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Sample records for blood glucose testing

  1. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Glucose What's ... español Análisis de sangre: glucosa What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  2. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  3. Blood Glucose Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 4 screens]. Available from: http://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/glucose-tolerence-test/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health ...

  4. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ... cannot release all the ketones and they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    , either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  6. Glucose test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. Following your health ...

  7. The accuracy of blood glucose testing by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumph, P S; Odoroff, C L; Amatruda, J M

    1988-04-01

    While studies have evaluated the accuracy of adult patients and health personnel in reading various glucose oxidase impregnated strips to estimate blood glucose, there are no studies exclusively evaluating the accuracy of children with diabetes reading their own strips as compared to a staff member, and meter to meter variability in reading these strips. We evaluated the accuracy of reading chemstrip bG by children at a summer camp. The children's visual readings of their own strips were compared to the visual reading of a single staff member. A total of 356 Chemstrip bG's were visually read by diabetic children and a single trained staff member at a summer camp for diabetics. The strips were then analyzed by two Accu-Chek bG meters. Intermachine variability was found to be negligible over the entire bG range. For the purposes of this study, we define accurate visual readings as those within +/- 15 percent of the meter reading of a given strip. At low bG values (40-79 mg/dl), accuracy by children and staff is low, with underestimating occurring in 39 percent of staff readings and 57 percent of children's readings. At intermediate bG values (120-239 mg/dl) readings are more accurate, especially when read by the staff, with misreadings occurring in only 16-19 percent of the strips. At high bG values (240-399 mg/dl), accuracy by children is decreased, with underestimation 500 percent more often than staff. We conclude that children are less accurate at reading Chemstrip bG than a trained staff member (51% versus 33% misreading), especially at the upper and lower ranges of bG values when visual readings are least accurate, and the need for therapeutic intervention is the greatest.

  8. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... than likely, the doctor will order a fasting blood sugar test. The blood glucose test is also used to ...

  9. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  13. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  20. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  1. Design andIn VitroInterference Test of Microwave Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heungjae; Naylon, Jack; Luzio, Steve; Beutler, Jan; Birchall, James; Martin, Chris; Porch, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    A design of a microwave noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring sensor and its interference test results are presented. The novelty of the proposed sensor is that it comprises two spatially separated split-ring resonators, where one interacts with the change in glucose level of a sample under test while the other ring is used as a reference. The reference ring has a slightly different resonant frequency and is desensitized to the sample owing to its location, thus allowing changes in temperature to be calibrated out. From an oral glucose tolerance test with two additional commercially available sensors (blood strip and continuous glucose monitor) in parallel, we obtained encouraging performance for our sensor comparable with those of the commercial sensors. The effects of endogenous interferents common to all subjects, i.e., common sugars, vitamins (ascorbic acid), and metabolites (uric acid) have also been investigated by using a large Franz cell assembly. From the interference test, it is shown that the change in sensor response is dominated by changes in glucose level for concentrations relevant to blood, and the effects of interferents are negligible in comparison.

  2. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ... the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the ... Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your ...

  9. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...... fluoride (NaF) in combination with potassium oxalate (KOx) are currently used for overcoming this drawback, their efficacy for stabilizing blood glucose is seemingly limited, and probably lower than that of newer additives such as the citrate buffer. Therefore, we performed a critical analysis...

  10. Alternative sampling site for blood glucose testing in cats: giving the ears a rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeugswetter, Florian K; Rebuzzi, Laura; Karlovits, Sonja

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY RATIONALE: Home monitoring is an important part of the long-term management of diabetic cats. Despite the extensive use of glucometers in this species, up until now only the pinna of the ear has been validated as a testing site. This cross-sectional study investigated the feasibility and validity of sampling from the metacarpal/metatarsal pads in hospitalised cats with various diseases. The large pads were compared with the ear as a sampling site in 75 cats. Lancing the pads was tolerated very well. If the initial drop of blood was too small, an adequate volume of blood was almost always achieved by squeezing the pads. No significant differences were observed in first-attempt success rate or glucose values between the two sites. Due to the inability to obtain an adequate volume of blood or struggling, no measurement was possible in four cats. While further work is necessary to assess the utility of this technique, especially in the home environment, the results indicate that the metacarpal pads, in particular, may offer a viable alternative testing site for the measurement of blood glucose concentrations, especially if ear sampling fails. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: Copy numbers, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tasker, S?verine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either M. haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), `Candidatus M. haemominutum? (Group HM: 3 cats) or `Candidatus M. turicensis? (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed...

