek also significantly reduced the area under the satiety curve for white bread with jam (134 ± 27 versus 232 ± 33 mm × hr, P = 0.01 and fried rice (280 ± 37 versus 379 ± 36 mm × hr, P = 0.01. It is concluded that fenugreek significantly decreased the PPG response and increased satiety among overweight and obese individuals.

  16. A SURVEY OF 100 HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN TEHRAN FOR BLOOD GLUCOSE, UREA, URIC ACID, AND CHOLESTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mokhtar Massoumi

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been no statistical findings published on normal levels for glucose, urea, uric acid, and cholesterol in Iran. This is an attempt as a pilot project, to look into the matter. For this purpose one thousand healthy individuals consisting of 333 Females and 667 males of mixed age group were tested by an automated method (Technicon SMA, and a manual method (Bio Medic diagnostic kits for the above mentioned parameters. Normal range (two standard deviations was calculated for each parameter. A comparison of calculated normal value with statistical findings (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 show the same ranges for glucose, urea, and cholesterol. For uric acid our calculated normal range in males and females was from 18.6% to 44.44% higher than other statistical findings for the same parameter with higher values in males than females. This could be due to several factors such as diet, race and elevation in Tehran area where the survey was conducted, High elevation would result higher hemoglobin and RBC which causes higher turnover of RBCs which in turn liberates more purin compounds and finally uric acid as a purin metabolite. It would be desirable to conduct similar statistical work-up in different parts of Iran with lower and higher elevation to further evaluate this point. It would also be desirable to conduct a more detail study on different age and sex groups to classify the normal range for cholesterol according to age and sex.

  17. The effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on systemic immune response and blood glucose level of NIDDM patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oedijani Santoso

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal inflammation is a periodontal disorder of high prevalence in the population. Chronic periodontitis is associated with the accumulation of plaque and calculus as local factors, and systemic factors such an diabetes mellitus (DM and HIV infection. Cytokine, especially IL-1β as inflammatory mediator for periodontal disease, may directly stimulated iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and NO (nitric oxide production by β-cells, resulting in NO-mediated β-cell damage. The leucotoxin and proteases produced by periodontal pathogens will induce chemotactic and phagocytotic defect; therefore causing decreased PMN phagocytotic function. Hyperglicemia which occurs in diabetic patients increases calcium influx to the cell, resulting in the increased cytosol’s calcium ([Ca 2+]i level and; therefore, resulting in dysfunction of PMN and impaired PMN phagocytotic function. Advanced glycosilation endproduct in NIDDM binds to monocytes resulting in the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNFα and produces activation of macrophages and osteoclasts. Hyperglicemia activates diacyl glycerol (DAG-protein kinase C (PKC, thus increasing PGE2 and cytokine expression that induce inflammation and periodontal tissue destruction processes. Studies on the effect of scaling to remove calculus disposition on blood glucose control and cellular immune response in DM patient has never been carried out. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of scaling as non-surgical periodontal therapy on immune response (IL-1β level and PMN phagocytotic function and blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Subjects were diabetic patients, 60 controlled-DM (CDM and 60 uncontrolled-DM (UCDM, in Metabolic-Endocrinology Clinic of Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital, aged 40-60 years. The subjects were divided into treatment (scaling and control group, and cellular immune response and diabetic status, before and 6 weeks after treatment were evaluated

  18. The Effect of Trans-Chalcone on Amylase Activity, Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Najafian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of trans-chalcone on amylase activity, blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic and non diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 1388 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sixty rats were randomly divided to ten equal groups: non diabetic control, diabetic control, four non diabetic experiments and four diabetic experiments. Control groups received grape seed oil and experimental groups received 2, 8,16 and 32 mg/kg of body weight in a period of 24 days with a gastric cannula. Blood sugar, every two days, serum insulin levels in days 0,12, and 24 and at the end of the experiment, lipoproteins and alpha amylase activity were measured.The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance, ANOVA, followed by Turkey,s test with SPSS soft ware . Results: On average Chalcone reduced 25.5% of blood sugar in normal and diabetic rats. IT also decreased the serum insulin level. On average, chalcone decreased 34.9% of alpha amylase activity in normal and diabetic rats. Following disturbances in lipids metabolism caused by diabetes, this drug improved lipoproteins metabolism and reduced water, food and urine volume. Conclusion: This study shows that trans-Chalcone reduces blood sugar and body weight via inhibition of alpha amylas. Moreover, improvement of lipoprotein metabolism may happen via the inhibitory effect of this drug on hydroxyl methyl glutaryl -COA reductase and phosphodiesterase.

  19. Synthesis and characterisation of glucose-functional glycopolymers and gold nanoparticles: study of their potential interactions with ovine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Laura E; Phillips, Daniel J; Deller, Robert C; Davies, Gemma-Louise; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-03-20

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions can assist with the targeting of polymer- and nano-delivery systems. However, some potential protein targets are not specific to a single cell type, resulting in reductions in their efficacy due to undesirable non-specific cellular interactions. The glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) is expressed to different extents on most cells in the vasculature, including human red blood cells and on cancerous tissue. Glycosylated nanomaterials bearing glucose (or related) carbohydrates, therefore, could potentially undergo unwanted interactions with these transporters, which may compromise the nanomaterial function or lead to cell agglutination, for example. Here, RAFT polymerisation is employed to obtain well-defined glucose-functional glycopolymers as well as glycosylated gold nanoparticles. Agglutination and binding assays did not reveal any significant binding to ovine red blood cells, nor any haemolysis. These data suggest that gluco-functional nanomaterials are compatible with blood, and their lack of undesirable interactions highlights their potential for delivery and imaging applications.

  20. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:26955460

  1. The role of red blood cell S-nitrosation in nitrite bioactivation and its modulation by leucine and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Wajih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that red blood cells (RBCs reduce nitrite to NO under conditions of low oxygen. Strong support for the ability of red blood cells to promote nitrite bioactivation comes from using platelet activation as a NO-sensitive process. Whereas addition of nitrite to platelet rich plasma in the absence of RBCs has no effect on inhibition of platelet activation, when RBCs are present platelet activation is inhibited by an NO-dependent mechanism that is potentiated under hypoxia. In this paper, we demonstrate that nitrite bioactivation by RBCs is blunted by physiologically-relevant concentrations of nutrients including glucose and the important signaling amino acid leucine. Our mechanistic investigations demonstrate that RBC mediated nitrite bioactivation is largely dependent on nitrosation of RBC surface proteins. These data suggest a new expanded paradigm where RBC mediated nitrite bioactivation not only directs blood flow to areas of low oxygen but also to areas of low nutrients. Our findings could have profound implications for normal physiology as well as pathophysiology in a variety of diseases including diabetes, sickle cell disease, and arteriosclerosis.

  2. Lower blood glucose and variability are associated with earlier recovery from renal injury caused by episodic urinary tract infection in advanced type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fang Chiu

    Full Text Available In our previous study, type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients with glomerular filtration rates of 9 days, Group B groups. The differences in the continuous and categorical variables of the two groups were assessed separately. The mean glucose levels and their variability (using the standard deviation and the coefficient of standard deviation were compared at the fasting, midday pre-meal, evening pre-meal, and evening post-meal time points during hospitalization. We have organized the manuscript in a manner compliant with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement.Acute kidney injury occurred within the two groups (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively. The early-morning blood glucose levels (149.7±44.0 mg/dL and average blood glucose levels (185.6±52.0 mg/dL were better in Group A (p = 0.01, p = 0.02. Group A patients also had lower glucose variability than Group B at the different time points (p<0.05. Group A also had earlier renal recovery. More relevant pathogens were identified from blood in Group B (p = 0.038.Early-morning fasting and mean blood glucose levels and their variability can be good indicators of severe infection and predictors of renal outcome in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD and UTI.

  3. A systematic approach for the accurate non-invasive estimation of blood glucose utilizing a novel light-tissue interaction adaptive modelling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybynok, V O; Kyriacou, P A [City University, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media.

  4. Effect of insulin in combination with selenium on blood glucose and GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-jiao Xu; Bing-xiang Yuan; Ya-min Zou

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of low-dose insulin [1 U/(kg · d)] in combination with selenium [180 g/(kg · d)] on general physiological parameters and glucose transporter (GLUT4) level in skeletal mnscle of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetic rats were treated with insulin, selenium, and insulin and selenium in combination for four weeks. The level of blood glucose was determined using One Tonch SnreStep Blood Glucose meter and the level of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle was examined by immunobiotting and immnnohistochemistry. Results Our data showed that insulin in combination with selenium could significantly lower blood glucose level and restore the disturbance in GLUT4 level in skeletal muscle. Treatment with insulin was only partially effective in restoring diabetic alterations. Conclusion It can be concluded that there is a synergistic action between insulin and selenium, and that treatment of diabetic rats with combined doses of insulin and selenium is effective in the normalization of blood glucose level and correction of altered GLUT4 distribution in skeletal mnscle of diabetic rats.

  5. Effects of propylene glycol drenching before and after luteolysis on blood glucose, ovarian steroids and follicular dynamics in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, A; Tanaka, T; Kamomae, H

    2012-02-01

    The effect of propylene glycol drenching on ovarian and hormonal dynamics was studied in heifers. Five cycling heifers were used twice (as control and treatment) with crossover design. After the confirmation of ovulation (day 0), the heifers in the treatment group received propylene glycol on days 6, 7 and 8 as an oral drench (250 ml of 90% propylene glycol). On day 10, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), 15 mg per head of dinoprost, was administered intramuscularly to induce luteal regression followed by the follicular phase and then propylene glycol was again administered twice daily (500 ml/day) on days 10, 11 and 12. Palpation per rectum and ovarian ultrasonography were performed every other day from days 0 to 10, and daily after PGF2α administration until the subsequent ovulation (second ovulation) for analysis of follicular and luteal dynamics. Blood samples were also collected every other day from days 0 to 10, and then at 6 h intervals after PGF2α administration until the second ovulation. For the samples taken at 6-h intervals after PGF2α administration, the concentrations of glucose showed clear daily fluctuations in both groups. Changes in the plasma concentration of glucose in the treatment group were significantly (P propylene glycol drenching in heifers. However, no significant changes in ovarian and hormonal dynamics were found under such metabolic conditions.

