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Sample records for blood glucose

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... Type 2 Diabetes program to get help and support during your first year. Featured Book Type 2 ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  6. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  7. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Glucose What's ... español Análisis de sangre: glucosa What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ... cannot release all the ketones and they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ... the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the ... Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your ...

  7. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...... fluoride (NaF) in combination with potassium oxalate (KOx) are currently used for overcoming this drawback, their efficacy for stabilizing blood glucose is seemingly limited, and probably lower than that of newer additives such as the citrate buffer. Therefore, we performed a critical analysis...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance Update The Health Insurance ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You ... m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Honorees How We Fund Research Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... such as family conflicts or school or dating problems. You may have experienced the dawn phenomenon (a ... high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know ... We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific ... for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes in your diet ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  12. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of ... enough insulin. Without insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ... insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  18. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  19. All about Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need a change in your meal plan,physical activity,or diabetes medicines.Keep track of when you’ve had ... glucose events.Note possible causes,such as unplanned physical activity.Then talk it over with your ... Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ... to the Association. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble. ...

  1. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on t...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ... blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness ...

  4. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... follow the instructions for operating your meter. your hematocrit (the amount of red blood cells in the ... health care provider can tell you if your hematocrit is low or high, and can discuss with ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  6. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-12-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Shreesh Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  9. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  10. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...... by the authors at the workshop but were written afterward which allowed to include the findings and conclusions of the various discussions and of course updates. The chapter "Alternative Frameworks for Personalized Insulin-Glucose Models" by Harald Kirchsteiger et al. asks the question whether more and more...... that focus not on the prediction of exact future blood glucose values, but rather on the prediction of changes in the patients’ blood glucose range. The chapter “Accuracy of BG Meters and CGM Systems: Possible Influence Factors for the Glucose Prediction Based on Tissue Glucose Concentrations” by Guido...

  11. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  12. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two......-day workshop on the design, use and evaluation of prediction methods for blood glucose concentration was held at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria. One intention of the workshop was to bring together experts working in various fields on the same topic, in order to shed light from different angles...... Freckmann et al. discusses performance metrics used to characterize the accuracy of continuous glucose measurement devices. This topic is highly relevant for prediction models since many of them rely on the data given by the continuous sensors which are previously calibrated with blood glucose meter...

  13. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “Recent Results on Glucose–Insulin Predictions by Means of a State Observer for Time-Delay Systems” by Pasquale Palumbo et al. introduces a prediction model which in real time predicts the insulin concentration in blood which in turn is used in a control system. The method is tested in simulation......Standard diabetes insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes and late stages of type 2 is based on the expected development of blood glucose (BG) both as a consequence of the metabolic glucose consumption as well as of meals and exogenous insulin intake. Traditionally, this is not done explicitly......, but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...

  14. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...... by the hydrogen breath technique, was decreased by WB and BF, (p less than 0.05) but not by PF. PF is palatable and may prove beneficial as a fiber supplement for diabetics....

  15. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    Diabetes Study Group 33). Even though the achievement and maintenance of blood glucose concentrations as near normal as possible are major targets of modern diabetic care (UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, 1988), this increases the frequency of hypoglycaemia (Amiel 1998). Hypoglycaemia, the most common ...

  16. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  17. Screening of gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary finger blood glucose in the diagnosis of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka S Waghmare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at obtaining glucose readings using gingival crevicular blood (GCB to screen for undiagnosed diabetes during routine dental visits. Materials and Methods: The present study included 50 patients who were divided into two groups, i.e. Group A and Group B, based on bleeding on probing at the site of collection of GCB. Group A participants had blood collected from sites having adequate bleeding on probing, whereas Group B participants had blood collected from sites with little bleeding on probing. GCB and capillary finger-stick blood (CFB] glucose readings were obtained using a self-monitoring glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between both the samples were done using Pearson′s correlation. Results: Group A patients′ correlations between GCB and CFB glucose readings were high, whereas in Group B patients, correlations between glucose readings were low. Conclusion: GCB can be an excellent source for screening diabetes during routine dental visits.

  18. Blood glucose control and monitoring in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with blood glucose control and blood glucose monitoring in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: two important aspects of care for and monitoring of critically ill patients. While the precise targets of blood glucose control in ICU patients remain a matter of debate, currently many,

  19. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  20. Body fat content, distribution and blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 50% of subject who had greater body fat content and waist hip ratio had impaired fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerant. Body fat content within the body has significance effects on blood glucose concentration. Consequently, there is a need of increasing awareness about healthy food consumption ...

  1. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  2. Accuracy of handheld blood glucose meters at high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter de Mol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking, reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6.5 mmol/L and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L. No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. CONCLUSION: At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy.

  3. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  4. Evaluation of blood glucose fluctuation in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus by self-monitoring of blood glucose and continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Nakae, Rie; Watanabe, Kahori; Akagami, Takafumi; Ochi, Fumihiro; Tokuda, Masaru; Murai, Kazuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of blood glucose fluctuation is essential for managing blood glucose control while avoiding hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study, blood glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) whom self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was carried out three or more times per day, and evaluation was performed using blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by CGM and SMBG. Twenty-nine insulin-depleted patients with T1DM were enrolled. Their blood glucose fluctuations were measured at the same time by SMBG and CGM, and the correlations were evaluated. Correlations were found between the following values obtained by SMBG and CGM: mean and standard deviation of blood glucose levels, average daily risk range, Morbus value and high-blood-glucose index. The hypoglycemia duration and the nocturnal hypoglycemia duration showed no correlation with any of the blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by SMBG. The findings suggest that routine SMBG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement are sufficient for evaluation of hyperglycemia in T1DM. On the other hand, blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by SMBG and HbA1c have been shown to have no correlations with either hypoglycemia duration or nocturnal hypoglycemia duration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deciding between using the first or second drop of blood for the self monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-12-01

    To explore whether the first or the second drop of blood is more suitable for the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). SMBG was employed in hospitalized patients using the first and second drop of blood. Venous blood glucose was measured meanwhile. The differences in blood glucose measurements were then compared in groups with different regions of blood glucose levels. There were 802 groups of blood glucose in 526 patients. There was no significant difference in the blood glucose levels of the first and second drop of blood and venous blood. However, after combining then dividing measurements into six groups according to blood glucose concentration, we found statistically significant differences between the blood glucose levels obtained from the first drop, second drop, and venous blood in the groups containing blood glucose values blood can be used for performing SMBG to assess real-time venous glucose. By categorizing blood glucose into different levels more accurately, we observed that there was no significant difference between the first or second drop of blood and the venous blood glucose value when blood glucose levels were maintained between 10 and 20 mmol/L. When blood glucose levels were below 10 mmol/L, the value obtained from first drop of blood was close to that from venous blood, whereas when the blood glucose level is >20 mmol/L, the blood glucose value from the second drop of blood was more accurate. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  7. Self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements and glycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intensive diabetes management requires intensive insulin treatment and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurements to obtain immediate information on the status of the blood glucose level and to obtain data for pattern analysis on which meal planning, insulin and lifestyle adjustments can be ...

  8. Blood Glucose Lowering Activities Of Seed Of Persea Americana On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The n-hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Persea americana seeds obtained by cold maceration were assessed for blood glucose lowering activity using two doses of alloxan. The different extracts caused significant blood glucose lowering effect than the glibenclamide in the single dose alloxanized rats but in the ...

  9. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... systems B and C in the Kampala environ. Conclusion: Some of the blood glucose monitoring systems in Kampala, Uganda are poor performers and may lead to the mismanagement of patients. There is need for a system to ensure national quality control of blood glucose monitoring systems. African Health Sciences 2003; ...

  10. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Fasting Blood Glucose Levels in Different Haemoglobin Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the different Hb genotypes (HBAA, HBAS, HBSC and HBSS) the following mean fasting blood glucose levels were obtained respectively: 71.9±8.Omg/dl 73.4±7.4mgldl, 94.7±6.Imgldl and 94.6±5.9mgldl. There was a significant difference between the mean fasting blood glucose concentrations of blood groups O,A,B and ...

  12. [Intelligent interpretation of home monitoring blood glucose data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dió, Mihály; Deutsch, Tibor; Biczók, Tímea; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-07-19

    Self monitoring of blood glucose is the cornerstone of diabetes management. However, the data obtained by self monitoring of blood glucose have rarely been used with the highest advantage. Few physicians routinely download data from memory-equipped glucose meters and analyse these data systematically at the time of patient visits. There is a need for improved methods for the display and analysis of blood glucose data along with a modular approach for identification of clinical problems. The authors present a systematic methodology for the analysis and interpretation of self monitoring blood glucose data in order to assist the management of patients with diabetes. This approach utilizes the followings 1) overall quality of glycemic control; 2) severity and timing of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia; 3) variability of blood glucose readings; 4) various temporal patterns extracted from recorded data and 5) adequacy of self monitoring blood glucose data. Based on reliable measures of the quality of glycaemic control and glucose variability, a prioritized problem list is derived along with the probable causes of the detected problems. Finally, problems and their interpretation are used to guide clinicians to choose therapeutic actions and/or recommend behaviour change in order to solve the problems that have been identified.

  13. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin ...

  14. Advances in Patient Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas

    2015-11-29

    In 2 articles of the present issue, Bendini et al report about performance results obtained with 2 blood glucose monitoring systems of the Contour Next platform. Using several analysis methods, the authors demonstrate a very high accuracy, which meets all actual regulatory performance criteria. With consistent MARD results blood glucose meters during the Past 2 decades, starting with an MARD of 12-15% at the end of the past century and reaching an excellent accuracy < 5% today. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Corticosterone and exogenous glucose alter blood glucose levels, neurotoxicity, and vascular toxicity produced by methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, John F; Tranter, Karen M; Sarkar, Sumit; George, Nysia I; Hanig, Joseph P; Kelly, Kimberly A; Michalovicz, Lindsay T; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2017-10-01

    Our previous studies have raised the possibility that altered blood glucose levels may influence and/or be predictive of methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of exogenous glucose and corticosterone (CORT) pretreatment alone or in combination with METH on blood glucose levels and the neural and vascular toxicity produced. METH exposure consisted of four sequential injections of 5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg (2 h between injections) D-METH. The three groups given METH in combination with saline, glucose (METH+Glucose), or CORT (METH+CORT) had significantly higher glucose levels compared to the corresponding treatment groups without METH except at 3 h after the last injection. At this last time point, the METH and METH+Glucose groups had lower levels than the non-METH groups, while the METH+CORT group did not. CORT alone or glucose alone did not significantly increase blood glucose. Mortality rates for the METH+CORT (40%) and METH+Glucose (44%) groups were substantially higher than the METH (glucose during METH exposure increases lethality and may exacerbate neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation, specifically microglial activation, was associated with degenerating neurons in the parietal cortex and thalamus after METH exposure. The activated microglia in the parietal cortex were surrounding vasculature in most cases and the extent of microglial activation was exacerbated by CORT pretreatment. Our findings show that acute CORT exposure and elevated blood glucose levels can exacerbate METH-induced vascular damage, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and lethality. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13819. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...... metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in AD, and GLP-1 may serve to raise transporter numbers. We hypothesized that the GLP-1 analog liraglutide would prevent the decline of CMRglc in AD by raising blood-brain glucose transfer, depending on the duration of disease. We randomized 38 patients with AD...

  17. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a larger study dealing with glucose homeostasis in the toad Bufo gutturalis. Seven groups of seven toads each were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one month. During this period the toads were fed daily on live insects and were housed in a large laboratory terrarium in which the natural habitat was simulated as ...

  18. Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. High blood glucose has been associated with loss of muscle strength and mass in the lower extremities. However, in African children, little is known about the association between handgrip strength, flexed arm hang or other measures of muscle strength with blood ...

  19. Fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin concentrations of healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation is associated with loss of blood monthly in women of reproductive age. In some women this physiological phenomenon is also associated with some complaints such as menstrual pain, vomiting, and tiredness. We investigated the fasting blood glucose concentration and hemoglobin concentration before and ...

  20. Comparison of a human portable blood glucose meter, veterinary portable blood glucose meter, and automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Beth M; Fry, Michael M; Flatland, Bente; Kirk, Claudia A

    2009-12-01

    To compare blood glucose concentrations measured with 2 portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) validated for use in dogs (PBGM-D) and humans (PBGM-H) and an automated chemistry analyzer. Validation study. 92 samples of fresh whole blood and plasma from 83 dogs with various diseases. Each PBGM was used to measure whole blood glucose concentration, and the automated analyzer was used to measure plasma glucose concentration. Passing-Bablok linear regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine correlations and bias between the PBGMs and the automated analyzer. Calculated acceptability limits based on combined inherent instrument imprecision were used with Bland-Altman plots to determine agreement. Clinical relevance was assessed via error grid analysis. Although correlation between results of both PBGMs and the standard analyzer was > 0.90, disagreement was greater than could be explained by instrument imprecision alone. Mean difference between PBGM-H and chemistry-analyzer values was -15.8 mg/dL. Mean difference between PBGM-D and chemistry-analyzer values was 2.4 mg/dL. Linear regression analysis revealed proportional bias of PBGM-H (greater disagreement at higher glucose concentrations); no proportional bias was detected for PBGM-D. No constant bias was detected for either PBGM. Error grid analysis revealed all measurements from both PBGMs were within zones without an anticipated effect on clinical outcome. Neither PBGM had exact agreement with the automated analyzer; however, the disagreement detected did not have serious clinical consequences. Our findings stressed the importance of using the same device for monitoring trends in dogs and using instrument-specific reference ranges.

  1. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  2. [A blood glucose slide chart for improving diabetes patient education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteau, Marie-Hélène

    2015-03-01

    A blood glucose slide chart has been developed in order to help patients with type 2 diabetes who do not speak French or who have comprehension difficulties. Combined with pictograms to help patients visualise the action they need to take depending on the recorded glucose level, it constitutes a therapeutic education tool which can be useful on a day-to-day basis both for patients as well as caregivers.

  3. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  4. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L Silverman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bernard L Silverman1, Christopher J Barnes2, Barbara N Campaigne3, Douglas B Muchmore31Alkermes, Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2i3 Statprobe, Ann Arbor, MI; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, inhaled insulin, cardiovascular disease, blood glucose

  5. Hematocrit Compensation in Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorczyk, Maria; Cardosi, Marco; Setford, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematocrit (Hct) is a common interferent in test strips used by diabetes patients to self-monitor blood glucose (BG), resulting in measurement bias. Described is an electrochemical BG monitoring system (OneTouch® Verio™) that uses a cofacial sensor design, soluble enzyme chemistry, and multiphasic waveform to effectively correct for patient Hct, delivering an accurate reading for whole BG. Methods The test strip comprises thin-film gold and palladium electrodes arranged cofacially and spatially separated with a thin spacer. Soluble glucose-sensing reagents are located on the lower palladium electrode and are hydrated on sample application. Blood glucose is oxidized by flavoprotein glucose dehydrogenase, with electron transfer via (reduced) potassium ferrocyanide mediator at the palladium electrode. Hematocrit levels are estimated by measuring oxidation of mediator diffusion to the upper gold electrode during the first portion of the assay. The Hct-corrected glucose levels are determined by an on-meter algorithm. Results In performance testing of blood samples at five glucose levels (30–560 mg/dl) and five Hct levels (19–61%), using 12 test meters and 3 test strip lots, 100% of results (N = 2700) met International Organization for Standardization accuracy criteria (within ± 15 mg/dl and ± 20% of reference results at glucose levels of <75 and ≥75 mg/dl, respectively). Furthermore, 99.9% (2698 of 2700) of results were within ±12 mg/dl and ± 15% of reference values at glucose levels <80 and ≥80 mg/dl, respectively. Conclusions The technology used in this system provides accurate BG measurements that are insensitive to Hct levels across the range 20–60%. PMID:22768896

  6. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  7. Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Acipayam

    2014-02-01

    Aim: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an important factor in etiology of pathologic neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to indicate the significance of screening glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the cord blood of neonates and the frequency of this deficiency in the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material and Method: The study was performed consecutive 1015 neonates were included. Five hundred fifty six (54.8% of them were male and 459 (45.2% were female. The following parameters were recorded: Gender, birth weight, birth height, head circumference and gestational age. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level of neonates were measured with quantitative method in cord blood. Also, hemoglobine, hematocrite, red blood cell count and blood group were measured. The following parameters were recorded in cases with jaundice: exchange transfusion, phototherapy, physiologic and pathologic jaundice, peak bilirubin day, maximum bilirubin level, total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, beginning time of jaundice. Results: Enzyme deficiency was detected in 133 (13.1% of neonates and 76 (57% of them were male, 57 (43% were female. Significant difference was detected in low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level with jaundice group for total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, maximum total bilirubin level and pathologic jaundice (p<0.05. Discussion: The ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found in Edirne in this study and this ratio was higher than other studies conducted in our country. For this reason, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level in cord blood of neonates should be measured routinely and high risk neonates should be followed up for hyperbilirubinemia and parents should be informed in our region.

  8. Umbilical cord blood glucose levels in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to determine the umbilical cord venous blood level of glucose in full-term newborns and its relationship to the mode of delivery. The investigation included 102 full-term newborn infants, including 33 and 69 babies born via cesar-ean and vaginal delivery, respectively. Umbilical cord serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase test using a Sap-phire-400 biochemical analyzer. In healthy full-term newborns, the mean umbilical cord blood glucose levels were 4,29±0,88 mmol/1 (minimum, 2,9 mmol/1 and maximum, 5,9 mmol/1. In the babies born via cesarean delivery, the umbilical cord blood concentration of glucose was ascertained to be significantly lower than in those born vaginally (3,84+0,71 mmol/1 versus 4,51+0,87 mmol/1; /><0,0001. Abdominal delivery can be apparently considered to be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in neonatal infants.

  9. Effect of Cola acuminate on Blood Glucose and Glycosylated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (GHB) were studied in 42 Wistar rats divided into three groups; controls, group A and group B. Control rats consumed only feeds, group A consumed 0.04g of Cola acuminate, while group B consumed 0.08g of Cola acuminate mixed with their feeds daily for six ...

  10. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  11. Comparative effects of some medicinal plants on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) on blood glucose concentration and lipid levels of diabetic rats were investigated using standard ...

  12. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  13. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of daidzin (DZ) on diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice, with a view to determining its usefulness in the treatment of diabetes. Methods: The effect of DZ (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) on blood glucose was investigated in both ...

  14. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  15. Effects of selenium yeast on blood glucose and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed and the serum samples were collected and evaluated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in blood glucose level in the ...

  16. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was done as a part of safety assessment to determine the effects of Tartrazine E102 on some haematological indices, glucose levels and blood lipid profile in rats. An animal model was used as a basis for interpreting the situation in humans. Consequently, 40 albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each.

  17. Effects of Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Seed on Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, with its associated complications, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of citrullus lanatus seed extract on blood glucose concentration and electrolyte parameters. Citrullus lanatus is an antioxidant and has been shown to reduce oxidative stress (Khaki et al., 2013). Effects ...

  18. Adenosine deaminase activities and fasting blood glucose in obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A complex relationship seems to exist between adenosine deaminase (ADA) and insulin in obesity. Through its effect on adenosine, the enzyme can modulate the action of insulin and affect blood glucose while the administration of insulin is said to decrease the activities of the enzyme. Aim: To investigate the ...

  19. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...

  20. Blood glucose response of normoglycemic adults fed breakfast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of high fibre leguminous products in breakfast porridges, made from Afzelia Africana (AA), Detarium microcarpum (DM), Sphenostylis stenocarpa (SS) and Zea mays on blood glucose level of humans was investigated in this study. The food items were processed into flour using African (Nigerian) traditional processing ...

  1. Effect of leaf extract of Pseudocedrela kotchyi on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of leaf extract of Pseudocedrela kotchi (PK) on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Pseudocedreala kotchi for 14 days. The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period. There was a significant ...

  2. Effect of extract of Abrs Precatorius on blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of leaf extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose level of alloxan- induced diabetic albino wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days. The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period. There was a significant ...

  3. Data Mining Technologies for Blood Glucose and Diabetes Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is the process of selecting, exploring, and modeling large amounts of data to discover unknown patterns or relationships useful to the data analyst. This article describes applications of data mining for the analysis of blood glucose and diabetes mellitus data. The diabetes management

  4. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work involved the measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. It was a prospective case-finding study using laboratory and general practice records. The subjects were confirmed diabetic patients, attending a ...

  5. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  6. Variations of blood glucose in cancer patients during chemotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose (BG) variations in cancer patients during chemotherapy according to tumor types and chemotherapeutic regimens. Materials and Methods: Patients were examined from the Department of Medical Oncology of Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy ...

  7. Impact Of Administration Mulberry Juice On Blood Glucose, Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was designed to study the effects of black and white mulberry juice on blood glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats. Sprague Dawley male rats weighing (125 ± 12.2 g) were divided into eight groups (each of 12 rats). Four healthy control group include normal ...

  8. Reliability of bedside blood glucose estimating methods in detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycaemia occurs in many disease states common in the tropics. Facilities and skilled manpower required for laboratory blood glucose measurement are not always available in health facilities in developing countries. Objective: The study was carried out to determine the validity of bedside methods of ...

  9. Blood glucose lowering activity of five Nigerian medicinal plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood glucose lowering effects of the aqueous leaf extracts of Cassia alata, Acalypha torta and Breynia nivosa, and aqueous root extracts of Daniellia oliveri and Nauclea latifolia traditionally employed in Nigeria in the management of diabetes mellitus were compared in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. The same ...

  10. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  11. Variations of blood glucose in cancer patients during chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose (BG) variations in cancer patients during chemotherapy ... Materials and Methods: Patients were examined from the Department of Medical Oncology of Cancer Hospital and .... 68 (LC, 20.5%), colon cancer 63 (CC, 19.0%), rectal cancer.

  12. Evaluation of portable blood glucose meters using canine and feline pooled blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Oda, H; Onozawa, E; Shono, S; Takahashi, T; Yamashita, S; Fujimoto, H; Sako, T

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of a human portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) for canine and feline whole blood. Reference plasma glucose values (RPGV) were concurrently measured using glucose oxidation methods. Fifteen healthy dogs and 6 healthy cats were used for blood sampling. Blood glucose concentrations and hematocrits were adjusted using pooled blood samples for our targeted values. A positive correlation between the PBGM and RPGV was found for both dogs (y = 0.877, x = -24.38, r = 0.9982, n = 73) and cats (y = 1.048, x = -27.06, r = 0.9984, n = 69). Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and RPGV in both dogs and cats; 100% of these results were within zones A and B. Following ISO recommendations, a PBGM is considered accurate if 95% of the measurements are within ± 15 mg/dl of the RPGV when the glucose concentration is cats (39%, 27 of 69 cats). Blood samples with high hematocrits induced lower whole blood glucose values measured by the PBGM than RPGV under hypoglycemic, normoglycemic, and hyperglycemic conditions in both dogs and cats. Therefore, this device is not clinically useful in dogs and cats. New PBGMs which automatically compensate for the hematocrit should be developed in veterinary practice.

  13. Postprandial Blood Glucose Outweighs Fasting Blood Glucose and HbA1c in screening Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Liu; Gui, Minghui; Aleteng, Qiqige; Wu, Bingjie; Wang, Shanshan; Pan, Baishen; Ling, Yan; Gao, Xin

    2017-10-27

    The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as screening for coronary heart disease (CHD) in an inpatient population undergoing coronary angiography. 1852 consecutive patients scheduled for coronary angiography were classified into Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT), Impaired Glucose Regulation (IGR), and diabetes, based on FBG, PBG, and HbA1c. Correlations of Gensini score with glucose metabolism and insulin resistance were analyzed. The associations between glycemic variables and Gensini score or the presence of CHD were analyzed by multiple linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. CHD was diagnosed in 488, 622, and 414 patients with NGT, IGR, and diabetes, respectively. Gensini score was positively correlated with FBG (r = 0.09, p PBG (r = 0.20, p PBG and HbA1c were pooled altogether, only PBG persisted in its association with Gensini score and the prevalence of CHD. The severity of CHD was associated with glucose rather than insulin resistance in this Chinese population. PBG was optimally correlated with the presence and severity of CHD.

  14. Discrete Blood Glucose Control in Diabetic Göttingen Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuous research effort, patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D experience difficulties in daily adjustments of their blood glucose concentrations. New technological developments in the form of implanted intravenous infusion pumps and continuous blood glucose sensors might alleviate obstacles for the automatic adjustment of blood glucose concentration. These obstacles consist, for example, of large time-delays and insulin storage effects for the subcutaneous/interstitial route. Towards the goal of an artificial pancreas, we present a novel feedback controller approach that combines classical loop-shaping techniques with gain-scheduling and modern H ∞ -robust control approaches. A disturbance rejection design is proposed in discrete frequency domain based on the detailed model of the diabetic Göttingen minipig. The model is trimmed and linearised over a large operating range of blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity values. Controller parameters are determined for each of these operating points. A discrete H ∞ loop-shaping compensator is designed to increase robustness of the artificial pancreas against general coprime factor uncertainty. The gain scheduled controller uses subcutaneous insulin injection as a control input and determines the controller input error from intravenous blood glucose concentration measurements, where parameter scheduling is achieved by an estimator of the insulin sensitivity parameter. Thus, only one controller stabilises a family of animal models. The controller is validated in silico with a total number of five Göttingen Minipig models, which were previously obtained by experimental identification procedures. Its performance is compared with an experimentally tested switching PI-controller.

  15. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Kuhre, Rune E.; Hornburg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in...

  16. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    2001-01-01

    -blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE......, no differences in the pattern of change of splanchnic blood flow and splanchnic glucose production were observed during ACE blockade compared with controls. This study demonstrates that the normal increase in ANG II levels observed during prolonged exercise in humans does not play a major role in the regulation......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin...

  17. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  18. Glucose predictability, blood capillary permeability, and glucose utilization rate in subcutaneous, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2013-11-01

    This study suggests an approach for the comparison and evaluation of particular compartments with modest experimental setup costs. A glucose level prediction model was used to evaluate the compartment's glucose transport rate across the blood capillary membrane and the glucose utilization rate by the cells. The glucose levels of the blood, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were obtained in experiments conducted on hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats. After the blood glucose level had undergone a rapid change, the experimenter attempted to reach a steady blood glucose level by manually correcting the glucose infusion rate and maintaining a constant insulin infusion rate. The interstitial fluid glucose levels of subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were evaluated to determine the reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level, the interstitial fluid glucose level predictability, the blood capillary permeability, the effect of the concentration gradient, and the glucose utilization rate. Based on these data, the glucose transport rate across the capillary membrane and the utilization rate in a particular tissue were determined. The rates obtained were successfully verified against positron emission tomography experiments. The subcutaneous tissue exhibits the lowest and the most predictable glucose utilization rate, whereas the skeletal muscle tissue has the greatest glucose utilization rate. In contrast, the visceral fat is the least predictable and has the shortest reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level. The reaction delays obtained for the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle tissue were found to be approximately equal using a metric based on the time required to reach half of the increase in the interstitial fluid glucose level. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Insulin overlapping in whole blood FTIR spectroscopy in blood glucose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Cárdenas, G.; Sánchez-López, J. de D.; Luque, P. A.; Cosío-León, M.; Nieto-Hipólito, Juan I.; Vázquez-Briseño, Mabel

    For the last decade, several studies on mid-IR spectroscopy for blood glucose quantification have not considered the compounds involved in the glucose regulation mechanism, in which insulin plays an important role. This work shows how insulin overlaps in the same mid-IR region in which glucose is quantified. This optical absorption interference is an important factor to be considered for this type of studies, in the scope of whole blood modeling for spectroscopy applications and the possible use of computer based metrics.

  20. A Deep Learning Approach to Diabetic Blood Glucose Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh N. Mhaskar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of 30-min prediction of blood glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring devices, using clinical data. While most studies of this nature deal with one patient at a time, we take a certain percentage of patients in the data set as training data, and test on the remainder of the patients; i.e., the machine need not re-calibrate on the new patients in the data set. We demonstrate how deep learning can outperform shallow networks in this example. One novelty is to demonstrate how a parsimonious deep representation can be constructed using domain knowledge.

  1. Simultaneous control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... A questionnaire was used to collect basic information and blood samples were drawn for laboratory measurements. Simultaneous control was defined as HbA1c <7%, BP <130/80 mmHg, and LDL‑C <2.6 mmol/L. Results: A total of 2274 individuals were included, of which 588 individuals (25.9%) achieved ...

  2. Facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in man and the effect of moderate hypoglycaemia on cerebral glucose utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, G.; Widen, L.; Hellstrand, E.; Gutniak, M.; Grill, V.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of steady-state moderate hypoglycaemia on human brain homeostasis has been studied with positron emission tomography using D-glucose 11 C(ul) as tracer. To rule out any effects of insulin, the plasma insulin concentration was maintained at the same level under normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. Reduction of blood glucose by 55% increased the glucose clearance through the blood-brain barrier by 50% and reduced brain glucose consumption by 40%. Blood flow was not affected. The results are consistent with facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in humans. The maximal transport rate of glucose from blood to brain was found to be 62±19 (mean±SEM) μmol hg -1 min -1 , and the half-saturation constant was found to be 4.1±3.2 mM. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  4. Application of chronic intravascular blood glucose sensor in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J C; Lucisano, J Y; McKean, B D; Gough, D A

    1990-12-01

    An intravenous glucose sensor was implanted in six dogs for 1-15 wk. The glucose sensor is a flexible cylinder, approximately 0.2 cm diam and 30 cm long, with a tip containing immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase coupled to a potentiostatic O2 sensor. The sensor and a similar O2 reference sensor were implanted in the superior vena cava near the entrance of the right atrium. The sensor response was conveyed externally either by a telemetry system implanted nearby, surgically accessed leads, or chronically maintained percutaneous leads. Summing over the six implants, there was a total implantation period of 333 days during which glucose sensors were functional on demand. The sensor response showed agreement with conventionally assayed blood samples after accounting for a response lag. Sensor response to glucose showed little change over the implant period. Biocompatibility, enzyme lifetime, O2 availability, O2 sensor stability, and biochemical interference were not limitations. Results demonstrated that this sensor can function effectively as an implant in dogs for a period of months and has the potential for long-term operation.

  5. The Period of Operation and Perioperative Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic data as well as duration of fast was obtained, blood glucose level was estimated by One touch glucometer (Life Scan Inc. USA) immediately after induction. The mean age of the children was 4.1±2.6 yr and the mean weight was 15.9±6.2 kg. The mean duration of preoperative fast was 13.1±4.2 h (5-23) h.

  6. Non-invasive Blood Glucose Quantification Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan JAYAPAL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels which result from defects in insulin secretion. It is very important for the diabetics and normal people to have a correct blood glucose level. The HbA1c test is the most preferred test by renowned doctors for glucose quantification. But this test is an invasive one. At present, there are many available techniques for this purpose but these are mostly invasive or minimally non-invasive and most of these are under research. Among the different methods available, the photo acoustic (PA methods provide a reliable solution since the acoustical energy loss is much less compared to the optical or other techniques. Here a novel framework is presented for blood glucose level measurement using a combination of the HbA1c test and a PA method to get an absolutely consistent and precise, non-invasive technique. The setup uses a pulsed laser diode with pulse duration of 5-15 ns and at a repetition rate of 10 Hz as the source. The detector setup is based on the piezoelectric detection. It consists of a ring detector that includes two double ring sensors that are attached to the ring shaped module that can be worn around the finger. The major aim is to detect the photo acoustic signals from the glycated hemoglobin with the least possible error. The proposed monitoring system is designed with extreme consideration to precision and compatibility with the other computing devices. The results obtained in this research have been studied and analyzed by comparing these with those of in-vitro techniques like the HPLC. The comparison has been plotted and it shows a least error. The results also show a positive drive for using this concept as a basis for future extension in quantifying the other blood components.

  7. The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on blood glucose in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were grouped into two: groups A (control) and B (Test B1 and Test B2). Group A received water and feed (grower's mash) with grass supplementation. Group B (Test B1 and B2) received 3.33mg/ml and 6.66mg/ml of MSG respectively at libitum. At the end of each week, fasting blood glucose levels were ...