  20. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  4. Should routine peripheral blood glucose testing be done for all newborns at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoops, Debra; Roberts, Patrice; Van Winkle, Elizabeth; Trauschke, Kelly; Mauton, Nicole; DeGhelder, Susan; Scalise, Angela; Jackson, Sarah; Cato, Deborah; Roth, Christina; Jones, Anna; Kautz, Martina; Whaley, Leah

    2010-01-01

    To determine the (1) incidence of peripheral blood glucose (PBG PBG PBG value was obtained within 2 hours of birth from the infant. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis, and sensitivity and specificity testing. The incidence of PBG PBG values within 2 hours of birth at a statistically significant level (jitteriness [p = .011] and tachypnea [p = .033]). Sensitivity was 71.9% and specificity 44.7% for using the presence of at least one maternal/infant risk factor and/or infant signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia to correctly identify PBG PBG testing. Screening infants for maternal/infant risk factors and infant signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia could be used instead to safely decrease by 45% the number of infants who would need to have a PBG sample obtained within 2 hours of birth.

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes in your diet ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  11. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; Diabetic - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  13. Effects of structured testing versus routine testing of blood glucose in diabetes self-management: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Akiko; Harashima, Shin-Ichi; Fujita, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Daisuke; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yanyan; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of structured and routine testing regimens used in self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) on glycemic control and diabetes self-management in insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes patients. Sixty-two outpatients with insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated into two less-frequent SMBG usage groups: a structured testing group (STG) and a routine testing group (RTG). Subjects in STG measured 7-points on SMBG for 3 consecutive days once every two months without daily testing; subjects in RTG measured SMBG 3 times each week before breakfast on Monday and Friday and before dinner on Wednesday. The primary endpoint was HbA1c reduction. The secondary endpoints were change in body weight, blood pressure, treatment change, and self-management performance change. HbA1c levels were significantly decreased by 0.32% (3.50mmol/mol) in STG, partly because physicians changed medications more actively. In contrast, body weight and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced by 0.94kg and 6.8/4.7mmHg, respectively, in RTG, possibly related to the increased diet and exercise score in RTG. Structured testing without daily testing is beneficial for glycemic control; routine testing 3 times a week is more helpful for daily self-management. In low SMBG frequency usage, these two regimens can be utilized according to individual diabetic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of ... Doppler US is expensive and time consuming,.

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  16. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  17. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal ... or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  19. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: copy numbers, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Knowles, Toby G; Day, Michael J; Helps, Chris R

    2009-11-18

    The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' (Group HM: 3 cats) or 'Candidatus M. turicensis' (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as PCats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (Pcats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 degrees C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 degrees C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P=0.006) and HM (P=0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies.

  20. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    ) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained......is unclear whether postprandial blood glucose or insulin exerts a regulatory function in short-term appetite regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of meta-analysis, the role of blood glucose and insulin in short-term appetite sensation and energy intake (EI......). The only association involving blood glucose was the multivariate IPD analysis showing an inverse association between blood glucose and El in ALL (P=0 center dot 032). Our results suggest that insulin, but not glucose, is associated with short-term appetite regulation in healthy participants...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of ... enough insulin. Without insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ... insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use ...

  4. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  5. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... During the first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare ...

  6. All about Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need a change in your meal plan,physical activity,or diabetes medicines.Keep track of when you’ve had ... glucose events.Note possible causes,such as unplanned physical activity.Then talk it over with your ... Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ... to the Association. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble. ...

  8. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on t...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ... blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness ...