  6. A whole-body model for glycogen regulation reveals a critical role for substrate cycling in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, and sometimes rapid, metabolic adaptation to changes in food supply is critical for survival as an organism moves from the fasted to the fed state, and vice versa. These transitions necessitate major metabolic changes to maintain energy homeostasis as the source of blood glucose moves away from ingested carbohydrates, through hepatic glycogen stores, towards gluconeogenesis. The integration of hepatic glycogen regulation with extra-hepatic energetics is a key aspect of these adaptive mechanisms. Here we use computational modeling to explore hepatic glycogen regulation under fed and fasting conditions in the context of a whole-body model. The model was validated against previous experimental results concerning glycogen phosphorylase a (active and glycogen synthase a dynamics. The model qualitatively reproduced physiological changes that occur during transition from the fed to the fasted state. Analysis of the model reveals a critical role for the inhibition of glycogen synthase phosphatase by glycogen phosphorylase a. This negative regulation leads to high levels of glycogen synthase activity during fasting conditions, which in turn increases substrate (futile cycling, priming the system for a rapid response once an external source of glucose is restored. This work demonstrates that a mechanistic understanding of the design principles used by metabolic control circuits to maintain homeostasis can benefit from the incorporation of mathematical descriptions of these networks into "whole-body" contextual models that mimic in vivo conditions.

  7. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  8. Diminished insulin-mediated forearm blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L; Alibegovic, A C;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in young men with LBW (n = 22) and controls (n = 22). METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and endothelial function was studied...... with venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of adenosine and acetylcholine, before and during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Forearm blood flow response to systemic hyperinsulinemia was diminished in LBW compared to controls (p ... extraction was similar, and consequently insulin-stimulated forearm glucose clearance was diminished in LBW compared with controls (0.8 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.36 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), respectively, p

  9. Whole grains, legumes, and the subsequent meal effect: implications for blood glucose control and the role of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Janine A

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect.

  10. Whole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine A. Higgins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect.

  11. The Acute Impact of Ingestion of Sourdough and Whole-Grain Breads on Blood Glucose, Insulin, and Incretins in Overweight and Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mofidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of whole-grain and sourdough breads is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the impact of commercial breads on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for glucose intolerance. In a randomized, crossover study, overweight or obese males ingested 11-grain, sprouted-grain, 12-grain, sourdough, or white bread on different occasions, matched for available carbohydrate (50 g in part 1 (n=12 and bread mass (107 g in part 2 (n=11, and blood glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 were determined for 3 h. In part 1, glucose response for sprouted-grain was lower than 11-grain, sourdough, and white breads. Insulin area under the curve (AUC for sourdough and white was lower than 11-grain and sprouted-grain breads. GLP-1 response to sourdough was lower than all breads. In part 2, glucose and insulin AUC for sourdough was greater than 11-grain, sprouted-grain, and 12-grain breads. Sprouted-grain bread improved glycemia by lowering glucose response and increasing GLP-1 response. In overweight and obese men, the glycemic response to sprouted grain bread was reduced in both parts 1 and 2 while the other whole-grain test breads did not improve metabolic responses in the acute postprandial state.

  12. The acute impact of ingestion of sourdough and whole-grain breads on blood glucose, insulin, and incretins in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, Anita; Ferraro, Zachary M; Stewart, Katherine A; Tulk, Hilary M F; Robinson, Lindsay E; Duncan, Alison M; Graham, Terry E

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of whole-grain and sourdough breads is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the impact of commercial breads on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for glucose intolerance. In a randomized, crossover study, overweight or obese males ingested 11-grain, sprouted-grain, 12-grain, sourdough, or white bread on different occasions, matched for available carbohydrate (50 g) in part 1 (n = 12) and bread mass (107 g) in part 2 (n = 11), and blood glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined for 3 h. In part 1, glucose response for sprouted-grain was lower than 11-grain, sourdough, and white breads. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) for sourdough and white was lower than 11-grain and sprouted-grain breads. GLP-1 response to sourdough was lower than all breads. In part 2, glucose and insulin AUC for sourdough was greater than 11-grain, sprouted-grain, and 12-grain breads. Sprouted-grain bread improved glycemia by lowering glucose response and increasing GLP-1 response. In overweight and obese men, the glycemic response to sprouted grain bread was reduced in both parts 1 and 2 while the other whole-grain test breads did not improve metabolic responses in the acute postprandial state.

  13. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC count. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation.

  14. Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Ficus Glumosa on Fasting blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Profile in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Z U; Moh'd, A; Tanko, Y

    2013-06-30

    Ficus glumosa, commonly known as the fig tree or "African rock fig" is a plant with immense medicinal value used for the management of diabetes for over 2000 years. The aim of the present study is to determine the hypoglycemic and anti-lipidemic properties of the ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult male Wister rats weighing (120 - 220) grams of about 18 to 22 weeks of age were used in the study. The animals were assigned into six groups (1-6) of five rats (n=5) each. Group VI served as the positive control group receiving 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone via intra-peritoneal route (i.p.), Groups I (negative control), II, III, IV and V were treated with alloxan and after the induction of hyperglycaemia, received in addition via i.p. for 7 days: 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa respectively while Group V received 6lU/kg of short-acting insulin. The determinations of blood glucose levels were carried out at intervals of one day for 7 days. Serum lipid profile, were done on the 7th day.Premininary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids,saponin,tannins,cardiac glycosides,triterpenes,ceramides and reducing sugars.The LD50 of the extract of Ficus glumosa was found to be 2,154mg/kg.The results of the study showed that,100mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa significantly lowered blood glucose levels and 200mg/kg significantly lowered serum lipid profile compared with negative control group.In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Ficus glumosa possesses anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-lipidemic effect.

  15. Salvianolic acid B improves vascular endothelial function in diabetic rats with blood glucose fluctuations via suppression of endothelial cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Younan; Tao, Shanjun; Zheng, Shuguo; Zhao, Mengqiu; Zhu, Yuanmei; Yang, Jieren; Wu, Yuanjie

    2016-11-15

    Vascular endothelial cell injury is an initial event in atherosclerosis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a main bioactive component in the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has vascular protective effect in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study investigated the effect of Sal B on vascular endothelial function in diabetic rats with blood glucose fluctuations and the possible mechanisms implicated. The results showed that diabetic rats developed marked endothelial dysfunction as exhibited by impaired acetylcholine induced vasodilation. Supplementation with Sal B resulted in an evident improvement of endothelial function. Phosphorylation (Ser 1177) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was significantly restored in Sal B treated diabetic rats, accompanied by an evident recovery of NO metabolites. Sal B effectively reduced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis, with Bcl-2 protein up-regulated and Bax protein down-regulated markedly. Treatment with Sal B led to an evident amelioration of oxidative stress in diabetic rats as manifested by enhanced antioxidant capacity and decreased contents of malondialdehyde in aortas. Protein levels of NOX2 and NOX4, two main isoforms of NADPH oxidase known as the major source of reactive oxygen species in the vasculature, were markedly decreased in Sal B treated groups. In addition, treatment with Sal B led to an evident decrease of serum lipids. Taken together, this study indicates that Sal B is capable of improving endothelial function in diabetic rats with blood glucose fluctuations, of which the underlying mechanisms might be related to suppression of endothelial cell apoptosis and stimulation of eNOS phosphorylation (Ser 1177).

  16. Structured self monitoring of blood glucose in Iranian people with type 2 diabetes; A cost consequence analysis

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    Aghili Rokhsareh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG is considered as a key factor in management of people with diabetes which is a growing and cost demanding health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive patient management using structured SMBG on metabolic control as well as its cost consequence analysis. Methods Sixty subjects were recruited in an observational study for a period of 6 months. They were provided with the ACCU-CHEK 360° View tool to fill in the values of the 7-point blood glucose profiles in three consecutive days during the study on a monthly basis. Changes in metabolic control were assessed by HbA1c and lipid profile measurement at the beginning and at the end of the study. In addition, cost consequence analysis was done considering different level of health care professionals with or without insurance coverage. The Average Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ACER as well as Cost saving analysis were calculated and compared. Results The analysis showed significant reduction in HbA1c during the 6-month period in all subjects (P = 0.000. Furthermore, a positive effect was observed on lipid profile. The cost of endocrinologist’s visit in private sector was estimated to be 265.76 USD while this figure was149.15 USD for general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Total complications and mortality cost saving was 154.8 USD. The lowest ACER was calculated for intervention with general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Conclusion Structured SMBG results in significant improvement of glycemic status. Moreover, it is more cost saving in public sector with insurance coverage. It seems that general practitioner visits with insurance coverage is the most affordable option for people with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Acarbose reduces blood glucose by activating miR-10a-5p and miR-664 in diabetic rats.

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    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of genes, including those involved in glucose metabolism. Acarbose is an α-glucosidase inhibitor that improves glycemic control by decreasing the intestinal absorption of glucose, thereby decreasing the elevation of postprandial blood glucose. However, acarbose is poorly absorbed into the blood stream from the gut. Therefore, the exact mechanisms by which acarbose affects glucose metabolism are unclear. This study investigated the effect of acarbose on glucose metabolism in diabetic rats and tested the hypothesis that acarbose acts directly through miRNA-regulated expression in the intestinal epithelium. Rats were divided into four groups: a control group, a diabetic group (DM, a low dose of acarbose group (AcarL and a high dose of acarbose group (AcarH. Ileum samples were analyzed using miRCURY LNA™ microRNA Array, qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that 8-week treatment with acarbose significantly decreased fasting blood glucose. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT showed that blood glucose was significantly reduced in the AcarL and AcarH groups at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min after oral glucose administration. We found that miR-151*, miR-10a-5p, miR-205, miR-17-5p, miR-145 and miR-664 were up-regulated in the AcarH group, while miR-541 and miR-135b were down-regulated. Through target gene analysis, real time PCR and immunohistochemistry verification, we found that these miRNAs suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines [IL6 (interleukin 6 and TNF (tumor necrosis factor] and mitogen activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1. Our data suggest that acarbose can improve blood glucose in diabetic rats through the MAPK pathway and can down-regulate proinflammatory factors by activating miR-10a-5p and miR-664 in the ileum.