  8. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Infopia Element™ Auto-coding Blood Glucose Monitoring System for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Il; Lee, Seong-Su; Son, Jang-Won; Kwon, Hee-Sun; Kim, Sung Rae; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Yoo, Soonjib

    2016-11-01

    Element™ Auto-coding Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS; Infopia Co., Ltd., Anyang-si, Korea) was developed for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Precision, linearity, and interference were tested. Eighty-four capillary blood samples measured by Element™ BGMS were compared with central laboratory method (CLM) results in venous serum. Accuracy was evaluated using ISO 15197:2013 criteria. Coefficients of variation (CVs; mean) were 2.4% (44.2 mg/dl), 3.7% (100.6 mg/dl), and 2.1% (259.8 mg/dl). Linearity was shown at concentrations 39.25-456.25 mg/l (y = 0.989 + 0.984x, SE = 17.63). Up to 15 mg/dl of galactose, ascorbic acid, and acetaminophen, interference > 10.4% was not observed. Element™ BGMS glucose was higher than CLM levels by 3.2 mg/dl (at 200 mg/dl) to 8.2 mg/dl (at 100 mg/dl). The minimum specification for bias (3.3%) was met at 140 and 200 mg/l glucose. In the Clarke and consensus error grids, 100% of specimens were within zone A and B. For Element™ BGMS values, 92.9% (78/84) to 94.0% (79/84) were within a 15 mg/dl ( 100 mg/dl) of the average CLM value. Element™ BGMS was considered an appropriate SMBG for home use; however, the positive bias at low-to-mid glucose levels requires further improvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Blood glucose self-monitoring with a long-term subconjunctival glucose sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim Josef; Knuth, Monika; Nikolaus, Katharina Sibylle; Krivánek, Roland; Küster, Frank; Hasslacher, Christoph; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of an implantable subconjunctival glucose monitoring system (SGMS) for long-term glucose monitoring, we investigated the in vivo performance of the system. The SGMS consists of an implantable ocular mini implant (OMI) and a handheld fluorescence photometer. A clinical study was performed on 47 diabetes patients split into two cohorts. Two different types of OMI were used, with and without a biocompatible surface coating. Duration of the study was 1 year. Correlation between capillary blood glucose and SGMS-derived interstitial fluid glucose was investigated during the first 6 months of the study. Both OMI types were tolerated well in the eyes of the patients. At the beginning of the study, the SGMS of both cohorts revealed a high accuracy with mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values of 7-12%. The performance of the uncoated OMIs deteriorated within 3 months of wearing time, exhibiting a MARD value of 20%. The performance of the surface-coated OMIs was preserved longer. Glucose correlation measurement with reasonable results (MARD of 14%) could be performed for up to 6 months of wear. The biocompatible surface coating on the OMIs enabled a longer duration of action of up to 6 months compared with 3 months for uncoated implants in a clinical trial. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : The Use of the First or the Second Drop of Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Logtenberg, Susan J. J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    OBJECTIVE-There is no general agreement regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood for glucose monitoring. This study investigated whether capillary glucose concentrations, as measured in the first and second drops of blood, differed >= 10% compared with a control glucose concentration

  11. Flattening postprandial blood glucose responses with guar gum: acute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Leo, T A; Mendeloff, A I

    1985-01-01

    It has been proposed that high-carbohydrate, high-fiber (HCF) diets might serve as useful therapeutic modality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). One problem in evaluating clinical trials of this therapy is that, by their very nature, the trials cannot be double blinded. We have developed HCF and placebo granola-type bars using complex absorbable carbohydrate and guar gum fiber to circumvent this methodologic problem. The HCF bars, when consumed with an ad lib. diet, assure an HCF intake without imposing other dietary restrictions. To test the short-term efficacy of the bars, 9 normal adult volunteers, 2 women with impaired glucose tolerance, and 20 patients with NIDDM consumed the bars alone or with meals. Blood glucose responses when HCF bars were consumed alone were blunted when compared with the placebo response (P less than 0.0005 to P less than 0.002), with the most marked suppression occurring in the early postprandial period. In contrast, when the bars were consumed along with breakfast, HCF and placebo responses were virtually identical in the early postprandial period, but showed a progressively greater difference from 90 to 240 min (P less than 0.02 to P less than 0.0005). When consumed with lunch as well as breakfast, the HCF bars caused flattening of blood glucose responses during the late postprandial period after breakfast and maintained flattened responses during the early and late postprandial periods after lunch (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.005). It is concluded that these HCF bars can be used to blunt postprandial blood glucose responses, in subjects with either normal or abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  12. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, YOSHIO; SHIMIZU, TOMOMI; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; SATO, KENJI; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; IMANISHI, AKIO; WATANABE, MASAYUKI; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathl...

  13. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Xu, Kexin; Chen, Limin; Lin, Yuan; Lu, Luo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin–borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations. (paper)

  14. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  15. Spike in glucose levels after reperfusion during aortic surgery: assessment by continuous blood glucose monitoring using artificial endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Koji; Sato, Hirotaka; Kadosaki, Mamoru; Egawa, Atsushi; Misawa, Yoshio

    2018-03-01

    Although strict blood glucose control during cardiovascular surgery is essential to avoid postoperative complications, the various changes in glucose levels that occur during surgery have not been investigated in detail. In this study, we continuously monitored blood glucose changes during aortic surgery using the STG-55 Ⓡ artificial endocrine pancreas (Nikkiso Inc., Tokyo). Between December 2015 and 2016, we performed continuous blood glucose monitoring in 22 patients (14 men and 8 women, 72 ± 11 years old), who required hypothermic circulatory arrest during an ascending/aortic arch surgery, at the Jichi Medical University Hospital. Ascending aorta replacements were performed in two patients and partial/total arch replacement, in 20. All the patients required selective cerebral perfusion and hypothermic circulatory arrest (bladder temperature at 25-26 °C) during distal anastomosis. Closed-loop continuous blood glucose monitoring was performed during cardiopulmonary bypass using the STG-55 Ⓡ artificial endocrine pancreas (Nikkiso Co., LTD, Tokyo). Blood glucose concentrations did not increase significantly from the time of the commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass to lower body ischemia. However, they dramatically increased immediately after reperfusion following lower body ischemia, and this hyperglycemia was sustained until the end of cardiopulmonary bypass. The current study clarified the peak glucose concentration during aortic surgery. These data may contribute to the management of blood glucose levels during aortic surgery.

  16. Correlation between macrosomia body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, S; Song, W

    2014-05-01

    To explore the significance of neonatal body indices in identifying pathological macrosomia, we implemented a retrospective study of 254 neonates, including: 100 macrosomia of diabetic pregnancies, 77 macrosomia of healthy pregnancies and 77 normal neonates of healthy pregnancies, using their birth weight, body length, head circumference and chest circumference, to calculate neonatal body indices, multiple regression analysis of the correlation between newborn body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose. The Quetelet Index and Kaup Index of diabetic macrosomia is higher than that of non-diabetic macrosomia; HC:CC (ratio between head circumference and chest circumference) is reversed (p macrosomia.

  17. Asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection of the blood glucose regulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Brandon; Liu, Weijiu

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance. For this, a mathematical model for the glucose disturbance is proposed on the basis of experimental data, and then incorporated into an existing blood glucose regulation model. Because all the eigenvalues of the disturbance model have zero real parts, the center manifold theory is used to establish blood glucose regulator equations. We then use their solutions to synthesize a required feedback and feedforward controller to reject the disturbance and asymptotically track a constant glucose reference of 90  mg/dl. Since the regulator equations are nonlinear partial differential equations and usually impossible to solve analytically, a linear approximation solution is obtained. Our numerical simulations show that, under the linear approximate feedback and feedforward controller, the blood glucose asymptotically tracks its desired level of 90 mg/dl approximately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    , either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study...

  19. Blood glucose concentrations in prehospital trauma patients with traumatic shock : A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutziger, Janett; Lederer, Wolfgang; Schmid, Stefan; Ulmer, Hanno; Wenzel, Volker; Nijsten, Maarten W.; Werner, Daniel; Schlechtriemen, Thomas

    BACKGROUND: Deranged glucose metabolism after moderate to severe trauma with either high or low concentrations of blood glucose is associated with poorer outcome. Data on prehospital blood glucose concentrations and trauma are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to describe the relationship

  20. Is blood glucose predictable from previous values? A solicitation for data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, T; Gough, D A

    1999-03-01

    An important question about blood glucose control in diabetes is, Can present and future blood glucose values be predicted from recent blood glucose history? If this is possible, new continuous blood glucose monitoring technologies under development may lead to qualitatively better therapeutic capabilities. Not only could continuous monitoring technologies alert a user when a hypoglycemic episode or other blood glucose excursion is underway, but measurements may also provide sufficient information to predict near-future blood glucose values. A predictive capability based only on recent blood glucose history would be advantageous because there would be no need to involve models of glucose and insulin distribution, with their inherent requirement for detailed accounting of vascular glucose loads and insulin availability. Published data analyzed here indicate that blood glucose dynamics are not random, and that blood glucose values can be predicted, at least for the near future, from frequently sampled previous values. Data useful in further exploring this concept are limited, however, and an appeal is made for collection of more.

  1. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of an Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Hematocrit Compensation: Improved Accuracy by Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Martha E; Lyon, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    The article entitled “Hematocrit Compensation in Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems” by Teodorczyk and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology demonstrates that the OneTouch® Verio™ glucose meter meets current regulatory expectations for glucose meter performance and is relatively free from interference by hematocrit. The lack of influence of hematocrit on whole blood glucose results is a valuable attribute for hospital applications, where greater ...

  3. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Tomomi; Ota, Makoto; Hirata, Ryuzo; Sato, Kenji; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Imanishi, Akio; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247.4 m in circumference for 5 h while wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system. Blood was obtained at time-points of -1, 1, 3 and 5 h. The athletes had free access to food and fluids throughout the run. The athletes ran at almost the same pace without a sudden decrease in pace. The blood glucose levels increased and remained high in the triathlete, whereas the tennis player remained hypoglycemic throughout the run. Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect the blood glucose levels. The magnitude of hormonal changes, e.g. insulin, adrenaline and cortisol, was greater in the tennis player. The blood glucose concentration did not correlate with the running velocity or the carbohydrate ingestion; however, a discrepancy in blood glucose transition was observed between the triathlete and the tennis player, indicating a possible association between the adaptation to endurance exercise and the blood glucose kinetics during prolonged running.

  4. Glucose monitoring technologies - complementary or competitive? Role of continuous glucose monitoring versus flash glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have numerous technologies that can help keep a close watch on an individual's glycaemic status and thereby assist in developing successful diabetes management strategies. For more than five decades, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG has remained as the gold standard tool to manage glycaemic status and has gained huge acceptance. Rigorous research further led to the development of more and more advanced technologies such as continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring. These novel technologies are more promising in terms of revealing the complete glycaemic picture and even more user-friendly than the already established blood glucosemetres. However, they are yet to achieve remarkable accuracy and performance. There will also be a subgroup of patients who will be using these technologies only occasionally and thus will definitely require SMBG at other times. Again, with regard to the retrospective ones, glucose data can be obtained only once they are downloaded to the system and hence, real-time values will still have to be procured with the help of an SMBG. In future when the accuracy and performance of these newer technologies become equal to that of glucometres, the glucometres might vanish. Until then, all these technologies will definitely go hand-in-hand and supplement each other than competing each other. All the related literature were retrieved from various databases including 'PubMed' and 'Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews' using specific search terms that were relevant to the topics discussed this manuscript.

  5. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  6. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  7. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  8. A Model of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, Martina; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    A reliable model of the probability density function (PDF) of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurement error would be important for several applications in diabetes, like testing in silico insulin therapies. In the literature, the PDF of SMBG error is usually described by a Gaussian function, whose symmetry and simplicity are unable to properly describe the variability of experimental data. Here, we propose a new methodology to derive more realistic models of SMBG error PDF. The blood glucose range is divided into zones where error (absolute or relative) presents a constant standard deviation (SD). In each zone, a suitable PDF model is fitted by maximum-likelihood to experimental data. Model validation is performed by goodness-of-fit tests. The method is tested on two databases collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (OTU2; Lifescan Inc, Milpitas, CA) and the Bayer Contour Next USB (BCN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ). In both cases, skew-normal and exponential models are used to describe the distribution of errors and outliers, respectively. Two zones were identified: zone 1 with constant SD absolute error; zone 2 with constant SD relative error. Goodness-of-fit tests confirmed that identified PDF models are valid and superior to Gaussian models used so far in the literature. The proposed methodology allows to derive realistic models of SMBG error PDF. These models can be used in several investigations of present interest in the scientific community, for example, to perform in silico clinical trials to compare SMBG-based with nonadjunctive CGM-based insulin treatments.

  9. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    glucose measured in whole blood (x-variable) and in plasma (y-variable) gave the following equations: Y = 0.974 X + 0.55, n = 583 (Exp. 1) and Y = 0.949 X + 0.65, n = 655 (Exp. 2). The net absorption of glucose found in blood was in accordance with that found in plasma: Y = 1.012 X , n = 281 (no intercept......, P = 0.79; Exp. 1) and Y = 0.954 X, n = 316 (no intercept, P = 0.97; Exp. 2). It was concluded that glucose measured in blood and plasma were slightly biased whereas net glucose absorption in blood and in plasma were unbiased......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...

  10. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p < 0.0001). These in vivo results showed that exogenous oxytocin can be good choice to decrease the blood glucose level very fast.

  11. Overnight Control of Blood Glucose in People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and test a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for overnight stabilization of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The controller uses glucose measurements from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and its decisions are implemented by a continuous subcutaneous insulin...

  12. Self-monitoring of tear glucose: the development of a tear based glucose sensor as an alternative to self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Adams, Anngela; Lin, Chi-En; Engelschall, Erica; Pratt, Breanna; Cook, Curtiss B

    2016-07-28

    Tear glucose sensing for diabetes management has long been sought as an alternative to more invasive self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). However, tear glucose sensors were known to have limitations, including correlation issues with blood glucose due to low sample volume, low concentration of glucose in the tear fluid, and evaporation of the tear sample. An engineering design approach to solve these problems led to the development of an integrated device capable of collecting the tear sample from the ocular surface with little to no stress on the eye, with an extremely low limit of detection, broad dynamic range, and rapid detection and analysis of sample. Here we present the development of a prototypical self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG) sensor, summarizing bench studies on the enzymes and their specificity, the development of the fluid capture device and its manufacture and performance and results of system testing in an animal study where safety, lag time and tear glucose to blood glucose correlation were assessed.

  13. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  14. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  15. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  16. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: Advice for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Shannon; Manroa, Pooja; Doshi, Krupa

    2016-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a critical element in diabetes management. Providers must determine if and when patients are to perform glucose self-monitoring, set blood glucose targets, and help patients to interpret the results. Patients have a variety of continually evolving meters, supplies, and technology from which to choose. Making sense of these expectations and options is perhaps the greatest challenge for providers and patients. Working together, healthcare providers and certified diabetes educators can ensure that people with diabetes get the most out of self-monitoring of blood glucose. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  17. The accuracy of blood glucose testing by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumph, P S; Odoroff, C L; Amatruda, J M

    1988-04-01

    While studies have evaluated the accuracy of adult patients and health personnel in reading various glucose oxidase impregnated strips to estimate blood glucose, there are no studies exclusively evaluating the accuracy of children with diabetes reading their own strips as compared to a staff member, and meter to meter variability in reading these strips. We evaluated the accuracy of reading chemstrip bG by children at a summer camp. The children's visual readings of their own strips were compared to the visual reading of a single staff member. A total of 356 Chemstrip bG's were visually read by diabetic children and a single trained staff member at a summer camp for diabetics. The strips were then analyzed by two Accu-Chek bG meters. Intermachine variability was found to be negligible over the entire bG range. For the purposes of this study, we define accurate visual readings as those within +/- 15 percent of the meter reading of a given strip. At low bG values (40-79 mg/dl), accuracy by children and staff is low, with underestimating occurring in 39 percent of staff readings and 57 percent of children's readings. At intermediate bG values (120-239 mg/dl) readings are more accurate, especially when read by the staff, with misreadings occurring in only 16-19 percent of the strips. At high bG values (240-399 mg/dl), accuracy by children is decreased, with underestimation 500 percent more often than staff. We conclude that children are less accurate at reading Chemstrip bG than a trained staff member (51% versus 33% misreading), especially at the upper and lower ranges of bG values when visual readings are least accurate, and the need for therapeutic intervention is the greatest.

  18. Lower fasting blood glucose in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Jansen, Ann Kristine; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Matos, Camila Maria; Souza, Marcio Leandro Ribeiro; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Riccardi, Vincent Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate a lower occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level is the main criterion used to diagnose DM and glucose intolerance. Therefore, this study compared FBG level between adults with NF1 and non-NF1 controls. We selected clinical records of 57 out of 701 individuals attending the Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The selected patients with NF1 were matched to non-NF1 controls selected from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health according to sex, age (range, 35–74 years) and BMI at a ratio of 1:3. In both groups, individuals with DM were excluded. Median FBG level in the NF1 group (86 mg/dl (range, 56–127 mg/dl)) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (102 mg/dl (range, 85–146 mg/dl)) (P<0.001). Prevalence of FBG level ≥100 mg/dl in the NF1 group (16%) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (63%) (P<0.05). The chance of a high FBG level was 89% lower in the NF1 group (odds ratio, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.067–0.188) (P<0.05). In conclusion, adults with NF1 showed a lower FBG level and a lower prevalence of high FBG level compared with non-NF1 controls. PMID:26631381

  19. Levels of Blood Glucose and Total Protein of Repeat Breeding Dairy Cows From Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhasia Ramandani

    2015-11-01

    breeding case had lower blood glucose and total protein plasm concentrations than that of the normal. The average concentrations of blood glucose and total protein plasm were 48.58±6.675 mg/dl and 6.815±821 g/dl, respectively.

  20. Trends in practice of blood glucose control in critically ill patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R. T. M.; Eslami, S.; de Keizer, N. F.; Bakhshi-Raiez, F.; Bosman, R. J.; Dongelmans, D. A.; van der Voort, P. H. J.; Streefkerk, J. O.; Engelbrecht, W. J.; ten Cate, J.; Huissoon, S.; van Driel, E. M.; van Dijk, I.; Cimic, N.; Beck, O. F. T.; Snellen, F. T. F.; Holman, N. D.; Mulder, H. C.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Schultz, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Publication of the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial in 2009 and several observational studies caused a change in the recommendations for blood glucose control in intensive care patients. We evaluated local trends in blood

  1. Quantify Glucose Level in Freshly Diabetic's Blood by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the capability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to quantify glucose level in ex vivo freshly diabetic's blood. By investigating the THz spectra of different human blood, we find out THz absorption coefficients reflect a high sensitivity to the glucose level in blood. With a quantitative analysis of 70 patients, we demonstrate that the THz absorption coefficients and the blood glucose levels perform a linear relationship. A comparative experiment between THz measurement and glucometers is also conducted with another 20 blood samples, and the results confirm that the relative error is as less as 15%. Our ex vivo human blood study indicates that THz technique has great potential application to diagnose blood glucose level in clinical practice.

  2. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  3. The clinical performance of the EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Lin, Jui-Jane; Hung, Sheng-tien; Chun, Peng-Ting; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2012-07-11

    The novel technique of blood volume detection can improve the reliability and accuracy of a self-monitoring blood glucose system. Self-management of diabetes can be improved, and the glycemic range can be efficiently controlled. A total of 153 patients with diabetes mellitus participated in the clinical study. The accuracy, blood volume detection, interference, and altitude effect of the EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system were evaluated and compared among the fingerstick, alternative site testing, and venous blood. The EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system with fingertip demonstrated an excellent correlation with venous blood (linear regression analysis: slope=1.01, intercept=-0.8972 mg/dl, r(2)=0.96), and with other brands of glucose systems (linear regression analysis: slope=0.99, intercept=+3.5632 mg/dl, r(2)=0.94). The Clarke error grid analysis indicated that the results of fingertip and alternative sites were in the acceptable zones, A and B. The system required 0.6 ul of a blood sample to obtain an accurate reading, and was unaffected by several interferents and altitude. The EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system using various blood samples demonstrated acceptable accuracy and reliability compared to the laboratory reference and other self-monitoring blood glucose systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of four portable blood glucose meters in diabetic and non-diabetic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jeong, In-Seong; Choi, Gab-Chol; Park, Hee-Myung

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of an animal's blood glucose concentration is critical for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Over the past few decades, portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) have been used to monitor blood glucose concentrations in animals. Recently, new and improved PBGMs have been made available on the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four PBGMs for use in dogs and cats. A total of 155 venous blood samples of dogs and 85 venous blood samples of cats were tested using four PBGMs. Control solutions from manufacturers were used to determine the precision of each meter. The coefficient of variation was calculated to determine precision during a set of replicates. Pearson's correlation analysis, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine the accuracy of four PBGMs against the hexokinase reference method. Error grid analysis was used to evaluate clinical relevance. All PBGMs, except CERA-PET®, were clinically acceptable for monitoring blood glucose concentrations; AlphaTrak® and VetMate® appeared to be the most accurate ones, demonstrating that to use PBGMs for glucose monitoring, it is important to understand the strengths or limitations of each meter. The difference in results between the PBGMs and the reference method increased at high glucose concentration ranges, which were also affected by the hematocrit. Although readings of the PBGMs and the reference method varied across glycemic ranges (low, normal, and high glucose concentrations), most PBGMs were clinically acceptable for monitoring blood glucose concentrations in dogs and cats.

  5. Clinical results from a noninvasive blood glucose monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas B.; Ruchti, Timothy L.; Lorenz, Alex D.; Monfre, Stephen L.; Makarewicz, M. R.; Mattu, Mutua; Hazen, Kevin

    2002-05-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has long been proposed as a means for advancing the management of diabetes through increased measurement and control. The use of a near-infrared, NIR, spectroscopy based methodology for noninvasive monitoring has been pursued by a number of groups. The accuracy of the NIR measurement technology is limited by challenges related to the instrumentation, the heterogeneity and time-variant nature of skin tissue, and the complexity of the calibration methodology. In this work, we discuss results from a clinical study that targeted the evaluation of individual calibrations for each subject based on a series of controlled calibration visits. While the customization of the calibrations to individuals was intended to reduce model complexity, the extensive requirements for each individual set of calibration data were difficult to achieve and required several days of measurement. Through the careful selection of a small subset of data from all samples collected on the 138 study participants in a previous study, we have developed a methodology for applying a single standard calibration to multiple persons. The standard calibrations have been applied to a plurality of individuals and shown to be persistent over periods greater than 24 weeks.

  6. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city.METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288 of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics.RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively.CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved.

  7. Effectiveness of exclusive self-monitoring of fasting capillary blood glucose in the treatment of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Amancio Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the efficacy of the exclusive self-monitoring of the fasting capillary blood glucose in the control and treatment of diabetic patients. This is a quasi-experimental study, for which five individuals with diabetes were selected, who perform only the fasting capillary blood glucose monitoring, being added about seven other measurements, a variable number according to the individual availability of the volunteer, at different times throughout the day. It was verified that four individuals presented blood glucose values by the use of the fasting capillary blood glucose monitoring, within the parameters of normality for diabetics, between 70-130 mg dL-1 of blood (ADA, 2014b, although in the other measurements, they presented values far from the ideal goal, in a significant part of the time. The study outlines a trend that shows that the glycemic monitoring values based solely on the fasting capillary blood glucose is ineffective, since they can erroneously indicate satisfactory control of the blood glucose levels. Based on the results obtained, to a more effective monitoring and which denotes levels of reliability, it is required at least three measurements of capillary blood glucose throughout the day, and also, the importance of long laboratory tests for glycemic monitoring, such as glycated hemoglobin.

  8. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  9. STRING BEAN JUICE DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-post test control group design and purposive sampling.  The population were all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Puskesmas Pacar Keling Surabaya. Sample were 12 patients who met inclusion criteria. The independent variable was string bean juice and dependent variable was blood glucose level. Data were analyzed by using Paired T-test with significance level of α≤ 0.05 and Independent T-test with significant level of α≤0.05. Result: The results showed that string bean juice has an effect on decreasing blood glucose between pre test and post test for blood glucose with independent T-test is p=0.003. Analysis: In conclusion, string bean juice has an effect on blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Discussion: The possible explanation for this findings is string bean juice contains two ingredients: thiamine and fiber. Thiamine helps support insulin receptors and glucose transporter in cells hence GLUT-4 could translocated to the cell membrane brought glucouse enter to the  intracellular compartment, that leads to blood glucouse level well regulated.  Dietary fiber reduces food transit time so slowing the glucose absorption. Therefore blood glucose level will be decreased.

  10. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  11. [Mathematical Modeling of the Blood Glucose Regulation System in Diabetes Mellitus Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel'ev, V A; Filippov, Yu I; Tarasov, Yu V; Boyarsky, M D; Mayorov, A Yu; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the mathematical modeling of the carbohydrate metabolism regulation system increases in recent years. This is associated with a "closed loop" insulin pump development (it controls an insulin infusion depending on the blood glucose level). To create an algorithm for the automatic control of insulin (and other hormones) infusion using an insulin pump it is necessary to accurately predict glycaemia level. So, the primary objective of mathematical modeling is to predict the blood glucose level changes, caused by the wide range of external factors. This review discusses the main mathematical models of blood glucose level control physiological system (simplified insulin-glucose system). The two major classes of models--empirical and theoretical--are described in detail. The ideal mathematical model of carbohydrate metabolism regulatory system is absent. However, the success in the field of blood glucose level control modeling and simulating is essentialfor the further development of diabetes prevention and treatment technologies, and creating an artificial pancreas in particular.

  12. SPCE based glucose sensor employing novel thermostable glucose dehydrogenase, FADGDH: blood glucose measurement with 150nL sample in one second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Hideaki; Sode, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of the modern therapy for diabetes mellitus. Thanks to the current progress in electronics and sensor fabrication technology, both the time and the blood sample volume required for the measurement have decreased drastically. However, devices that work with an even smaller sample volume and a shorter measurement time are in demand. A disposable glucose sensor that works with an ultra-small sample volume was developed employing the novel thermostable glucose-dehydrogenase (FADGDH) complex composed of a catalytic subunit, an electron transfer subunit (cytochrome c), and a small subunit. The electrode is a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), and hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride (Ru complex) is utilized as the electron mediator. A disposable enzyme sensor was constructed by depositing the FADGDH complex and Ru complex onto the SPCE, and the sensor performance was evaluated. Whole-blood glucose can be measured within 1 sec using this enzyme sensor and a 150-nL whole-blood sample, with high precision (>0.99br>) and high reproducibility (CV) within the glucose concentration range of 0-533 mg/dL. The sensor reading was stable for more than 60 days even at 70 degrees C. The simplicity of the construction and the high precision of this FADGDH-based glucose biosensor makes it an alternative to previously reported commercially available glucose sensors. Especially the sample volume of 150 nL and the 1-sec measurement time are the highest specifications in the world for currently available glucose sensors designed for the SMBG.

  13. Blood Glucose Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 4 screens]. Available from: http://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/glucose-tolerence-test/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health ...

  14. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=-0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=-0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254-3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007-1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women. Moreover, both

  15. The experiences of diabetics on self-monitoring of blood glucose: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Chang Yeh, Mei

    2015-03-01

    To interpret, describe and analyse the results of various qualitative studies and comprehensively elucidate the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients, and to make recommendations based on these findings for clinical practices. Patients exhibited both positive and negative perceptions towards the self-monitoring of blood glucose. Numerous recent qualitative studies have explored the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients; however, no integrated results have been provided. Qualitative metasynthesis. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between January 2004 and April 2014. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Airiti library and PsycInfo. Seven studies were assessed in the final analysis; the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to evaluate these studies. The self-monitoring experiences of patients with diabetes were divided into five themes: perceived disease severity, effects on daily life, lifestyle adjustments after becoming aware of blood glucose levels, determining the meaning of self-monitoring, and the differences between diabetic patients who use and do not use insulin. Individual differences in blood glucose self-monitoring vary widely among diabetic patients. These differences result from personal cognition and feelings concerning blood glucose monitoring. Insights into and discussions regarding the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients enable health care professionals to understand the factors that influence the intentions of patients to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose and facilitate establishing customised self-monitoring of blood glucose treatment plans. Health care professionals must adopt flexible and individualised criteria to determine patient cognitive misconceptions, understand negative emotional reactions and

  16. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We...... and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money...

  18. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  19. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  20. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Mathuradas Mohota College of Sciences, Nagpur-440009 (India); Dahikar, P. B., E-mail: pbdahikar@rediffmail.com [Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  1. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  2. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  3. Control of Blood Glucose for People with Type 1 Diabetes: an in Vivo Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Schmidt, Signe; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Since continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology and insulin pumps have improved recent years, a strong interest in a closed-loop articial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes has arisen. Presently, a fully automated controller of blood glucose must face many challenges, such as daily...... variations of patient's physiology and lack of accuracy of glucose sensors. In this paper we design and discuss an algorithm for overnight closed-loop control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The algorithm is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). We use an oset-free autoregressive model...... during daytime. These trials demonstrate the importance of observer design in ARMAX models and show the possibility of stabilizing blood glucose during the night....

  4. Non-invasive blood glucose monitor based on spectroscopy using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantu, Vishnu; Vempati, Jagannadh; Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Development of a novel method for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration using smartphone is discussed. Our research work has three major contributions to society and science. First, we modified and extended the Beer-Lambert's law in physics to accommodate for multiple wavelengths. This extension can aid researchers who wish to perform optical spectroscopy. Second, we successfully developed a creative and non-invasive way for diabetic patients to measure glucose levels via a smartphone. Researchers and chemists can now use their smartphones to determine the absorbance and, therefore, concentration of a chemical. Third, we created an inexpensive way to perform optical spectroscopy by using a smartphone. Monitoring blood glucose using a smartphone application that simply uses equipment already available on smartphones will improve the lives of diabetic patients who can continuously check their blood glucose levels while avoiding the current inconvenient, unhygienic, and costly invasive glucose meters.

  5. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  6. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work

  7. Increasing Blood Glucose Variability Is a Precursor of Sepsis and Mortality in Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pisarchik, Alexander N.; Pochepen, Olga N.; Pisarchyk, Liudmila A.

    2012-01-01

    High glycemic variability, rather than a mean glucose level, is an important factor associated with sepsis and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. In this retrospective study we analyze the blood glucose data of 172 nondiabetic patients 18-60 yrs old with second and third-degree burns of total body surface area greater than 30% and 5%, respectively, admitted to ICU in 2004-2008. The analysis identified significant association of increasing daily glucose excursion (DELTA) accompanie...

  8. Within-Individual Hematocrit Variations and Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, Kaila A.; Cembrowski, George S.

    2013-01-01

    Many self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) systems have generated artefactually increased glucose results in low-hematocrit patients (e.g., intensive care unit and renal failure patients); conversely, these devices could produce artefactually decreased glucose results in high-hematocrit patients (e.g., neonates). The introduction of hematocrit-independent SMBG systems permits more accurate testing in anemic or polycythemic individuals. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Techno...

  9. Interstitial Glucose and Lactate Levels Are Inversely Correlated With the Body Mass Index: Need for In Vivo Calibration of Glucose Sensor Results With Blood Values in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, Barbara; Moser, Isabella; Kannan, Cecil; Schwab, Karl Otfried; Urban, Gerald

    2018-03-01

    Continuously measured glucose and lactate levels in interstitial fluid (ISF) may markedly differ from their respective blood levels. Combining microdialysis with a bioanalytical microsystem, the interstitial glucose and lactate concentrations of eight male volunteers with different body mass index (BMI) were monitored during a 2-fold glucose tolerance test over the period of three hours. Significant correlations were found between abdominally measured sensor results and reference measurements ( R 2 = .967 for glucose and R 2 = .936 for lactate, P 34 kg/m 2 showed abdominally as well as the antebrachially significantly reduced tissue glucose values compared to blood glucose values ( P < .001). A very good correlation between abdominally measured sensor results and the results of the reference method verified the reliability of the BioMEMS. The abdominally measured glucose level in ISF decreased significantly with increasing BMI. Therefore, an in vivo calibration of glucose levels in ISF with blood levels seems to be necessary especially in markedly obese subjects.

  10. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...

  11. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  12. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2015-11-11

    dose ... hypoglycemic effect in rats, no negative effect was observed on lipid profile. KEY WORDS: Tartrazine E102; glucose; haematological; cholesterol; triacylglycerol ... sulfanilic acid and aminopyrazolone. The pyrazolone ...

  13. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  14. Effect of blood glucose level on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Haibo; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Zuo Chuantao; Hua Fengchun; Tang Wenying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood glucose level on the image quality of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging. Methods: Eighty patients referred to the authors' department for routine whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT check up were recruited into this study. The patients were classified into 9 groups according to their blood glucose level: normal group avg and SUV max ) of liver on different slices. SPSS 12.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: (1) There were significant differences among the 9 groups in image quality scores and image noises (all P avg and SUV max : 0.60 and 0.33, P<0.05). Conclusions: The higher the blood glucose level, the worse the image quality. When the blood glucose level is more than or equal to 12.0 mmol/L, the image quality will significantly degrade. (authors)

  15. 75 FR 2549 - Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    .... When registering, you must provide your name, title, company or organization (if applicable), address... and clinical use of blood glucose meters, to share ideas on the challenges associated with their use...