  10. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... follow the instructions for operating your meter. your hematocrit (the amount of red blood cells in the ... health care provider can tell you if your hematocrit is low or high, and can discuss with ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  12. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-12-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Shreesh Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In ... Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health ... Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ... Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  7. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  8. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “Recent Results on Glucose–Insulin Predictions by Means of a State Observer for Time-Delay Systems” by Pasquale Palumbo et al. introduces a prediction model which in real time predicts the insulin concentration in blood which in turn is used in a control system. The method is tested in simulation......Standard diabetes insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes and late stages of type 2 is based on the expected development of blood glucose (BG) both as a consequence of the metabolic glucose consumption as well as of meals and exogenous insulin intake. Traditionally, this is not done explicitly......, but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...

  9. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    -related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study...

  10. Patterns, Policy and Appropriateness: A 12-Year Utilization Review of Blood Glucose Test Strip Use in Insulin Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jamie; Friesen, Kevin J; Okunnu, Anuoluwapo; Bugden, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the rising costs of the use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS). Insulin users have generally been treated as a single homogeneous group, resulting in policies that cap usage (8.2 strips/day) in provincial drug insurance programs. The objective of this study was to conduct a utilization review of BGTS by insulin users and to evaluate use patterns against current insulin use patterns and BGTS policy. BGTS usage was examined in a cohort of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over a 12-year period (2001 to 2013) using the population-based administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. Total BGTS strip use increased by 121%, from $4.3 to $9.5 million. However, the number of insulin users also increased by 115%. Use has been stable at 1.5 strips per day per person since 2004 by insulin users with type 2 diabetes but has risen from 1.9 to 3.0 strips per day per person in those with type 1 diabetes. Mean daily test strip use was below the number of daily tests recommended for patients using insulin as per the current Canadian guidelines, with 11% and 15% of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes not claiming any BGTS use and a further 15% (type 1) and 28% (type 2) using fewer than 1 strip per day. BGTS use per insulin user has been stable for most of the past decade, and the vast majority of use falls well below provincial insurance caps. The amount of low-level testing (0 to <1 strip/day) suggests that greater attention should be directed to ensuring a safe level of testing by all insulin users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  12. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  13. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K. [Nutrition Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Zulkeffeli, M. J. [Department of Health Service, Ministry of Defense, Level 11, Menara Park, 50450 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  14. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 , 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with weight

  15. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  16. Accuracy of handheld blood glucose meters at high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter de Mol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking, reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6.5 mmol/L and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L. No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. CONCLUSION: At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy.

  17. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  18. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...... by the authors at the workshop but were written afterward which allowed to include the findings and conclusions of the various discussions and of course updates. The chapter "Alternative Frameworks for Personalized Insulin-Glucose Models" by Harald Kirchsteiger et al. asks the question whether more and more...... that focus not on the prediction of exact future blood glucose values, but rather on the prediction of changes in the patients’ blood glucose range. The chapter “Accuracy of BG Meters and CGM Systems: Possible Influence Factors for the Glucose Prediction Based on Tissue Glucose Concentrations” by Guido...

  19. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary...... participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger...... important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity....

  20. Rational use of blood glucose test strips for self-monitoring in patients with diabetes mellitus: Economic impact in the Portuguese healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Teresa; Furtado, Cláudia

    2017-12-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is important for diabetes management in insulin-treated patients, but its effectiveness in patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only is not fully supported by current evidence. This paper aims to characterise the prescription patterns of blood glucose test strips (BGTS) in Portugal and estimate the potential cost-savings from the rational use of BGTS. A retrospective analysis of the Portuguese database of electronic medical prescriptions to assess the patterns of BGTS prescription. The database was searched for prescription, from 01 January 2016 to 31 December 2016, of insulin and other antidiabetics, as well as the associated prescriptions of BGTS. 894,637 patients were prescribed antidiabetic medicines during 2016, 82.7% of which were prescribed oral glucose lowering drugs only. BGTS were prescribed to 456,179 patients, being more frequently prescribed in insulin-treated patients. Still, 42.8% of patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only were also prescribed BGTS, with large proportion of those being prescribed antidiabetic drugs with lower risk of causing hypoglycaemia and, even so, >200 BGTS/year. Several scenarios for a more rational use of BGTS were estimated to result in cost-savings of up to €9.5 million per year. BGTS were prescribed to more than a third of patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only, despite accumulating evidence of their limited effectiveness in this population, resulting in substantial economic burden to the healthcare system. Given the estimated potential cost-savings, rational use of BGTS should be encouraged in Portugal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  2. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  3. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two......-day workshop on the design, use and evaluation of prediction methods for blood glucose concentration was held at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria. One intention of the workshop was to bring together experts working in various fields on the same topic, in order to shed light from different angles...... Freckmann et al. discusses performance metrics used to characterize the accuracy of continuous glucose measurement devices. This topic is highly relevant for prediction models since many of them rely on the data given by the continuous sensors which are previously calibrated with blood glucose meter...