  18. [Interventional hypertension therapy in diabetes mellitus. Effects on blood pressure and glucose metabolism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, S; Ukena, C; Pöss, J; Linz, D; Böhm, M; Mahfoud, F

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular disease with increasing prevalence all over the world. Despite the availability of many effective antihypertensive drugs, blood pressure control to target values remains low. In the pathophysiology of therapy resistant hypertension, increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system with an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity has been identified as a main contributor to the development and maintenance of hypertension. Catheter-based denervation of the renal sympathetic nerves has been described as reducing blood pressure and decreasing sympathetic activity in patients with resistant hypertension. Supplementary beneficial effects on common cardiovascular comorbidities, such as diabetes type 2, have been reported. The present review aims to give an overview about percutaneous renal denervation for treatment of hypertension and potential new therapeutic options to improve glycemic control.

  19. Combining insulins for optimal blood glucose control in type 1 and 2 diabetes: focus on insulin glulisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Heather Ulrich1,4, Benjamin Snyder1,Satish K Garg1,2,31Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes; 2Department of Medicine; 3Pediatrics; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Normalization of blood glucose is essential for the prevention of diabetes mellitus (DM-related microvascular and macrovascular complications. Despite substantial literature to support the benefits of glucose lowering and clear treatment targets, glycemic control remains suboptimal for most people with DM in the United States. Pharmacokinetic limitations of conventional insulins have been a barrier to achieving treatment targets secondary to adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed modification of the insulin molecule to produce insulin analogues that overcome these pharmacokinetic limitations. With time action profiles that more closely mimic physiologic insulin secretion, rapid acting insulin analogues (RAAs reduce post-prandial glucose excursions and hypoglycemia when compared to regular human insulin (RHI. Insulin glulisine (Apidra® is a rapid-acting insulin analogue created by substituting lysine for asparagine at position B3 and glutamic acid for lysine at position B29 on the B chain of human insulin. The quick absorption of insulin glulisine more closely reproduces physiologic first-phase insulin secretion and its rapid acting profile is maintained across patient subtypes. Clinical trials have demonstrated comparable or greater efficacy of insulin glulisine versus insulin lispro or RHI, respectively. Efficacy is maintained even when insulin glulisine is administered post-meal. In addition, glulisine appears to have a more rapid time action profile compared with insulin lispro across various body mass indexes (BMIs. The safety and tolerability profile of insulin glulisine is also comparable to that of insulin

  20. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients in China:current status and influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Li; Guo Xiaohui; Xiong Zhenzhen; Lou Qingqing; Shen Li; Zhao Fang; Sun Zilin

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) by individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is crucial for long-term health,yet numerous cultural,economic and health factors can reduce SMBG.Most studies on SMBG adherence have come out of the US and Europe,and their relevance to Asia is unclear.The aims of the present study were to assess the current state of SMBG in China and analyze demographic and diabetes-related characteristics that may influence it.Methods In this multi-center,cross-sectional study,5 953 individuals with T2D from 50 medical centers in 29 provinces across China filled out a standardized questionnaire that requested information on demographic characteristics,education level,occupation,income,lifestyle risk factors,duration of diabetes,chronic complications,and frequency of SMBG.Respondents were also asked whether their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) had been checked in the past 6 months.The most recent values for fasting plasma glucose,2-hour postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c were recovered from medical records.Results Only 1 130 respondents (18.98%) performed SMBG with the recommended frequency,while 4 823 (81.02%) did not.In fact,nearly 2 105 (35.36%) reported never performing SMBG.In the subset of 3 661 individuals on insulin therapy,only 266 (7.27%) performed SMBG at least once a day,while 1 210 (33.05%) never performed it.In contrast,895 of 2 292 individuals (39.05%) on diet/exercise therapy or oral hypoglycemic therapy never performed it.Multivariate Logistic regression identified several factors associated with SMBG adherence:female gender,higher education level,higher income,longer T2D duration and education about SMBG.Conclusions SMBG adherence in our Chinese population with T2D was less frequent than that in developed countries.Several factors influence SMBG adherence:gender,education level,income,T2D duration,therapy regimen and exposure to education about SMBG.

  1. 肝龙胶囊对小鼠血糖浓度的影响%Effect of Ganlong Capsule on Blood Glucose Concentration of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂罗兰; 单华; 史彩艳; 李敬美; 彭芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究肝龙胶囊对正常小鼠血糖及肾上腺素致高血糖模型小鼠的血糖浓度的影响。方法:采用葡萄糖氧化酶法测定正常小鼠的血糖浓度及肾上腺素诱导小鼠高血糖不同处理后的血糖浓度变化。结果:肝龙胶囊对正常小鼠血糖浓度无影响,而对肾上腺素高血糖模型小鼠有显著的降糖作用(P<0.01,P<0.05)。结论:肝龙胶囊能降低肾上腺素性高血糖小鼠的血糖浓度,对正常小鼠血糖浓度无影响。%Objective: To investigate the effect of Ganlong capsule on blood glucose concentration on normal mice and adrenaline induced hyperglycemic mice. Methods:We observed the changes of blood glucose concentration on model mice by the glucose oxidase method. Results: Ganlong capsule has no effect on the blood glucose concentration on normal mice, but obvious hypoglycemic effect on adrenaline induced hyperglycemia model mice (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: Ganlong capsule could decrease the blood glucose concentration in adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic mice, but has no effect on the normal mice blood glucose concentration.

  2. Self-monitoring of blood glucose improved glycaemic control and 10-year coronary heart disease risk profile of type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenwaka Chidum; JonesLeCointe Altheia; Dimgba Agbai; Okali Fidelis; Skinner Teppany; Rodriguez Martina; Extavour Rian; Davis Verdine; Spencer Alida; Mayers Hasina

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate over the overall benefits of self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients is still continuing.We aimed to assess the difference in glycaemic control and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk levels of experimental type 2 diabetes patients provided with facilities for self-monitoring blood glucose and their counterparts without such facilities.Methods Sixty-one patients who had no prior experience in using glucometers were studied as intervention (n=30) and control (n=31) groups.The intervention group was trained in self-monitoring of blood glucose and documentation.Baseline blood glucose and fasting blood glucose were measured and the intervention patients were provided with glucometers and advised to self-monitor their fasting and postprandial blood glucose over six months.The 10-year CHD risk levels were determined with the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study-derived risk engine calculator.Results The age and diabetes duration were similar in the two groups (P >0.05).The majority of the patients were unemployed or retired females with only a primary level education.After 3 months,the haemogolbin A1c (HbA1c) levels of the control patients remained unchanged ((7.8±0.3)% vs.(7.9±0.4)%,P >0.05) whereas the HbA1c levels of the intervention patients were significantly reduced from the baseline at three ((9.6±0.3)% vs.(7.8±0.3)%,P <0.001) and six ((9.2±0.4)% vs.(7.5±0.3)%,P <0.001) months.Interestingly,while the 10-year CHD risk level of the control group remained unchanged after three months,that of the intervention group was remarkably reduced at three and six months from the baseline level ((7.4±1.3)% vs.(4.5±0.9)%,P=0.056).Conclusion Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients significantly improved glycaemic control and the CHD risk profile,suggesting that type 2 diabetes patients will potentially benefit from inclusion of glucose meters and testing strips in their health-care package.

  3. 全自动生化仪与快速血糖仪测定血糖浓度的比较%Comparison between automatic biochemical analyzer and rapid blood sugar meter for determining glucose blood concen-tration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴高; 成平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度与快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度的相关性及差异。方法采集该院200名住院患者的血液标本,同一患者同时采集静脉促凝血清标本与静脉抗凝全血标本,采用全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度,同时采用快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度,比较2组血糖浓度测定结果。结果191名患者的静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度明显大于其静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度,差异范围在0.50~1.50 mmol/L ,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度明显高于快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本的血糖浓度。%Objective To investigate the correlation and difference between the automatic biochemical analyzer for determining the blood glucose concentration in the venous coagulant serum specimens and the fast blood glucose meter for determining the blood glucose concentration in the venous coagulant whole blood specimens .Methods The blood specimens of 200 inpatients in the Geleshan Branch Hospital were collected ,venous coagulant serum specimens and the venous coagulant whole blood specimens in the same patient were simultaneously collected .The automatic bi‐ochemical analyzer was adopted to detect the blood glucose concentration of venous coagulant serum specimens ,and at the same time the rapid blood glucose meter was adopted to detect the blood glucose concentration of venous coagu‐lant whole blood specimens .The blood glucose detection results were compared between the two detection methods . Results In 191 patients ,the blood glucose concentration of venous coagulant serum specimens was significantly grea‐ter than that of the venous coagulant whole blood specimens ,the difference range was 0 .50 -1 .50 mmol/L ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05

  4. Assessment of the effects of scaling and root planing on blood glucose levels in type II diabetes patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Rieyazulhuq Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of the scaling and root planing of some blood glucose levels in Type II Diabetes patients. Study Population and Methods: The clinical study was conducted in 15 Type II diabetic patients of Dr. D Y Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune. All the participants underwent a baseline examination for periodontal status using the community periodontal index of treatment needs and also estimation of fasting and post-prandial blood sugar levels. The participants received the intervention of scaling and root planing, as also routine oral hygiene instructions, and were recalled after one month for a final periodontal examination and blood sugar level investigation. The significance of difference between the means of the baseline and the final examination was tested using the paired ′t′ test. Results and Conclusion: There was no significant change in the fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels in patients treated with scaling and root planing.

  5. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  6. Caffeine modifies blood glucose availability during prolonged low-intensity exercise in individuals with type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study investigated the effect of supplementation with maltodextrin (CHO alone or associated to caffeine during exercise in T2DM subjects.Methods: Pilot study, using Eight subjects with T2DM, aged 55±10 years, received CHO (1g/kg or caffeine (1.5 mg/kg alone or associated before exercise protocol. The exercise was executed at 40% heart rate (HR reserve for 40 min, with 10-min recovery. Blood pressure (BP and perceived exertion scale (Borg were checked every 2 min. Blood glucose (BG was checked every 10 min. For statistical analysis, ANOVA test was used and the value was considered statistically significant at p <0.05.Results: The results showed that BP and HR did not change significantly among all treatments. Caffeine promoted a significant reduction in BG of 75 mg/dL (65%, p <0.05 during 40 min of exercise protocol compared to all groups.Conclusion: Supplementation with 1.5 mg/kg of caffeine reduces BG concentration during prolonged exercise in T2DM patients.