  16. Effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students.

  17. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos T Tsaousis

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study confirms that dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels are prevalent among the rural populations of Greece and therefore informative campaigns and structured screening programs are required to promote preventive health care.

  18. Assessing portable blood glucose meters for clinical use in cats in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobromylskyj, M J; Sparkes, A H

    2010-09-18

    The aims of this study were to evaluate six portable blood glucose meters for use in cats in a clinical setting and to identify potential sources of inaccuracy such as the effect of glucose concentration and haematocrit. Excess fluorinated whole-blood samples were obtained and were tested using the six meters and a reference laboratory method. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and an error grid analysis was performed, using a grid adapted in this study for diabetic cats. Error grids are a clinically oriented non-parametric approach to blood glucose data, and are designed to determine whether differences between glucometer and laboratory readings are clinically significant. All the meters studied had the potential to under- or overestimate blood glucose levels to varying degrees throughout the glycaemic range. This variation was not consistent enough to be predictable and correctable. The study failed to demonstrate any link between haematocrit and difference between laboratory and glucometer readings.

  19. Dimethylarginines, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Gudjoncik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that in patients with acute MI, SDMA, and only weakly ADMA, are associated with admission blood glucose, beyond traditional dimethylarginine determinants and may therefore have biological activity beyond renal function.

  20. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  1. Opto-acoustic monitoring of blood optical properties as a function of glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednov, Andrey A.; Savateeva, Elena V.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2003-06-01

    Time-resolved optoacoustic (OA) method was employed to measure changes in glucose concentration in the whole and diluted blood. An increase of the glucose level in tissue results in a corresponding decrease of optical scattering. Relative changes in tissue optical scattering can be obtained by measuring the effective optical attenuation coefficient, μeff by exponential fitting of the time-resolved optoacoustic profiles. Glucose effects in blood have been investigated using the forward mode of OA detection performed in the visible (at the wavelength, λ=532 nm) and near infrared (λ=1064 nm) spectral ranges. In our previous set of experiments, the OA studies performed in model media in vitro and biological tissue (sclera) in vivo demonstrated gradual reduction of optical scattering with the increase in glucose level. The present study has supported our previous observations. However, one novel effect was observed comprised of a transient increase in μeff during the first 5-10 minutes after injection of glucose. This phenomenon may be explained by changes in erythrocytes shape and size as a result of their adaptation to hyperglycemic conditions. Our observation was supported by light microscopy images of red blood cells under normal and hyperglycemic conditions. With glucose concentration changing rapidly (osmotic shock), any small reduction in ´eff due to the glucose-induced decrease of relative refraction index of blood, can be compensated or even overwhelmed by the increase in ´eff due to erythrocyte shrinkage and/or spherulation. Further cellular adaptation to glucose make erythrocytes return to their normal shape of biconcave disks about 7-μm in diameter. The kinetics of the effective optical attenuation was studies in response to glucose injection in order to better understand the mechanisms of erythrocyte adaptation to osmotic shock and to determine the time course of RBCs adaptation to various glucose concentrations. Finally, Mannitol as alternative

  2. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabet...

  3. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  4. Glucometer as a chairside device to assess blood glucose in periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Bala Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common finding in the medical history of patients receiving treatment for periodontal disease. The incidence of diabetes is on the rise worldwide. Virtually, every dentist and especially the periodontist are likely to encounter an increasing number of undiagnosed diabetic patients. The conventional laboratory methods employed to detect blood glucose are time consuming and require elaborative equipment. The advent of blood glucose monitors allows the clinician to assess blood glucose at the chair side. Materials and Methods: The use of gingival capillary blood as a marker for blood glucose estimation using glucometer against the conventional laboratory method has been assessed in 60 diabetics and 70 controls. Results: The correlation between gingival and finger-stick blood was r = 0.996, P<0.001 in diabetics and controls. Correlation between gingival and laboratory method was r = 0.994, P<0.001 in cases and controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that capillary blood from the outer surface of gingiva provide an acceptable source for measuring blood glucose.

  5. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Laura Sterian; Novis, Renata Britto; Nascimento, Veridiana Toledo; Nóbrega, Miriam Siesler; Saad, Mário José Abdalla

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98). There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05).This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of ...

  6. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    Full Text Available We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98. There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05.This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of diabetes mellitus, and may also be very useful in the diagnosis of postprandial hypoglycemia and other special situations.

  7. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid ionic regulation, cerebral blood flow, and glucose use during chronic metabolic alkalosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeck, H.K.; Kuschinsky, W. (Univ. of Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-10-01

    Chronic metabolic alkalosis was induced in rats by combining a low K+ diet with a 0.2 M NaHCO3 solution as drinking fluid for either 15 or 27 days. Local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization were measured in 31 different structures of the brain in conscious animals by means of the iodo-(14C)antipyrine and 2-(14C)deoxy-D-glucose method. The treatment induced moderate (15 days, base excess (BE) 16 mM) to severe (27 days, BE 25 mM) hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and K+ depletion. During moderate metabolic alkalosis no change in cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow was detectable in most brain structures when compared with controls. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K+ and H+ concentrations were significantly decreased. During severe hypochloremic alkalosis, cerebral blood flow was decreased by 19% and cerebral glucose utilization by 24% when compared with the control values. The decrease in cerebral blood flow during severe metabolic alkalosis is attributed mainly to the decreased cerebral metabolism and to a lesser extent to a further decrease of the CSF H+ concentration. CSF K+ concentration was not further decreased. The results show an unaltered cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a decrease in CSF H+ and K+ concentrations at moderate metabolic alkalosis and a decrease in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a further decreased CSF H+ concentration at severe metabolic alkalosis.

  9. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  10. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  11. Effects of 50 mg vildagliptin twice daily vs. 50 mg sitagliptin once daily on blood glucose fluctuations evaluated by long-term self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Kimachi, Kimihiko; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kameda, Hiraku; Cho, Kyu Yong; Nakamura, Akinobu; Nagai, So; Kondo, Takuma; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-04-29

    To date, several clinical trials have compared differences in glucose fluctuation observed with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, most patients were assessed for limited periods or during hospitalization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of switching from sitagliptin to vildagliptin, or vice versa, on 12-week glucose fluctuations using self-monitoring of blood glucose in the standard care setting. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label controlled trial in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-two patients were treated with vildagliptin (50 mg) twice daily or sitagliptin (50 mg) once daily and were allocated to one of two groups: vildagliptin treatment for 12 weeks before switching to sitagliptin for 12 weeks, or vice versa. Daily profiles of blood glucose were assessed several times during each treatment period, and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions and M-value were calculated. Metabolic biomarkers such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol were also assessed. With vildagliptin treatment, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions was significantly improved compared with sitagliptin treatment (57.9 ± 22.2 vs. 68.9 ± 33.0 mg/dL; p=0.0045). M-value (p=0.019) and mean blood glucose (p=0.0021) were also lower with vildagliptin, as were HbA1c, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. There were no significant differences in other metabolic parameters evaluated. Reduction of daily blood glucose profile fluctuations by vildagliptin was superior to that of sitagliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  13. Low blood glucose precipitates spike-and-wave activity in genetically predisposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Historical achievements of self-monitoring of blood glucose technology development in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeki

    2011-09-01

    Japanese companies were the first in the world to achieve a colorimetric glucose measurement meter back in 1973. Over the following 40 or so years, they succeeded in achieving a much greater level of user-friendliness and performance and in so doing, have contributed to the spread of self-monitoring of blood glucose. This article aims to unravel the history of blood glucose measurement's technological developments; to look at the direction and features of the development path Japan is taking; as well as to introduce some Japanese products that are on the market. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), in which the blood glucose level is higher than normal but not as high as in diabetes, is also a major public health problem. People with IGT have a higher risk of developing T2D and CVD, and especially the magnitude and duration of the postprandial blood glucose concentration (PPG) seems of crucial importance. In Norway, immigrants from...

  16. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  17. Data Based Prediction of Blood Glucose Concentrations Using Evolutionary Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J Ignacio; Colmenar, J Manuel; Kronberger, Gabriel; Winkler, Stephan M; Garnica, Oscar; Lanchares, Juan

    2017-08-08

    Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections. In particular, we use the following four techniques: genetic programming, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, and grammatical evolution. We propose two new enhanced modeling algorithms for glucose prediction, namely (i) a variant of grammatical evolution which uses an optimized grammar, and (ii) a variant of tree-based genetic programming which uses a three-compartment model for carbohydrate and insulin dynamics. The predictors were trained and tested using data of ten patients from a public hospital in Spain. We analyze our experimental results using the Clarke error grid metric and see that 90% of the forecasts are correct (i.e., Clarke error categories A and B), but still even the best methods produce 5 to 10% of serious errors (category D) and approximately 0.5% of very serious errors (category E). We also propose an enhanced genetic programming algorithm that incorporates a three-compartment model into symbolic regression models to create smoothed time series of the original carbohydrate and insulin time series.

  18. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakmak HA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Altug Cakmak,1 Burcu Dincgez Cakmak,2 Ayse Ender Yumru,3 Serkan Aslan,4 Asim Enhos,1 Ali Kemal Kalkan,4 Ebru Inci Coskun,5 Abdullah Serdar Acikgoz,6 Suat Karatas3 1Department of Cardiology, Mustafakemalpasa Government Hospital, Bursa, 2Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Rize Kackar Government Hospital, Rize, 3Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Inonu University, Malatya, 6Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups.Results: Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003, and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001 were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001, and

  20. Institutional point-of-care glucometer identifies population trends in blood glucose associated with war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Matas, Zipora; Chaimy, Tova; Landau, Zohar; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Berlovitz, Yitzhak; Wainstein, Julio

    2013-11-01

    Acute physiological stress has been shown to impair glucose homeostasis. War is a period of acute psychological stress, and its effect on glucose control is unknown. In this study random point-of-care (POC) glucose levels were measured using an automated, institutional glucometer in hospitalized adult patients prior to versus during the Israeli Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012). Random POC glucose values measured with the institutional blood glucose monitoring system were obtained 1 week prior to the Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012) and compared with values to those obtained during the first 4 days of the war (November 14-17, 2012). In total, 3,573 POC glucose measures were included: 1,865 during the pre-war period and 1,708 during the campaign. POC glucose measures were significantly higher during the war compared with the week preceding the war: 9.7±4.7 versus 9.3±4.2 mmol/L (P=0.02). In a general linear model, period (pre-war vs. during war) persisted as a significant predictor of POC glucose even after controlling for age, sex, and department type (internal medicine vs. surgical). Acute stress, such as a wartime situation, is associated with a significant increase in random blood glucose values in a population of hospitalized adults. Long-term follow-up of the individuals hospitalized during these two periods can reveal differences in morbidity and mortality trends.

  1. Introduction of the glucose meter as a tool of self-monitoring of blood glucose for patients from Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Corral de Arêa Leão Souza

    2014-04-01

    Introduction: the introduction of home blood glucose monitoring aimed autonomy for patient self-care, result in reducing the complications of Diabetes mellitus (DM. Objectives: evaluate and analyze the evolution of HbA1c levels in insulin-dependent patients in Santos/SP after the introduction of blood glucose self-monitoring. Methods: through a transversal study with patient forms, it has been selected a sample of 20% of insulin-dependent patients total (160/800 patients according to age range and sex. Those data was analyzed through the SPSS 15.0 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago-IL using ANOVA test with repeated measures, comparing the mean values from before the use of the home self-monitoring with the values of tests performed after its introduction, in order to identify reduction or not of the HbA1c patients' values. This study was approved by ethics committees of UNIFESP and by Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Santos. Results: of the 157 used records, with a total of 471 HbA1c values, only five (3.2% belonged to the range of 21 - 40 years, the range of 41 - 60 years presented with higher population possessing 47 patients (30% and those over 60 years prevailed in the study with 105 patients listed (66.9%. The HbA1c values presented a statically significant reduction after 6 months from starting use the glucose meter with P < 0.05 (0.014, demonstrating that after six months of glucose meter use, it was noticed the statistic reduction in HbA1c levels. Conclusions: the home self-monitoring of blood glucose, coupled with drug intervention, reduces HbA1c levels in a six-month interval.

  2. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  3. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  4. Examination of liver and muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... consist 1% of the total body weight. This source is sufficient to provide the energy need for a .... Atlantic salmon consists 0.5 to 9.5% of the liver weight. Ali and Jauncey (2005) stated that liver glycogen ..... Plasma glucose and liver glycogen of. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to petrol. J. Fish. Int.

  5. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum or hepatic levels of lipid, proinflammatory factors, malondialdehyde (MDA) .... Animals were housed under a constant 12-h light and dark cycle and in an environment of 21 - 23 °C. To test the effect of DZ in normal mice, the animals were randomly divided into ..... hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic db/db.

  6. Blood glucose control in the intensive care unit: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Jan; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal blood glucose levels are common during critical illness and are associated with outcomes that correspond to a J-shaped curve, the lowest risk associated with normoglycemia. Three proof-of-concept randomized-controlled-trials performed in the surgical, medical, and pediatric intensive care units of the Leuven University Hospital in Belgium demonstrated that maintaining strict age-adjusted normal fasting levels of glycemia (80-110 mg/dl in adults, 70-100 mg/dl in children, 50-80 mg/dl in infants) with intensive insulin therapy reduced morbidity and mortality as compared with tolerating stress hyperglycemia as a potentially beneficial response. Recently, concern has risen about the safety of this intervention, as a multicenter adult study reported an, as yet unexplained, increased mortality with targeting normoglycemia as compared with an intermediate blood glucose level of around 140 mg/dl. This apparent contradiction may be explained by several methodological differences among studies, comprising, among others, different glucose target ranges in the control groups, different feeding policies, and variable accuracy of tools used for glucose measurement and insulin infusion. Hence, efficacy and safety of intensive insulin therapy may be affected by patient-related and ICU setting-related variables. Therefore, no single optimal blood glucose target range for ICU patients can be advocated. It appears safe not to embark on targeting "age-normal" levels in intensive care units (ICUs) that are not equipped to accurately and frequently measure blood glucose, and have not acquired extensive experience with intravenous insulin administration using a customized guideline. A simple fallback position could be to control blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible without evoking unacceptable blood glucose fluctuations, hypoglycemia, and hypokalemia.

  7. On the suitability of refractometry for the analysis of glucose in blood-derived fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirk, K; Poetzschke, H

    2004-07-01

    Refractometry is the determination of the optical refractive index of a substance or a mixture of substances. It is a very sensitive method for the detection and quantification of dissolved analytes, but it is incapable of distinguishing between different analytes. The aim of this investigation was to determine the principle suitability of refractometry for the quantification of glucose (blood sugar) in blood and various blood fluids which can readily be obtained for medical diagnosis, in particular blood plasma, blood serum, and their ultrafiltrates. After the oral intake of freshly dissolved alpha-glucose, the in vivo blood contents of the alpha and beta anomers of glucose were found to be in an at least approximate equilibrium at all times. This observation is a prerequisite for a refractometrical determination of glucose due to the fact that both molecule forms have different refractive index increments. An assessment of the glucose content in untreated blood fluids was not possible, since no suitable relationship to the refractive index was found, most probably due to the influence of the many other substances present in blood on this parameter. However, after removal of certain macromolecules by ultrafiltration, value pairs showed a high level of correlation, providing the nominal molecular weight limit (cut-off) of the ultrafilter used possessed a maximum of 300 kDa. Besides macromolecules, the osmolality of the fluids undergoing measurement also proved to be a considerable interfering factor, particularly when values were outside the normal physiological range between 285 and 293 mmol/L. If a clinical application of this method is to be contemplated it is imperative (1) that blood cells are separated and removed, (2) that macromolecules present in plasma or serum are removed, e.g. by ultrafiltration, and (3) that beyond the results presented the influence of all small molecules other than glucose on the overall refractive index be determined and included in

  8. Quality assessment of patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose in community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjome RL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate diabetes patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose using a community pharmacy-based quality assurance procedure, to investigate whether the procedure improved the quality of the patient performance of self monitoring of blood glucose, and to examine the opinions of the patients taking part in the study. Methods: The results of patient blood glucose measurements were compared to the results obtained with HemoCue Glucose 201+ by pharmacy employees in 16 Norwegian community pharmacies. Patient performance was monitored using an eight item checklist. Patients whose blood glucose measurements differed from pharmacy measurements by more than 20% were instructed in the correct use of their glucometer. The patients then re-measured their blood glucose. If the results were still outside the set limits, the control procedure was repeated with a new lot of glucometer strips, and then with a new glucometer. The patients returned for a follow-up visit after three months. Results: During the first visit, 5% of the 338 patients had measurements that deviated from pharmacy blood glucose values by more than 20% and user errors were observed for 50% of the patients. At the second visit, there was no significant change in the analytical quality of patient measurements, but the percentage of patients who made user errors had decreased to 29% (p < 0.001. Eighty-five percent of the patients reported that they used their blood glucose results to adjust medication, exercise or meals. Fifty-one percent of the patients reported a greater trust in their measurements after the second visit. Eighty percent of patients wished to have their measurements assessed yearly. Of these patients, 83% preferred to have the assessment done at the community pharmacy. Conclusion: A community pharmacy-based quality assessment procedure of patients’ self monitoring of blood glucose significantly reduced the number of user errors. The analytical quality of the

  9. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : Professional Advice and Daily Practice of Patients With Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; van der Bijl, Jaap J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the advice given by diabetes educators in Europe, and the daily practice of Dutch patients with diabetes regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood and other aspects concerning self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Method During a diabetes conference in

  10. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  11. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... and metabolism was originally performed using the Kety-Schmidt method and this method still represent the gold standard by which subsequent methods have been evaluated. However, in its classical setting, the method overestimates cerebral blood flow. Studies of metabolic changes during activation must take...... difficulties due to limitation in resolution and partial volume effects. In contrast to the tight coupling between regional glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow, there is an uncoupling between flow and oxygen consumption as the latter only increases to a limited extend. The excess glucose uptake is thus...

  12. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-12-03

    The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 18,231 Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. The PA levels of the respondents were categorised as low, moderate or high according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short form. Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a digital blood pressure-measuring device and finger-prick test, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) level was positively associated with PA level (p = 0.02) whilst no significant association was noted between PA level and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In contrast, respondents with low (adjusted coefficient = 0.17) or moderate (adjusted coefficient = 0.03) level of PA had significantly higher blood glucose level as compared to those who were highly active (p = 0.04). A significant negative association was observed between PA level and blood glucose only. Future studies should employ an objective measurement in estimating PA level in order to elucidate the actual relationship between PA, hypertension and diabetes for the development of effective interventions to combat the increasing burden of premature-mortality and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity in Malaysia.

  13. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  14. Glycolysis in the control of blood glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Guo; Honggui Li; Hang Xu; Shihlung Woo; Hui Dong; Fuer Lu; Alex J. Lange; Chaodong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Glycolysis, a simple pathway of glucose metabolism, critically regulates insulin secretion and metabolic functions of various cells. Depending on cell types, rates of glycolysis are determined at various steps of glycolysis that are subjected to the control of key metabolic and regulatory enzyme(s), which include glucokinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. These enzymes are regulated by both nutritional and hormonal signals at the levels of...

  15. Effects of exposure to malathion on blood glucose concentration: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Vargas, Marco Antonio; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Uriostegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Alvarez-Fitz, Patricia; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Moreno-Godinez, Ma Elena

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to malathion (an organophosphate pesticide widely used around the world) has been associated with alterations in blood glucose concentration in animal models. However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether malathion exposure can disturb the concentrations of blood glucose in exposed rats. We performed a literature search of online databases including PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar and reviewed original articles that analyzed the relation between malathion exposure and glucose levels in animal models. The selection of articles was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The database search identified thirty-five possible articles, but only eight fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The effect of malathion on blood glucose concentration showed a non-monotonic dose-response curve. In addition, pooled analysis showed that blood glucose concentrations were 3.3-fold higher in exposed rats than in the control group (95% CI, 2-5; Z = 3.9; p < 0.0001) in a random-effect model. This result suggested that alteration of glucose homeostasis is a possible mechanism of toxicity associated with exposure to malathion.

  16. Dapagliflozin-lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrand, Annika; Wingren, Cecilia; Benjamin, Audra; Tregoning, John S; Garnett, James P; Groves, Helen; Gill, Simren; Orogo-Wenn, Maria; Lundqvist, Anders J; Walters, Dafydd; Smith, David M; Taylor, John D; Baker, Emma H; Baines, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti-diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid-filled lung technique. Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Glycolysis in the control of blood glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycolysis, a simple pathway of glucose metabolism, critically regulates insulin secretion and metabolic functions of various cells. Depending on cell types, rates of glycolysis are determined at various steps of glycolysis that are subjected to the control of key metabolic and regulatory enzyme(s, which include glucokinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. These enzymes are regulated by both nutritional and hormonal signals at the levels of transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. In hepatocytes, glycolysis is involved in the control of hepatic glucose production. The latter, when excessive, contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. In pancreatic β cells, glycolysis couples glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Absolute or relatively low levels of circulating insulin causes hyperglycemia. In adipocytes, glycolysis generates metabolites for lipogenesis and channels fatty acids from excessive oxidation to triglyceride synthesis, thereby reducing oxidative stress. With increased proinflammatory status, adipocytes produce pro-hyperglycemic factors and bring about hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In hypothalamic neurons, glycolysis conveys nutrient sensing that is related to feeding control. Dysregulation of glycolysis occurs in conditions of insulin deficiency or resistance, and is attributable to inappropriate amount and/or activities of metabolic and regulatory enzymes of glycolysis. Targeting key metabolic and regulatory enzymes to enhance glycolysis may offer viable approaches for treatment of diabetes.

  18. Effect of decrease in both postprandial blood glucose (PBG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in normal beagle dogs with nateglinide enteric coated granules and immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Chisato; Ninomiya, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hidetoshi; Orita, Haruo; Okano, Akira; Yabuki, Akira

    2006-04-01

    Nateglinide is a new quick action/short duration (QRSD) type of oral blood glucose regulator, and nateglinide immediate release tablets are used for patients with mild diabetes under the trade name of Fastic((R)) tablets. In this study, we attempted to determine if it was possible to control both post-prandial blood glucose level (PBG) and fasting blood glucose level (FBG) for moderate or severe diabetes through controlled release of nateglinide. Enteric coated granules were selected for the administration form for controlled release of nateglinide, and three types of enteric coated granules were prepared having dissolution pH values of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.2. The three types of enteric coated granules were each administered separately or the enteric coated granules having an dissolution pH of 6.5 were administered simultaneous to administration of nateglinide immediate release tablets to normal beagle dogs just before feeding followed by measurement of plasma nateglinide concentration, plasma insulin concentration and blood glucose level. In the case of administering enteric coated granules alone (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), the absorption of nateglinide was confirmed to tend to be delayed as the dissolution pH increased. In the case of an dissolution pH of 5.5, decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed. In the case of dissolution pH values of 6.5 and 7.2, only decrease in FBG was observed. In case of nateglinide immediate release tablets (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), only decrease in PBG was observed. Decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed in the case of simultaneous administration of dissolution pH 6.5 enteric coated granules and nateglinide immediate release tablets just before feeding (nateglinide: 90 mg/head+60 mg/head). A correlation was observed between plasma nateglinide concentrations and blood glucose levels. On the other hand, there were no correlations observed between changes in plasma insulin concentrations and blood glucose levels. In case of nateglinide

  19. Influence of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Blood Samples on Measurement Performance in Glucose-Oxidase-Based Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Methods Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: pO2 ~70 mmHg, which is considered to be similar to pO2 in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG result at pO2 pO2 pO2 ≥150 mmHg. For both pO2 levels, relative differences of all tested GOx systems were significant (p pO2 values pO2 variations lead to clinically relevant BG measurement deviations in GOx systems, even in GOx systems that are not labeled as being oxygen sensitive. PMID:24351177

  20. Effect of transmucosal corn syrup application on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; Shaver, Stephanie L; Semick, Danielle N; Bradley, Nancy C; Kreisler, Rachael E

    2018-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a common clinical practice, the transmucosal (TM) application of corn syrup, on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Methods This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five kittens between the age of 8 and 16 weeks scheduled for surgical sterilization by gonadectomy at an animal shelter were enrolled. Kittens were randomly assigned to either a routine treatment group that received the shelter's typical postoperative application of corn syrup immediately following gonadectomy or to a control group that did not receive typical treatment. Three blood glucose measurements were obtained per kitten: baseline reading prior to preoperative examination, immediately postoperatively and 20 mins postoperatively. The median values of the 20 min postoperative blood glucose reading for the control and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Postoperative application of corn syrup to the oral mucosa of kittens did not result in significant elevations in blood glucose compared with controls. No kitten was hypoglycemic (⩽60 mg/dl) at any point during the study. Conclusions and relevance TM application of corn syrup did not affect postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Protocols that use routine TM administration of corn syrup in kittens should be re-evaluated.

  1. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  2. Blood glucose monitoring in type 2 diabetes – Nepalese patients’ opinions and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Sujata; Brien, Jo-anne E; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Blood glucose monitoring forms a vital component of diabetes care. Monitoring conducted at home using glucometers, and in laboratories by professionals, are two common methods of blood glucose monitoring in clinical practice. Objective: To investigate Nepalese patients’ perceptions and practices of blood glucose monitoring in diabetes. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 48 Nepalese participants with type 2 diabetes in Sydney and Kathmandu. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Results: In Australia, most participants perceived home monitoring as useful; and both home and laboratory monitoring were conducted at fairly regular intervals. In Nepal, only a small number conducted home monitoring and the laboratory method formed the primary method of day-to-day monitoring. The laboratory method was preferred due to easy access to laboratories, lack of faith in glucometers and perceptions that home monitoring is costlier. However, overall monitoring was irregular in Nepal. In addition to the healthcare system which enabled cheaper self-monitoring in Australia, Nepalese in Australia also tended to have a better understanding about the purpose of home monitoring. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the disparity in perceptions and practices related to blood glucose monitoring. Understanding the importance of blood glucose monitoring and access to affordable resources are critical facilitators for conducting regular monitoring. Both patient and health-system factors play a key role in ensuring continued diabetes monitoring and management. PMID:28585892

  3. Accuracy and precision of the Prodigy AutoCode blood glucose monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Emily S; Herring, Charles; Russell, Gregory B; Smith, Jennifer D

    2012-04-01

    To assess the accuracy and precision of the Prodigy AutoCode blood glucose monitor. This open-label, prospective equivalence study was conducted at Wilson Community Health Center in Wilson, North Carolina. Accuracy was assessed by comparing finger stick blood glucose values to venipuncture. Precision was assessed by comparing consecutive finger stick blood glucose values from 2 Prodigy AutoCode monitors. Data were analyzed using paired t tests, signed rank tests, regression, and mixed effect models. Fifty-three subjects completed the study. Meter 1 produced 14 (26%) and meter 2 produced 13 (25%) blood glucose readings outside the acceptable error margin of ±20% set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Neither meter was accurate compared to venipuncture (P Prodigy AutoCode demonstrated precision between two different monitors but was inaccurate compared to venipuncture. Less than the required 95% of blood glucose values from each monitor fell within the acceptable 20% error margin relative to venipuncture. All readings outside the acceptable error margin were overestimations, indicating potentially significant safety concerns including untreated or undertreated hypoglycemia.

  4. Conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. Primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in dogs. After an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with [U-14C]glucose (16.9 muCi/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 ± 0.03 mM at basal to a peak of 1.04 ± 0.07 mM at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 ± 0.07 mM at 240 min. Arterial blood 14 Clactate peaked at 60 min and then decreased to ∼ 35% of the peak at 4 h. When arterial blood lactate peaked at 45 min, the proportion of arterial lactate that was derived from oral glucose was 34 ± 3%. The integrated area under the curve of lactate derived from exogenous glucose was 40 ± 2% of that of total lactate. The splanchnic bed released lactate and 14 Clactate during the initial 2 h after oral 14 Cglucose. Thus, the splanchnic bed apparently contributed to the conversion of exogenous glucose to lactate. In the matched experiments (protocol 2, n = 5), dogs were given the same amount of oral glucose but no 14 Cglucose, and [U-14C]lactate was infused into the right atrium to match the splanchnic 14 Clactate release from the first experiment. Despite a well-matched splanchnic 14 Clactate contribution, arterial concentrations of 14 Clactate were markedly lower in protocol 2 compared with protocol 1. The integrated area under the 14 Clactate profile in protocol 2 was only 11 ± 1% of that in protocol 1. These results indicate that the splanchnic bed is responsible for only 11% of arterial blood lactate that was derived from oral glucose. They concluded that (1) after oral glucose loading, a major portion of circulating lactate has its origin not in exogenous glucose but in endogenous sources, and (2) the splanchnic bed is not the major site of oral glucose conversion to lactate after glucose ingestion

  5. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  6. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Methods Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a represen...

  7. Non-invasive estimate of blood glucose and blood pressure from a photoplethysmograph by means of machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Moreno, Enric

    2011-10-01

    This work presents a system for a simultaneous non-invasive estimate of the blood glucose level (BGL) and the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, using a photoplethysmograph (PPG) and machine learning techniques. The method is independent of the person whose values are being measured and does not need calibration over time or subjects. The architecture of the system consists of a photoplethysmograph sensor, an activity detection module, a signal processing module that extracts features from the PPG waveform, and a machine learning algorithm that estimates the SBP, DBP and BGL values. The idea that underlies the system is that there is functional relationship between the shape of the PPG waveform and the blood pressure and glucose levels. As described in this paper we tested this method on 410 individuals without performing any personalized calibration. The results were computed after cross validation. The machine learning techniques tested were: ridge linear regression, a multilayer perceptron neural network, support vector machines and random forests. The best results were obtained with the random forest technique. In the case of blood pressure, the resulting coefficients of determination for reference vs. prediction were R(SBP)(2)=0.91, R(DBP)(2)=0.89, and R(BGL)(2)=0.90. For the glucose estimation, distribution of the points on a Clarke error grid placed 87.7% of points in zone A, 10.3% in zone B, and 1.9% in zone D. Blood pressure values complied with the grade B protocol of the British Hypertension society. An effective system for estimate of blood glucose and blood pressure from a photoplethysmograph is presented. The main advantage of the system is that for clinical use it complies with the grade B protocol of the British Hypertension society for the blood pressure and only in 1.9% of the cases did not detect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GLP-1 analog raises glucose transport capacity of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, M.; Brock, B.; Egefjord, L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Glucose enters the brain tissue from plasma by facilitated diffusion across the two membranes of the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). There is evidence in Alzheimer's disease (AD) of reduction of glucose transport across...... the blood-brain barrier, due to diminished GLUT1 translocation and expression at the BBB. Reduced BBB GLUT1 expression is known to aggravate AD pathology and further impair cognitive function, implying that GLUT1 may be a potential target of therapy directed towards AD neurovascular dysfunction...... and degeneration. Hypothesis: The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution in AD, and GLP-1 may directly activate GLUT1 transport in brain capillary endothelium. For this reason, we here...

  9. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet : blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood

  10. System accuracy evaluation of 43 blood glucose monitoring systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose according to DIN EN ISO 15197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2012-09-01

    The accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose is important, as reliable measurement results are a prerequisite for therapeutic decisions. This system accuracy evaluation study was performed according to DIN EN ISO 15197:2003 for 43 Conformité Européenne (CE)-labeled blood glucose (BG) monitoring systems. Measurement results of each system were compared with results of the designated comparison method (manufacturer's measurement procedure): glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 glucose analyzer) or hexokinase method (Hitachi 917/ cobas 501). Complete assessment according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard was performed for 34 out of 43 systems, and 27 (79.4%) meet the requirements of the standard, i.e., ≥95% of their results showed at least the minimum acceptable accuracy. For 9 of the 43 systems, complete accuracy assessment was not performed due to an oxygen sensitivity (manufacturer's labeling). The bias (according to Bland and Altman) of all 43 evaluated systems ranged from -14.1% to +12.4%. From the 34 systems completely assessed, 7 systems did not fulfill the minimal accuracy requirements of the ISO standard. The CE mark apparently does not guarantee that all BG systems provide accuracy according to the standard. Because inaccurate systems bear the risk of false therapeutic decisions, regular and standardized evaluation of BG meters and test strips should be requested in order to ensure adherence to quality standards. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Increasing blood glucose variability is a precursor of sepsis and mortality in burned patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N Pisarchik

    Full Text Available High glycemic variability, rather than a mean glucose level, is an important factor associated with sepsis and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. In this retrospective study we analyze the blood glucose data of 172 nondiabetic patients 18-60 yrs old with second and third-degree burns of total body surface area greater than 30% and 5%, respectively, admitted to ICU in 2004-2008. The analysis identified significant association of increasing daily glucose excursion (DELTA accompanied by evident episodes of hyperglycemia (>11 mmol/l and hypoglycemia (<2.8 mmol/l, with sepsis and forthcoming death, even when the mean daily glucose was within a range of acceptable glycemia. No association was found in sepsis complication and hospital mortality with doses of intravenous insulin and glucose infusion. A strong increase in DELTA before sepsis and death is treated as fluctuation amplification near the onset of dynamical instability.