  4. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  5. Evaluation of glucose dose on intravenous glucose tolerance test traits in Holstein-Friesian heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Grajales, L Antonio; Pieper, Laura; Mengel, Sebastian; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2018-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in dairy and beef cattle has received considerable attention because balanced blood glucose is essential for numerous processes, such as milk production and general health. The glucose tolerance test measures the ability of an organism to regulate blood glucose levels. Glucose half-life time (GHLT) has high heritability and could serve as a potential parameter to breed for metabolic resistance. However, studies focusing on identification of an adequate glucose dose have not yet been conducted in cattle. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of 5 different glucose doses (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 g/kg of body weight 0.75 ) on intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) traits and insulin responses in nongestating heifers. A total of 150 tests were performed in 30 Holstein-Friesian heifers aged 13 to 15 mo. Blood samples were obtained every 7 min after glucose injection until min 63. Glucose traits and insulin parameters included blood serum glucose and insulin concentration at min 0 (basal concentration), min 7 to 21 (peak glucose and insulin concentration), and min 63 (last sampling) relative to glucose administration, glucose and insulin area under the curve (GAUC and IAUC), and GHLT estimated between min 14 and 42. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured according to the hexokinase colorimetric method and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Generalized linear mixed model was used to test for significant differences in ivGTT traits, insulin responses, and glucose elimination rates (k) over time at different glucose doses. Maximum glucose and insulin concentrations at min 63 increased with higher glucose doses. Significantly lower GHLT were obtained at increasing glucose doses, whereas GAUC and IAUC were significantly higher at increasing doses. The k values were affected by glucose dose and by time interval. Glucose dose greatly affected most ivGTT traits, insulin responses, and glucose elimination rates. Therefore

  6. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  7. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  8. Lot-to-lot variability of test strips and accuracy assessment of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose according to ISO 15197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Schmid, Christina; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2012-09-01

    Accurate and reliable blood glucose (BG) measurements require that different test strip lots of the same BG monitoring system provide comparable measurement results. Only a small number of studies addressing this question have been published. In this study, four test strip lots for each of five different BG systems [Accu-Chek® Aviva (system A), FreeStyle Lite® (system B), GlucoCheck XL (system C), Pura™/mylife™ Pura (system D), and OneTouch® Verio™ Pro (system E)] were evaluated with procedures according to DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. The BG system measurement results were compared with the manufacturer's measurement procedure (glucose oxidase or hexokinase method). Relative bias according to Bland and Altman and system accuracy according to ISO 15197 were analyzed. A BG system consists of the BG meter itself and the test strips. The maximum lot-to-lot difference between any two of the four evaluated test strip lots per BG system was 1.0% for system E, 2.1% for system A, 3.1% for system C, 6.9% for system B, and 13.0% for system D. Only two systems (systems A and B) fulfill the criteria of DIN EN ISO 15197:2003 with each test strip lot. Considerable lot-to-lot variability between test strip lots of the same BG system was found. These variations add to other sources of inaccuracy with the specific BG system. Manufacturers should regularly and effectively check the accuracy of their BG meters and test strips even between different test strip lots to minimize risk of false treatment decisions. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  10. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  11. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  12. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  13. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  14. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...... by the hydrogen breath technique, was decreased by WB and BF, (p less than 0.05) but not by PF. PF is palatable and may prove beneficial as a fiber supplement for diabetics....

  15. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Oral glucose tolerance test was done for a cohort of 68 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with impaired fasting blood glucose detected at a school screening. Age, sex, anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and BMI percentiles were determined using appropriate methods. Blood pressure and family ...