  7. Multivariate regression and discreminant calibration models for a novel optical non-invasive blood glucose measurement method named pulse glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tamura, Toshiyo; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    A novel optical non-invasive in vivo blood glucose concentration (BGL) measurement technique, named "Pulse Glucometry", was combined with a kernel method; support vector machines. The total transmitted radiation intensity (I(lambda)) and the cardiac-related pulsatile changes superimposed on I(lambda) in human adult fingertips were measured over the wavelength range from 900 to 1700 nm using a very fast spectrophotometer, obtaining a differential optical density (DeltaOD(lambda)) related to the blood component in the finger tissues. Subsequently, a calibration model using paired data of a family of DeltaOD(lambda)s and the corresponding known BGLs was constructed with support vector machines (SVMs) regression instead of using calibration by a conventional primary component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Secondly, SVM method was applied to make a nonlinear discriminant calibration model for "Pulse glucometry." Our results show that the regression calibration model based on the support vector machines can provide a good regression for the 101 paired data, in which the BGLs ranged from 89.0-219 mg/dl (4.94-12.2 mmol/l). The resultant regression was evaluated by the Clarke error grid analysis and all data points fell within the clinically acceptable regions (region A: 93%, region B: 7%). The discriminant calibration model using SVMs also provided a good result for classification (accuracy rate 84% in the best case).

  8. Comparison of a human portable glucometer and an automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Larrat, Sylvain; Brown, Dorothy C

    2014-09-01

    This study compared blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucometer and a validated laboratory analyzer in venous blood samples of 20 pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Correlation and agreement were evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot method and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Blood glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer and the glucometer ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mmol/L and from 0.9 to 9.2 mmol/L, respectively. The glucometer had a poor agreement and correlation with the laboratory analyzer (bias, -0.13 mmol/L; level of agreement, -2.0 to 3.6 mmol/L, concordance correlation coefficient 0.665). The relative sensitivity and specificity of the portable blood glucometer for detection of hypoglycemia were 100% (95% CI: 66% to 100%) and 50% (95% CI: 20% to 80%), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 67% (95% CI: 39% to 87%) and 100% (95% CI: 46% to 100%), respectively. Based on these results, clinicians are advised to be cautious when considering the results from this handheld glucometer in pet ferrets, and blood glucose concentrations should be determined with a laboratory analyzer validated for this species.

  9. Thyroid hormone stimulated glucose uptake in human mononuclear blood cells from normal persons and from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1989-01-01

    Thyroxine and T3 induced oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were studied in vitro in mononuclear blood cells isolated from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and from non-diabetic control persons. Cellular oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were promptly increased...... of stimulation of cells from control subjects and patients with NIDDM revealed an identical oxygen consumption, whereas the thyroid hormone-induced glucose uptake was significantly increased in cells from patients with NIDDM. T4 (5 mumol/l) stimulation in controls: 1.34 +/- 0.23 mmol.l-1 (mg DNA)-1.h-1, in NIDDM......: 3.24 +/- 0.77 mmol.l-1.(mg DNA)-1.h-1, P less than 0.05 (mean +/- SD). These studies indicate that T4 as well as T3 increases cellular oxygen consumption and glucose uptake and that this stimulation is independent of new protein synthesis. Examination of cells from patients with NIDDM revealed...

  10. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L. Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes,α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L. extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose, a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL. The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL. Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053 on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model

  11. Noninvasive blood glucose sensing using near infra-red spectroscopy and artificial neural networks based on inverse delayed function model of neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasahayam, Swathi; Koppuravuri, Sri Haindavi; Arora, Lavanya; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a non-invasive blood glucose sensing system is presented using near infra-red(NIR) spectroscopy. The signal from the NIR optodes is processed using artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate the glucose level in blood. In order to obtain accurate values of the synaptic weights of the ANN, inverse delayed (ID) function model of neuron has been used. The ANN model has been implemented on field programmable gate array (FPGA). Error in estimating glucose levels using ANN based on ID function model of neuron implemented on FPGA, came out to be 1.02 mg/dl using 15 hidden neurons in the hidden layer as against 5.48 mg/dl using ANN based on conventional neuron model.

  12. Blood glucose control in healthy subject and patients receiving intravenous glucose infusion or total parenteral nutrition using glucagon-like peptide 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Walberg, Jörg; Vethacke, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition.......It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition....

  13. Glycogenolysis in astrocytes supports blood-borne glucose channeling not glycogen-derived lactate shuttling to neurons: evidence from mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

    2010-12-01

    In this article, we examined theoretically the role of human cerebral glycogen in buffering the metabolic requirement of a 360-second brain stimulation, expanding our previous modeling study of neurometabolic coupling. We found that glycogen synthesis and degradation affects the relative amount of glucose taken up by neurons versus astrocytes. Under conditions of 175:115 mmol/L (∼1.5:1) neuronal versus astrocytic activation-induced Na(+) influx ratio, ∼12% of astrocytic glycogen is mobilized. This results in the rapid increase of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate level on stimulation and nearly 40% mean decrease of glucose flow through hexokinase (HK) in astrocytes via product inhibition. The suppression of astrocytic glucose phosphorylation, in turn, favors the channeling of glucose from interstitium to nearby activated neurons, without a critical effect on the concurrent intercellular lactate trafficking. Under conditions of increased neuronal versus astrocytic activation-induced Na(+) influx ratio to 190:65 mmol/L (∼3:1), glycogen is not significantly degraded and blood glucose is primarily taken up by neurons. These results support a role for astrocytic glycogen in preserving extracellular glucose for neuronal utilization, rather than providing lactate to neurons as is commonly accepted by the current 'thinking paradigm'. This might be critical in subcellular domains during functional conditions associated with fast energetic demands.

  14. The effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Dastani, Mostafa; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Abnous, Khalil; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both or insulin resistance. Curcumin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of Nano-curcumin on HbA1C, fast blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy type-2 diabetic patients (fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hr postprandial blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl) randomly receivedeither Curcumin (as nano-micelle 80 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, and lipids profile were checked before and after the intervention. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were done using the SPSS 11.5 software. A p value cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL, HDL, HbA1c , and sex and had no significant difference at the baseline between the groups. In Nano-curcumin group, a significant decrease was found in HbA1C, FBG, TG, and BMI comparing results of each subject before and after the treatment (pcurcumin in type-2 diabetes; also, it is partially decrease in serum LDL-C and BMI. PMID:27761427

  15. Effects of blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control on the incidence and progression of retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J. W. J.; Patel, A.; Vingerling, J. R.; Cruickshank, J. K.; Hughes, A. D.; Stanton, A.; Lu, J.; Thom, S. A. McG; Grobbee, D. E.; Stolk, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control on the incidence and progression of retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. The Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) Reti

  16. The effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both or insulin resistance. Curcumin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of Nano-curcumin on HbA1C, fast blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy type-2 diabetic patients (fasting blood glucose (FBG ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hr postprandial blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl randomly receivedeither Curcumin (as nano-micelle 80 mg/day or placebo for 3 months in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, and lipids profile were checked before and after the intervention. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were done using the SPSS 11.5 software. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. (RCT registration code: IRCT2013081114330N1 Results: Mean age, BMI, FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, LDL, HDL, HbA1c , and  sex and had no significant difference at the baseline between the groups. In Nano-curcumin group, a significant decrease was found in HbA1C, FBG, TG, and BMI comparing results of each subject before and after the treatment (p

  17. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe

    2009-07-01

    Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 73.26-78.24% on consumption of the extracts, with greater effect exhibited by the 600 mg/kg extract. In normal rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 34.68-38.9% on consumption of the seed extract. Histological studies showed a degenerative effect on the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. The result suggested restorative (protective) effect of the extract on pancreatic islet cells. Administration of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed may contribute significantly to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  18. Fabrication of glucose biosensor for whole blood based on Au/hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles multilayers by antibiofouling and self-assembly technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Xiaohan; Han, Qiaorong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Min [Department of Vascular Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mao, Chun, E-mail: maochun127@yahoo.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Qinshu [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shen, Jian, E-mail: jshen@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-05-07

    Highlight: •A novel method for detection of glucose in whole blood has been developed. •The method based on antibiofouling and self-assembly technology was investigated. •The antibiofouling technique utilized for sensor is significant for diagnostics. -- Abstract: Acknowledging the benefits of hyperbranched polymers and their nanoparticles, herein we report the design and synthesis of sulfonic acid group functionalized hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyester (H30-SO{sub 3}H) nanoparticles and their biomedical application. The H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). The good hemocompatibility of H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles was also investigated by coagulation tests, complement activation and platelet activation. The novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the positively charged Au nanoparticles, H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles and glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It can be applied in whole blood directly, which was based on the good hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property of H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles. The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose with a wide linear range (0.2–20 mM), a low detection limit 1.2 × 10{sup −5} M in whole blood and good anti-interference property. The development of materials science will offer a novel platform for application to substance detection in whole blood.

  19. Cost-Utility Analysis of Intensive Blood Glucose Control with Metformin versus Usual Care in Overweight Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Beijing, P.R. China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xuanqian; Vondeling, Hindrik

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The UKPDS 34 and 51 showed that intensive blood glucose control with metformin is cost-saving and increases life expectancy in overweight type 2 diabetic patients in the United Kingdom. Diabetes is becoming an important health problem in urban China. This study addresses the effects and c

  20. Postprandial blood glucose latency after oatmeal is a valid screening test for diabetic gastropathy in type 1 diabetes, but not in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüngling, B; Schleiffer, T; Buttmann, A; Kraatz, K; Kress, S; Vogt, M; Windeler, J; Riemann, J F

    2001-04-01

    Disordered gastric motility occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying time is abnormal in about 50% of diabetic patients and delayed emptying time is known as an important cause for brittle diabetes in type 1 diabetes. We compared the rise in blood glucose after a standardized meal (oatmeal test) as a noninvasive screening test for diabetic gastropathy with the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying time with ultrasound in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The test result was considered pathological if the rise of blood glucose after an initial steady state did not reach 20 mg/dl in the first 20 min after the meal (prolonged blood glucose latency). We found a sensitivity of 90% (58.7-99.8) and a specificity of 100% (71.5-100) for the oatmeal test in type 1 diabetes in the gastropathy screening. In type 2 diabetes we found a sensitivity of 13% (1.5-38.3) and a specificity of 78% (60-90.7) (95% CI). In conclusion, the oatmeal test seemed to be a good, noninvasive screening test in diabetic gastropathy in type 1 diabetes, but has no diagnostic value in type 2 diabetes. The causes for such a difference may be due to a different postprandial blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes compared to the beta-cell-depleted type 1 diabetes.