  12. Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Valera, Beatriz; Nielsen, Nina O; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2015-11-01

    The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c-peptide were measured in blood. Fasting participants without diabetes were classified into normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glycemia, or type 2 diabetes. We calculated hepatic insulin resistance with homoeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance index, peripheral insulin sensitivity by ISI0,120., and relative beta cell function by c-peptide/insulin ratio. We conducted adjusted linear- and logistic regression analyses. For an increase in whole blood mercury of 5 µg/L we found a positive association with fasting glucose [% change=0.25 (95% CI: 0.20; 0.30); p<0.001], and 2-h glucose [% change=0.23 (95% CI: 0.05; 0.40); p=0.01]. Mercury was weakly associated with impaired fasting glycemia [OR=1.03 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.05)], and type 2 diabetes [OR=1.02 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.04)]. While the study found a weak but statistically significant association between whole blood mercury and both impaired fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes, no associations were found with measures of underlying disturbances in glucose homoeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronotopic and blood pressure response to oral glucose load in chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Guariento

    Full Text Available Cardiac chronotropic and pressor responses after an oral load of glucose were assessed in sixteen Chagasic subjects and 28 controls by means of blood pressure and pulse rate measurements. Cardiovascular response was correlated with serum insulin and glucose levels. The experiment identified a subgroup of Chagasic subjects (n=8 with a hypoinsulinemic behavior presenting less chronotropic and pressor responses than controls. This may indicate a lower insulin activity and/or an early Autonomic Nervous System dysfunction in this subgroup.

  14. Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Valera, Beatriz; Nielsen, Nina O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole...... blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c...

  15. Path modelling of antecedent of diabetes mellitus on blood glucose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Humaira'Abdul; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Azizan, Nor Azlinna; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the non-communicable diseases and public health problems facing the worldwide population that includes Malaysia. Hitherto, the prevalence of DM becomes worsening with an estimated of 3.4 million Malaysians are diabetes sufferers and expectedly increasing year by year. Thus, this study is of great importance by regressing the medical factors that affect the blood glucose level using structural equation modelling (SEM). The SEM with partial least squares (PLS) estimation was applied to a secondary data of 644 respondents, aged ≥ 18 years in Malaysia. The data were collected in 2011 by Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH). The variables under study are blood glucose level, cholesterol level (CL), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). From the modelling analysis, it showed that the cholesterol level (CL), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and waist circumference (WC) showed a positive significant relationship p diabetes mellitus among adults.

  16. Smart point-of-care systems for molecular diagnostics based on nanotechnology: whole blood glucose analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P.; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-07-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) film chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations of blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent was adsorbed onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the PET film chip. The AFSiO2 nanoparticles can immobilize the assay reagent with an electrostatic attraction and eased to develop the opaque platform which was technically suitable chip to analyze by the camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique. The photon number decreases with increasing glucose concentration. The simple sensing approach, utilizing enzyme immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticle chip and assay detection method was developed for quantitative glucose measurement.

  17. A Microwave Metamaterial Inspired Sensor for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vrba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microwave sensor based on an artificial transmission line is proposed for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. A corresponding numerical model of the sensor implemented in microstrip technology is created in the commercial full-wave numerical simulation tool COMSOL Multiphysics and virtually tested by means of numerical simulations. Blood-glucose solution models with various blood glucose concentrations are used as a model of a biological tissue under test. Furthermore, a possible methodology for performing non-invasive tests is proposed. Sensitivity of the sensor developed here is compared to a sensor based on a section of a conventional microstrip transmission line of the same length and width.

  18. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannon Mary C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet. Methods This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes. Results We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb. A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar

  19. Blood plasma separation in ZnO nanoflowers-supported paper based microfluidic for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Luthviyah Choirotul; Roekmono, Hadi, Harsono; Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2018-04-01

    Blood plasma separation is essential to analyze and quantify the bio-substances in the human blood and hence, allows for diagnosing various diseases. This paper presents the two layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers (ZnO NF-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing. Plasma separation in ZnO NF-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose detection was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The glucose concentrations in the red blood samples investigated here vary in the range of 150 - 310 mg.dl-1. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 240 ± 93 s. The spectroscopic data reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose are increasing at higher glucose concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO NF and the paper, linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

  20. Evaluation of day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves in diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Linda M; Rand, Jacquie S

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Prospective clinical study. 10 dogs with diabetes mellitus. Paired 12-hour serial blood glucose concentration curves performed during 2 consecutive days were obtained on 3 occasions from each dog. Dogs received the same dose of insulin and meal every 12 hours on both days. For each pair of curves, comparison was made between the results of days 1 and 2. Mean absolute difference (without regard to sign) between days 1 and 2 for each parameter was significantly > 0, disproving the hypothesis that there is minimal day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves when insulin dose and meals are kept constant. Coefficient of variation of the absolute difference between days 1 and 2 for each parameter ranged from 68 to 103%. Evaluation of the paired curves led to an opposite recommendation for adjustment of the insulin dose on day 2, compared with day 1, on 27% of occasions. Disparity between dosage recommendations was more pronounced when glucose concentration nadir was dogs. Day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves has important clinical implications, particularly in dogs with good glycemic control.

  1. A comprehensive evaluation of strip performance in multiple blood glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence B; Macleod, Kirsty; Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Pfützner, Andreas; Setford, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose results are required for optimal insulin dosing and detection of hypoglycemia. However, blood glucose monitoring systems may be susceptible to error from test strip, user, environmental and pharmacological factors. This report evaluated 5 blood glucose monitoring systems that each use Verio glucose test strips for precision, effect of hematocrit and interferences in laboratory testing, and lay user and system accuracy in clinical testing according to the guidelines in ISO15197:2013(E). Performance of OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ met or exceeded standards described in ISO15197:2013 for precision, hematocrit performance and interference testing in a laboratory setting. Performance of OneTouch(®) Verio IQ™, OneTouch(®) Verio Pro™, OneTouch(®) Verio™, OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ and Omni Pod each met or exceeded accuracy standards for user performance and system accuracy in a clinical setting set forth in ISO15197:2013(E).

  2. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  3. The Effects of Blood Glucose Concentration on the Shivering Threshold in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Hirofumi; Masamune, Taishi; Sato, Hiroaki; Okuyama, Katsumi; Wada, Keiichi; Iwashita, Hironobu; Ishiyama, Tadahiko; Oguchi, Takeshi; Sessler, Daniel I; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Hyperglycemia is common in critically ill and surgical patients, as are core temperature disturbances. The effect of hyperglycemia on thermoregulatory defenses remains unknown. We determined the effect of blood glucose concentration on the shivering threshold in rabbits. Twenty-seven rabbits lightly anesthetized with isoflurane were randomly assigned to infusions of (1) saline, (2) insulin titrated to produce blood glucose concentrations 60 to 100 mg/dL, or (3) 50% dextrose titrated to produce blood glucose concentrations 200 to 300 mg/dL. Core temperature was reduced at a rate of 2 to 3°C/h by perfusing water at 10°C through a plastic tube positioned in the colon. Cooling continued until shivering was observed by an investigator blinded to treatment or until esophageal (core) temperature reached 34°C. Core temperatures at the onset of shivering defined the threshold. All analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Rabbits given saline shivered at 37.2 ± 0.5°C (mean ± SD). Rabbits given insulin shivered at 36.3 ± 1.1°C. Rabbits given dextrose shivered at 38.0 ± 0.6°C. The shivering threshold increased as a function of blood glucose concentration: shivering threshold (°C) = 0.009 [blood glucose concentration (mg/dL)] + 35.6, r = 0.53. The shivering threshold thus increased approximately 1°C for each 100 mg/dL increase in blood glucose concentration. Hyperglycemia increases the threshold for shivering, whereas hypoglycemia lowers the threshold on rabbits.

  4. Carbohydrate ingestion before and during soccer match play and blood glucose and lactate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise when CHO-electrolyte beverages were consumed regularly. Therefore, the metabolic effects of CHO beverage consumption throughout soccer match play remain unclear. To investigate the blood glucose and blood lactate responses to CHOs ingested before and during soccer match play. Crossover study. Applied research study. Ten male outfield academy soccer players (age = 15.6 ± 0.2 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.02 m, mass = 65.3 ± 1.9 kg, estimated maximal oxygen consumption = 58.4 ± 0.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Players received a 6% CHO-electrolyte solution or an electrolyte (placebo) solution 2 hours before kickoff, before each half (within 10 minutes), and every 15 minutes throughout exercise. Blood samples were obtained at rest, every 15 minutes during the match (first half: 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 minutes; second half: 45-60, 60-75, and 75-90 minutes) and 10 minutes into the halftime break. Metabolic responses (blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations) and markers of exercise intensity (heart rate) were recorded. Supplementation influenced the blood glucose response to exercise (time × treatment interaction effect: P ≤ .05), such that glucose concentrations were higher at 30 to 45 minutes in the CHO than in the placebo condition. However, in the second half, blood glucose concentrations were similar between conditions because of transient reductions from peak values occurring in both trials at halftime. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above those at rest in the first 15 minutes of exercise (time-of-sample effect: P < .001) and remained elevated throughout exercise. Supplementation did not influence the pattern of

  5. Treatment and blood glucose level control of diabetes patients aged 30 and above in Balcova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Tarı Selçuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the treatment uptake and control rates of blood glucose, BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels in diabetes patients aged 30 and above in Balcova Heart Study. The association between treatment and blood glucose level control and socio-demographic characteristics will also be evaluated. Methods: The study included data from 1.643 diabetes patients aged 30 and above who participated in the baseline survey of Balcova’s Heart Project. Fasting blood glucose test was carried out for diagnosis of diabetes, and ADA 2011 diagnosis criteria were employed for the overall assessment. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, logistic regression analysis were used. The study was supported by Dokuz Eylul University Scientific Research Projects and Balcova Municipality. Results: Of all patients, 75.4% are receiving treatment, 32.6% of treated patients have blood glucose level, 21.8% have blood pressure, 9.4% have BMI, 34.7% have LDL, 45.2% have HDL, and 52.6% have triglyceride levels under control. According to logistic regression model, diabetes treatment is significantly high for 70 and above age group [OR=1.76, %95.0 CI:1.14-2.72]; for patients with social security[OR=2.21, %95.0 CI:1.39-3.52]; and for patients with coexisting chronic diseases[OR=2.24, %95.0 CI:1.74-2.89]. According to logistic regression model, blood glucose level control of treated patients is significantly high for patients with coexisting chronic diseases [OR=1.49, %95.0 GA:1.12-1.99]. Conclusions: One fourth of diabetes patients are not receiving treatment, and only one third of patients have blood glucose level under control. BMI, blood pressure, lipid control rates are below desired levels. Awareness of diabetes patient on importance of continuous follow-up should be raised, and quality follow-up should be improved.Key Words: Diabetes, diabetes treatment, blood glucose level

  6. Evaluation of the Blood-Glucose Reducing Effects of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: All the aqueous extracts of (Caraway) CA, (Coriander) CO, (Cumin) CU, (Dill) DI and (Fennel) FE were administered at dose levels of 300 mg/kg body weight orally to different groups each containing 5 animals. A control group was also maintained simultaneously and received distilled water orally.Blood samples ...

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Elevated Blood Glucose Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was increased risk for the prevalence of T2DM as it was attributed to high blood pressure. According to the study by Feldstein (2002), an estimated 35% to 75% of diabetic complications were triggered by hypertension. Hypertension and T2DM occured together so frequently that they are considered to be comorbidities likely.

  8. [Gestational diabetes mellitus: importance of blood glucose monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Le-Roux, Juana A; Benaiges Boix, David; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common during pregnancy, and is frequently associated with maternal and perinatal complications. Intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy has been shown to reduce perinatal morbidity. In women with pregestational type 1 or 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia during labour and delivery is an important factor in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia. There are no generally accepted recommendations for women with GDM. Recent studies evaluating patients with GDM show that peripartum glucose control can be achieved in these women without the need for insulin use in the majority of cases. Hyperglycaemia during labour is not related with treatment established during pregnancy but rather with non-compliance of endocrinological follow-up. Factors such as ethnic origin, neonatal hypoxaemia, and large for gestational age seem to play an important role in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEA. All rights reserved.

  9. A Post-Marketing Surveillance Study to Evaluate Performance of the EXIMO™ Blood Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandnani, Sonia R; Ramakrishna, C D; Dave, Bhargav A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Thakkar, Ashok S

    2017-05-01

    The performance of Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS) is critical as the information provided by the system guide the patient or health care professional in making treatment decisions. However, besides evaluating accuracy of the BGMS in laboratory setting, it is equally important that the intended users (healthcare professionals and patients) should be able to achieve blood glucose measurements with similar level of high accuracy. To assess the performance of EXIMO™ (Meril Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., Vapi, Gujarat, India) BGMS as per International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. This was a non-randomized and post-marketing study conducted at a tertiary care centre of India. A total of 1005 patients with diabetes themselves performed fingertip blood glucose measurement using EXIMO™ BGMS. Immediately after capillary blood glucose measurement using the blood glucose monitoring system, venous blood sample from each patient was obtained by a trained technician which was assessed by reference laboratory method- Cobas Integra 400 plus (Roche Instrument Centre, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). All the blood glucose measurements assessed by EXIMO™ were compared with laboratory results. Performance of the system was assessed as per ISO 15197:2013 criteria using Bland-Altman plot, Parkes-Consensus Error Grid (CEG) and Surveillance Error Grid analyses (SEG). A total of 1005 patients participated in the study. Average age of the patients was 44.93±14.65 years. Evaluation of capillary fingertip blood glucose measurements demonstrated that 95.82% measurements fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. All the results lie within clinically non-critical zones; Zone A (99.47%; n=1000) and Zone B (0.53%; n=05) of the CEG analysis. As per SEG analysis, majority of the results fell within "no-risk" zone (risk score 0 to 0.5; 90.42%). The result of the study confirmed that intended users are able to obtain accurate

  10. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M V; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Heller, S R

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural and demograp......AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural...

  11. Perceptions of Caribbean type 2 diabetes patients on self-monitoring of blood glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwaka, C. E.; Olukoga, A.; Onuoha, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The views of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients have not been considered in the debate on the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of T2DM. Objective: To assess the views of T2DM patients on SMBG. Methods: Two previously trained research assistants used a struct......Context: The views of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients have not been considered in the debate on the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of T2DM. Objective: To assess the views of T2DM patients on SMBG. Methods: Two previously trained research assistants used...

  12. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  13. Performance evaluation and labeling comprehension of a new blood glucose monitoring system with integrated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as "very good" or "excellent." CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  15. The food and drug administration is now preparing to establish tighter performance requirements for blood glucose monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C

    2010-05-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) Tight Glycemic Control. Many officials from the Center for Devices and Radiologic Health and the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices, which are the parts of FDA that regulate approval of blood glucose monitors, either spoke on the agenda or attended in the audience. Approximately 300 people attended; they were mostly clinicians (such as adult endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, internists, clinical chemists, intensivists, surgeons, nurses, and diabetes educators) or industry officials from companies involved in glucose monitoring, pharmaceutical products, data analysis, or regulatory consulting. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  17. [Effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Sun, Qiuhong; Yang, Hua

    2015-05-19

    To explore the effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 72 ICU patients with severe acute pancreatitis were recruited and divided randomly into observation and control groups (n = 36 each). Both groups were treated conventionally. And the observation group achieved stable blood glucose at 6.1-8.3 mmol/L with intensive glucose control. The length of ICU and hospital stays, ICU mortality rate, transit operative rate, concurrent infection rate, admission blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, mean insulin dose, mean blood glucose, blood glucose value standard deviation (GLUSD), glycemic liability index (GLUGLI) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (GLUMAGE) of two groups were compared. At the same time, the relationship between blood glucose variability, ICU mortality rate and its predictive value were analyzed by correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The lengths of ICU and hospital stays of observation group were all significantly less than those of the control group [(11.7 ± 9.9) vs (15.9 ± 8.02) days, (21.8 ± 10.8) vs (28.2 ± 12.7) days, P control group (72.22%, 38.89%, P blood glucose value and GLUSD of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group [(7.4 ± 1.1) vs (9.6 ± 1.2), (1.8 ± 1.0) vs (2.5 ± 1.3) mmol/L]. The differences were statistically significant (P control group (P control in patients with severe acute pancreatitis helps reduce the blood sugar fluctuations, lower the risks of infectious complications and promote the patient rehabilitation. And GLUGLI is positively correlated with ICU mortality rate. It has good predictive values.

  18. Pre-analytical variation in glucose concentration due to atmospheric temperature and clot in blood specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Masud, K.; Khan, J.A.; Bhatti, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of temperature and contact of clot with serum on laboratory results of glucose concentration in blood. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: December 2014 to August 2015 at the laboratory of Shoaib Hospital, Fateh Jang, Attock Pakistan. Material and Methods: Samples were collected for estimation of blood glucose (Random) concentration from patients reporting to the hospital. Blood specimens (n=94) of such volunteers were analyzed for glucose level. Each sample was put up in five tubes. When the blood clotted the serum from tube-1 was analyzed for glucose level within 30 minutes. In tube-2 and tube-3 serum was kept for 24 hours at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. In tube-4 and tube-5 serum was not separated from clot and kept at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. The value of tube 1 was taken as reference value for comparison with other parts of the specimen. The equipment used for blood glucose level estimation was semi auto chemistry analyzer (Rayto, China). The kit used for analysis was Glucose - Liquizyme (Germany). Results: The difference between the mean reference value (tube-1) and refrigerated serum without clot (tube-3) was 4.63 mg/100 ml while that of unrefrigerated portion (tube-2) had a difference of 10.68 mg/100 ml. The mean of unrefrigerated (tube-4) and refrigerated (tube-5) portions of serum kept with the clot had difference of 42.05 mg/100 ml and 25.84 mg/100 ml respectively. The fall in the blood glucose level in all (n=94) the samples in the tube number 3 (serum separated and kept at refrigerated temperature) was 4.63 mg/100 ml +- 3.68 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 0 to 20 mg/100 ml whereas fall was maximum in the tube number 4 (serum with clotted blood and kept at room temperature) was 42.04 mg/100 ml +- 10.61 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 13 to 82 mg/100 ml. The sample in

  19. Effects on cognitive performance of modulating the postprandial blood glucose profile at breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2012-09-01

    Considering the importance of glucose as a brain substrate, the postprandial rate of glucose delivery to the blood could be expected to affect cognitive functions. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the rate of glucose absorption affected measures of cognitive performance in the postprandial period. In addition, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to individual glucoregulation. A white wheat bread (WWB) enriched with guar gum (G-WWB) with the capacity to produce a low but sustained blood glucose net increment was developed. The G-WWB was evaluated in the postprandial period after breakfast with respect to effects on cognitive function (working memory and selective attention (SA)) in 40 healthy adults (49-71 years, body mass index 20-29 kg/m(2)), using a high glycaemic index WWB for comparison in a randomised crossover design. The G-WWB improved outcome in the cognitive tests (SA test) in the later postprandial period (75-225 min) in comparison with the WWB (Pimportance of carbohydrate foods that induces a low but sustained blood glucose profile in enhancing postprandial cognitive functions.

  20. Glucagon Receptor Blockade With a Human Antibody Normalizes Blood Glucose in Diabetic Mice and Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Haruka; Kim, Jinrang; Aglione, JohnPaul; Lee, Joseph; Cavino, Katie; Na, Erqian; Rafique, Ashique; Kim, Jee Hae; Harp, Joyce; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-08-01

    Antagonizing glucagon action represents an attractive therapeutic option for reducing hepatic glucose production in settings of hyperglycemia where glucagon excess plays a key pathophysiological role. We therefore generated REGN1193, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits glucagon receptor (GCGR) signaling in vitro. REGN1193 administration to diabetic ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice lowered blood glucose to levels observed in GCGR-deficient mice. In diet-induced obese mice, REGN1193 reduced food intake, adipose tissue mass, and body weight. REGN1193 increased circulating levels of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 and was associated with reversible expansion of pancreatic α-cell area. Hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia was observed in fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice treated with REGN1193. Single administration of REGN1193 to diabetic cynomolgus monkeys normalized fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance and increased circulating levels of glucagon and amino acids. Finally, administration of REGN1193 for 8 weeks to normoglycemic cynomolgus monkeys did not cause hypoglycemia or increase pancreatic α-cell area. In summary, the GCGR-blocking antibody REGN1193 normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice and monkeys but does not produce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic monkeys. Thus, REGN1193 provides a potential therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemic conditions.

  1. Design andIn VitroInterference Test of Microwave Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heungjae; Naylon, Jack; Luzio, Steve; Beutler, Jan; Birchall, James; Martin, Chris; Porch, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    A design of a microwave noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring sensor and its interference test results are presented. The novelty of the proposed sensor is that it comprises two spatially separated split-ring resonators, where one interacts with the change in glucose level of a sample under test while the other ring is used as a reference. The reference ring has a slightly different resonant frequency and is desensitized to the sample owing to its location, thus allowing changes in temperature to be calibrated out. From an oral glucose tolerance test with two additional commercially available sensors (blood strip and continuous glucose monitor) in parallel, we obtained encouraging performance for our sensor comparable with those of the commercial sensors. The effects of endogenous interferents common to all subjects, i.e., common sugars, vitamins (ascorbic acid), and metabolites (uric acid) have also been investigated by using a large Franz cell assembly. From the interference test, it is shown that the change in sensor response is dominated by changes in glucose level for concentrations relevant to blood, and the effects of interferents are negligible in comparison.

  2. Successful microsurgical lip replantation: Monitoring venous congestion by blood glucose measurements in the replanted lip

    OpenAIRE

    Kazufumi Tachi; Masanori Mori; Reiko Tsukuura; Rintaro Hirai

    2018-01-01

    Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the...

  3. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management.

  4. Transdermally delivered peroxovanadium can lower blood glucose levels in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, R M; Hamel, F G

    1999-06-25

    The element vanadium can have insulin mimetic properties and therefore has been suggested as a possible therapeutic agent for treatment of diabetes. A series of peroxovanadium compounds that are more potent at lowering blood glucose levels than sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate and vanadyl sulfate have recently been synthesized. These compounds probably will not be orally active so transdermal administration is a potential option. A patch containing either the peroxovanadium compound [VO(O2)2 1-10 phenanthroline], abbreviated bpV(phen), or placebo was placed on the back of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and was delivered either passively (16 h) or iontophoretically (0.5 mA/cm2 for 4 h). Blood samples were analyzed for glucose and vanadium levels. Mean blood glucose levels were 83+/-1% and 109+/-1% of the starting values for animals iontophoretically treated with bpV(phen) and vehicle, respectively. The compound's insulin mimetic properties were evident within 60 min of current initiation. Blood glucose levels were reduced to 74+/-14% of the original level after 16 h of passive treatment. The compound was ineffective when fed to animals. Transdermal delivery of bpV(phen) resulted in significantly greater blood levels of vanadium than the orally delivered compound (P<0.05). Overall these experiments demonstrate that peroxovanadium delivered through the skin can lower blood glucose levels in rats. Further experiments are warranted to better characterize the nature of the response and to determine the potential for using these compounds in humans.

  5. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2011-02-04

    Abstract Background To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Results Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  6. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. RESULTS: Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  7. Determination of time delay between blood and interstitial adipose tissue glucose concentration change by microdialysis in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, KJC; Schoonen, AJM

    2001-01-01

    For the development and use of subcutaneous glucose sensors it is important to know the time lag between changes in blood glucose and subcutaneous interstitial glucose concentration. To determine the time lag we inserted a microdialysis probe into the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy

  8. Glucose-induced time-dependent potentiation of insulin release, but not islet blood perfusion, in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Leif; Bodin, Birgitta; Källskog, Orjan

    2008-01-01

    Repeated administration of glucose in vivo leads to a time-dependent potentiation of insulin release. Glucose is also known to stimulate pancreatic islet blood flow, but whether this is associated with a time-dependent potentiation is unknown. We therefore repeatedly administered glucose to anesthetized rats and evaluated effects on insulin release and islet blood flow. Male Wistar-Furth rats, anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, were injected intravenously with 1 ml of saline or glucose at times 0, 30 and 60 min. The combinations used were saline + saline + saline (SSS), glucose + saline + saline (GSS), saline + saline + glucose (SSG) and glucose + glucose + glucose (GGG). Regional organ blood flow values were measured 3 min after the final injection with a microsphere technique, and at this time also serum insulin concentrations were determined with ELISA. Serum insulin concentrations as well as total pancreatic, pancreatic islet and duodenal blood flow were higher in SSG and GGG-treated rats when compared to those given SSS and GSS. However, only insulin concentrations, not blood flow values, were higher in GGG rats when compared to SSG animals. Glucose-induced time-dependent potentiation of insulin release occurs in vivo in thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats, but is not associated with a further increase in islet blood flow.

  9. The Effect of Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring Among Inmates With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Buskey, Robin N; Mathieson, Kathleen; Leafman, Joan S; Feinglos, Mark N

    2015-10-01

    The increasing prevalence and risk of complications from diabetes necessitate patient participation and attentiveness to select appropriate foods, perform regular physical activity, and be active in diabetes management and self-maintenance. Diabetes is often largely asymptomatic; consequently, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Inmates are a unique population challenged by the increased prevalence of chronic conditions including diabetes. Diabetes standards for inmates contain diagnostic and treatment management guidelines that incorporate personal glucose monitoring for insulin users. In December 2009, the Federal Bureau of Prisons initiated a program to distribute glucose meters to insulin-dependent inmates to facilitate self-monitoring blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these glucose meters on hemoglobin A1c levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Within-Individual Hematocrit Variations and Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kaila A.; Cembrowski, George S.

    2013-01-01

    Many self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) systems have generated artefactually increased glucose results in low-hematocrit patients (e.g., intensive care unit and renal failure patients); conversely, these devices could produce artefactually decreased glucose results in high-hematocrit patients (e.g., neonates). The introduction of hematocrit-independent SMBG systems permits more accurate testing in anemic or polycythemic individuals. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Ramljak and coauthors have created glucose bias graphs for 19 common SMBG devices and declared certain systems to be optimally accurate because of insensitivity to hematocrit variation over a broad hematocrit range. Luckily, the average within-individual variation of hematocrit is low (between 2.9 and 3.3%). As such, a larger spectrum of SMBG devices can be regarded as optimally hematocrit independent. PMID:23439177

  11. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wróbel, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described

  12. GLUT-1 GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS IN THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER: DIFFERENTIAL PHOSPHORYLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devraj, Kavi; Klinger, Marianne E.; Myers, Roland L.; Mokashi, Ashwini; Hawkins, Richard A.; Simpson, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for the mammalian brain and a continuous supply is required to maintain normal CNS function. The transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the brain is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT-1. Prior studies (Simpson et al. 2001) had revealed that the conformations of the GLUT-1 transporter were different in luminal (blood facing) and abluminal (brain facing) membranes of bovine cerebral endothelial cells, based on differential antibody recognition. In this study we have extended these observations and using a combination of 2D-PAGE/Western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy we determined that these different conformations are exhibited in vivo and arise from differential phosphorylation of GLUT-1 and not from alternative splicing or altered O- or N-linked glycosylation. PMID:21910135

  13. Radially oriented nanostrand electrodes to boost glucose sensing in mammalian blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naeem; El-Safty, Sherif A; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Architecture of nanoscale electrochemical sensors for ultra-trace detection of glucose in blood is important in real-life sampling and analysis. To broaden the application of electrochemical sensing of glucose, we fabricated, for the first time, a glucose sensor electrode based on radially oriented NiO nanostrands (NSTs) onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate for monitoring, as well as selective and sensitive sensing of glucose in mammalian blood. The simple, scalable one-pot fabrication of this NST-Ni sensor design enabled control of the pattern of radially oriented NSTs onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate. The radial orientation of NST-Ni electrode onto the interior of the 3D porous substrate with controlled crystal structure size and atomic arrangement along the axis of the strands, intrinsic surface defects, and superior surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, high surface energy, and high density led to highly exposed catalytic active sites. The hierarchical NST-Ni electrode was used to develop a sensitive and selective sensor over a wide range of glucose concentrations among actively competitive ions, chemical species and molecular agents, and multi-cyclic sensing assays. The NST-Ni electrode shows significant glucose sensing performance in terms of unimpeded diffusion pathways, a wide range of concentration detection, and lower limit of detection (0.186 µM) than NiO nanosheet (NS)-Ni foam electrode pattern, indicating the effectiveness of the shape-dependent structural architecture of NST-Ni electrode. In this study, the NST-Ni electrode is fabricated to develop a simple, selective method for detecting glucose in physiological fluids (e.g., mammalian blood). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of ... Doppler US is expensive and time consuming,.

  15. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  16. Comparison electrical stimulation and passive stretching for blood glucose control type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsianti, Rika Wahyuni; Parman, Dewy Haryanti; Lesmana, Hendy

    2018-04-01

    Physical exercise is one of the cornerstones for management and treatment type 2 diabetes mellitus. But not all people are able to perform physical exercise because of their physical limitation condition. The strategy for those people in this study is electrical stimulation and passive stretching. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of electrical stimulation and passive stretching to lowering blood glucose level. 20 subjects is divided into electrical stimulation and passive stretching group. The provision of electrical stimulation on lower extremities muscles for 30 minutes for electrical stimulation group (N=10). And other underwent passive stretching for 30 minutes (N=10). The result shows that blood glucose level is decrease from 192.9 ± 10.7087 mg/dL to 165.3 ± 10.527 mg/dL for electrical stimulation intervention group while for the passive stretching group the blood glucose decrease from 153 ± 12.468 mg/dL to 136.1 ± 12.346 mg/dL. Both electrical stimulation and passive stretching are effective to lowering blood glucose level and can be proposed for those people restricted to perform exercise.

  17. Higher Blood Glucose within the Normal Range Is Associated with More Severe Strokes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Rolf J; Ratan, Rajiv R; Reding, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Background. Higher fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations in the hyperglycemic range are associated with more severe strokes. Whether this association also extends into patients with FBG in the normoglycemic range is unclear. We studied the association of stroke severity and FBG in normoglyce...

  18. Effect of self-monitoring of blood glucose on glycaemic outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which leads to complications especially when not properly managed. The role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in type 2 diabetic patients using oral hypoglycaemic agents has been a source of controversy. Objective: The objective was to study the ...

  19. Effects of self-monitoring of blood glucose on diabetes control in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus places an enormous burden upon both patients and countries' health systems. Integral to achieving control is patients assuming responsibility for their condition. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) can serve as a powerful tool modifying lifestyle behaviour and can aid in achieving ...

  20. Trend Estimation of Blood Glucose Level Fluctuations Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamaguchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated calorie-calculating software that calculates and records the total calorific food intake by choosing a meal menu selected using a computer mouse. The purpose of this software was to simplify data collection throughout a person's normal life, even if they were inexperienced computer operators. Three portable commercial devices have also been prepared a blood glucose monitor, a metabolic rate monitor and a mobile-computer, and linked into the calorie-calculating software. Time-course changes of the blood glucose level, metabolic rate and food intake were measured using these devices during a 3 month period. Based on the data collected in this study we could predict blood glucose levels of the next morning (FBG by modeling using data mining. Although a large error rate was found for predicting the absolute value, conditions could be found that improved the accuracy of the predicting trends in blood glucose level fluctuations by up to 90 %. However, in order to further improve the accuracy of estimation it was necessary to obtain further details about the patients' life style or to optimise the input variables that were dependent on each patient rather than collecting data over longer periods.

  1. Change of blood glucose level and its possible mechanism in patients with cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weizhen; Zhang Yong; Zhang Zikang; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the change of blood glucose levels in patients with cerebral stroke, the levels of blood glucose, cortisol, glucogen, insulin, growth hormone, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were dynamically measured in 90 patients with cerebral stroke. The circumstances of brain middle line movement, lateral ventricle oppression and entrance brain ventricle of burst hematoma of the patients were examines by CT scan. The total incidence of hyperglycemia in the patients was 42.22%. The blood glucose level was positively related to the cortisol and glucogen levels, and negatively related to the T 3 level. The changed level of blood glucose and its related hormones both returned to normal range in 10 days. Both the ACTH level and the rate of cerebral pathological change in hyperglycemia group were significantly higher than that in normoglycemia and control groups. The rate of cerebral pathological change in elevated ACTH level group was higher than that in normal ACTH level group. The mechanism of hyperglycemia in the patients with cerebral stroke might be related to the stimulation of the hypothalamus, which may induce the discharge of ACTH and glucagon releasing factor, and to that the level of cortisol and glucagon increased, the level of T 3 decreased

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  3. Bihormonal control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tárnik, Marían; Murgaš, Ján

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a bihormonal artificial pancreas (AP) for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) designed to provide a safe blood glucose control with minimal use of glucagon. The control algorithm uses insulin as well as glucagon to prevent hyper- and hypoglycemia. We employ a novel prediction...

  4. Bihormonal model predictive control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tarnik, Marian; Murgas, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a bihormonal control system that controls blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We use insulin together with glucagon to mitigate the negative effects of hyper- and hypoglycemia. The system consists of a Kalman filter, a micro-bolus insulin and glucagon...

  5. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  6. What do professionals recommend regarding the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, J.; Kleefstra, N.; Houweling, S. T.; van der Bijl, J. J.; Gans, R. O. B.; Bilo, H. J. G.

    Background: Patients' adherence to guidelines regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is limited. However, there are no previous reports about the recommendations that are given in clinical practice concerning SMBG. The aim of this study was to investigate what healthcare providers

  7. Self-monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy: indications and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is an important tool to treat diabetes during pregnancy. However, proper implementation of SMBG in pregnant women requires understanding of its applications and limitations. This article reviews issues related to the implementation, efficacy, and accuracy of SMBG and discusses factors that can confound results of SMBG during pregnancy.

  8. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in tablet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (ZODIAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanno; Hortensius, J.; Logtenberg, Susan; Slingerland, R. J.; Groenier, K. H.; Houweling, S. T.; Gans, R. O. B.; van Ballegooie, E; Bilo, H. J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whether self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not using insulin is questionable. Our aim was to investigate the effects of SMBG in patients with T2DM who were in persistent moderate glycaemic control whilst not

  9. Integration of Remote Blood Glucose Meter Upload Technology into a Clinical Pharmacist Medication Therapy Management Service

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Robert J.; Schenk, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    A pharmacist-delivered, outpatient-focused medication therapy management (MTM) program is using a remote blood glucose (BG) meter upload device to provide better care and to improve outcomes for its patients with diabetes. Sharing uploaded BG meter data, presented in easily comprehensible graphs and charts, enables patients, caregivers, and the medical team to better understand how the patients’ diabetes care is progressing.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money...

  11. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  12. [Evaluation of hearing loss parameters in workers and its relationship with fasting blood glucose levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teofila; Lladosa Marco, Silvia; Ramírez-Iñiguez de La Torre, M Victoria; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; López-González, Ángel Arturo

    2014-05-01

    Hearing loss due to noise is considered within the prevention plans of the most common occupational diseases. In addition to evaluation of working conditions, other personal factors increasing the risk of hypoacusis, such as diabetes, should be taken into account. To explore hearing loss in the workplace and its relationship to impaired fasting baseline blood glucose levels. An observational, cross-sectional study enrolling 1636 workers from service companies was conducted. Full audiometric evaluation was performed at different frequencies: high frequency (HF), early loss index (ELI), speech average loss (SAL), and monaural and binaural loss. Results were categorized by baseline blood glucose levels: G1 (125mg/dl). Based on both HF and ELI, 11% of workers had clear indication of deafness. Women with G3 levels showed significant differences in the results of HF and ELI indexes as compared to the G1 group (P=.038 and .046, respectively). A positive association was found between hearing loss and G3 blood glucose levels in HF (OR: .338; p=.002), ELI (OR: .407; p=.007), and the monaural test in the left ear (OR: 4.77×10-5; p=.006). Despite the methodological limitations of this study, there is evidence for an increased risk of high frequency hearing loss in workers with high baseline blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. SELF BLOOD GLUCOSE MONITORING UNDERESTIMATES HYPERGLYCEMIA AND HYPOGLYCEMIA AS COMPARED TO CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrola, Devna; Cox, Christine; Furman, Arianne S; Krishnan, Sridevi; Karakas, Sidika E

    2018-01-01

    When glucose records from self blood glucose monitoring (SBGM) do not reflect estimated average glucose from glycosylated hemoglobin (HgBA1) or when patients' clinical symptoms are not explained by their SBGM records, clinical management of diabetes becomes a challenge. Our objective was to determine the magnitude of differences in glucose values reported by SBGM versus those documented by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The CGM was conducted by a clinical diabetes educator (CDE)/registered nurse by the clinic protocol, using the Medtronic iPRO2 ™ system. Patients continued SBGM and managed their diabetes without any change. Data from 4 full days were obtained, and relevant clinical information was recorded. De-identified data sets were provided to the investigators. Data from 61 patients, 27 with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and 34 with T2DM were analyzed. The lowest, highest, and average glucose recorded by SBGM were compared to the corresponding values from CGM. The lowest glucose values reported by SBGM were approximately 25 mg/dL higher in both T1DM ( P = .0232) and T2DM ( P = .0003). The highest glucose values by SBGM were approximately 30 mg/dL lower in T1DM ( P = .0005) and 55 mg/dL lower in T2DM ( Pglucose by SBGM and CGM. The lowest glucose values were seen most frequently during sleep and before breakfast; the highest were seen during the evening and postprandially. SBGM accurately estimates the average glucose but underestimates glucose excursions. CGM uncovers glucose patterns that common SBGM patterns cannot. CDE = certified diabetes educator; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; HgBA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin; MAD = mean absolute difference; SBGM = self blood glucose monitoring; T1DM = type 1 diabetes; T2DM = type 2 diabetes.

  14. Impairment of brain endothelial glucose transporter by methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrin L Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH, an addictive psycho-stimulant drug with euphoric effect is known to cause neurotoxicity due to oxidative stress, dopamine accumulation and glial cell activation. Here we hypothesized that METH-induced interference of glucose uptake and transport at the endothelium can disrupt the energy requirement of the blood-brain barrier (BBB function and integrity. We undertake this study because there is no report of METH effects on glucose uptake and transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB to date. Results In this study, we demonstrate that METH-induced disruption of glucose uptake by endothelium lead to BBB dysfunction. Our data indicate that a low concentration of METH (20 μM increased the expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1 in primary human brain endothelial cell (hBEC, main component of BBB without affecting the glucose uptake. A high concentration of 200 μM of METH decreased both the glucose uptake and GLUT1 protein levels in hBEC culture. Transcription process appeared to regulate the changes in METH-induced GLUT1 expression. METH-induced decrease in GLUT1 protein level was associated with reduction in BBB tight junction protein occludin and zonula occludens-1. Functional assessment of the trans-endothelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers and permeability of dye tracers in animal model validated the pharmacokinetics and molecular findings that inhibition of glucose uptake by GLUT1 inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB aggravated the METH-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. Application of acetyl-L-carnitine suppressed the effects of METH on glucose uptake and BBB function. Conclusion Our findings suggest that impairment of GLUT1 at the brain endothelium by METH may contribute to energy-associated disruption of tight junction assembly and loss of BBB integrity.

  15. Personalized blood glucose prediction: A hybrid approach using grammatical evolution and physiological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Contreras

    Full Text Available The large patient variability in human physiology and the effects of variables such as exercise or meals challenge current prediction modeling techniques. Physiological models are very precise but they are typically complex and specific physiological knowledge is required. In contrast, data-based models allow the incorporation of additional inputs and accurately capture the relationship between these inputs and the outcome, but at the cost of losing the physiological meaning of the model. In this work, we designed a hybrid approach comprising physiological models for insulin and grammatical evolution, taking into account the clinical harm caused by deviations from the target blood glucose by using a penalizing fitness function based on the Clarke error grid. The prediction models were built using data obtained over 14 days for 100 virtual patients generated by the UVA/Padova T1D simulator. Midterm blood glucose was predicted for the 100 virtual patients using personalized models and different scenarios. The results obtained were promising; an average of 98.31% of the predictions fell in zones A and B of the Clarke error grid. Midterm predictions using personalized models are feasible when the configuration of grammatical evolution explored in this study is used. The study of new alternative models is important to move forward in the development of alarm-and-control applications for the management of type 1 diabetes and the customization of the patient's treatments. The hybrid approach can be adapted to predict short-term blood glucose values to detect continuous glucose-monitoring sensor errors and to estimate blood glucose values when the continuous glucose-monitoring system fails to provide them.

  16. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Correlation between Blood Glucose Measured Using Glucometers and Enzymatic Laboratory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rasouli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is the most common chronic metabolic disease, with many complications including renal failure, blindness and non-traumatic amputation, so it is important to monitor and regulate blood glucose. Considering how easy home blood glucose monitoring is, we decided to evaluate the performance of two available glucometers for detection of blood glucose compared with standard laboratory methods.

     

    Methods: In this analytical study, we compared the capillary blood glucose levels of 60 volunteers with mean age of 32.8±9.6 years in Tabriz Mehr Laboratory as determined by test strips (two different Glucometers with venous blood glucose levels’ measurements by the enzymatic method (the standard laboratory kit. Data were analyzed using one way-ANOVA test, T-test, Pearson correlation and Bland and Altman plot.

     

    Results: The mean differences of No: 1 and No: 2 Glucometers with enzymatic laboratory method were 20.78±11.61 and 4.5±3.76mg/dl respectively. The one way ANOVA test indicated significant differences between three methods (p<0.05. Further Duncan's test revealed significant differences between two devices (p=0.001 and device No.1 and laboratory method (p=0.001; however, the differences between device No.2 and laboratory method were not statistically significant (p=0.83.

     

    Conclusion: According to the results, calibrating the devices with laboratory instruments in order to make major clinical decisions is recommended.

  17. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  18. Dynamic Electrochemistry Corrects for Hematocrit Interference on Blood Glucose Determinations with Patient Self-Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musholt, Petra B; Schipper, Christina; Thomé, Nicole; Ramljak, Sanja; Schmidt, Marc; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that dynamic electrochemistry can be used to correct blood glucose measurement results for potentially interfering conditions, such as humidity, hematocrit (HCT) variations, and ascorbic acid. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the potential influence of hematocrit variations on a variety of blood glucose meters applying different measurement technologies. Methods Venous heparinized whole blood was drawn, immediately aliquoted, and manipulated to contain three different blood glucose concentrations (80, 155, and 310 mg/dl) and five different hematocrit levels (25%, 37%, 45%, 52%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured 8 times with the following devices: BGStar, Contour, Accu-Chek Aviva, Accu-Chek Aviva Nano, Breeze 2, Precision Xceed, OneTouch Ultra 2, OneTouch Verio, FreeStyle Freedom Lite, Glucocard G+, GlucoMen LX, GlucoMen GM, and StatStrip [point-of-care (POC) device]. Cobas (Roche Diagnostics, glucose hexokinase method) served as laboratory plasma reference method. Stability to hematocrit influence was assumed when less than 10% bias occurred between the highest and lowest hematocrit levels when analyzing mean deviations for all three glucose concentrations. Results Besides the POC StatStrip device, which is known to measure and correct for hematocrit (resulting in hematocrit variations occur in daily routine (e.g., because of smoking, exercise, hypermenorrhea, pregnancy, stay in mountains, and hemodialysis), our results may encourage use of meters with stable performance under these conditions. Dynamic electrochemistry as used in the BGStar device (sanofi-aventis) appears to be an effective technology to correct for potential hematocrit influence on the meter results. PMID:22027312

  19. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  20. Effects of intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure on microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure on microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes by comparing the therapeutic effects of intensive and standard treatment in patients with type II diabetes.METHODS: A total of 107 patients with type II diabetes were randomly assigned into intensive and standard treatment groups. Patients in the intensive treatment group received preterax (perindopril/ indapamide to control blood pressure, and gliclazide (diamicron MR to control blood glucose. Patients in the standard treatment group received routine medications or placebo. Urinary microalbumin (UMA, urinary creatinine (UCR, the UMA/UCR ratio, and visual acuity were monitored according to the study design of the ADVANCE trial. Direct ophthalmoscopy and seven-field stereoscopic retinal photography were used to examine the fundi at baseline, and repeated after 5 years of treatment.RESULTS: The characteristics of patients in both groups were well balanced at baseline. After 5 years of treatment, visual acuity was found to be decreased in the standard group (P=0.04, but remained stable in the intensive group. The severity of diabetic retinopathy had not progressed in patients in the intensive group, but had deteriorated in the standard group (P=0.0006. The UMA/UCR ratio was not obviously changed in patients in the intensive group, whereas it was significantly increased in the standard group (P=0.00.CONCLUSION: Intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure can decrease the incidence or slow the progression of microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes, and maintain stable vision.

  1. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring in relation to glycaemic control: observational study with diabetes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josie M M; Newton, Ray W; Ruta, Danny A; MacDonald, Thomas M; Stevenson, Richard J; Morris, Andrew D

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To investigate patterns of self monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients who use insulin and to determine whether frequency of self monitoring is related to glycaemic control. Setting Diabetes database, Tayside, Scotland. Subjects Patients resident in Tayside in 1993-5 who were using insulin and were registered on the database and diagnosed with insulin dependent (type 1) or non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes before 1993. Main outcome measures Number of glucose monitoring reagent strips dispensed (reagent strip uptake) derived from records of prescriptions. First recorded haemoglobin A1c concentration in the study period, and reagent strips dispensed in the previous 6 months. Results Among 807 patients with type 1 diabetes, 128 (16%) did not redeem any prescriptions for glucose monitoring reagent strips in the 3 year study period. Only 161 (20%) redeemed prescriptions for enough reagent strips to test glucose daily. The corresponding figures for the 790 patients with type 2 diabetes who used insulin were 162 (21%; no strips) and 131 (17%; daily tests). Reagent strip uptake was influenced both by age and by deprivation category. There was a direct relation between uptake and glycaemic control for 258 patients (with recorded haemoglobin A1c concentrations) with type 1 diabetes. In a linear regression model the decrease in haemoglobin A1c concentration for every extra 180 reagent strips dispensed was 0.7%. For the 290 patients with type 2 diabetes who used insulin there was no such relation. Conclusions Self monitoring of blood glucose concentration is associated with improved glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Regular self monitoring in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes is uncommon. Key messagesSeveral studies have indicated the importance of self monitoring of blood glucose concentration for prevention of complications in patients with diabetesUptake of reagent strips for self monitoring of blood glucose

  2. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries....... DESIGN: Information was obtained from a population survey in Greenland: interview data, clinical data and fasting blood samples were obtained from a random sample of Inuit from three towns and four villages. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and fifty-nine adult Inuit (74% of the sample). RESULTS: Marine diet...

  3. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  4. Blood concentrations of lactate, glucose and corticosterone in dispersing hatchling sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Pereira

    2012-11-01

    Natal dispersal of sea turtles is an energetically demanding activity that is fuelled primarily by aerobic metabolism. However, during intense exercise reptiles can use anaerobic metabolism to supplement their energy requirements. We assessed anaerobic metabolism in dispersing hatchling loggerhead and flatback turtles by measuring the concentrations of blood lactate during crawling and at different times during the first four hours of their frenzy swim. We also measured concentrations of blood glucose and corticosterone. Blood lactate (12.13 to 2.03 mmol/L, glucose (6.25 to 3.8 mmol/L and corticosterone (8.13 to 2.01 ng/mL concentrations decreased significantly over time in both loggerhead and flatback hatchlings and no significant differences were found between the species. These results indicate that anaerobic metabolism makes a significant contribution to the dispersal phase of hatchling sea turtles during the beach crawl and the first few hours of the frenzy swim.

  5. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shridhar, K; Satija, A; Dhillon, PK; Agrawal, S; Gupta, R; Bowen, L; Kinra, S; Bharathi, AV; Prabhakaran, D; Srinath Reddy, K; Ebrahim, S; Indian Migration Study group,

    2018-01-01

    Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. We used cross-se...

  7. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study

    OpenAIRE

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Satija, Ambika; Dhillon, Preet K.; Agrawal, Sutapa; Gupta, Ruby; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A. V.; Prabhakaran, D.; Srinath Reddy, K.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2018-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. Metho...

  8. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-07-01

    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still provide a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an extremely important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient agents in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient agents in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient agents. This base line can

  9. Blood glucose lowering effect of ophiopogonis tuber extract and mechanism of anti-insulin-resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng NING

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the hypoglycemic effect and insulin sensitization mechanism of ophiopogonis tuber extracts on the 3T3-L1-induced adipocytes, and also in rats with reproduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods  3T3-L1 cells were induced and differentiated into adipocytes. After the intervention with ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPSR and ophiopogonin (OPG, glucose consuming rate was detected for screening the extracts which may have effective hypoglycemic effects. The insulin resistance (IR adipocyte model was established by dexamethasone induction, and then it was treated with OPSR. The protein expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were detected by Western blotting. The T2DM rat model was reproduced and then treated with OPSR for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW, triglyeride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINs of the rats were measured respectively. Results  OPSR in dosage of 0.5-50mg/L promoted glucose consumption of adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, the glucose consumption ratios were 32.27%, 75.14% and 90.47% respectively. OPG of 50mg/L showed very weak activity with glucose consumption ratio of only 8.49%. OPSR could significantly promote the protein expression of leptin and adiponectin, and showed an inhibitory effect on the protein expression of resistin (P<0.05. After treatment with OPSR for 4 weeks, the BW of rats increased obviously, while TG, FBG and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions  OPSR may promote glucose transport and utilization of adipocytes, decrease the level of FBG and TG, and improve the condition of IR in T2DM rats. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering effect may be attributed to secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin by IR adipocytes.

  10. Effect of liraglutide on myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in stable chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Roni; Jorsal, Anders; Iversen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide increases heart rate and may be associated with more cardiac events in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. We studied whether this could be ascribed to effects on myocardial glucose uptake (MGU), myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBF...... reserve (MFR). METHODS AND RESULTS: CHF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% and without type 2 diabetes were randomized to liraglutide (N = 18) 1.8 mg once daily or placebo (N = 18) for 24 weeks in a double-blinded design. Changes in MGU during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT...

  11. Effect of guar crispbread with cereal products and leguminous seeds on blood glucose concentrations of diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Barker, H M; Fielden, H; Jenkins, A L

    1980-01-01

    To compare the effect on blood glucose concentrations of guar incorporated into crispbreads with that of unprocessed high-fibre foods groups of four to six diabetics took a total of seven test breakfasts on separate days. By comparison with a breakfast of wholemeal bread and cheese, guar crispbread combined with bread reduced the area under the glucose response curve to 51% (p leguminous seeds may not make such meals more acceptable than meals of guar products, but a combination of leguminous seeds and guar may allow smaller and more acceptable amounts of both to be used. PMID:6253021

  12. Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration by Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajravelu Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early and non-invasive determination of blood glucose level is of great importance. We aimed to present a new technique to accurately infer the blood glucose concentration in peripheral blood flow using non-invasive optical monitoring system.Methods: The data for the research were obtained from 900 individuals. Of them, 750 people had diabetes mellitus (DM. The system was designed using a helium neon laser source of 632.8 nm wavelength with 5mW power, photo detectors and digital storage oscilloscope. The laser beam was directed through a single optical fiber to the index finger and the scattered beams were collected by the photo detectors placed circumferentially to the transmitting fiber. The received signals were filtered using band pass filter and finally sent to a digital storage oscilloscope. These signals were then decomposed into approximation and detail coefficients using modified Haar Wavelet Transform. Back propagation neural and radial basis functions were employed for the prediction of blood glucose concentration.Results: The data of 450 patients were randomly used for training, 225 for testing and the rest for validation. The data showed that outputs from radial basis function were nearer to the clinical value. Significant variations could be seen from signals obtained from patients with DM and those without DM.Conclusion: The proposed non-invasive optical glucose monitoring system is able to predict the glucose concentration by proving that there is a definite variation in hematological distribution between patients with DM and those without DM.

  13. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed JW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James W Reed Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose

  14. Capillary blood sampling from the ear of dogs and cats and use of portable meters to measure glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wess, G; Reusch, C

    2000-02-01

    Two new methods for collection of capillary blood from the ear of dogs and cats for the measurement of blood glucose concentration using portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are described. The first method uses a lancing device after pre-warming the ear, while the second employs a vacuum lancing device. Both methods generated blood drops of adequate size, although the latter method was faster and easier to perform. Accuracy of the two PBGMs was evaluated clinically and statistically. Although assessment of statistical accuracy revealed differences between the PBGMs and the reference method, all of the PBGM readings were within clinically acceptable ranges. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentration is easy to perform, inexpensive and fast. It may be used by owners to determine blood glucose concentrations at home, and could serve as a new tool for monitoring diabetic dogs and cats.

  15. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  16. Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuntao; Yu, Junxing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Yun; Su, Jinmei; Wei, Guoqing; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gao, Jingsheng; Gao, Wenyuan; Wu, Shouling

    2017-01-01

    To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes. We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were measured during 2011 to 2016. Multivariate regression model was used to estimate the difference of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of arterial stiffness risk, according to the fasting blood glucose trajectories. We identified five distinct fasting blood glucose trajectories and each of the trajectories was labeled according to its range and change over 2006-2010 survey: elevated-stable pattern (5.0% of participants), elevated-decreasing pattern (6.6%), moderate-increasing pattern (10.9%), moderate-stable pattern (59.3%), and low-stable pattern (18.2%). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with elevated-stable pattern had a 42.6 cm/s (95%CI: 24.7 to 60.6 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 37% (OR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.66) higher arterial stiffness risk, and individuals with moderate-increasing pattern had a 19.6 cm/s (95%CI: 6.9 to 32.3 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 17% (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.33) higher arterial stiffness risk, related to individuals with moderate-stable pattern. We did not find significant associations of the elevated-decreasing or low-stable patterns with arterial stiffness. Consistently, the cumulative average, variability, and increased rate of fasting blood glucose during 2006-2010 survey were significantly associated with the arterial stiffness risk. Discrete fasting blood glucose trajectories were associated with the arterial stiffness risk in non-diabetic individuals.

  17. Successful microsurgical lip replantation: Monitoring venous congestion by blood glucose measurements in the replanted lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Tachi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the replanted region. The patient presented to our hospital with an upper lip avulsion that was caused by a dog bite. The lip was replanted by the microvascular anastomoses of one artery and two veins using interposed vein grafts. The replanted lip showed signs of congestion on postoperative day one; exsanguination using medicinal leeches was attempted, while blood glucose levels were measured every three hours. Critical congestion, which did not occur in this patient, was defined as a blood glucose level lower than 40 mg/dL. Lip replantation was successful without any complications in this patient.

  18. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3) approximately 6 weeks apart. A food frequency- and dietary pattern-related questionnaire was administered and numerically coded responses were analyzed. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were also collected at V1, V2, and V3. Body weight, fasting blood glucose level, and blood pressure of study participants were also determined at each time period. Total sample population (TSP) had a significant increase in mean weight of 2.79 lb from visit 1 (V1) to visit 3 (V3) (p = .0082). Ten participants gained an average of 9.0 lb (participants who gained weight; n = 10). There was also an increase in the frequency of consumption of high-calorie American food items from V1 to V3. However, there were no significant changes in mean systolic blood pressure and mean fasting blood glucose was significantly lower at V3 than at V1. There was a gradual shift in the dietary patterns of international students towards the American diet. Dietary acculturation led to weight gain among some of the students, which may potentially have a negative impact on their health status if continued for longer time periods.

  19. The clinical utility of two human portable blood glucose meters in canine and feline practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domori, Asuka; Sunahara, Ayano; Tateno, Morihiro; Miyama, Takako Shimokawa; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are useful for serial measurements of blood glucose and creation of blood glucose curves in veterinary practice. However, it is necessary to validate PBGMs designed for people for veterinary use. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of 2 PBGMs designed for people for use in dogs and cats. The blood glucose levels were determined in blood samples collected from 69 dogs and 26 cats admitted to the Kagoshima University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, using a MEDISAFE [PBGM-T] and an Antsense III [PBGM-H], and a FUJI DRI-CHEM 7000V as reference method. The correlations and agreements among the results were statistically analyzed. Simple regression analyses revealed a high correlation between values from both PBGMs and the reference method in both dogs and cats. However, Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman analyses revealed that the data from both PBGMs did not show statistical agreement with the reference values. Concordance correlated coefficients were moderate for the PBGM-T and almost perfect for the PBGM-H for canine samples, and were poor for the PBGM-T and substantial for the PBGM-H for feline samples. Hematocrit values significantly affected the results of the PBGM-T, but not the PBGM-H. Error grid analyses revealed that all measurements from both PBGMs would lead to acceptable treatment decisions. Our findings suggest that both PBGMs, especially the PBGM-H, would be clinically useful in small animal practice, although there was a bias between each PBGM and the reference method. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: Copy numbers, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tasker, S?verine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either M. haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), `Candidatus M. haemominutum? (Group HM: 3 cats) or `Candidatus M. turicensis? (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed...

  1. Determination of NIR informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement using a Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Li, Yasheng; Bai, Xueqiong; Deng, Chengyang

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose measurement using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy relies on wavebands that provide reliable information about spectral absorption. In this study, we investigated wavebands which are informative for blood glucose in the NIR shortwave band (900˜1450 nm) and the first overtone band (1450˜1700 nm) through a specially designed NIR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), which featured a test fixture (where a sample or subject's finger could be placed) and all-reflective optics, except for a Michelson structure. Different concentrations of glucose solution and seven volunteers who had undergone oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were studied to acquire transmission spectra in the shortwave band and the first overtone band. Characteristic peaks of glucose absorption were identified from the spectra of glucose aqueous solution by second-order derivative processing. The wavebands linked to blood glucose were successfully estimated through spectra of the middle fingertip of OGTT participants by a simple linear regression and correlation coefficient. The light intensity difference showed that glucose absorption in the first overtone band was much more prominent than it was in the shortwave band. The results of the SLR model established from seven OGTTs in total on seven participants enabled a positive estimation of the glucose-linked wavelength. It is suggested that wavebands with prominent characteristic peaks, a high correlation coefficient between blood glucose and light intensity difference and a relatively low standard deviation of predicted values will be the most informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement methods. This work provides a guidance for waveband selection for the development of non-invasive NIR blood glucose measurement.

  2. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  3. Correlation of body weight with hatchling blood glucose concentration and its relationship to embryonic survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, V L; Grimes, J L; Donaldson, W E; Lerner, S

    2000-12-01

    The negative correlation between selection for rapid growth and embryonic survival was investigated. Embryonic growth was assessed with hatchling weights of a closed population of commercial turkey breeders. Hatchling weights were highly significantly (P periods. High embryos grew faster than Low embryos with elevated organ glycogen concentrations. Organic acid analysis indicated elevated plasma alpha-ketoglutarate, urate, and beta-hydroxy butyrate concentrations, suggesting a greater reliance on gluconeogenesis for the High group. Posthatch growth was significantly positively correlated with hatchling blood glucose concentrations in toms but not in hens. Tom poults hatching with elevated glucose were heavier than low glucose hatch mates until 22 wk of age, but hen poults displayed no differences until 16 wk when High hens weighed less than Low hens. These data suggest that the negative correlation between rapid growth and embryonic survival is related to egg-shell conductance constants and embryonic energy metabolism.

  4. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. COMPARISON OF WHOLE BLOOD AND PLASMA GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN GREEN TURTLES ( CHELONIA MYDAS) DETERMINED USING A GLUCOMETER AND A DRY CHEMISTRY ANALYZER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bresette, Michael J; Mott, Cody R; Stacy, Nicole I

    2018-01-01

    :  We compared glucose concentrations in whole blood and plasma from green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) using a glucometer with plasma glucose analyzed by dry chemistry analyzer. Whole blood glucose (glucometer) and plasma glucose (dry chemistry) had the best agreement ( r s =0.85) and a small negative bias (-0.08 mmol/L).

  6. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  7. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) raises blood-brain glucose transfer capacity and hexokinase activity in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Lerche, Susanne; Egefjord, Lærke

    2013-01-01

    In hyperglycemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) lowers brain glucose concentration together with increased net blood-brain clearance and brain metabolism, but it is not known whether this effect depends on the prevailing plasma glucose (PG) concentration. In hypoglycemia, glucose depletion...... potentially impairs brain function. Here, we test the hypothesis that GLP-1 exacerbates the effect of hypoglycemia. To test the hypothesis, we determined glucose transport and consumption rates in seven healthy men in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design. The acute...... effect of GLP-1 on glucose transfer in the brain was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) during a hypoglycemic clamp (3 mM plasma glucose) with (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) as tracer of glucose. In addition, we jointly analyzed cerebrometabolic effects of GLP-1 from the present...

  8. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  9. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. H. Lunde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO. Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (<.05, as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety.

  10. A randomized, double-blind clinical study to determine the effect of ANKASCIN 568 plus on blood glucose regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ruei Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is the fourth major cause of death in Taiwan. High blood glucose can lead to macrovascular diseases, small vessel diseases (retinopathy, kidney disease, and neuropathy. This study aimed to investigate whether Monascus-fermented products (ANKASCIN 568 plus can regulate blood glucose and blood lipids. This study enrolled 39 patients with a fasting blood glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 180 mg/dL, and a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level of <9%. All patients were randomly divided into placebo (n=20 and experimental (n=19 groups. Each patient received two placebo capsules (maltodextrin or ANKASCIN 568 plus capsules daily for 12 weeks. The patients were screened during follow-up 4 weeks after the administration of sample or placebo had been discontinued. Blood and urine samples were collected at the initial, 6th week, 12th week, and 16th week. The anthropometric indicators of blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose level, postprandial plasma glucose level, insulin level, insulin resistance, blood lipid changes, and liver, kidney, and thyroid function indices were measured. After 6 weeks, changes in fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and total cholesterol (TC levels showed that ANKASCIN 568 plus had a more favorable effect than the placebo. Compared to baseline, a statistically significant decrease of 8.5%, 10.3%, and 7.5% was observed in fasting blood glucose, LDL-C and, TC levels, respectively (p<0.05 for all pairs. Therefore, ANKASCIN 568 plus produced by Monascus purpureus NTU 568 fermentation may be a potentially useful agent for the regulation of blood glucose and blood lipids and for treatment of coronary artery diseases.

  11. A randomized, double-blind clinical study to determine the effect of ANKASCIN 568 plus on blood glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Ruei; Liu, Sheng-Fu; Shen, You-Cheng; Chen, Chien-Li; Huang, Chine-Ning; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes is the fourth major cause of death in Taiwan. High blood glucose can lead to macrovascular diseases, small vessel diseases (retinopathy, kidney disease), and neuropathy. This study aimed to investigate whether Monascus-fermented products (ANKASCIN 568 plus) can regulate blood glucose and blood lipids. This study enrolled 39 patients with a fasting blood glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 180 mg/dL, and a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of plus capsules daily for 12 weeks. The patients were screened during follow-up 4 weeks after the administration of sample or placebo had been discontinued. Blood and urine samples were collected at the initial, 6 th week, 12 th week, and 16 th week. The anthropometric indicators of blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose level, postprandial plasma glucose level, insulin level, insulin resistance, blood lipid changes, and liver, kidney, and thyroid function indices were measured. After 6 weeks, changes in fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC) levels showed that ANKASCIN 568 plus had a more favorable effect than the placebo. Compared to baseline, a statistically significant decrease of 8.5%, 10.3%, and 7.5% was observed in fasting blood glucose, LDL-C and, TC levels, respectively (pplus produced by Monascus purpureus NTU 568 fermentation may be a potentially useful agent for the regulation of blood glucose and blood lipids and for treatment of coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei.

  13. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    disease; 2.27 (1.95-2.65) for ischaemic stroke; 1.56 (1.19-2.05) for haemorrhagic stroke; 1.84 (1.59-2.13) for unclassified stroke; and 1.73 (1.51-1.98) for the aggregate of other vascular deaths. HRs did not change appreciably after further adjustment for lipid, inflammatory, or renal markers. HRs......BACKGROUND: Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. METHODS: We undertook a meta......-analysis of individual records of diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration, and other risk factors in people without initial vascular disease from studies in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. We combined within-study regressions that were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body...

  14. Effects of high-bran bread on blood glucose control in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, C; Hallmans, G; Lithner, F

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine whether rye bran, baked into crisp bread (high-bran bread), would affect the blood glucose levels and insulin requirements in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The high-bran bread was compared with a low-bran bread (series I) and with the usual bread in the patients' diet (series II). The low-bran bread contained 5% dietary fiber, the high-bran bread 18% and the usual bread in the patient's diet 4% as a mean (enzymatic method). In series I five women consumed the low-bran bread for two weeks and then changed to the high-bran bread for four weeks. In series II two men and five women consumed their usual bread during a control period of two weeks and high-bran during the following two weeks. The insulin doses were reduced or the blood glucose concentrations were lowered during the high-bran bread periods.