  1. Random blood glucose may be used to assess long-term glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural African clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Rasmussen, Niclas S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one...

  2. Exendin-4 improves blood glucose control in both young and aging normal non-diabetic mice, possible contribution of beta cell independent effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Fan

    Full Text Available AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent in the elderly population. Glucagon like Peptide-1 mimetic such as exendin-4 augments post-prandial insulin secretion. However, the potential influence of aging on the therapeutic effects of this peptide has not been well studied. In this study, we examined the glucose regulatory effects of exendin-4 in mice with different ages. METHODS: We treated 3-month and 20 to 22-month old C57/DBA mice with 10 nM/kg exendin-4 for 10 days with measurements of blood glucose and body weight. We performed OGTT and ITT to evaluate the glucose response and insulin sensitivity. Islet morphology and beta cell mass were measured by immuno-staining and beta cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU incorporation and PCNA staining. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to measure protein changes in the liver tissue after exendin-4 treatment. RESULTS: Exendin-4 treatment improved glycemic control in both 3-month and 20 to 22-month old mice. In both groups of mice, the blood glucose lowering effect was independent of beta cell function as indicated by unchanged beta cell proliferation, insulin secretion or beta cell mass. Moreover, we found that exendin-4 treatment increased hepatic AKT and FOXO1 phosphorylation and inhibited glucose-6-phosphotase (G6P and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK expression in young mice, but this effect was attenuated in aging mice while the insulin sensitivity showed no change in the young group but significantly improved in aging mice. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, we conclude that the glucose lowering effect of exendin-4 in normal non-diabetic mice was not blunted by aging. We further showed that although there was slight difference in the glucose modulating mechanism of exendin-4 therapy in young and aged mice, the improved glucose control seemed uncorrelated with increased beta cell mass or insulin secretion.

  3. Effects of Hydromethanolic leaves extract of Indigofera pulchra on blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tanko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The effects of the hydromethanolic  extract of Indigofera pulchra on blood glucose levels of alloxan induced and normoglycemic Wistar rats has been investigated. Three doses of the extract (250mg/Kg, 500mg/Kg and 1000mg/Kg were administered intraperitoneally. The dose of 1000mg/Kg of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels of Alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats after 4, 8 and 24 hours of treatment. However, the doses of 500 mg/Kg of the extract did significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels of Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats at 4 and 24 hours while  the dose of 250 mg/Kg of the extract did significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels of Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats at 4, 8 and 24 hours. In normoglycemic rats, the dose of 1000mg/Kg of the extract significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels at 8 and 24 hours only. Also the dose of 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels at 24 hours while the dose of 250 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 in the blood glucose levels at 8 and 24 hours. The phytochemical screening revealed the presences of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and steroids. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 2,154.1 mg/kg bodyweight. In conclusion, the doses of the extract has shown both significant (p<0.05 hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in Wistar rats.   Industrial relevance: The search for more effective and hypoglycemic agents has continue to be an area of research interest, because of the less side effects and easily affordable  medicinal plants has, when compared to the synthetic drugs. Indigofera pulchra is a very virgin plant and promising base on these current findings. The phytochemical screening revealed the present of phenolic compounds, tannins steroids, saponins and alkaloids. Elucidation of those secondary metabolites would be more effective in the treatment of this illness.

  4. Performance of a Blood Glucose Monitoring System in a Point-of-Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottiger, Cornelia; Gygli, Nicole; Huber, Andreas R; Fernandez-Tresguerres, Beatriz; Pardo, Scott; Petruschke, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    This study assesses and demonstrates that CONTOUR® XT-BGMS (CXT-BGMS) complies with the requirements of the German (RiliBÄK) and Swiss (QUALAB) quality control guidelines for point-of-care testing (POCT) and fulfills the ISO15197:2013 accuracy limits criteria under the routine conditions of a hospital point-of care setting. This single-center study was conducted in Switzerland using 105 venous blood samples from hospitalized patients. Each sample was tested in comparison to the hexokinase reference method. Compliance with POCT guidelines was assessed by daily BGMS measurements using control solutions. Accuracy of CXT-BGMS according to ISO limits was 98.41%. All control measurements were within the limits defined by RiliBÄK (within ± 11% of target values and root mean square error [RMSE] within RMSE limits), and QUALAB (within ± 10% of target values).

  5. Performance of a Blood Glucose Monitoring System in a Point-of-Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottiger, Cornelia; Gygli, Nicole; Huber, Andreas R.; Fernandez-Tresguerres, Beatriz; Pardo, Scott; Petruschke, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses and demonstrates that CONTOUR® XT-BGMS (CXT-BGMS) complies with the requirements of the German (RiliBÄK) and Swiss (QUALAB) quality control guidelines for point-of-care testing (POCT) and fulfills the ISO15197:2013 accuracy limits criteria under the routine conditions of a hospital point-of care setting. This single-center study was conducted in Switzerland using 105 venous blood samples from hospitalized patients. Each sample was tested in comparison to the hexokinase reference method. Compliance with POCT guidelines was assessed by daily BGMS measurements using control solutions. Accuracy of CXT-BGMS according to ISO limits was 98.41%. All control measurements were within the limits defined by RiliBÄK (within ± 11% of target values and root mean square error [RMSE] within RMSE limits), and QUALAB (within ± 10% of target values). PMID:26989068

  6. Preoperative blood glucose and prognosis in diabetic patients undergoing lower extremity amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayak, Raj Kumar; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous work has shown that uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse surgical outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to establish if a high peri-operative random blood sugar (RBS) concentration among patients with diabetes with non-traumatic lower......: A total of 270 patients underwent non-traumatic LEA of whom 105 had diabetes, whereas 81 patients were included for this study. The mean age was 71 years (standard deviation: ± 11.8). Mortality was 27% and 16% were re-amputated within three months after their first amputation.The median pre-operative RBS.......50-7.22), with the Q1 tertile as the reference group. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not confirm that a high peri-operative RBS level can predict increased mortality or re-amputation among patients with diabetes who undergo non-traumatic LEA. Furthermore, based on our results, we cannot inform clinical decision...

  7. Effects of Impaired Glucose Metabolism on Heart Rate Variability and Blood Pessure Variability in Essential Hpertensive Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) on cardiovascular autonomic nervous systems in essential hypertensive (EH) patients by comparing heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in EH patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Simultaneous 24-h recordings of ambulatory ECG and blood pressure monitoring were performed in 36 male old patients with simple EH and 33 male old patients with EH combined with T2DM. HRV analysis included time domain parameters such as SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD and pNN50, and total spectral power (TP) of HRV, which mainly consists of VLF, LF and HF component along with LF/HF ratio, was also obtained. The value of ambulatory blood pressure was represented as the mean blood pressure (mean systolic/mSBP, diastolic/mDBP and pulse pressure/mPP)during different periods (24 h/24 h, day time/d and night time/n). Standard deviation (SD) as well as coefficient of variance (CV) of blood pressure during each above-mentioned period were obtained to reflect the long-term BPV. Our result showed that SDNN, SDNNi, SDANN, rMSSD, PNN50, TP and HF of HRV in cases of EH with T2DM were all significantly lower than those in simple EH subjects (P<0.05). No significant differences in VLF or LF was found between the two groups (P>0.05), while LF/HF ratio was significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.01).Moreover, dmSBP, 24 h-mPP and dmPP were all significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.05), while nmSBP, 24 h-mSBP, 24 h-mDBP, dmDBP, nmDBP or nmPP showed no significant difference between this two groups of patients (P>0.05). And dSBPSD,dSBPCV and 24 h-SBPSD were all significantly higher in EH with T2DM patients than in simple EH subjects (P<0.05), while the other BPV indexes showed no significant difference between this two groups (P>0.05). It is concluded that the cardiovascular autonomic nervous systems in EH patients

  8. Acceptability and user satisfaction of a smartphone-based, interactive blood glucose management system in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Jane E; Mackillop, Lucy; Loerup, Lise; Kevat, Dev A; Bartlett, Katy; Gibson, Oliver; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Levy, Jonathan C; Tarassenko, Lionel; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The increase in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is challenging maternity services. We have developed an interactive, smartphone-based, remote blood glucose (BG) monitoring system, GDm-health. The objective was to determine women's satisfaction with using the GDm-health system and their attitudes toward their diabetes care. In a service development program involving 52 pregnant women (September 2012 to June 2013), BG was monitored using GDm-health from diagnosis until delivery. Following birth, women completed a structured questionnaire assessing (1) general satisfaction, (2) equipment issues, and (3) relationship with the diabetes care team. Responses were scored on a 7-point Likert-type scale. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were assessed using statistical methods. Of 52 women, 49 completed the questionnaire; 32 had glucose tolerance test confirmed GDM (gestation at recruitment 29 ± 4 weeks (mean ± SD), and 17 women previous GDM recommended for BG monitoring (18 ± 6 weeks). In all, 45 of 49 women agreed their care was satisfactory and the best for them, 47 of 49 and 43 of 49 agreed the equipment was convenient and reliable respectively, 42 of 49 agreed GDm-health fitted into their lifestyle, and 46 of 49 agreed they had a good relationship with their care team. Written comments supported these findings, with very positive reactions from the majority of women. Cronbach's alpha was .89 with factor analysis corresponding with question thematic trends. This pilot demonstrates that GDm-health is acceptable and convenient for a large proportion of women. Effects on clinical and economic outcomes are currently under investigation in a randomized trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01916694).