  15. Does high blood glucose mean more insulin? Type 1 diabetes management in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kwang C; Edwards, Keith N

    2003-09-01

    The growth and development occurring in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes contributes to many medical and nonmedical factors that may affect diabetic control. This article discusses the assessment of high blood sugar levels in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Traditionally, diet, exercise and insulin dose are seen as the determinants of blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetic patients. While these factors are important, other practical, medical and psychosocial factors need to be considered. Appropriate management requires more than just alteration of insulin dose. Insulin injection technique, adherence to insulin and management regimens in general, psychosocial issues, the role of intercurrent infections and the development of other medical problems need to be considered. Children and adolescents may only be seen by specialist physicians at three monthly intervals. Exploring these issues with patients during routine general practitioner consultations is likely to allow early identification of treatable problems and improve long term glucose control.

  16. Evaluation of newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Oda, Hitomi; Onozawa, Eri; Shono, Saori; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-07

    This study evaluated the accuracy of a newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats. Sixty-one dogs and 31 cats were used for the current study. Blood samples were obtained from each dog and cat one to six times. Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and reference method values (glucose oxidation methods) in both dogs and cats. Bland-Altman plot analysis revealed a mean difference between the PBGM value and reference method value of -1.975 mg/dl (bias) in dogs and 1.339 mg/dl (bias) in cats. Hematocrit values did not affect the results of the veterinary PBGM. Therefore, this veterinary PBGM is clinically useful in dogs and cats.

  17. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Olav Skrøvseth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians.

  18. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.V.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U.; Heller, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural and demograp......AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural......% of the patients and less than weekly by 24%. Sixty-seven percent reported to perform routine testing, while the remaining 33% only tested when hypo- or hyperglycaemia was suspected. Age, gender, and level of diabetes-related concern were associated with test pattern. Reported frequencies of mild and severe...

  19. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  20. Enhanced self-monitoring blood glucose in non-insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Dana Elisabeth

    2018-03-31

    To contribute to both theoretical and practical understanding of the role of self-monitoring blood glucose for self-management by describing the experience of people with non-insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes in an enhanced structured self-monitoring blood glucose intervention. The complex context of self-monitoring blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes requires a deeper understanding of the clients' illness experience with structured self-monitoring of blood glucose. Clients' numeracy skills contribute to their response to blood glucose readings. Nurses' use of motivational interviewing to increase clients' regulatory self-efficacy is important to the theoretical perspective of the study. A qualitative descriptive study. A purposive sample of eleven adults recently (self-monitoring blood glucose intervention participated in this study. Audio recordings of semi-structured interviews and photos of logbooks were analyzed for themes using constant comparison and member checking. The illness experience states of Type 2 diabetes include 'Diagnosis', 'Behavior change', and 'Routine checking'. People check blood glucose to confirm their Type 2 diabetes diagnosis, to console their diabetes related fears, to create personal explanations of health behavior's impact on blood glucose, to activate behavior change and to congratulate their diabetes self-management efforts. These findings support the Transtheoretical model's stages of change and change processes. Blood glucose checking strengthens the relationships between theoretical concepts found in Diabetes Self-management Education-Support including: engagement, information sharing, and behavioral support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of blood glucose in type II diabetic patients submitted to local anesthesia with different vasoconstrictors

    OpenAIRE

    MELLO, Renan Pollettini de; RAMACCIATO, Juliana Cama; PERUZZO, Daiane Cristine; VICENTINI, Carllini Barroso; BERGAMASCHI, Cristiane de Cássia; MOTTA, Rogério Heládio Lopes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: In the dental clinic, the use of local anesthetics containing vasoconstrictors in diabetic patients are still controversial raising some doubts. Thus, the objective of this randomized crossover clinical trial was to evaluate blood glucose, pulse oximetry and heart rate of type 2 diabetic patients when submitted to local anesthesia using prilocaine 3% associated to felypressin 0,03UI / ml (G1) and 2% lidocaine associated to epinephrine 1: 100,000 (G2). Methods: The sample...

  2. Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) c...

  3. RETRACTED: Bosentan attenuates cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice without affecting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Yun-Dai; Li, Min; Zhou, Fei-Hu; Xu, Yong; Wang, Guang-Yi; Li, Tian-De; Xing, You-Hong

    2015-12-01

    At the request of the authors, 'Bosentan attenuates cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice without affecting blood glucose' Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, published ahead of print August 15, 2011 as doi: 10.1177/1470320311417274 has been retracted. This is due to mistakes in the published data at Figure 3. For clarification: this problem came to the attention of Bo Yang only after publication in the journal. Bo Yang immediately brought it to the attention of the Journal.

  4. Blood Glucose Meters That Are Accessible to Blind and Visually Impaired Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Uslan, Mark M.; Burton, Darren M.; Clements, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Blood glucose meters (BGMs) that can be used nonvisually or with a visual limitation were introduced in the mid-1990s, but it was not until 2006 and 2007 that a new set of meters with accessibility features were introduced: Prodigy, Prodigy Autocode, and Prodigy Voice (Diagnostic Devices, Charlotte, NC), and Advocate and Advocate Redi-Code (TaiDoc, Taiwan). Accessibility attributes of the newly introduced BGMs were tabulated, and product design features were examined and documented. The Prodi...

  5. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, O Peter

    2013-01-01

    O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief ...

  6. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on blood glucose and lipid levels in free-living patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Kise, Mitsuo; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ito, Yukihiko; Yang, Mei-Due; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2008-04-01

    White rice (WR) is made by polishing brown rice (BR) and has lost various nutrients; however, most people prefer it to BR, maybe because of the hardness of BR. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) improves the problem of BR. It is made by soaking BR kernels in water to germinate and becomes softer than BR. In this study we compared the effects of WR and PGBR on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes patients. Six men and 5 women with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 6 wk on WR or PGBR diet separated by a 2 wk washout interval in a crossover design. Each subject was instructed to consume 3 packs of cooked WR or PGBR (180 g/pack) daily in each intervention phase. Blood samples were collected 4 times (in study weeks 0, 6, 8 and 14) for biochemical examination. Blood concentrations of fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were favorably improved on the PGBR diet (p<0.01), but not on the WR diet. The present results suggest that diets including PGBR may be useful to control blood glucose level.

  7. Chronic fructose substitution for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages has little effect on fasting blood glucose, insulin, or triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rebecca A; Frese, Michael; Romero, Julio; Cunningham, Judy H; Mills, Kerry E

    2017-08-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the role of long-term fructose consumption on health. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of other sugars and its effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for a reduction in fasting glycemic and insulinemic markers after chronic, isoenergetic replacement of glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages by fructose. The target populations were persons without diabetes, those with impaired glucose tolerance, and those with type 2 diabetes. Design: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov The date of the last search was 26 April 2016. We included randomized controlled trials of isoenergetic replacement of glucose, sucrose, or both by fructose in adults or children with or without diabetes of ≥2 wk duration that measured fasting blood glucose. The main outcomes analyzed were fasting blood glucose and insulin as well as fasting triglycerides, blood lipoproteins, HbA1c, and body weight. Results: We included 14 comparison arms from 11 trials, including 277 patients. The studies varied in length from 2 to 10 wk (mean: 28 d) and included doses of fructose between 40 and 150 g/d (mean: 68 g/d). Fructose substitution in some subgroups resulted in significantly but only slightly lowered fasting blood glucose (-0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.036 mmol/L), HbA1c [-10 g/L (95% CI: -12.90, -7.10 g/L; impaired glucose tolerance) and -6 g/L (95% CI: -8.47, -3.53 g/L; normoglycemia)], triglycerides (-0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02 mmol/L), and body weight (-1.40 kg; 95% CI: -2.07, -0.74 kg). There was no effect on fasting blood insulin or blood lipids. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that the substitution of fructose for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages may be of benefit

  8. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  9. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  10. Effects of Chlorophyll in Papaya Leaves on Superoxide Dismutation and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirun Nissa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus results in oxidative stress and increases complication development. Experimental studies have shown that chlorophyll has antioxidant activity and papaya leaves contained chlorophyll more than the other green vegetables. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and hypoglycemic role in chlorophyll rich in papaya leaves on diabetic rats. Thirty six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: without treatment (technique control/TC, diabetic (negative control/NC, diabetic with treatment A (100.3 mg/200 g BW of extract and diabetic with treatment B (200.6 mg/200 g BW of extract. Diabetic induction was conducted by injecting streptozotocin 40 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally. Extract was given by nasogastric tube. Blood glucose level was measured using enzymatic colorimetric GOD-PAP test at before, after 20 and 40 days of treatment. Hepatic superoxide dismutation (SOD level was measured after 40 days of treatment. Blood glucose levels in 3 diabetic groups were significantly raised after seven days of induction. In Anova and post hoc LSD analysis, both treatments had lower hepatic SOD level than TC (p=0.0001, and blood glucose level also decreased after given the treatment (p=0.0001. Treatment B had a better antioxidant and hypoglycemic role than treatment A.

  11. Chickpeas suppress postprandial blood glucose concentration, and appetite and reduce energy intake at the next meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Kabir, Yearul

    2017-03-01

    The current study was designed to explore the beneficial properties of chickpeas consumption on suppressing appetite, excessive blood glucose excursions, and energy intake (EI) from a subsequent meal. Two caloric preloaded foods, chickpeas, and white bread were compared to water control, fed to healthy female subjects at equal energy density, volume, and available carbohydrate content in two experiments spanning over 60 and 120 min. Blood glucose was measured by a portable glucometer and satiety by using a visual analogue scale questionnaire at baseline and every 15 up to 60 min in both experiments and then every 30 until 120 min in Experiment 2 after the preloads ingestion. A test meal was served at the end of both experiments to calculate EI and percent energy compensation (%EC). The results suggest a reduction of 29-36% in blood glucose concentration, and 83-98% EC after the chickpeas in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively compared to white bread. The average appetite showed a positive association with EI. We conclude that the consumption of chickpeas is beneficial on glycemic control and may help in body weight management through suppressing appetite and energy intake.

  12. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  13. Point-of-care blood glucose measurement errors overestimate hypoglycaemia rates in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Corl, Dawn; Onstad, Susan; Yin, Tom; Tylee, Tracy; Suhr, Louise; Thompson, Rachel E; Wisse, Brent E

    2015-02-01

    Hypoglycaemia is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and many hospitals have programmes to minimize hypoglycaemia rates. Recent studies have established the hypoglycaemic patient-day as a key metric and have published benchmark inpatient hypoglycaemia rates on the basis of point-of-care blood glucose data even though these values are prone to measurement errors. A retrospective, cohort study including all patients admitted to Harborview Medical Center Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during 2010 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate a quality improvement programme to reduce inappropriate documentation of point-of-care blood glucose measurement errors. Laboratory Medicine point-of-care blood glucose data and patient charts were reviewed to evaluate all episodes of hypoglycaemia. A quality improvement intervention decreased measurement errors from 31% of hypoglycaemic (measurement errors likely overestimates ICU hypoglycaemia rates and can be reduced by a quality improvement effort. The currently used hypoglycaemic patient-day metric does not evaluate recurrent or prolonged events that may be more likely to cause patient harm. The monitored patient-day as currently defined may not be the optimal denominator to determine inpatient hypoglycaemic risk. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes: Recent Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Oliver; Alawi, Hasan; Battelino, Tadej; Ceriello, Antonio; Diem, Peter; Felton, Anne-Marie; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Harno, Kari; Kempler, Peter; Satman, Ilhan; Vergès, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The increasing role for structured and personalized self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in management of type 2 diabetes has been underlined by randomized and prospective clinical trials. These include Structured Testing Program (or STeP), St. Carlos, Role of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Intensive Education in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Not Receiving Insulin, and Retrolective Study Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Outcome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (or ROSSO)-in-praxi follow-up. The evidence for the benefit of SMBG both in insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated patients with diabetes is also supported by published reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines. A Cochrane review reported an overall effect of SMBG on glycemic control up to 6 months after initiation, which was considered to subside after 12 months. Particularly, the 12-month analysis has been criticized for the inclusion of a small number of studies and the conclusions drawn. The aim of this article is to review key publications on SMBG and also to put them into perspective with regard to results of the Cochrane review and current aspects of diabetes management. PMID:23567007

  15. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  16. Remote Blood Glucose Monitoring in mHealth Scenarios: A Review

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    Giordano Lanzola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient’s significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her. In all of these cases, a remote monitoring system, in charge of delivering the relevant information to the right player, becomes an important part of the sensing architecture. In this paper, we review how the remote monitoring architectures have evolved over time, paralleling the progress in the Information and Communication Technologies, and describe our experiences with the design of telemedicine systems for blood glucose monitoring in three medical applications. The paper ends summarizing the lessons learned through the experiences of the authors and discussing the challenges arising from a large-scale integration of sensors and actuators.

  17. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  18. Optimal blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus treatment using dynamic programming based on Ackerman’s linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradanti, Paskalia; Hartono

    2018-03-01

    Determination of insulin injection dose in diabetes mellitus treatment can be considered as an optimal control problem. This article is aimed to simulate optimal blood glucose control for patient with diabetes mellitus. The blood glucose regulation of diabetic patient is represented by Ackerman’s Linear Model. This problem is then solved using dynamic programming method. The desired blood glucose level is obtained by minimizing the performance index in Lagrange form. The results show that dynamic programming based on Ackerman’s Linear Model is quite good to solve the problem.

  19. Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network to Predict Blood Glucose in Overweight Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wang, F; Liu, Y; Xu, J; Lin, H; Jia, B; Zuo, W; Jiang, Y; Hu, L; Lin, F

    2016-01-01

    Overweight individuals are at higher risk for developing type II diabetes than the general population. We conducted this study to analyze the correlation between blood glucose and biochemical parameters, and developed a blood glucose prediction model tailored to overweight patients. A total of 346 overweight Chinese people patients ages 18-81 years were involved in this study. Their levels of fasting glucose (fs-GLU), blood lipids, and hepatic and renal functions were measured and analyzed by multiple linear regression (MLR). Based the MLR results, we developed a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model by selecting tansig as the transfer function of the hidden layers nodes, and purelin for the output layer nodes, with training goal of 0.5×10(-5). There was significant correlation between fs-GLU with age, BMI, and blood biochemical indexes (P<0.05). The results of MLR analysis indicated that age, fasting alanine transaminase (fs-ALT), blood urea nitrogen (fs-BUN), total protein (fs-TP), uric acid (fs-BUN), and BMI are 6 independent variables related to fs-GLU. Based on these parameters, the BP-ANN model was performed well and reached high prediction accuracy when training 1 000 epoch (R=0.9987). The level of fs-GLU was predictable using the proposed BP-ANN model based on 6 related parameters (age, fs-ALT, fs-BUN, fs-TP, fs-UA and BMI) in overweight patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Accuracy of blood glucose meters for self-monitoring affects glucose control and hypoglycemia rate in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Claudia; Dost, Axel; Wudy, Stefan A; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Borkenstein, Martin; Schiel, Ralf; Weitzel, Dieter; Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, Susanne; Wolf, Johannes; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of blood glucose meters for self-monitoring and its influence on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and the frequency of hypoglycemic coma. Self-measured and simultaneously obtained laboratory blood glucose values from 9,163 patients with type 1 diabetes glucose control and hypoglycemia rates. Depending on the respective subgroup (defined by sex, age, duration of diabetes, mode of insulin therapy), 78.7-94.7% of the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) values met the old and 79.7-88.6% met the new ISO criteria. In Clarke and Parkes error grid analyses, the percentages of SMBG values in Zone A ranged between 92.8% and 94.6% (Clarke) and between 92.2% and 95.0% (Parkes). The patient group with SMBG devices measuring "far too low" (compared with the laboratory-obtained glucose levels) presented with a higher HbA1c level than those measuring "far too high," "too high," "identical/almost identical," or "too low" (based on quintiles of deviation). Performing "far too high" was associated with the highest rate of hypoglycemic coma in comparison with the other deviation quintiles. This study showed that current SMBG devices fulfilled neither the previous nor the new ISO criteria. Large deviations of the SMBG values from the "true" glucose levels resulted in higher HbA1c levels and markedly increased rates of hypoglycemic events.

  1. [A cohort study on the correlation between birth weight, simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qi; Tan, Jing; Liu, Zhao-hui; Liu, Rong-kun; Yang, Zheng

    2007-11-01

    To determine the correlation between birth weight and simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence. A vertical sectional survey on 193 children aged 7 - 11 years was performed in 1996. A questionnaire consisting of items on environmental factors and lifestyle, physical examination and biochemical assessment was conducted at baseline and the 9th year of follow-up. The incidence of obesity and over-weight in childhood in high (6.1%) and low birth-weight group (5.6%) was higher than that in normal birth-weight group (2.8%), but did not reach statistic significance; The levels of body mass index in adolescence in high and low birth-weight group were significantly higher than that in normal birth-weight group (P = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively), and the incidence of obesity and over-weight in adolescence was significantly higher in high (33.3%) and low birth-weight group (38.9%) than that in normal birth-weight group (16.2%, P = 0.025 and 0.020, respectively). There were no significant differences in the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure between different birth weight groups (all, P > 0.05). Intrauterine growth is linked to physical growth during childhood and adolescence. Nutritional guidance in pregnant phase may help to control the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescent.

  2. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

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    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  3. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  4. "Learning" Can Improve the Blood Glucose Control Performance for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youqing; Zhang, Jinping; Zeng, Fanmao; Wang, Na; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Dong; Yang, Wenying; Cobelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A learning-type artificial pancreas has been proposed to exploit the repetitive nature in the blood glucose dynamics. We clinically evaluated the efficacy of the learning-type artificial pancreas. We conducted a pilot clinical study in 10 participants of mean age 36.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.7; range 16-58) with type 1 diabetes. Each trial was conducted for eight consecutive mornings. The first two mornings were open-loop to obtain the individualized parameters. Then, the following six mornings were closed-loop, during which a learning-type model predictive control algorithm was employed to calculate the insulin infusion rate. To evaluate the algorithm's robustness, each participant took exercise or consumed alcohol on the fourth or sixth closed-loop day and the order was determined randomly. The primary outcome was the percentage of time spent in the target glucose range of 3.9-8.0 mmol/L between 0900 and 1200 h. The percentage of time with glucose spent in target range was significantly improved from 51.6% on day 1 to 71.6% on day 3 (mean difference between groups 17.9%, confidence interval [95% CI] 3.6-32.1; P = 0.020). There were no hypoglycemic episodes developed on day 3 compared with two episodes on day 1. There was no difference in the percentage of time with glucose spent in target range between exercise day versus day 5 and alcohol day versus day 5. The learning-type artificial pancreas system achieved good glycemic regulation and provided increased effectiveness over time. It showed a satisfactory performance even when the blood glucose was challenged by exercise or alcohol.

  5. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  6. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  7. Perspectives of patients with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes on self-monitoring of blood glucose: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Hung, Li-Chen; Chen, Yang-Lin; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2018-04-01

    To explore experiences of self-monitoring of blood glucose among patients with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is essential to diabetes care and facilitates glycaemic control. Patients' perspectives of self-monitoring of blood glucose have seldom been discussed in the literature, and engagement in self-monitoring of blood glucose is consistently low. The descriptive phenomenological method was used. Purposive sampling was conducted to recruit participants from the endocrinology departments of medical institutions in Taiwan based on the following criteria: (i) having a medical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, (ii) not being treated with insulin, (iii) having engaged in self-monitoring of blood glucose at least once within the preceding 6 months, (iv) being at least 20 years old and (v) not having any major mental or cognitive disorders. Data were collected in outpatient consultation rooms, the participants' homes and other settings where the participants felt secure and comfortable. In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data from 16 patients with diabetes. The participants perceived that lifestyle affected blood glucose levels and did not know how to handle high or low blood glucose levels. Their willingness to continue self-monitoring of blood glucose depended on whether healthcare professionals checked or discussed their blood glucose levels with them. The patients' knowledge regarding blood glucose variation and healthcare professionals' attitudes affected the patients' self-monitoring of blood glucose behaviours. The empirical findings illustrated self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences and recommended that healthcare professionals' closely attend to patients' requirements and responses to diabetes and incorporate the self-monitoring of blood glucose into therapy plans. Healthcare professionals should reinforce patients' knowledge on appropriate responses to high and low blood glucose levels, intervene

  8. Alternative sampling site for blood glucose testing in cats: giving the ears a rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeugswetter, Florian K; Rebuzzi, Laura; Karlovits, Sonja

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY RATIONALE: Home monitoring is an important part of the long-term management of diabetic cats. Despite the extensive use of glucometers in this species, up until now only the pinna of the ear has been validated as a testing site. This cross-sectional study investigated the feasibility and validity of sampling from the metacarpal/metatarsal pads in hospitalised cats with various diseases. The large pads were compared with the ear as a sampling site in 75 cats. Lancing the pads was tolerated very well. If the initial drop of blood was too small, an adequate volume of blood was almost always achieved by squeezing the pads. No significant differences were observed in first-attempt success rate or glucose values between the two sites. Due to the inability to obtain an adequate volume of blood or struggling, no measurement was possible in four cats. While further work is necessary to assess the utility of this technique, especially in the home environment, the results indicate that the metacarpal pads, in particular, may offer a viable alternative testing site for the measurement of blood glucose concentrations, especially if ear sampling fails. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired first-phase insulin response predicts postprandial blood glucose increment in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C; Rosenfalck, A M; Dejgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between postprandial blood glucose and first-phase insulin response and, furthermore, to assess whether the intravenous glucagon stimulation test can be used as a predictor for increased postprandial glucose in patients with recently diagnosed...... type 2 diabetes....

  10. Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelengths of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and intralipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Myllylae, Risto

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive glucose monitoring is one of the most active areas in biomedical research. Various techniques have been developed over the years to meet the clinical requirements of non-invasive monitoring in the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range, but without a breakthrough. This paper used the pulsed photoacoustic (PA) technique to study glucose-induced changes in pig whole blood and 1% Intralipid TM using an Nd : YAG laser with wavelengths of 1064 and 532 nm as the optical energy source. Scattering properties of the sample significantly affect the laser-induced pressure waves. Glucose was found to affect both the scattering and the absorption properties of the samples. The results showed an increase of 11.4%/500 mg dl -1 added glucose in the peak-to-peak value of the PA signal in blood at 1064 nm, whereas the corresponding increase was only 1.35%/500 mg dl -1 in 1% Intralipid TM . At a wavelength of 532 nm, the glucose increased the peak-to-peak value of the PA signal by 6.0%/500 mg dl -1 added glucose in blood. On the whole, the pulsed PA technique proved to be an efficient tool for the study of glucose-induced changes in blood and tissue phantoms in vitro

  11. The impact of blood glucose levels on stimulated adrenocorticotropin hormone and growth hormone release in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsdottir, S.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Drent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In studies investigating the influence of glucose levels on the pituitary function the methods used have been variable and mainly focused on the change in function as a reaction to unphysiological low or high blood glucose levels. In the present study the impact of physiological and

  12. The effect of aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure of diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mokhtari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with aging, unhealthy diets, obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinational effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan (BBG on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 24 women with the mean age of 49 years and a blood glucose level of 110-280 mg/dl were purposefully selected and randomly divided into three groups: a group of aerobic exercise with diet (n=8, b diet group (n=8 c control group (n=8. The diet group consumed one barley bread, containing 4 g of β glucan, each day for 12 weeks. The group of aerobic exercise, who was on diet, participated in a progressive walking program with the intensity of %60-70% of maximal heart rate in addition to diet program (barley bread. Blood glucose, weight, fat percentage, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were measured in pre-and post-training. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the experimental groups compared to the control group, while no major changes were observed in body composition and blood pressure. Conclusion: It seems that the combined program (aerobic training with diet or consumption of β-glucan alone can decrease blood glucose in patients with diabetes.

  13. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...

  14. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...... polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). RESULTS: The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under...

  15. A Comparative Study of Blood Glucose Measurements Using Glucometer Readings and the Standard Method in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoglycemia

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    Mohammad Torkaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders, associated with severe complications. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and screening of hypoglycemia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine a cut-off value for blood glucose level in glucometer readings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 newborns at risk of hypoglycemia, admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran, Iran in 2012; the subjects were selected via simple sampling. After obtaining informed consents from the newborns’ parents, 1 cc blood samples were sent to the laboratory for measuring the blood glucose level. Moreover, venous blood samples, as well as heel-stick blood samples, were obtained for glucometer measurements. Blood glucose measurements were used to determine the cut-off value by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and make comparisons with the diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia in the literature. Results: A total of 238 infants with the mean weight of 2869±821.9 g were enrolled in this study. The mean (±SD blood glucose levels were 65.1±22.9, 82.9±24.7, and 84.4±24.8 mg/dl, based on the standard laboratory method, glucometer reading of venous blood samples, and glucometer reading of heel-stick capillary blood samples, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for hypoglycemia was determined as 65 mg/dl, using glucometer-based assessment of heel-stick blood samples. Conclusion: The significant difference in blood glucose levels measured by the laboratory method and outpatient glucometer readings highlights the importance of a cut-off value for rapid assessment and control of blood glucose and timely detection of hypoglycemia. In fact, the cut-off value introduced in the present study could facilitate such measurements.

  16. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose to Assess Dawn Phenomenon in Chinese People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Huang, Yuxin; Qiu, Jieyuzhen; Sun, Jiao; Wang, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Aims . We investigated whether self-monitoring of blood glucose could be used to assess dawn phenomenon in Chinese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods . A total of 306 people with T2DM underwent continuous glucose monitoring and self-monitoring of blood glucose for 72 h. A linear model was used to fit the optimal linear formula of the magnitude of dawn phenomenon (ΔDawn) and self-monitoring of blood glucose values. Results . The prevalence of dawn phenomenon was similar within different oral antidiabetic drug groups (42.5%, 31.5%, and 40.9%, P = 0.216). Multiple variable linear regression showed that prebreakfast, prelunch, and predinner glucose measurements were independently and significantly correlated with ΔDawn. The linear formula between ΔDawn and blood glucose was as follows: ΔDawn (mg/dL) = 0.557 × prebreakfast - 0.065 × prelunch - 0.164 × predinner - 20.894 (mg/dL) (adjusted R 2 = 0.302, P = 0.000). Conclusions . Dawn phenomenon could be partly assessed by blood glucose self-monitoring in Chinese people with T2DM using the abovementioned formula. The incidence of dawn phenomenon was similar among patients in different oral antidiabetic drug groups.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  18. GLUCOSE, TOTAL PROTEINS, URIC ACID AND TRIGL YCERIDES CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD OF ATIVE LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken, to estimate levels of glucose, total proteins, albumins, uric acid and triglycerides in plasma of Desi and Naked Neck laying hens. The experimental birds received ration containing 16 per cent crude protein and were housed in open sheds. The mean values (mg/dL observed in Desi hens were 226.736+15.20 glucose, 1.624+0.224 albumin, 5.203+1.078 total proteins, 4.633+1.875 uric acid and 529.800+554.74 triglycerides. In Naked neck hens, the mean values were found to be 231.818+31.376 glucose, 1.562+0.287 albumins, 4.533+0.797total proteins, 4.157+1.336 uric acid and 791.200+320.474 triglycerides. There was no difference (P<0.05 in mean values of blood parameters between both the native laying hens which suggested that in identical genetical mechanism regulated concentrations of blood chemical constituents under study.

  19. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for portable blood glucose meter (glucometer) use in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Karen L; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2016-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGM, glucometers) are a convenient, cost effective, and quick means to assess patient blood glucose concentration. The number of commercially available PBGM is constantly increasing, making it challenging to determine whether certain glucometers may have benefits over others for veterinary testing. The challenge in selection of an appropriate glucometer from a quality perspective is compounded by the variety of analytic methods used to quantify glucose concentrations and disparate statistical analysis in many published studies. These guidelines were developed as part of the ASVCP QALS committee response to establish recommendations to improve the quality of testing using point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld and benchtop devices in veterinary medicine. They are intended for clinical pathologists and laboratory professionals to provide them with background knowledge and specific recommendations for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC), and to serve as a resource to assist the provision of advice to veterinarians and technicians to improve the quality of results obtained when using PBGM. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather they provide a minimum standard for management of PBGM in the veterinary setting. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Using Radar Plots to Demonstrate the Accuracy and Precision of 6 Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Simmons, David A

    2017-09-01

    Previously, fingertip capillary blood glucose measurements from the CONTOUR ® NEXT (CN) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) and 5 other BGMSs were evaluated in comparison with measurements from a reference YSI glucose analyzer. Here, we use Radar Plots to graphically represent the accuracy and precision results from the previous study, including whether they met ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria. A Radar Plot, a new method for capturing a distinct, single visualization of BGMS analytical performance, is a collection of concentric circles, each representing a particular magnitude of error. The center of the plot represents zero error (BGMS result is equivalent to reference result); as points are more distant from the center, the error increases, expressed in units of mg/dL or percentage for YSI values data point above or below the horizontal line bisecting the plot indicates whether the BGMS measurement error was positive (BGMS result > YSI result) or negative (BGMS result Radar Plots provide a different method for visually comparing the analytical performance of multiple BGMSs. The tight clustering of data points at the center of the CN Radar Plot illustrates the analytical performance of CN compared with 5 other BGMSs.

  1. The Effects of on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley N. Hoehn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P -value of 3.915 × 10 -10 . The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone.