  9. Blood Glucose-lowering Effect of T. procumbens L.: A Pilot Clinical Study in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gauri S; Desai, Shirish V; Gavaskar, Rajendra S; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Wu, Yonnie; Mathews, Suresh T

    2015-06-22

    Traditional knowledge, in vitro studies, and studies using animal models suggest that Tridax procumbens L. exhibits blood glucose-lowering properties and antiinflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the blood glucose-lowering effect of T. procumbens supplementation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. An extract (asava) of T. procumbens L. was prepared following Ayurveda guidelines. Chemical and microbial analyses indicated presence of phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids, and absence of microbial contamination, aflatoxins, heavy metals, and pesticide residues. A chemical fingerprint of T. procumbens L. asava, developed using Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography/electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS) in negative mode, suggest the presence of several compounds including polyphenols. T. procumbens asava demonstrated strong total antioxidant capacity, Fe(3+) reducing potential, Fe(2+) chelation, H2 O2 scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. We recruited 20 type 2 diabetic individuals from Kolhapur, India. Participants received 15 mL of T. procumbens asava, twice daily, for 4 weeks, while continuing their prescribed antidiabetic medications. Fasting blood glucose decreased by 11% in men (p < 0.01) and 20% in women (p < 0.05), and post-prandial blood glucose concentrations were lowered by 26% in men (p < 0.001) and 29% in women (p < 0.001) following 4 weeks of asava supplementation. No adverse events or side effects were reported. This is the first clinical study demonstrating a significant blood glucose-lowering effect of T. procumbens asava in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Noninvasive near-infrared blood glucose monitoring using a calibration model built by a numerical simulation method: Trial application to patients in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Katsuhiko; Oota, Tomohiro; Tsurugi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Takehiro; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Hayakawa, Mineji; Tamura, Mamoru; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yamada, Yukio

    2006-12-01

    We have applied a new methodology for noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring, proposed in our previous paper, to patients in ICU (intensive care unit), where strict controls of blood glucose levels are required. The new methodology can build calibration models essentially from numerical simulation, while the conventional methodology requires pre-experiments such as sugar tolerance tests, which are impossible to perform on ICU patients in most cases. The in vivo experiments in this study consisted of two stages, the first stage conducted on healthy subjects as preliminary experiments, and the second stage on ICU patients. The prediction performance of the first stage was obtained as a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.71 and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 28.7 mg/dL. Of the 323 total data, 71.5% were in the A zone, 28.5% were in the B zone, and none were in the C, D, and E zones for the Clarke error-grid analysis. The prediction performance of the second stage was obtained as an r of 0.97 and SEP of 27.2 mg/dL. Of the 304 total data, 80.3% were in the A zone, 19.7% were in the B zone, and none were in the C, D, and E zones. These prediction results suggest that the new methodology has the potential to realize a noninvasive blood glucose monitoring system using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in ICUs. Although the total performance of the present monitoring system has not yet reached a satisfactory level as a stand-alone system, it can be developed as a complementary system to the conventional one used in ICUs for routine blood glucose management, which checks the blood glucose levels of patients every few hours.

  11. Effect of intensive blood glucose control on quality of life in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiu; ZHANG Nan; HU Hong-lin; HE Yong; CHEN Ming-wei; WANG Xiu-yan; YANG Ming-gong; LI Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Intensive blood glucose control is proven to be associated with the diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications, which could affect quality of life (QOL). This study was performed to determine the effects of intensive glucose control therapy on QOL of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in Anhui Province.Methods Ninety-seven elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in Anhui were randomly assigned to standard treatment group and intensive therapy group. All patients were followed up for five years on average. Correlated information has been collected during the regular follow-up.Results Patients with microvascular complications reported significantly lower European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores and had more problems with usual activities, pain and anxiety than those without complications (P <0.05).Patients having experienced hypoglycemic episodes had significantly more problems with anxiety than those without hypoglycemic episodes (P <0.05). No significant difference was detected in all dimensions in quality of life, as well as in Visual Analog Scale score between two groups (P >0.05). There was no significant difference in quality of life at the fifth year compared with that of the first year in both groups. Women had more feelings of pain and anxiety than men (P <0.05)and longer disease course was associated with increased levels of pain and anxiety (P <0.05), as well as with lower QOL.In addition, patients with higher body mass index (BMI) had more problems with daily activities than patients with lower BMI (P <0.05).Conclusions Anxiety is common in elderly diabetic patients and they experienced frequent hypoglycemic episodes.Diabetic vascular complications significantly affect QOL of the patients. Intensive glucose control has no significant effect on QOL of the diabetic patients. Female, older age, long disease course, less education and high BMI are all factors caused reduced QOL and patients with these factors

  12. Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs, blood cortisol and glucose level with forced exercise in comparison with clonidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphine withdrawal usually results in undesired outcomes , despite partial benefits of alternative medication such as methadone, because of the lack of mental sedation during the withdrawal period, may not lead to the desired result. In this study, forced exercise by treadmill is used to manage morphine dependence in animal model. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 6 days (20-45 mg/kg, SC. Afterwards, the animals were treated for 21 days by either of the following protocol: Positive control (dependent received once daily 45 mg/kg of morphine sulfate (SC for 21 day, group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC for 21 day group under treatment by forced exercise by treadmill for 21 day, group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC and forced exercise by treadmill for 21day and the negative control group(independent received saline injection like other groups. Each of this administration was injected at 8 AM. Finally, in the test day (day 28, all animals received a single dose of naloxone (3 mg/kg, SC at 8 AM and then were observed for withdrawal signs, and Total Withdrawal Score (TWS was determined as described previously. After withdrawal sign evaluation for evaluation of stress level of dependent mice, blood cortisol and glucose level were measured in non-fasting situations well. Results: This study showed that TWS significantly decreased in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P < 0.001. Moreover, blood cortisol and glucose level significantly decreased in group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg and group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise by treadmill groups in comparison with control positive (dependent (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in dependent people

  13. The Effect of Probiotic Yogurt on Blood Glucose and cardiovascular Biomarkers in Patients with Type II Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Mahin Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the high prevalence of type II diabetes and its complications, the evidence regarding the beneficial effects of probiotic yogurt on some cardiovascular biomarkers in diabetic patients is worthy of investigation. Aim: To investigate the effect of probiotic yogurt on blood glucose level and cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with type II diabetes. Method:This randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients with type II diabetes who visited the 5 Azar diabetes clinic in Gorgan, Iran, in 2014. The intervention group consumed three 100 g packages of probiotic yogurt per day for four weeks, while the control group used an equal amount of plain yogurt. Dietary intake, as well as anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the trial. To analyze the data, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance were performed, using SPSS version 18. Results: The mean ages of the intervention and control groups were 50.49±10.92 and 50.13±9.20 years, respectively. In the intervention group, paired t-test showed significant differences between mean levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, and glycated hemoglobin before and after four weeks of daily intake of probiotic yogurt (P0.05. At the end of trial, the independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean levels of blood glucose, LDL, triglycerides, blood pressure, and glycated hemoglobin (P

  14. Blood glucose level and other biochemical changes induced in normal mice by oral Traditional Chinese Medicine complex for diabetes (TCM-D™

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    Donald Koh Fook Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of Traditional ChineseMedicine (TCM preparations are being used for thetreatment of diabetes mellitus. Some componentsof these preparations have biochemical effects otherthan those of lowering blood glucose and indeed havebeen used for other medical indications in traditionalpractice. The primary objective of the study was todetermine the effect of the oral mixture of TraditionalChinese Medicine for diabetes (TCM-D™ complex onblood glucose level and the biochemical changes if any,on the liver (ALT, AST, gamma-GT, albumin, globulinand renal (blood creatinine, urea functions in normalmice. The oral mixture is an aqueous extract of four wellknowntraditional Chinese medicinal herbs and consistsof Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., Paeonia lactiflora Pall.,Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch., and Panax ginseng (redCA Meyer in the proportion of 36%, 28%, 18%, and18% respectively of the dry weight. These herbs havebeen shown to have blood glucose lowering activity andhave been used for other traditional medicinal purposes.The safety of the combination was evaluated in thepresent study.Methods: Experimental Balb/c mice were treated orallyvia gastric tube with the extract at daily doses equivalentto 1 and 10 times the recommended human dose for8 weeks. Blood glucose and other biochemical profileswere monitored at pre-treatment and monthly posttreatmentuntil killed.Results: When compared to pre-treatment levels, theblood glucose levels were significantly lower in treatedanimals compared to those in the control group. Atthe recommended TCM-D™ dose the levels in treatedanimals were significantly lower than that of controlanimals and at pre-treatment. When compared withpre-treatment, the glucose levels were lowest at Week8 of treatment, the mean levels being 111.23%, 83.32%and 70.33% in control, and in animals given 1 x and10 x the recommended TCM-D™ dosage respectively.The blood glucose lowering effect was also associatedwith a significant

  15. Sustained high plasma mannose less sensitive to fluctuating blood glucose in glycogen storage disease type Ia children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Yorifuji, Tohru; Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Takatani, Tomozumi; Asano, Hisaki; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Mayuko; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Inui, Ayano; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Komatsu, Haruki; Hiejima, Eitaro; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Miida, Takashi; Ohtake, Akira; Taguchi, Tadao; Miwa, Ichitomo

    2013-01-01

    Plasma mannose is suggested to be largely generated from liver glycogen-oriented glucose-6-phosphate. This study examined plasma mannose in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) lacking conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the liver. We initially examined fasting-and postprandial 2 h-

  16. At the centennial of Michaelis and Menten, competing Michaelis-Menten steps explain effect of GLP-1 on blood-brain transfer and metabolism of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejl, Michael; Rungby, Jørgen; Brock, Birgitte; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-08-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic incretin hormone with both pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects. Studies of GLP-1 reveal significant effects in regions of brain tissue that regulate appetite and satiety. GLP-1 mimetics are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 interacts with peripheral functions in which the autonomic nervous system plays an important role, and emerging pre-clinical findings indicate a potential neuroprotective role of the peptide, for example in models of stroke and in neurodegenerative disorders. A century ago, Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten described the steady-state enzyme kinetics that still apply to the multiple receptors, transporters and enzymes that define the biochemical reactions of the brain, including the glucose-dependent impact of GLP-1 on blood-brain glucose transfer and metabolism. This MiniReview examines the potential of GLP-1 as a molecule of interest for the understanding of brain energy metabolism and with reference to the impact on brain metabolism related to appetite and satiety regulation, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. These effects can be understood only by reference to the original formulation of the Michaelis-Menten equation as applied to a chain of kinetically controlled steps. Indeed, the effects of GLP-1 receptor activation on blood-brain glucose transfer and brain metabolism of glucose depend on the glucose concentration and relative affinities of the steps both in vitro and in vivo, as in the pancreas.

  17. Effects of Intragastric Balloon on Body Mass Index, Lipid Profile and Blood Glucose Regulation: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Erdem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity remains an increasing public health and socioeconomic problem. Life style changes including healthy diet and physical activity are the first-line therapy for successful weight loss. The intragastric balloon has been considered as an effective and reversible, non-sur­gical method for weight loss. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Intragastric balloon on weight loss, lipid profiles and blood glucose regulation in obese patients Methods: 75 consecutive Intragastric balloon patients (55 Female, 20 Male with a mean age of 35.2±9.6 years were included in this study. The study was conducted prospectively and an air-filled intragastric balloon was introduced in ambulatory settings. In this study, patients’ pre-intervention body mass index, peripheral blood pa­rameters such as HbA1c, lipid profiles were recorded and compared with post-intervention values. Results: The median intervention time for intragastric balloon application was 13 min (8-19. After follow-up period of median 186 days (180-211, BMI was reduced significantly, 41.6±6.7 vs. 34.9±6.4 kg/m2 (p0.05. On the other hand, only pre and post-intervention HbA1c level was to be statistically significant (p=0.001 Conclusion: There was significant change in BMI and HbA1c level with the intervention of intragastric balloon after follow-up period. For long-term benefit of balloon, further studies are needed.

  18. The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Anita Mofidi; Parsons, Patricia M; Duncan, Alison M; Robinson, Lindsay E; Yada, Rickey Y; Graham, Terry E

    2009-02-01

    Structural characteristics and baking conditions influence the metabolic responses to carbohydrate-containing foods. We hypothesized that consumption of whole wheat or sourdough breads would have a favourable effect on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis after first and second meals, compared with those for white bread. Ten overweight volunteers consumed 50 g available carbohydrate of each of the four breads (white, whole wheat, sourdough, whole wheat barley) followed 3 h later by a standard second meal. Blood was sampled for 3 h following bread ingestion and a further 2 h after the second meal for determination of glucose, insulin, paracetamol (indirect marker of gastric emptying), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose and GLP-1 responses to sourdough bread were lower (P breads. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) for sourdough bread was lower than those for whole wheat (P breads for the entire study. GIP AUC after sourdough bread ingestion was lower compared to white (P breads following the second meal. There were no significant differences in insulin and paracetamol concentrations among the test breads. Ultra-fine grind whole wheat breads did not result in postprandial responses that were lower than those of white bread, but sourdough bread resulted in lower glucose and GLP-1 responses compared to those of these whole wheat breads following both meals.

  19. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  20. Investment Choice and Perceived Mating Intentions Regulated by External Resource Cues and Internal Fluctuation in Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin eRao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined resource allocation priorities in the framework of an updated Maslow hierarchy of fundamental human needs. In Experiment 1, the participants in the food abundance priming condition viewing photos of high-calorie food allocated more money to savings than to spending. However, the participants preferred spending to savings under the condition of mating availability priming with romantic photographs. In Experiment 2, before and after drinking either water or a sugary beverage, fasting participants rated photos of a conversation between a man and a woman. Water drinking lowered the rating scores of mating intentions as well as blood glucose (BG levels. The sugary drink buffered this decline in sexual perceptivity. Overall, the change in BG levels was positively associated with changes in the ratings of mating intentions but was not associated with other likelihood ratings. These results suggest that both external cues of food and mating resources and internal BG fluctuation regulate the cognitive priority of physiological needs versus mate acquisition and retention.

  1. Quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake: Normalise to blood glucose or scale to liver uptake?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A.M. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    To compare normalisation to blood glucose (BG) with scaling to hepatic uptake for quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake using the brain as a surrogate for tumours. Standardised uptake value (SUV) was measured over the liver, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex in 304 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The relationship between brain FDG clearance and SUV was theoretically defined. Brain SUV decreased exponentially with BG, with similar constants between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex (0.099-0.119 mmol/l{sup -1}) and similar to values for tumours estimated from the literature. Liver SUV, however, correlated positively with BG. Brain-to-liver SUV ratio therefore showed an inverse correlation with BG, well-fitted with a hyperbolic function (R = 0.83), as theoretically predicted. Brain SUV normalised to BG (nSUV) displayed a nonlinear correlation with BG (R = 0.55); however, as theoretically predicted, brain nSUV/liver SUV showed almost no correlation with BG. Correction of brain SUV using BG raised to an exponential power of 0.099 mmol/l{sup -1} also eliminated the correlation between brain SUV and BG. Brain SUV continues to correlate with BG after normalisation to BG. Likewise, liver SUV is unsuitable as a reference for tumour FDG uptake. Brain SUV divided by liver SUV, however, shows minimal dependence on BG. (orig.)

  2. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  3. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss ...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise.......AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss...... on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight...

  4. Self monitoring of blood glucose - a survey of diabetes UK members with type 2 diabetes who use SMBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Amanda J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim - to survey members of Diabetes UK who had Type 2 diabetes and who used self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG, to elicit their views on its usefulness in the management of their diabetes, and how they used the results. A questionnaire was developed for the Diabetes UK website. The questionnaire was posted on the Diabetes UK website until over 500 people had responded. Questions asked users to specify the benefits gained from SMBG, and how these benefits were achieved. We carried out both quantitative analysis and a thematic analysis for the open ended free-text questions. Findings 554 participants completed the survey, of whom 289 (52.2% were male. 20% of respondents were recently diagnosed ( 80% of respondents reported high satisfaction with SMBG, and reported feeling more 'in control' of their diabetes management using it. The most frequently reported use of SMBG was to make adjustments to food intake or confirm a hyperglycaemic episode. Women were significantly more likely to report feelings of guilt or self-chastisement associated with out of range readings (p = Conclusion SMBG was clearly of benefit to this group of confirmed users, who used the results to adjust diet, physical activity or medications. However many individuals (particularly women reported feelings of anxiety and depression associated with its use.

  5. Blood Glucose Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks Trained with the AIDA Diabetes Simulator: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major, and increasing, global problem. However, it has been shown that, through good management of blood glucose levels (BGLs, the associated and costly complications can be reduced significantly. In this pilot study, Elman recurrent artificial neural networks (ANNs were used to make BGL predictions based on a history of BGLs, meal intake, and insulin injections. Twenty-eight datasets (from a single case scenario were compiled from the freeware mathematical diabetes simulator, AIDA. It was found that the most accurate predictions were made during the nocturnal period of the 24 hour daily cycle. The accuracy of the nocturnal predictions was measured as the root mean square error over five test days (RMSE5 day not used during ANN training. For BGL predictions of up to 1 hour a RMSE5 day of (±SD 0.15±0.04 mmol/L was observed. For BGL predictions up to 10 hours, a RMSE5  day of (±SD 0.14±0.16 mmol/L was observed. Future research will investigate a wider range of AIDA case scenarios, real-patient data, and data relating to other factors influencing BGLs. ANN paradigms based on real-time recurrent learning will also be explored to accommodate dynamic physiology in diabetes.

  6. [Sulfonylureas in today's blood glucose lowering therapy. New data on advantages and potential barriers of an "old" antidiabetic group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gábor

    2015-03-29

    Sulfonylurea compounds have been basic elements of antidiabetic treatment in type 2 diabetes for a long time. However, with the introduction of incretin type insulin secretagogues it is often arises, whether is still there a place for sulfonylureas in the today's therapy. To answer this question the author overviews general pharmaceutical characteristics of the sulfonylurea compounds as well as individual particularities of the second generation derivatives used at present in Hungary. The author details also the most important differences between incretin type drugs - first of all dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors - and sulfonylureas. On the basis of available data it can be concluded in accordance with the latest international guidelines, that sulfonylureas have still role in the blood glucose lowering therapy of type 2 diabetes, though they became somewhat pushed back among insulin secretagogue type drugs. If a sulfonylurea compound is the drug of choice, it is important to select the appropriate molecule (in case of normal renal function gliclazide or glimepiride). It is also important to re-educate the patient, as well as to apply the minimal dose providing the desired glycaemic effect.

  7. Effect of clonidine on blood glucose levels in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its interaction with glibenclamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Clonidine, a known antihypertensive, is currently used for many purposes including diabetic gastroparesis, postmenopausal hot flushes, opioid/nicotine/alcohol withdrawal. Its effects on carbohydrate metabolism appear to be variable. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of clonidine on euglycemic and alloxan -induced diabetic rats and its interaction with glibenclamide. Materials and Methods : Alloxan - induced (150 mg/kg, i.p diabetic rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group I - Normal Control; Group II - Nondiabetic + Clonidine (25 μg/kg; Group III - Diabetic Control; Group IV - Diabetic + Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg; Group V - Diabetic + Glibenclamide + Clonidine. All drugs were given orally once daily. Blood glucose was estimated from rat tail vein using glucometer before start of the experiment and at the end of 30 days. Results : After 30 days of treatment, clonidine (25 mg/kg produced significant hyperglycemia in both euglycemic and diabetic rats. It also reduced the hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide in diabetic rats. Conclusion : The results of present study indicate that clonidine has hyperglycemic effect and it also interacts with glibenclamide to reduce its hypoglycemic activity. If these findings are true to human beings then clonidine should not be used in diabetic patients on sulfonylureas.