  2. Comparison of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a portable blood glucose meter to determine insulin dose in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietiker-Moretti, S; Müller, C; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N; Tschuor, F; Osto, M; Franchini, M; Ackermann, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Zini, E

    2011-01-01

    The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) Guardian REAL-Time(®) allows the generation of very detailed glucose profiles in cats. The performance of CGMS to generate short-term glucose profiles to evaluate treatment response has not been yet evaluated in diabetic cats. Analysis of glucose profiles generated using the CGMS produces insulin dose recommendations that differ from those of profiles generated using the portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) in diabetic cats. Thirteen client-owned diabetic cats. Prospective, observational study. Simultaneous glucose profiles were generated over an 8-10 hour period using the CGMS, blood glucose concentration was measured every 2 hours with the PBGM. Profiles were submitted to three internal medicine specialists who used them to determine the insulin dose. Differences between insulin doses deduced from paired profiles were compared. Percentages of nadirs recorded with the CGMS that were lower, higher, or equal to those derived with the PBGM were calculated. Twenty-one paired glucose profiles were obtained. There was no difference of insulin doses based on CGMS and PBGM profiles (median 0 U; range: -1 to +0.5). Treatment decisions did not differ among investigators. Compared with the observed PBGM nadir, the CGMS nadir was lower, higher, or equal in 17, 2, and 2 of 21 cases, respectively. Adjustments in insulin dose based on glucose profiles generated with the CGMS are similar to those based on the PBGM. The common occurrence of lower nadirs recorded with the CGMS suggests that this device detects hypoglycemic periods that are not identified with the PBGM. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a phenomenological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngwanichsetha, Sununta; Phumdoung, Sasitorn

    2017-10-01

    To explore and describe lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant Thai women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an essential practice among pregnant women with diabetes to prevent complications in pregnancy and the newborn infant. Phenomenological research was employed to understand lived experiences in glycemic control. Thirty participants were approached and interviewed using a semistructured interview guides. Qualitative data were analysed following Colaizzi's method. The findings revealed three themes: being worried about diabetes and blood testing, trying to control it and being patient for the child. Their worry comprised three dimensions: (1) wondering about the impacts of diabetes on the child, (2) concern about maternal health and (3) being worried about doing blood test. Trying to control diabetes was composed of three dimensions: (1) learning to test blood glucose, (2) being afraid of elevated blood sugar and (3) being aware of what to eat. Being patient for the child was composed of three dimensions: (1) overcoming food desires, (2) tolerating the fingerprick pain and (3) satisfaction with the outcomes. Women with gestational diabetes experienced being worried and afraid regarding blood glucose self-monitoring; however, they could overcome and tolerate this with some difficulties. These findings can be used to guide nursing practice in assessment of perception and response towards blood glucose self-monitoring in order to improve achievement of a good glycaemic control among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  5. The influence of blood glucose level on distribution of 18F-FDG in mice with tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhanli; Lin Jinghui; Wang Rongfu; Zhu Shaoli; Zhang Chunli; Pan Zhongyun

    2003-01-01

    To explore the influence of blood glucose level on 18 F-FDG uptake in tumor and normal tissues of mice, thirty five mice carrying Ehrlich ascitic cancer (EAC) are fasted 20 h and divided into four groups. The glucose loading group (n=12) and the control group (n=11) is given a solution of 50% glucose and distilled water orally just one hour before the 18 F FDG injection. Another two groups (n=5, n=7) is given a solution of 10%, 30% glucose respectively. Before 18 F-FDG intravenous injection, blood glucose levels are measured. The mice are killed one hour after the 18 F FDG injection. The tumor and normal tissues are excised, weighed, and counted by a γ well counter. The quantity of 18 F-FDG uptake is expressed as standardized uptake value (SUV). Blood glucose levels of the mice with EAC in the glucose loading group are significantly elevated than the control group (11.98 ± 3.01 mmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 1. 11 mmol/L, P 18 F-FDG uptake ratios of tumor and muscle in the glucose-loading group (1.34, 0.86, 0.48, 0.09, 1.38 respectively) are significantly lower than those in the control group (3.02, 2.62, 0.80, 0.16, 5.38 respectively) (P 18 F-FDG uptake ratios of tumor and brain, heart and blood in the glucose loading group (8.31. 1.05, 1.58, 103.00 respectively) are significantly higher than those in the control group (1.57, 0.64, 1.20, 9.73 respectively) (P 18 F-FDG distribution in mice. suggesting the blood glucose level should be controlled during clinically 18 F-FDG imaging

  6. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: a prerequisite for diabetes management in outcome trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Oliver; Hanefeld, Markolf; Monnier, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Evidence for the value of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) with regard to the achievement of treatment targets, detection of postprandial glucose excursions, and minimization of glycemic variability is increasing. In large clinical trials, SMBG is a key component for the optimization of diabetes treatment in insulin-treated diabetes. It also plays an essential role in outcome studies. However, details of SMBG use in both the methods and results sections of clinical articles are frequently scarce. Also, a discussion of the SMBG data and its impact on insulin therapy is valuable. In the recently completed Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine INtervention (ORIGIN) trial, SMBG was described in detail and insulin titration was largely driven by SMBG. Both aspects largely contributed to the fact that near-normal control was achieved over a long-term period. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Comparable efficacy of self-monitoring of quantitative urine glucose with self-monitoring of blood glucose on glycaemic control in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Bu, R F; Sun, Z L; Lu, Q S; Jin, H; Wang, Y; Wang, S H; Li, L; Xie, Z L; Yang, B Q

    2011-08-01

    To assess whether self-monitoring of quantitative urine glucose or blood glucose is effective, convenient and safe for glycaemic control in non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes. Adults with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomized into three groups: Group A, self-monitoring with a quantitative urine glucose meter (n = 38); Group B, self monitoring with a blood glucose meter (n=35); Group C, the control group without self monitoring (n=35). All patients were followed up for six months, during which identical diabetes care was provided. There was a significant decrease in HbA1c within each group (p monitoring frequency was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B. The incidence of hypoglycaemia and quality of life scores were similar between the groups. This study suggests that self-monitoring of urine glucose has comparable efficacy on glycaemic control, and facilitates better compliance than blood self monitoring, without influencing the quality of life or risk of hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K

    2017-07-01

    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Overweight, high blood pressure and impaired fasting glucose in Uyghur, Han, and Kazakh Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W L; Li, X S; Wang, Q; Huang, Y D; Zhang, W G; Zhai, X H; Wang, C C; Lee, J H

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the levels of blood pressure and fasting glucose differ among Chinese children of three different ethnicities (i.e., Uyghurs, Kazakhs, and Hans) and whether the differences are explained by childhood obesity. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a large three ethnic pediatric population (n = 6633), whose ages ranged from 7 to 18 years. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured using standard protocols. Fasting glucose was measured in a subset of children (n = 2295) who were randomly selected based on ethnicity and age. The age-sex stratified Chinese national cut-offs were used to define obesity and high blood pressure (HBP). The prevalence of HBP, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), mean levels of blood pressure, and glucose were compared among three ethnic groups. 2142 Uyghurs, 2078 Han, and 1997 Kazakhs were analyzed. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the mean blood pressure for Uyghurs was on average, 2-4 mm Hg lower than those for Hans and Kazakhs. Kazakhs had the lowest mean fasting glucose compared with Hans and Uyghurs (4.5 vs. 5.0 vs. 4.8 mmol/L, respectively). The differences in blood pressure and fasting glucose persisted even after adjusting for age and BMI, and the differences among ethnic groups in blood pressure levels and fasting glucose levels were observed as early as 7-9 years of age. The prevalence of HBP and IFG differed significantly among Uyghurs, Hans, and Kazakhs, and the ethnic differences observed in childhood were consistent with those observed in adults from the same region. While childhood obesity is a significant risk factor for hypertension and elevated glucose, the differences among ethnic groups were not explained by obesity alone.

  10. Overweight, High Blood Pressure and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Uyghur, Han and Kazakh Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Huang, Y. D.; Zhang, W. G.; Zhai, X. H.; Wang, C.C.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether levels of blood pressure and fasting glucose differ among Chinese children of three different ethnicities (i.e., Uyghurs, Kazakhs and Hans) and whether the differences are explained by childhood obesity. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a large three ethnic pediatric population (n=6,633), whose ages ranged from 7–18 years. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured using standard protocols. Fasting glucose was measured in a subset of children (n=2,295) who were randomly selected based on ethnicity and age. The age-sex stratified Chinese national cutoffs were used to define obesity and high blood pressure (HBP). The prevalence of HBP, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), mean levels of blood pressure and glucose were compared among three ethnic groups. Results 2,142 Uyghurs, 2,078 Han and 1,997 Kazakhs were analyzed. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the mean blood pressure for Uyghurs was on average, 2–4 mmHg lower than those for Hans and Kazakhs. Kazakhs had the lowest mean fasting glucose compared with Hans and Uyghurs (4.5 vs 5.0 vs. 4.8mmol/L, respectively). The differences in blood pressure and fasting glucose persisted even after adjusting for age and BMI, and the differences among ethnic groups in blood pressure levels and fasting glucose levels were observed as early as 7 to 9 years of age. Conclusions The prevalence of HBP and IFG differed significantly among Uyghurs, Hans and Kazakhs, and the ethnic differences observed in childhood were consistent with those observed in adults from the same region. While childhood obesity is a significant risk factor for hypertension and elevated glucose, the differences among ethnic groups were not explained by obesity alone. PMID:24904957

  11. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  12. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanne Kleefstra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanne Kleefstra1, Johanna Hortensius1, Kornelis JJ van Hateren1, Susan JJ Logtenberg1, Sebastiaan T Houweling2, Rijk OB Gans3, Henk JG Bilo11Diabetes Centre, Isala Clinics, Zwolle, The Netherlands; 2Langerhans Medical Research Group, The Netherlands; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The NetherlandsIntroduction: The effectiveness of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG in noninsulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM remains unclear. We aimed to review the trials investigating the effects of SMBG in this population.Methods: Medline was searched until June 29, 2009. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of at least 12 weeks’ duration were included. Data on the following aspects were gathered: patient and study characteristics, effects on HbA1c, quality of life and treatment satisfaction, and methodological quality.Results: The search revealed 9 original RCTs. These studies were very heterogeneous, and 5 were classified as of high quality. The studies with the best methodology did not show an effect of SMBG on HbA1c, the studies with the worst methodological quality did. Two out of the 4 studies that assessed quality of life showed a significant change in favor of the control group, 1 study showed a significant change in favor of SMBG.Discussion and conclusion: We found an inverse relation between study quality and efficacy of SMBG. At this moment, there is no basis for general use of SMBG in noninsulin-treated T2DM patients.Keywords: blood glucose self-monitoring, diabetes mellitus, type 2, blood glucose, hemoglobin A, glycosylated

  13. Hematocrit Interference of Blood Glucose Meters for Patient Self-Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, Sanja; Lock, John Paul; Schipper, Christina; Musholt, Petra B.; Forst, Thomas; Lyon, Martha; Pfützner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Abnormal hematocrit levels may interfere with glucose readings of patient self-assessment blood glucose (BG) meters. The aim of this laboratory investigation was to assess the potential influence of hematocrit variations on a variety of BG meters applying different measurement technologies. Methods Venous heparinized blood was manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (50–90, 120–180, and 280–350 mg/dl) and five different hematocrit levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 65%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure (65–100 mmHg), each sample was measured (eight times) with the following devices: Accu-Chek® Aviva, Nano, and Active, Breeze®2 and Contour®, FreeStyle Freedom Lite®, GlucoDr. auto™, Glucofix® mio Plus, GlucoLab™, GlucoMen® LX Plus, Nova Max® Link, Nova Max® Plus, OneTouch® Ultra®2 and Verio®,On Call® Plus and Platinum, Optium Xceed®, Precision Xceed®, and TaiDoc Fora TD-4227. A YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer served as reference method. Stability to hematocrit influence was assumed, with hematocrit levels. Results Six of the investigated meters showed a stable performance in this investigation: Accu-Chek Active (7%), Glucofix mio Plus (5%), GlucoMen LX Plus (4%), NovaMax Plus (4%), Nova Max Link (7%), and OneTouch Verio (3%). All other meters failed this hematocrit interference test, with FreeStyle Freedom Lite (11%), and On Call Platinum (12%) being the better devices and On Call Plus (68%), GlucoLab (51%), TaiDoc Fora TD-4227 (39%), and Breeze 2 (38%) showing the worst performance. Conclusions Hematocrit may affect BG meter performance in daily routine. In case of interference, low hematocrit values (hematocrit interference. PMID:23439176

  14. High incidence of hypoglycemia in stable insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus: continuous glucose monitoring vs. self-monitored blood glucose. Observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos-Couselo, Marcos; García-López, Jose Manuel; González-Rodríguez, Maria; Gude, Francisco; Mayán-Santos, Jose Manuel; Rodríguez-Segade, Santiago; Rodríguez-García, Javier; Casanueva, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Hypoglycemia is a limiting factor in the achievement of strict glycemic control. The primary objective of this 9-week study was to determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in patients with stable insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus by comparing self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) measurement with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was an observational prospective study. Included in the study were 63 stable, insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. They were instructed to record 2 daily capillary blood glucose readings, pre- and/or postprandial, in a sequential way during 8 consecutive weeks. A CGM system was worn during an additional week. We evaluated the frequency of hypoglycemia using the 8-week SMBG profile and the 1 CGM week. SMBG revealed that 50% of the patients had experienced hypoglycemia. CGM found hypoglycemia in 59% of patients. Significantly higher percentages of hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic episodes were detected by CGM than by capillary blood glucose measurements (61.1% vs. 50.8%; p=0.047) and (3.8% vs. 1.7%; p=0.016); 33% of patients experienced nocturnal hypoglycemia, and 19% of patients who had no data concerning hypoglycemia recorded in the capillary blood glucose diary had experienced hypoglycemia as measured by CGM, and the hypoglycemia occurred mainly during the nocturnal period. In stable well-controlled, insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes, CGM showed higher numbers of hypoglycemic events than did SMBG, especially at night. CGM is a useful tool that provides clinically valuable information about glucose control in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.V.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U.; Heller, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    and demographic characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional Danish-British multicentre survey of 1076 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes, who completed a detailed questionnaire on SMBG and related issues. The key variables were test frequency and motive. RESULTS: SMBG was performed daily by 39......AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural...

  16. Effects of pre-meal and post-meal mild physical exercises on blood glucose level

    OpenAIRE

    中島, 英洋; 吉江, 弘樹; 中澤, 翔太; 赤土, 知佳; 海尻, 真里; 松尾, 加澄美; 吉岡, 由佳里; 吉崎, 結城

    2010-01-01

     The aim of this study is to compare changes in blood glucose level in response to a mild physical exercise for 25 minutes either in the fasted state or 30 minutes after a standardized meal.  Seven healthy university students (2 males and 5 females, 21 years of age) were studied in a crossover design to compare three conditions: no exercise (control), pre-meal and post-meal exercises.  The three trials conducted on separate days consisted of a rest day when the subjects consumed the standardi...

  17. Parathyroidectomy Ameliorates Glucose and Blood Pressure Control in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism, Type 2 Diabetes, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of parathyroidectomy on glucose control and hypertension is controversial. Here, we report a case of a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension in whom parathyroidectomy ameliorated both glucose control and blood pressure. Once high serum calcium levels were noticed, ultrasonography of neck confirmed a well-defined oval hypoechoic mass posterior to the right lobe of the thyroid, confirmed by scintiscan. Parathyroidectomy resulted in improvement of blood pressure and blood glucose. We could stop insulin and antihypertensive medications. We conclude that in patients with type 2 diabetes with vague complaints like fatigue, body ache, and refractory hypertension, as a part of the diagnostic workup, clinicians should also check serum calcium levels and parathyroid hormone to rule out hyperparathyroidism. Correction of hyperparathyroidism may result in improvement of hypertension and glucose control.

  18. Variability of blood pressure and blood glucose during perioperative period for patients with secondary neovascular glaucoma after silicone oil removed in PDR

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    Fu-Lin Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To research blood pressure and blood glucose variability during peroperative period for patients with secondary neovasular glaucoma(NVGafter silicone oil removed in proliferative diabetic retinaopathy(PDR.METHODS: Totally, 271 patients(271 eyesundergone surgery of vitrectomy and silicon-oil tamponade combined with cataract were respective analyzed. Fourteen patients(14 eyeswith secondary NVG after silicon oil removed and randomly controlled group of no NVG according with ages, operation method in the same time were studied. The blood pressure and blood glucose variability during peroperative period was analyzed, and did comparison after excluded contralateral eye. The complications of 271 patients were surveyed in following-up period 1~12mo. The incidence of NVG, the time, blood pressure, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin(Hbc%variability during peroperative period was statisticed and compared by software of SPSS 11.0.RESULTS: Fourteen eyes(5.2%of 271 cases was with secondary NVG(female: 4 eyes, 28.6%; male: 10 eyes, 71.4%, average ages was 57.07 years(49~68 years. NVG presented in the 107~ 135d after vitrectomy and 7~45d(average 31.78dafter silicon-oil removed. Diabetes mellitus was 10~15(average 13.2a. In NVG group, the variability of blood glucose was 4.0~10.2mmol/L(mean 8.52±3.24mmol/L, variable coefficient was 0.48. In NNVG group, the variability of blood glucose was 5.0~8.2mmol/L(mean 7.22±0.24mmol/L, variable coefficient was 0.43. It was significantly difference in comparison in variable coefficient(PPPPCONCLUSION: There are significant variability on fasting blood glucose, daytime SBP and night DBP during perioperative in PDR patients with secondary NVG. It might be occurred 1wk after silicone oil removal surgery.

  19. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentrations by pet owners: a new tool in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Martina; Wess, Gerhard; Reusch, Claudia E

    2002-01-01

    Recently a new method for capillary blood sampling from the ears of dogs and cats was described, which allows the measurement of glucose concentration by means of portable glucose meters. The authors of this report evaluated the suitability of this method for use by pet owners and the potential technical problems. The owners of seven healthy dogs and seven healthy cats were asked to perform two glucose curves (measuring blood glucose concentration every 2 hours for a total of 12 hours). All dog owners and three cat owners were able to perform a reliable blood glucose curve. The most frequently encountered problems were inadequate formation of a blood drop due to excessive digital pressure on the pinna, repeatedly depressing the plunger of the lancet device instead of allowing the negative pressure to slowly build up, and failure to fill the test strip up to the mark. The authors conclude that these steps of the procedure need to be stressed during technique demonstration and that home monitoring of blood glucose concentrations may serve as a new tool in the management of diabetic dogs and cats.

  20. Continuous postoperative blood glucose monitoring and control by artificial pancreas in patients having pancreatic resection: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Nishimori, Isao; Yamashita, Koichi; Sugimoto, Takeki; Maeda, Hiromichi; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kohsaki, Takuhiro; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate a closed-loop system providing continuous monitoring and strict control of perioperative blood glucose following pancreatic resection. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Thirty patients who had pancreatic resection for pancreatic neoplasm. Patients were prospectively randomized. Perioperative blood glucose levels were continuously monitored using an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-22). Glucose levels were controlled using either the sliding scale method (sliding scale group, n = 13) or the artificial pancreas (artificial pancreas group, n = 17). Incidence of severe hypoglycemia (artificial pancreas. The secondary outcome measure was the total amount of insulin required for glycemic control in the first 18 hours after pancreatic resection in each patient group. In the sliding scale group, postoperative blood glucose levels rose initially before reaching a plateau of approximately 200 mg/dL between 4 and 6 hours after pancreatectomy. The levels remained high for 18 hours postoperatively. In the artificial pancreas group, blood glucose levels reduced steadily, reaching the target zone (80-110 mg/dL) by 6 hours after surgery. The total insulin dose administered per patient during the first postoperative 18 hours was significantly higher in the artificial pancreas group (mean [SD], 107 [109] IU) than the sliding scale group (8 [6] IU; P artificial endocrine pancreas to control pancreatogenic diabetes after pancreatic resection is an easy and effective way to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels. The artificial pancreas shows promise for use as insulin treatment for patients with pancreatogenic diabetes after pancreatic resection.

  1. Fat Intake, Blood Pressure and Randomed Blood Glucose Levels as Risk Factor of Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescent of Junior School in Denpasar City

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    I Putu Suiraoka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome in children is defined when 3 of the 5 components are classified: hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, high serum triglyceride, high blood glucose levels, and central obesity. This study was a retrospective study with case-control design. Data collection was conducted from August to October 2014. The population of this study were all students in 8 selected junior high schools. Based on the calculation result, it was known that the sample size for case and control group are 128 people. Case and control determination began with screening of waist circumference using a tape measure, measured from the diameter between the lower ribs 10 with the iliac crest at the end of normal expiration. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured using a digital blood pressure gauge under the Omron brand. Blood glucose levels were measured using a multicheck parameter tool under the Nesco brand. BMI based on weight and height were measured using body scales and Microtoise. Fat intake data were collected using semi-quantitative food frequency method. Data were analyzed descriptively in the range and mean for waist circumference variable, blood pressure, randomed blood glucose levels, and fat intake. Furthermore, the calculation of Odd Ratio. Based on the results be concluded that adolescents who consume fat above 25% risk 3.3 times greater to experience metabolic syndrome. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI and blood glucose levels as the case group was higher than the control group.

  2. Vitamin K2 Improves Anxiety and Depression but not Cognition in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome: a Role of Blood Glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Silvia M; Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 was given by gavage. At the end of the study (after 10 weeks) behavioral tests were performed and fasting blood glucose was measured. Anxiety was determined using the social interaction test and depression was assessed by the Porsolt test. Memory effects were estimated by the object recognition test. Correlations between fasting blood glucose and behavioral performance were analyzed. The rats from the MS group had elevated blood glucose. They had anxiety, depression and memory deficit. Vitamin K2 normalized blood glucose, reduced anxiety and depression, but did not improve memory. Time of social interaction (inverse index of anxiety) and memory recognition were negatively correlated with blood glucose in the untreated rats but the immobility time (measure of depression) was not. When vitamin K2-treated rats were added, the correlation of blood glucose with the time of social interaction was kept, but the one with the recognition memory was lost. It might be that the anxiolytic effect of vitamin K2 in this setting is at least partly due to its effects on blood glucose, while the anti-depressant effect is glucose-independent. The present study demonstrated that vitamin K2 prevented the development of anxiety and depression, but did not improve the memory deficit caused by the dietary manipulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. It might be that

  3. The Effect of Curry Leaves (Murayya Koenigii L. on Blood Glucose Levels In Alloxan Diabetic Mice (Mus Musculus

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    Fauziah Fauziah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. on blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic mice (Mus musculus. The diabetic conditions were made by giving alloxan 75 mg/kg body weight (BW and the hypoglycemic effects of extract of curry leaves given with various doses.   This study used 24 male mice strain Balb/c in four groups of treatment with six replications, namely the negative control group, the ethanol extract of curry leaf tree 50% mL/10g body weight group, 70% mL/10g body weight group and 90% mL/10g body weight group. The treatment was given orally by using a gastric sonde for 14 days. Blood samples were taken through the sinus caudalis using a scissors. Blood glucose level was measured at 1st , the 8th and the 24th of treatment using blood glucose test strips and Nesco® Multicheck apparatus. Blood glucose data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variants and followed by Tuckey test at significance level of 5%. The result showed that treatment of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii at various doses significantly affected the decrease on blood glucose levels of mice (Mus musculus alloxan diabetic.

  4. Blood glucose monitoring during aerobic and anaerobic physical exercise using a new artificial pancreas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Carmen; Bertachi, Arthur; Giménez, Marga; Biagi, Lyvia; Viaplana, Judith; Viñals, Clara; Vehí, Josep; Conget, Ignacio; Bondia, Jorge

    2018-02-23

    To assess an artificial pancreas system during aerobic (AeE) and anaerobic exercise (AnE). A pilot clinical trial on five subjects with type 1 diabetes (4 males) aged 37±10.9 years, diabetes diagnosed 21.2±12.2 years before, insulin pump users, and with a mean HbA 1c level of 7.8±0.5%. Every subject did three AeE and three AnE sessions. Blood glucose levels were monitored by the artificial pancreas system during exercise and up to four hours later. Before the start of exercise, 23g of carbohydrates were administered orally. The mean glucose level was 124.0±25.1mg/dL in the AeE studies and 152.1±34.1mg/dL in the AnE studies. Percent times in the different glucose ranges of 70-180, >180 and y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Diabetes Technology: Markers, Monitoring, Assessment, and Control of Blood Glucose Fluctuations in Diabetes

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    Boris P. Kovatchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available People with diabetes face a life-long optimization problem: to maintain strict glycemic control without increasing their risk for hypoglycemia. Since the discovery of insulin in 1921, the external regulation of diabetes by engineering means has became a hallmark of this optimization. Diabetes technology has progressed remarkably over the past 50 years—a progress that includes the development of markers for diabetes control, sophisticated monitoring techniques, mathematical models, assessment procedures, and control algorithms. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM was introduced in 1999 and has evolved from means for retroactive review of blood glucose profiles to versatile reliable devices, which monitor the course of glucose fluctuations in real time and provide interactive feedback to the patient. Technology integrating CGM with insulin pumps is now available, opening the field for automated closed-loop control, known as the artificial pancreas. Following a number of in-clinic trials, the quest for a wearable ambulatory artificial pancreas is under way, with a first prototype tested in outpatient setting during the past year. This paper discusses key milestones of diabetes technology development, focusing on the progress in the past 10 years and on the artificial pancreas—still not a cure, but arguably the most promising treatment of diabetes to date.

  6. Empirically establishing blood glucose targets to achieve HbA1c goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nancy; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the average fasting, postprandial, and bedtime self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentrations associated with specified HbA1c levels using data from the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ADAG study was a multicenter observational study that used continuous glucose monitoring and SMBG testing to determine the relationship between mean average glucose and HbA1c. We used the SMBG data from 470 of the ADAG study participants (237 with type 1 diabetes and 147 with type 2 diabetes) to determine the average fasting, premeal, 90-min postmeal, and bedtime blood glucose (BG) for predefined target HbA1c groups between 5.5 and 8.5% (37-69 mmol/mol). t Tests were used to compare mean BG values between type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. RESULTS The average fasting BG needed to achieve predefined HbA1c target levels of 5.5-6.49% (37-47 mmol/mol), 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol), 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol), 7.5-7.99% (58-64 mmol/mol), and 8.0-8.5% (64-69 mmol/mol) were 122 mg/dL with 95% CI 117-127, 142 mg/dL (135-150), 152 mg/dL (143-162), 167 mg/dL (157-177), and 178 mg/dL (164-192), respectively. Postmeal BG to achieve the HbA1c level of 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol) and 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol) were 139 mg/dL (134-144) and 152 mg/dL (147-157), respectively. Bedtime BG was 153 mg/dL (145-161) and 177 mg/dL (166-188), respectively. CONCLUSIONS We have determined the average BG at premeal, postmeal, and bedtime to achieve a variety of HbA1c targets. These results, based on empirical data, will help patients and providers set realistic day-to-day SMBG targets to achieve individualized HbA1c goals.

  7. Cluster-randomized trial of a mobile phone personalized behavioral intervention for blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene C; Shardell, Michelle D; Terrin, Michael L; Barr, Erik A; Ballew, Shoshana H; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L

    2011-09-01

    To test whether adding mobile application coaching and patient/provider web portals to community primary care compared with standard diabetes management would reduce glycated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cluster-randomized clinical trial, the Mobile Diabetes Intervention Study, randomly assigned 26 primary care practices to one of three stepped treatment groups or a control group (usual care). A total of 163 patients were enrolled and included in analysis. The primary outcome was change in glycated hemoglobin levels over a 1-year treatment period. Secondary outcomes were changes in patient-reported diabetes symptoms, diabetes distress, depression, and other clinical (blood pressure) and laboratory (lipid) values. Maximal treatment was a mobile- and web-based self-management patient coaching system and provider decision support. Patients received automated, real-time educational and behavioral messaging in response to individually analyzed blood glucose values, diabetes medications, and lifestyle behaviors communicated by mobile phone. Providers received quarterly reports summarizing patient's glycemic control, diabetes medication management, lifestyle behaviors, and evidence-based treatment options. The mean declines in glycated hemoglobin were 1.9% in the maximal treatment group and 0.7% in the usual care group, a difference of 1.2% (P = 0.001) [corrected] over 12 months. Appreciable differences were not observed between groups for patient-reported diabetes distress, depression, diabetes symptoms, or blood pressure and lipid levels (all P > 0.05). The combination of behavioral mobile coaching with blood glucose data, lifestyle behaviors, and patient self-management data individually analyzed and presented with evidence-based guidelines to providers substantially reduced glycated hemoglobin levels over 1 year.

  8. Alterations in body weight and blood glucose level of female hamsters exposed to electromagnetic fields of cell phones

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    A.R Lotfi

    2010-02-01

    Group 2 was exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by cell phones for 10 days (short term and group 3 for 50 day (long term. In the latter groups, the exposure was 1 hour per day. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were weighed and blood glucose concentrations were determined by obtaining blood samples from 8 randomly selected hamsters in each group.  The blood glucose level was significantly higher in long-term exposed group in comparison with the control and short-term exposed groups (175, 11.6 and 107 mg/dl, respectively (p

  9. Effectiveness for self-monitoring of blood sugar on blood glucose control in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Davut; Kutlucan, Ali; Ozturk, Serkan; Saritas, Ayhan; Celer, Ahmet; Celbek, Gokham; Deler, Harun; Aydin, Yusuf; Ankarali, Handan

    2012-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease requiring continuous monitoring and treatment. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is frequently recommended. The purpose of the study was to evaluate effectiveness of SMBG on metabolic control in Turkish patients with type 2 DM. The cross-sectional study enrolled type 2 diabetic patients without insulin regimen. The participants were assigned to three groups according to status of SMBG: group 1- regular, group 2 - irregular and group 3 - never SMBG implementation. A total of 349 patients were enrolled. There was no significant difference in mean fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, lipid profile values between the groups. The number of patients with high education level in group 1 was higher than groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.001). HbA1c level was higher in groups 2 and 3 than group 1, but not significantly (p = 0.285). Mean spot urinary albumin- creatinine ratio (ACR) in group 1 is significantly lower than in groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.044, respectively), but no significant difference was observed between group 2 and 3 (p = 0.473). The study indicated that regular use of SMBG was not superior to irregular/never use of SMBG on glycemic control, but it seemed to be good intervention for prevention of diabetic nephropathy. We suggestively offered that SMBG should be recommended for patients with a high education level to meet the goal of its use, and it should be incorporated into self-management with effective educational intervention.

  10. Mediterranean diet reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids: one-year randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Mónica; Roman, Pilar; Lapetra, José; García de la Corte, Francisco J; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de la Torre, Rafael; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa-María; Toledo, Estefania; Estruch, Ramón; Coca, Antonio; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) supplemented with either extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, compared with a control, lower fat diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection remain unclear. We evaluated the 1-year effects of supplemented MedDiets on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, and lipids. Randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial was conducted in 2 PREDIMED sites. Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on increasing physical activity or reducing sodium intake was given. Participants were 235 subjects (56.5% women; mean age, 66.5 years) at high cardiovascular risk (85.4% with hypertension). Adjusted changes from baseline in mean systolic BP were -2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -0.5) mm Hg and -2.6 (95% CI, -4.3 to -0.9) mm Hg in the MedDiets with olive oil and the MedDiets with nuts, respectively, and 1.7 (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.5) mm Hg in the control group (Pthe MedDiets with olive oil, MedDiets with nuts, and control diet, respectively; those of total cholesterol were -11.3, -13.6, and -4.4 mg/dL (P=0.043), respectively. In high-risk individuals, most with treated hypertension, MedDiets supplemented with extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced 24-hour ambulatory BP, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days.

  12. Age-adjusted glycated albumin accurately reflects blood glucose in patients with neonatal diabetes mellitus: comparison with calculated glycated albumin determined by past blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furuya, Akiko; Oshima, Miho; Amamiya, Satoshi; Nakao, Atsushi; Wada, Keiko; Okuhara, Koji; Hayano, Satoshi; Imamoto, Aya; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Glycated albumin is a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus. However, glycated albumin concentrations in infants are lower than those in adults and increase in an age-dependent manner. Based on our investigation of non-diabetic subjects, we proposed the possibility that the reference range for adults may be used regardless of age, provided that age-adjusted glycated albumin is employed. In the present study, we evaluate the usefulness of age-adjusted glycated albumin in neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. Six neonatal diabetes mellitus patients (four patients with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and two patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus) were included. Measured glycated albumin or age-adjusted glycated albumin was compared to calculated glycated albumin, which was determined using calculation formulae we had reported based on past blood glucose over the 50 days before measurement of glycated albumin. Measured glycated albumin was significantly lower than calculated glycated albumin (20.5 ± 4.9% versus 28.2 ± 6.1%; p diabetes mellitus in remission were lower than the reference range for adults, whereas age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were within the reference range for adults. We demonstrated that age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were consistent with calculated glycated albumin. Age-adjusted glycated albumin is therefore a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugasch, Lucie B; Ugarriza, Doris N

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) usage of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are not using insulin. Nineteen adults were asked to describe their experiences with self-monitoring. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The theory of "SMBG as a Cue in T2DM Self-Care" emerged from the data and is composed of four categories: (a) Engaging, (b) Checking, (c) Responding, and (d) Establishing a Pattern. Engaging marks the beginning. Frequent monitoring characterizes this stage. Checking involves evaluating and validating the blood glucose level. The most common item evaluated or validated was the effect of foods. Responding involves taking action or experiencing emotion. Actions taken centered on dietary changes. Emotions felt were dependent on the level and ranged from blame to happiness. Participants established a pattern and used SMBG regularly or sporadically. Frequency was based on obtaining "normal" patterns, the absence of symptoms, provider disinterest, and fingertip pain. Participants described many benefits and struggles when incorporating SMBG into their self-care. Information from this study could be used to develop effective guidelines for the use of SMBG in T2DM. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Practical approaches for self-monitoring of blood glucose: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ji, Linong; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Yu, Neng-Chun; Tan, Eng Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Comprehensive glycemic control is necessary to improve outcomes and avoid complications in individuals with diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key enabler of glycemic assessment, providing real-time information that complements HbA1c monitoring and supports treatment optimization. However, SMBG is under-utilized by patients and physicians within the Asia-Pacific region, because of barriers such as the cost of monitoring supplies, lack of diabetes self-management skills, or concerns about the reliability of blood glucose readings. Practice recommendations in international and regional guidelines vary widely, and may not be detailed or specific enough to guide SMBG use effectively. This contributes to uncertainty among patients and physicians about how best to utilize this tool: when and how often to test, and what action(s) to take in response to high or low readings. In developing a practical SMBG regimen, the first step is to determine the recommended SMBG frequency and intensity needed to support the chosen treatment regimen. If there are practical obstacles to monitoring, such as affordability or access, physicians should identify the most important aspects of glycemic control to target for individual patients, and modify monitoring patterns accordingly. This consensus paper proposes a selection of structured, flexible SMBG patterns that can be tailored to the clinical, educational, behavioral, and financial requirements of individuals with diabetes.

  15. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  16. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

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    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  17. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  18. Self-monitoring blood glucose--non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joan; Valenti, Lisa; Bayram, Clare; Miller, Graeme

    2013-09-01

    Benefits of self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (T2D) are questionable. We investigated proportions of general practitioner (GP) patients who self-monitor, and associations between SMBG, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI). Sub-studies of the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) program, involving 5 730 patients from 194 GPs. Outcomes Type 2 diabetes prevalence; HbA1c; BMI; blood glucose (BG) monitoring routine. Prevalence of non-insulin-treated T2D was 6.7%. Mean HbA1c level was 7.1%. Almost half (47.5%) of T2D patients were obese compared with 26.7% of patients at all BEACH encounters in 2011-2012. Of 344 non-insulin-treated T2D patients, 79.4% self-monitored fasting BG and 69.7% of 314 self-monitored post-prandial BG. For both groups, mean HbA1c was significantly higher for those who tested daily than for those who never tested. Patients with non-insulin-treated T2D who test BG daily may be those struggling for control. For others, benefits seem minimal for the proportion utilising self-monitoring.