  8. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  9. Analysis on blood glucose metabolic disorders in critically ill neonates%危重新生儿血糖代谢紊乱相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳秋; 赵军

    2012-01-01

    目的:对危重新生儿血糖代谢紊乱的相关因素进行调查分析,为临床治疗提供参考依据.方法:分析2007年6月~2011年6月168例危重新生儿血糖代谢紊乱的形成原因.结果:168例血糖代谢紊乱患者中,低血糖症者97例,高血糖症者42例,二者兼有者29例.血糖代谢紊乱与胎龄和出生体重呈负相关,而且在轻度窒息的情形下低血糖症状较多,重度窒息的情况下高血糖症状较多.结论:对危重新生儿血糖代谢紊乱相关因素的分析,可以及时发现和治疗病症,减少患儿日后的痛苦.%Objective; To investigate and analyze the related factors of blood glucose metabolic disorders in critically ill neonates, provide reference for clinical treatment. Methods; The causes of blood glucose metabolic disorders in 168 critically ill neonates who were treated in the hospital from June 2007 to June 2011 were analyzed. Results; Among 168 neonates with blood glucose metabolic disorders, 97 neonates were found with hypoglycemia, 42 neonates were found with hyperglycemia, and 29 neonates were found with both of the above -mentioned diseases. There was a negative correlation between blood glucose metabolic disorders and birth weight, hypoglycemia was commonly found under the circumstance of mild asphyxia, and hyperglycemia was commonly found under the circumstance of severe asphyxia. Conclusion; Blood glucose metabolic disorders can be diagnosed and cured timely through analyzing the related factors of blood glucose metabolic disorders in critically ill neonates to reduce future pains of the neonates.

  10. Evaluation of a combined blood glucose monitoring and gaming system (Didget®) for motivation in children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Aisenberg, Javier; Kaufman, Francine; Halvorson, Mary; Cruz, Eric; Riordan, Mary Ellen; Varma, Chandrasekhar; Pardo, Scott; Viggiani, Maria T; Wallace, Jane F; Schachner, Holly C; Bailey, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance and acceptability of a blood glucose meter coupled with a gaming system for children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. During an in-clinic visit, duplicate blood samples were tested by subjects (N = 147; aged 5-24 yr) and health care providers (HCPs) to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the Didget® system. Subjects' meter results were compared against Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) reference results and HCP results using least squares regression and error grid analyses. Precision was measured by average within-subject and within-HCP coefficient of variation (CV). During the home-use component of this study, subjects (n = 58) tested their blood glucose at least two to three times daily for 3-5 d to evaluate routine use of the system. Subjects' meter results showed significant correlations with both YSI (r(2) = 0.94; p motivating, and helpful for building good blood glucose monitoring habits. Most HCPs agreed that the system fulfilled a need in diabetes management. In conclusion, the Didget® system was precise and clinically accurate in the hands of children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  11. 氯氮平与维思通对精神分裂患者血糖影响的比较%Different effects of clozapine and risperidone on levels of blood glucose in patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹栋; 谢世平

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the different effects of clozapine and risperidone on levels of blood glucose in patients with schizophrenia. Method 200 qualified cases selected from psychiatric department were divided into two groups randomly, of which 100 cases accepted the treatment with clozapine and the other 100 cases with risperidone. Blood glucose tests were used before treatment ,4 weeks after treatment and 8 weeks after treatment Results There was significantly higher blood glucose level in clozapine- treated group than in risperidone- treated group after 4 or 8 weeks treatment. The number of cases who had elevated blood glucose level (>6.1 mmol/L) in clozapine- treated group was significantly more than in risperidone- treated group. Conclusion The glucoregulatory abnormality which leads to glucose elevation in clozapine- treated patients is greater than in risperidone- treated patients. Additional motivation to clinical monitor for antipsychotic treatment- related hyperglycemia is indicated.

  12. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  13. Increased nuclear tri-iodothyronine binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated glucose consumption in mononuclear blood cells from patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) maximal binding capacity (MBC) and thyroxine- and T3-stimulated cellular oxygen consumption and glucose consumption were examined in mononuclear blood cells from six patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), in six patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and in six healthy...... control subjects. Serum T3 was decreased in patients with LC. The MBC of T3 was increased significantly (P less than 0.05) in cells from patients with LC compared with patients with AH and controls, whereas the equilibrium association constants did not differ. Unstimulated glucose consumption was slightly...... increased (P less than 0.05) in cells from patients with AH and LC compared with controls. Thyroid hormone-stimulated glucose consumption was significantly (P less than 0.05) increased in cells from patients with LC compared with controls and patients with AH. Unstimulated oxygen consumption did not differ...

  14. Blood glucose and insulin levels, thyroid function, and serology in Ménière's disease, recurrent vestibulopathy, and psychogenic vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, D A; Barber, H O; Hope-Gill, H F

    1979-08-01

    Nineteen patients with unilateral Ménière's disease, 20 with psychogenic dizziness, and 20 with recurrent vestibulopathy (diagnostic criteria in text of paper) were found to have normal five hour glucose tolerance tests, serum thyroxine and effective thyroid indices, and serologic tests for syphilis. Hypothyroidism and hypoglycemia were absent in all groups. An unexplained finding of each diagnostic group was significant increase of fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and elevated insulin:glucose ratios, compared to a control group. There appears to be no diagnostic indication for performing these chemical and serologic studies in patients with unilateral Ménière's disease, psychogenic vertigo, or recurrent vestibulopathy. Reasons are given to support the view that recurrent vestibulopathy may be a specific vestibular disturbance.

  15. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  16. Direct measurements of blood glucose concentration in the presence of saccharide interferences using slope and bias orthogonal signal correction and Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookasis, David; Workman, Jerome J

    2011-02-01

    Saccharide interferences such as Dextran, Galactose, etc. have a great potential to interfere with near infrared (NIR) glucose analysis since they have a similar spectroscopic fingerprint and are present physiologically at large relative concentrations. These can lead to grossly inappropriate interpretation of patient glucose levels and resultant treatment in critical care and hospital settings. This study describes a methodology to reduce this effect on glucose analysis using an NIR Fourier transform spectroscopy method combined with a multivariate calibration technique (PLS) using preprocessing by orthogonal signal correction (OSC). A mathematical approach based on the use of a single calibration based bias and slope correction was applied in addition to a standard OSC was investigated. This approach is combined with a factorial interferent calibration design to accommodate for interference effects. We named this approach as a slope and bias OSC (sbOSC). sbOSC differs from OSC in the way it handles the prediction. In sbOSC, statistics on slope and bias obtained from a set of calibration samples are then used as a validation parameter in the prediction set. Healthy human volunteer blood with different glucose (80 to 200 mg/dL) and hematocrit (24 to 48 vol.%) levels containing high expected levels of inteferents have been measured with a transmittance near-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operates in the broadband spectral range of 1.25-2.5 μm (4000-8000 cm(-1)). The effect of six interferents compounds used in intensive care and operating rooms, namely Dextran, Fructose, Galactose, Maltose, Mannitol, and Xylose, were tested on blood glucose. A maximum interference effect (MIE) parameter was used to rank the significance for the individual interferent type on measurement error relative to the total NIR whole blood glucose measurement error. For comparison, a YSI (Yellow Springs Instrument) laboratory reference glucose analyzer and NIR data were collected at

  17. Comparative performance of lab tests and blood testing device to monitor glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Zubioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of lab tests (LT and blood testing devices (BTD to monitor glycemia vs. glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1c were compared. In addition, the performance of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol measured by LT and BDT were compared. All parameters were measured based on the same blood samples from overnight fasted type 2 diabetic patients (T2DP. Linear regression analysis was used for all comparisons. The results showed that A1c correlated better with LT-glucose (r = 0.58 than BTD-glucose (r = 0.42. Moreover, LT vs. BTD showed r values of 0.90, 0.82 and 0.92 for glucose, TC and triacylglycerol, respectively. It was concluded that the performance of LT-glucose was better than BDT-glucose. Moreover, since triacylycerol and TC measured by BTD correlated better with LT compared to BDT-glucose vs. LT-glucose, the inclusion of BTD-TC and BTD-triacylglycerol for detecting and monitoring hyperlipidemia in T2DP should be considered.Comparou-se a performance de avaliação da glicemia através de dosagens laboratoriais (DL ou dispositivo para teste de sangue capilar (DTSC vs. hemoglobina glicada A1c (A1c. Comparou-se ainda a performance de avaliação da glicemia, colesterol total (CT e triacilglicerol (DL vs. DTSC. Avaliou-se estes parametros a partir das mesmas amostras de sangue coletadas em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 (PDT2 em jejum noturno, sendo as comparações realizadas através de análise de regressão linear. A A1c correlacionou-se melhor com a glicemia-DL (r = 0,58 em relação a glicemia-DTSC (r = 0,42. Comparou-se DL vs. DTSC obtendo se r = 0,90, 0,82 e 0,92 para glicemia, CT e triacilglicerol, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que houve melhor performance da glicose-DL em relação a glicose-DTSC. Além disso, considerando que o triacilglicerol e TC avaliado através de DTSC correlaciona-se melhor com DL em comparação a DTSC-glicose vs. DL-glicose, a inclusão de DTSC-TC e DTSC-triacilglicerol visando detectar e

  18. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K. [Nutrition Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Zulkeffeli, M. J. [Department of Health Service, Ministry of Defense, Level 11, Menara Park, 50450 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  19. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats

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    Charlene eDiepenbroek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of one hour. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients.

  20. PENGARUH KONSUMSI KAPPA-KARAGENAN TERHADAP GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR (Ratus norvegicus DIABETES [The Effect of Kappa-Carrageenan Consumption on Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Wistar Rat (Ratus norwegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kappa-carrageenan consumption on blood glucose level were studied on diabetic male wistar rat (Ratus norvegicus.The rats were made diabetic by aloxan injection, and then were given that a ration contains 5, 10, 15, 20% (w/w kappa-carrageenan, standard ration (negative control, and parental glibenklamid (positive control. The results showed that the standard ration could not reduce blood glucose from hyperglycemic to normal level, while the ration contained kappacarrageenan could. The higher kappa-carrageenan seaweed level in the ration has higher capacity to decrease blood glucose level. The ration containing 20% and 15% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose in 18 and 21 days, respectively.The effect of this ration was similar to that of glibenklamid which reduced blood glucose to normal level in 18 days. The ration containing 5 and 10% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose level; Blood glucose leve return to normal on the 21st day.