  19. Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Oh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C, 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1, 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2 and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3 of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05 by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration.

  20. Biochemical relationships between bone turnover markers and blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rasha M

    2017-11-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop many complications including osteopenia, which is associated with high fracture risk. Osteocalcin is a non collagenous protein derived from the osteoblasts. Recently, it was found that osteocalcin enhances the pancreatic beta cell proliferation, insulin secretion and protection against type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the association of serum osteocalcin and other bone turnover markers with blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus duration in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients together with 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium concentrations were measured by commercial ELISA kits. The results showed that type 2 diabetic patients exhibited a significantly lower serum osteocalcin and calcium (p=0.0001 and 0.002 respectively) and a higher alkaline phosphatase (p=0.008) compared to the controls. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum osteocalcin was inversely associated with fasting blood glucose and Diabetes Mellitus duration (β=- 0.018; p=0.007 and β=- 0.085; p=0.014 respectively) in Type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, alkaline phosphatase was positively associated (β=0.828; p=0.015) while serum calcium was negatively associated (β=- 0.046; p=0.048) with Diabetes Mellitus duration. These results refer to the strong association between diabetes and bone turnover markers and call for monitoring of diabetes-associated osteopenia in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reagent-free simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in whole blood by FTIR-ATR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Lv, Hong; Li, Tianhe; Si, Guangyuan; Wang, Qiaoyun; Lv, Jiangtao; Hu, Xiaofei

    2017-05-01

    Reagent-free determination of multiple analytes is an active and promising field of research in clinical analysis. In this work, the determination of glucose and cholesterol in whole blood using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy equipped with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory was performed. A comprehensive sample selection rule in multi space based on SPXY was proposed, termed C-SPXY. The core idea is to make full use of different derivative spectra space to construct the calibration set which preserves the more effective information. On this basis, a partial least squares (PLS) regression fusion modeling method was also presented aiming at improving prediction accuracy of glucose and cholesterol concentration in whole blood samples. Compared with other methods based on single spectra space, the proposed fusion model based on multi spectra space C-SPXY method provides smaller RMSEP values. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method and model provides superior predictive power and holds a good application prospect in the field of clinical analysis.

  2. Accuracy of devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose: A stochastic error model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, M; Facchinetti, A; Sparacino, G; Cobelli, C

    2015-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) devices are portable systems that allow measuring glucose concentration in a small drop of blood obtained via finger-prick. SMBG measurements are key in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, e.g. for tuning insulin dosing. A reliable model of SMBG accuracy would be important in several applications, e.g. in in silico design and optimization of insulin therapy. In the literature, the most used model to describe SMBG error is the Gaussian distribution, which however is simplistic to properly account for the observed variability. Here, a methodology to derive a stochastic model of SMBG accuracy is presented. The method consists in dividing the glucose range into zones in which absolute/relative error presents constant standard deviation (SD) and, then, fitting by maximum-likelihood a skew-normal distribution model to absolute/relative error distribution in each zone. The method was tested on a database of SMBG measurements collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (Lifescan Inc., Milpitas, CA). In particular, two zones were identified: zone 1 (BG≤75 mg/dl) with constant-SD absolute error and zone 2 (BG>75mg/dl) with constant-SD relative error. Mean and SD of the identified skew-normal distributions are, respectively, 2.03 and 6.51 in zone 1, 4.78% and 10.09% in zone 2. Visual predictive check validation showed that the derived two-zone model accurately reproduces SMBG measurement error distribution, performing significantly better than the single-zone Gaussian model used previously in the literature. This stochastic model allows a more realistic SMBG scenario for in silico design and optimization of T1D insulin therapy.

  3. [Self-monitoring of blood glucose in France: data from a national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerci, Bruno; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Durain, Danièle; Bahloul, Amar; Jeanbat, Viviane; Detournay, Bruno

    2017-04-27

    Objectives: To describe Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) practices in France in patients with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes, by estimating the proportion of patients performing SMBG at the recommended testing frequency and the proportion of patients complying with the current quality control guidelines on SMBG. Materials and methods: National cross-sectional study conducted in 238 pharmacies. A questionnaire was completed with adult diabetic patients buying SMBG devices or reagent strips for themselves, using a blood glucose meter for at least 6 months, treated with insulin or sulfonylurea/glinides ± other oral hypoglycaemic agents (HA). Results: Data from 449 patients were analysed: 85 T1DM and 121 T2DM patients treated by multiple basal-bolus injections ± HA (Group A and Group B), 123 T2DM patients treated by basal insulin ± HA (Group C), 102 patients treated by other insulin regimens ± HA (Group D) and 120 T2DM patients treated by sulfonylurea / glinides without insulin ± other HA (Group E). The recommended test frequency was observed by 29.8%, 36.4%, 61.8% and 69.2% of patients in Group A, Group B, Group C, and Group E, respectively. The quality of self-monitoring was insufficient in terms of device cleaning, storage conditions/expiry date of reagent strips, or use of control solutions. Patients displayed a limited capacity to take decisions in relation to their SMBG results (Group A: 56.5%, Group B: 70.2%, Group C: 49.2%, Group E: 36.0%) and limited knowledge about their glucose targets (Group A: 81%, Group B: 80.5%, Group C: 68.6%, Group E: 73.7%). Conclusion: SMBG use and compliance with quality guidelines must be improved, but healthcare professionals and patients must also focus their efforts on education to interpret SMBG results.

  4. [Effects of probiotics on blood glucose levels and clinical outcomes in patients with severe craniocerebral trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min; Lu, Xiao-lan; Duan, Jun-wei; Peng, Hua; Zhu, Jing-ci

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of probiotics on blood glucose levels and clinical outcomes in patients suffering from severe craniocerebral trauma. A prospective randomized control study was conducted. Fifty-two severe craniocerebral trauma patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) were randomized into experimental or control group (each n=26). All patients received conventional treatment according to Guidelines for the Clinical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury and enteral nutrition within 24-48 hours after admission through nasogastric tube. In addition, the experimental group received 1×10(9) bacteria of viable probiotics (Golden Bifid, 3.5 g for 3 times per day) per day for 21 days. The fasting blood glucose levels were determined in the morning before intervention and on day 4, 8, 15, 21 after intervention. Amount of insulin used during hospitalization, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, length of ICU stay, and 28-day mortality rate were studied. There was no difference in term of the blood glucose levels between two groups before intervention. On day 8 and 15 after intervention, significantly lower levels of fasting blood glucose were observed in the experimental group compared with those of the control group (8 days: 6.6±1.2 mmol/L vs. 8.0±2.7 mmol/L, t=-2.500, P=0.017; 15 days: 6.1±1.4 mmol/L vs. 7.2±2.2 mmol/L, t=-2.269, P=0.028). There were significantly less patients treated with insulin or shorter days of insulin therapy in experimental group than in control group [19.2% (5/26) vs. 46.2% (12/26), χ(2)=4.282, P=0.039; 1.6±0.9 vs. 4.3±3.1, t=-2.698, P=0.017]. The length of ICU stay was significantly shorter in the experimental group than that of control group (6.8±3.8 days vs. 10.7±7.3 days, t=-2.123, P=0.034). No significant differences were found about the GCS scores (before intervention: 6.3±1.0 vs. 6.4±1.0, t=-0.408, P=0.685; 21 days after intervention: 10.1±4.0 vs. 9.6±4.3, t=0.435, P=0.665) and 28-day mortality rate [11.5% (3/26) vs

  5. COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE SELFMONITORING AND CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy is one of the indications for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM. The data on its efficiency in pregnant women are contradictory.Aim: To compare the results of blood glucose self-monitoring (SMBG and CGM in pregnant women with previous diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods: We performed a cross-sectional comparative study of glycemia in 18 pregnant women with previous type 1 (87.8% of patients and type 2 diabetes (22.2% of patients with various degrees of glycemic control. Their age was 27.7 ± 4.9 year. At study entry, the patients were at 17.2 ± 6.1 weeks of gestation. CGM and SMBG were performed in and by all patients for the duration of 5.4 ± 1.5 days. Depending on their HbA1c levels, all patients were divided into two groups: group 1 – 12 women with the HbA1c above the target (8.5 ± 1%, and group 2 – 6 women with the HbA1c levels within the target (5.6 ± 0.3%.Results: According to SMBG results, women from group 2 had above-the-target glycemia levels before breakfast, at 1 hour after breakfast and at bedtime: 6.2 ± 1.6, 8.7 ± 2.1, and 5.7 ± 1.9 mmol/L, respectively. According to CGM, patients from group 1 had higher postprandial glycemia than those from group 2 (8.0 ± 2.1 and 6.9 ± 1.8 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.03. The analysis of glycemia during the day time revealed significant difference between the groups only at 1 hour after dinner (7.1 ± 1.4 mmol/L in group 1 and 5.8 ± 0.9 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.041 and the difference was close to significant before lunch (6.0 ± 2.2 mmol/L in group 1 and 4.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.053. Comparison of SMBG and CGM results demonstrated significant difference only at one timepoint (at 1 hour after lunch and only in group 1: median glycemia was 7.4 [6.9; 8.1] mmol/L by SMBG and 6 [5.4; 6.6] mmol/L by CGM measurement (р = 0.001. Lower median values by CGM measurement could be explained by averaging of three successive measurements carried out in the

  6. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows...

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Mubaraq A; Opiyo, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of blood glucose and thyroid function in Sudanese diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarib, M.O.A.

    2008-03-01

    This study composes of two parts. The first one is a survey of thyroid abnormalities, and the second one is experiment to estimate the level of thyroid hormones (T 4 , T 3 , TSH) among diabetic population and the relationship between the level of glucose, thyroid hormones and lipid profile (TC, LDL, TG, HDL) and comparison of the results with non diabetic group. The survey part of the study to determine the thyroid abnormalities, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism clinical or subclinical. Also the study group was divided in to two groups according to insulin requirement. Type I is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and type II is non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The study subjects selected for this study consist of one hundred Sudanese diabetic patients, they had mean age of 46.51±10.672 years, a mean height of 162.06±10.77 cm and a mean weight of 73.47±14.91 kg. Fifty healthy non-diabetic people without endocrine disease were chosen as controls. Glucose, and thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (total T 4 and T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. In addition hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were also measured in both groups. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated for each sample. Physical examinations such as height, weight, and history of diabetes, family history, treatment were recorded in both groups. Determination of serum hormones concentration was carried out using highly sensitive RIA technique. While determination of blood glucose, hemoglobin, and lipid profile was carried out using enzymatic colorimetric method. The results of this study showed that: 13 patients of the population screened had thyroid disease. The commonest diagnosis was sub clinical hyperthyroidism (6%), followed by sub clinical hypothyroidism (5%) and hyperthyroidism (2%). Female patients with diabetes had the highest annual risk of developing thyroid disease but all patient

  9. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  10. Hindbrain cytoglucopenia-induced increases in systemic blood glucose levels by 2-deoxyglucose depend on intact astrocytes and adenosine release

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Richard C.; Ritter, Sue; Hermann, Gerlinda E.

    2016-01-01

    The hindbrain contains critical neurocircuitry responsible for generating defensive physiological responses to hypoglycemia. This counter-regulatory response (CRR) is evoked by local hindbrain cytoglucopenia that causes an autonomically mediated increase in blood glucose, feeding behavior, and accelerated digestion; that is, actions that restore glucose homeostasis. Recent reports suggest that CRR may be initially triggered by astrocytes in the hindbrain. The present studies in thiobutabarbit...

  11. Assessment of blood glucose predictors: the prediction-error grid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivananthan, Sampath; Naumova, Valeriya; Man, Chiara Dalla; Facchinetti, Andrea; Renard, Eric; Cobelli, Claudio; Pereverzyev, Sergei V

    2011-08-01

    Prediction of the future blood glucose (BG) evolution from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data is a promising direction in diabetes therapy management, and several glucose predictors have recently been proposed. This raises the problem of their assessment. There were attempts to use for such assessment the continuous glucose-error grid analysis (CG-EGA), originally developed for CGM devices. However, in the CG-EGA the BG rate of change is estimated from past BG readings, whereas predictors provide BG estimation ahead of time. Therefore, the original CG-EGA should be modified to assess predictors. Here we propose a new version of the CG-EGA, the Prediction-Error Grid Analysis (PRED-EGA). The analysis is based both on simulated data and on data from clinical trials, performed in the European FP7-project "DIAdvisor." Simulated data are used to test the ability of the analyzed CG-EGA modifications to capture erroneous predictions in controlled situation. Real data are used to show the impact of the different CG-EGA versions in the evaluation of a predictor. Using the data of 10 virtual and 10 real subjects and analyzing two different predictors, we demonstrate that the straightforward application of the CG-EGA does not adequately classify the prediction performance. For example, we observed that up to 70% of 20 min ahead predictions in the hyperglycemia region that are classified by this application as erroneous are, in fact, accurate. Moreover, for predictions during hypoglycemia the assessments produced by the straightforward application of the CG-EGA are not only too pessimistic (in up to 60% of cases), but this version is not able to detect real erroneous predictions. In contrast, the proposed modification of the CG-EGA, where the rate of change is estimated on the predicted BG profile, is an adequate metric for the assessment of predictions. We propose a new CG-EGA, the PRED-EGA, for the assessment of glucose predictors. The presented analysis shows that

  12. Effect of post-exercise caffeine and green coffee bean extract consumption on blood glucose and insulin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Jason R; Gibson, Ann L; Kerksick, Chad M; Conn, Carole A; White, Ailish C; Mermier, Christine M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine and green coffee bean extract on blood glucose and insulin concentrations during a post-exercise oral glucose tolerance test. Ten male cyclists (age: 26 ± 5 y; height: 179.9 ± 5.4 cm; weight: 77.6 ± 13.3 kg; body mass index: 24 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); VO2 peak: 55.9 ± 8.4 mL·kg·min(-1)) participated in this study. In a randomized order, each participant completed three 30-min bouts of cycling at 60% of peak power output. Immediately after exercise, each participant consumed 75 g of dextrose with either 5 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 10 mg/kg of green coffee bean extract (5 mg/kg chlorogenic acid), or placebo. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and after exercise during completion of the oral glucose tolerance test. No significant time × treatment effects for blood glucose and insulin were found. Two-h glucose and insulin area under the curve values, respectively, for the caffeine (658 ± 74 mmol/L and 30,005 ± 13,304 pmol/L), green coffee bean extract (637 ± 100 mmol/L and 31,965 ± 23,586 pmol/L), and placebo (661 ± 77 mmol/L and 27,020 ± 12,339 pmol/L) trials were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Caffeine and green coffee bean extract did not significantly alter postexercise blood glucose and insulin concentrations when compared with a placebo. More human research is needed to determine the impact of these combined nutritional treatments and exercise on changes in blood glucose and insulin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels.Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN.The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more aggressive insulin treatment regimens, treating hypoglycemia due to insulin

  14. Diminished insulin-mediated forearm blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L; Alibegovic, A C

    2009-01-01

    with venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of adenosine and acetylcholine, before and during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Forearm blood flow response to systemic hyperinsulinemia was diminished in LBW compared to controls (p Fractional arteriovenous glucose...... extraction was similar, and consequently insulin-stimulated forearm glucose clearance was diminished in LBW compared with controls (0.8 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.36 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), respectively, p blood flow response to adenosine and acetylcholine with or without insulin stimulation...... did not differ between groups. Whole-body glucose uptake was lower in LBW than controls (8.7 +/- 0.5 and 9.1 +/- 0.6 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1) lean body mass); however, this was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Forearm blood flow response to insulin is impaired in LBW, whereas the response to adenosine...

  15. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... tested by laboratory personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio(®) showed no hematocrit interference or variation...... routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when...

  16. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio® showed no hematocrit interference or variation between strip lots......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...

  17. Blood glucose and insulin levels in normal subjects following a meal with and without added sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredger, J; Sheard, C; Marks, V

    1981-09-01

    The fibrous components of sugar beet pulp were investigated to determine whether they would reduce the post-prandial rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels when incorporated into a mixed meal. On two separate occasions six healthy volunteers were given either a control meal (providing 86 g carbohydrate) or an identical meal with the addition of 20 g sugar beet pulp (test meal). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured post-prandially for 3 hours. There was no significant difference between the mean blood glucose of plasma insulin curves at any time after the two meals. Since viscous types of dietary fibers are known to be effective in reducing post-prandial hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia, it would seem that either the physio-chemical nature of the fibre or the procedure employed to extract the sugar renders the particulate fibre inactive.

  18. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of glucose concentration in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y C; Davies, A G; Linfield, E H; Elsey, T S; Taday, P F; Arnone, D D

    2003-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy has been used for the determination of glucose concentration in whole blood samples from 28 patients. A 4-vector partial least-squares calibration model, using the spectral range 950-1200 cm -1 , yielded a standard-error-of-prediction of 0.59 mM for an independent test set. For blood samples from a single patient, we found that the glucose concentration was proportional to the difference between the values of the second derivative spectrum at 1082 cm -1 and 1093 cm -1 . This indicates that spectroscopy at these two specific wavenumbers alone could be used to determine the glucose concentration in blood plasma samples from a single patient, with a prediction error of 0.95 mM

  19. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  20. Effect of Blood Glucose Fluctuation on Some Trace Elements and Aldosterone Hormone among Type II Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Arab, A.; El Fouly, A.H.; Mahmoud, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence determine that the metabolism of some trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus (DM) type II. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of serum blood glucose fluctuation during (Random, Fasting and Postprandial 2 hours state) on some trace elements such as Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Aldosterone hormone in type II Diabetic patients associated with metabolic syndrome in comparison with healthy volunteers. The International Diabetes Federation (IFD) consensus the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to central obesity, lipid profile, blood glucose level and blood pressure. A significant change was observed in trace elements level (Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, and K) and Aldosterone hormone as a result of glucose fluctuation among type II diabetic patients.

  1. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Mobile Diabetes Intervention Study of Patient Engagement and Impact on Blood Glucose: Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene Connolly; Butler, Erin C; Swasey, Krystal K; Shardell, Michelle D; Terrin, Michael D; Barr, Erik A; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L

    2018-02-02

    Successful treatment of diabetes includes patient self-management behaviors to prevent or delay complications and comorbid diseases. On the basis of findings from large clinical trials and professional guidelines, diabetes education programs and health providers prescribe daily regimens of glucose monitoring, healthy eating, stress management, medication adherence, and physical activity. Consistent, long-term commitment to regimens is challenging. Mobile health is increasingly being used to assist patients with lifestyle changes and self-management behaviors between provider visits. The effectiveness of mobile health to improve diabetes outcomes depends on patient engagement with a technology, content, or interactions with providers. In the current analysis, we aimed to identify patient engagement themes in diabetes messaging with diabetes providers and determine if differences in engagement in the Mobile Diabetes Intervention Study (MDIS) influenced changes in glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) over a 1-year treatment period (1.9% absolute decrease in the parent study). In the primary MDIS study, 163 patients were enrolled into 1 of 3 mobile intervention groups or a usual care control group based on their physician cluster randomization assignment. The control group received care from their physicians as usual. Participants in each intervention group had access to a patient portal where they could record monitoring values for blood glucose, blood pressure, medication changes, or other self-management information while also assigned to varying levels of physician access to patient data. Intervention participants could choose to send and receive messages to assigned certified diabetes educators with questions or updates through the secure Web portal. For this secondary analysis, patient engagement was measured using qualitative methods to identify self-care themes in 4109 patient messages. Mixed methods were used to determine the impact of patient engagement on

  3. One-Pot Fabrication of Dendritic NiO@carbon-nitrogen Dot Electrodes for Screening Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naeem; El-Safty, Sherif A; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-08-21

    Selective and sensitive glucose sensors with fast response for screening diabetic blood level are demanded. In this paper, the one-pot nanoarchitecture of dendritic NiO@carbon-nitrogen (C-N) dots (designated as NCD) sphere-wrapping Ni foam electrodes are reported as an effective and sensitive glucose sensor in blood samples. In this construction design, the NCD sphere electrode with excessive surface defects, large fractions of catalytic active sites, high surface area, and mobility of electron transfer through the actively surface NCD sphere can massively enhance the electrocatalytic activity for nonenzymatic glucose detection in diabetic blood. This portable sensor enables highly sensitive recognition of glucose detection (≈0.01 × 10 -6 m) over a wider linear range (≈0.005-12 × 10 -3 m) with rapid response time of a few seconds. The key result is that the engineered NCD sphere electrodes function as simple, easy-to-use electrochemical sensing assays of glucose levels in diabetic blood patients with a wide range of precision or linearity, recyclability, and excellent selectivity, even in the presence of potentially interfering organic (ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, lactose, maltose, and sucrose) and inorganic (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , KCl, and K 2 SO 4 ) species. The results demonstrate the potential for the electrochemical sensors to be used in preventing serious health problems associated with diabetes mismanagement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Atypical blood glucose response to continuous and interval exercise in a person with type 1 diabetes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Othmar; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mueller, Alexander; Groeschl, Werner; Pieber, Thomas R; Koehler, Gerd; Eckstein, Max L; Bracken, Richard M; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-30

    Therapy must be adapted for people with type 1 diabetes to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia caused by increased exercise-related glucose uptake into muscles. Therefore, to avoid hypoglycemia, the preexercise short-acting insulin dose must be reduced for safety reasons. We report a case of a man with long-lasting type 1 diabetes in whom no blood glucose decrease during different types of exercise with varying exercise intensities and modes was found, despite physiological hormone responses. A Caucasian man diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for 24 years performed three different continuous high-intensity interval cycle ergometer exercises as part of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02075567). Intensities for both modes of exercises were set at 5% below and 5% above the first lactate turn point and 5% below the second lactate turn point. Short-acting insulin doses were reduced by 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively. Measurements taken included blood glucose, blood lactate, gas exchange, heart rate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin-like growth factor-1. Unexpectedly, no significant blood glucose decreases were observed during all exercise sessions (start versus end, 12.97 ± 2.12 versus 12.61 ± 2.66 mmol L -1 , p = 0.259). All hormones showed the expected response, dependent on the different intensities and modes of exercises. People with type 1 diabetes typically experience a decrease in blood glucose levels, particularly during low- and moderate-intensity exercises. In our patient, we clearly found no decline in blood glucose, despite a normal hormone response and no history of any insulin insensitivity. This report indicates that there might be patients for whom the recommended preexercise therapy adaptation to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia needs to be questioned because this could increase the risk of severe hyperglycemia and ketosis.

  5. Two days of a very low calorie diet reduces endogenous glucose production in obese type 2 diabetic patients despite the withdrawal of blood glucose-lowering therapies including insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jazet, Ingrid M.; Pijl, Hanno; Frölich, Marijke; Romijn, Johannes A.; Meinders, A. Edo

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering effect of a 2-day very low calorie diet (VLCD; 1890 kJ/d) in combination with the cessation of all blood glucose-lowering agents was studied in 12 (7 women, 5 men) obese (body mass index, 36.3 +/- 1.0 kg/m 2 [mean +/- SEM]) type 2 diabetic patients (age,

  6. Gaps and barriers in the control of blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Lawrence; Aschner, Pablo; Bailey, Clifford; Ji, Linong; Leiter, Lawrence A; Matthaei, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Glycaemic control is suboptimal in a large proportion of people with type 2 diabetes who are consequently at an increased and avoidable risk of potentially severe complications. We sought to explore attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals that may contribute to suboptimal glycaemic control through a review of recent relevant publications in the scientific literature. An electronic search of the PubMed database was performed to identify relevant publications from January 2011 to July 2015. The electronic search was complemented by a manual search of abstracts from key diabetes conferences in 2014/2015 available online. Recently published data indicate that glycaemic control is suboptimal in a substantial proportion (typically 40%-60%) of people with diabetes. This is the case across geographic regions and in both low- and higher-income countries. Therapeutic inertia appears to be an important contributor to poor glycaemic control in up to half of people with type 2 diabetes. In particular, prescribers are often willing to tolerate extended periods of 'mild' hyperglycaemia as well as having low expectations for their patients. There are often delays of 3 years or longer in initiating or intensifying glucose-lowering therapy when needed. Many people with type 2 diabetes are failed by current management, with approximately half not achieving or maintaining appropriate target blood glucose levels, leaving these patients at increased and avoidable risk of serious complications. Review criteria: The methodology of this review article is detailed in the 'Methods' section.

  7. Peripheral and central venous blood glucose concentrations in dogs and cats with acute arterial thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainbart, S; Kelmer, E; Vidmayer, B; Bdolah-Abram, T; Segev, G; Aroch, I

    2014-01-01

    Acute limb paralysis because of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) occurs in cats and less commonly in dogs. ATE is diagnosed based on physical examination findings and, occasionally, advanced imaging. Peripheral, affected limb venous glucose concentration is decreased in ATE, whereas its systemic concentration is within or above reference interval. Client-owned cats and dogs were divided into 3 respective groups: acute limb paralysis because of ATE (22 cats and 9 dogs); acute limb paralysis secondary to orthopedic or neurologic conditions (nonambulatory controls; 10 cats and 11 dogs); ambulatory animals presented because of various diseases (ambulatory controls; 10 cats and 9 dogs). Prospective observational, clinical study. Systemic and local (affected limb) blood glucose concentrations were measured. Their absolute and relative differences (ΔGlu and %ΔGlu, respectively) were compared among groups. ΔGlu and %ΔGlu were significantly higher in the ATE cats and dogs groups, compared to both of their respective controls (P cats, respectively, and 1.00 and 1.00, in dogs, respectively. ΔGlu cutoffs of 30 mg/dL and 16 mg/dL, in cats and dogs, respectively, corresponded to sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 90% in cats, respectively, and 100% in dogs. ΔGlu and %ΔGlu are accurate, readily available, diagnostic markers of acute ATE in paralyzed cats and dogs. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Patterns of self-monitoring of blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes: analysis of a Scottish population over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D; Harris, F M; Evans, J M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of a diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, Scotland, shows that a significant proportion of insulin-treated patients with diabetes are not self-monitoring blood glucose according to current clinical guidance and recommendations, with some not self-monitoring their blood glucose at all. Although there has been an increase in the number of reagent strips dispensed over the past decade, this increase is mainly accounted for by increased testing frequency among people with diabetes already testing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy.

  10. Automated blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes: A review of progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertachi, Arthur; Ramkissoon, Charrise M; Bondia, Jorge; Vehí, Josep

    2018-03-01

    Since the 2000s, research teams worldwide have been working to develop closed-loop (CL) systems able to automatically control blood glucose (BG) levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. This emerging technology is known as artificial pancreas (AP), and its first commercial version just arrived in the market. The main objective of this paper is to present an extensive review of the clinical trials conducted since 2011, which tested various implementations of the AP for different durations under varying conditions. A comprehensive table that contains key information from the selected publications is provided, and the main challenges in AP development and the mitigation strategies used are discussed. The development timelines for different AP systems are also included, highlighting the main evolutions over the clinical trials for each system. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Should routine peripheral blood glucose testing be done for all newborns at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoops, Debra; Roberts, Patrice; Van Winkle, Elizabeth; Trauschke, Kelly; Mauton, Nicole; DeGhelder, Susan; Scalise, Angela; Jackson, Sarah; Cato, Deborah; Roth, Christina; Jones, Anna; Kautz, Martina; Whaley, Leah

    2010-01-01

    To determine the (1) incidence of peripheral blood glucose (PBG PBG PBG value was obtained within 2 hours of birth from the infant. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis, and sensitivity and specificity testing. The incidence of PBG PBG values within 2 hours of birth at a statistically significant level (jitteriness [p = .011] and tachypnea [p = .033]). Sensitivity was 71.9% and specificity 44.7% for using the presence of at least one maternal/infant risk factor and/or infant signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia to correctly identify PBG PBG testing. Screening infants for maternal/infant risk factors and infant signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia could be used instead to safely decrease by 45% the number of infants who would need to have a PBG sample obtained within 2 hours of birth.

  12. Evaluation of detemir in diabetic cats managed with a protocol for intensive blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomp, Kirsten; Rand, Jacquie

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to report outcomes using detemir and a protocol aimed at intensive blood glucose control with home monitoring in diabetic cats, and to compare the results with a previous study using the same protocol with glargine. Eighteen cats diagnosed with diabetes and previously treated with other insulins were included in the study. Data was provided by owners who joined the online German Diabetes-Katzen Forum. The overall remission rate was 67%. For cats that began the protocol before or after 6 months of diagnosis, remission rates were 81% and 42%, respectively (P = 0.14). No significant differences were identified between the outcomes for the glargine and detemir studies, with the exception of three possibly interrelated factors: a slightly older median age of the detemir cohort at diabetes diagnosis, a higher rate of chronic renal disease in the detemir cohort and lower maximal dose for insulin detemir.

  13. Comprehensive Experiment—Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications. PMID:25521692

  14. Comprehensive experiment-clinical biochemistry: determination of blood glucose and triglycerides in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications. © 2014 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education.

  15. Strengths and Limitations of New Approaches for Graphical Presentation of Blood Glucose Monitoring System Accuracy Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2017-11-01

    Graphical presentation of blood glucose monitoring systems' (BGMSs) accuracy typically includes difference plots (DPs). Recently, 3 new approaches were presented: radar plots (RPs), rectangle target plots (RTPs), and surveillance error grids (SEGs). BGMS data were modeled based on 3 scenarios that can be encountered in real life to highlight strengths and limitations of these approaches. Detailed assessment of BGMS data may be easier in plots with individual data points (DPs, RPs, SEGs), whereas RTPs may facilitate display of large amounts of data or comparison of BGMS. SEGs have the advantage of assessing clinical risk. The selection of a specific type depends mostly on the kind of information sought (eg, accuracy in specific concentration intervals, lot-to-lot variability, clinical risk) as there is no "absolute best" approach.

  16. Noninvasive and fast measurement of blood glucose in vivo by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintao, Xue; Liming, Ye; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Han, Chen

    2017-05-01

    This research was to develop a method for noninvasive and fast blood glucose assay in vivo. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a more promising technique compared to other methods, was investigated in rats with diabetes and normal rats. Calibration models are generated by two different multivariate strategies: partial least squares (PLS) as linear regression method and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regression method. The PLS model was optimized individually by considering spectral range, spectral pretreatment methods and number of model factors, while the ANN model was studied individually by selecting spectral pretreatment methods, parameters of network topology, number of hidden neurons, and times of epoch. The results of the validation showed the two models were robust, accurate and repeatable. Compared to the ANN model, the performance of the PLS model was much better, with lower root mean square error of validation (RMSEP) of 0.419 and higher correlation coefficients (R) of 96.22%.

  17. Both Low Blood Glucose and Insufficient Treatment Confer Risk of Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annett Helleskov; Melikyan, Maria; Globa, Evgenia

    2017-01-01

    risk of neurological impairment; however, sparsely studied in larger patient series. We assessed the neurodevelopmental outcome in children with CHI at follow-up in a mixed international cohort. METHODS: In two hyperinsulinism expert centers, 75 CHI patients were included (Russian, n = 33, referred non......-Scandinavian, treated in Denmark n = 27, Scandinavian, n = 15). Hospital files were reviewed. At follow-up, neurodevelopmental impairment and neurodevelopmental, cognitive and motor function scores were assessed. RESULTS: Median (range) age at follow-up was 3.7 years (3.3 months-18.2 years). Neurodevelopmental...... seen in uni- or multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Not only very low blood glucose, but also insufficient treatment as expressed by delay until expert center hospitalization, increased the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment. This novel finding calls for improvements in spread of knowledge about CHI...

  18. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    of this study could not support a causal association between FG and BP in healthy children and adolescents; however, it is possible that rs560887 has pleiotropic effects on unknown factors with a BP lowering effect or that these results were due to a lack of statistical power.Journal of Human Hypertension......The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single......-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the G6PC2 locus found to be robustly associated with FG in children and adolescents, as an instrument to associate FG with resting BP in 1506 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Rs560887 was associated with increased FG levels corresponding...

  19. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA.MethodsSubjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA180 mg/dL.ResultsDuring the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6% and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8% neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8% exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4% developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4% neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045 and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006, and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005. Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia. Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia.ConclusionCareful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia.

  20. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W

    2016-05-01

    Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled "Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program" is attached as supplementary material. This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.