  16. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    Diabetes Study Group 33). Even though the achievement and maintenance of blood glucose concentrations as near normal as possible are major targets of modern diabetic care (UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, 1988), this increases the frequency of hypoglycaemia (Amiel 1998). Hypoglycaemia, the most common ...

  17. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  18. Hematocrit Compensation in Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorczyk, Maria; Cardosi, Marco; Setford, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematocrit (Hct) is a common interferent in test strips used by diabetes patients to self-monitor blood glucose (BG), resulting in measurement bias. Described is an electrochemical BG monitoring system (OneTouch® Verio™) that uses a cofacial sensor design, soluble enzyme chemistry, and multiphasic waveform to effectively correct for patient Hct, delivering an accurate reading for whole BG. Methods The test strip comprises thin-film gold and palladium electrodes arranged cofacially and spatially separated with a thin spacer. Soluble glucose-sensing reagents are located on the lower palladium electrode and are hydrated on sample application. Blood glucose is oxidized by flavoprotein glucose dehydrogenase, with electron transfer via (reduced) potassium ferrocyanide mediator at the palladium electrode. Hematocrit levels are estimated by measuring oxidation of mediator diffusion to the upper gold electrode during the first portion of the assay. The Hct-corrected glucose levels are determined by an on-meter algorithm. Results In performance testing of blood samples at five glucose levels (30–560 mg/dl) and five Hct levels (19–61%), using 12 test meters and 3 test strip lots, 100% of results (N = 2700) met International Organization for Standardization accuracy criteria (within ± 15 mg/dl and ± 20% of reference results at glucose levels of <75 and ≥75 mg/dl, respectively). Furthermore, 99.9% (2698 of 2700) of results were within ±12 mg/dl and ± 15% of reference values at glucose levels <80 and ≥80 mg/dl, respectively. Conclusions The technology used in this system provides accurate BG measurements that are insensitive to Hct levels across the range 20–60%. PMID:22768896

  19. Critical Care Glucose Point-of-Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narla, S N; Jones, M; Hermayer, K L; Zhu, Y

    Maintaining blood glucose concentration within an acceptable range is a goal for patients with diabetes mellitus. Point-of-care glucose meters initially designed for home self-monitoring in patients with diabetes have been widely used in the hospital settings because of ease of use and quick reporting of blood glucose information. They are not only utilized for the general inpatient population but also for critically ill patients. Many factors affect the accuracy of point-of-care glucose testing, particularly in critical care settings. Inaccurate blood glucose information can result in unsafe insulin delivery which causes poor glucose control and can be fatal. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the limitations of point-of-care glucose testing. This chapter will first introduce glucose regulation in diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia in the intensive care unit, importance of glucose control in critical care patients, and pathophysiological variables of critically ill patients that affect the accuracy of point-of-care glucose testing. Then, we will discuss currently available point-of-care glucose meters and preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical sources of variation and error in point-of-care glucose testing. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, ppopulation. Therefore, future intervention from the aspect of nutritional education and health awareness can benefit thus optimizing the health status of MA military personnel.

  1. Postprandial blood glucose response to a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated with insulin lispro mix 50 or human insulin mix 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Li, G; Li, Y; Guo, X; Yuan, G; Gong, Q; Yan, L; Zheng, Y; Zhang, J

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) excursion following a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated twice daily with human insulin mix 50 vs. insulin lispro mix 50 (LM50). Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, open-label, crossover comparison of two insulin treatments for two 12-week treatment periods in 120 Chinese patients. One- and 2-h PPBG and excursion values were obtained following a standardised test meal. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin dose, rate of hypoglycaemia and safety data were obtained. A crossover analysis using SAS Proc MIXED was employed. Results Mean 2-h PPBG excursion decreased from 6.32 ± 3.07 mmol/l at baseline to 3.47 ± 2.97 mmol/l at end-point in the LM50 group, and from 6.31 ± 2.88 at baseline to 5.02 ± 3.32 mmol/l at end-point in the human insulin mix 50 group (p < 0.001). Two-hour PPBG (p = 0.004) and 1-h PPBG excursion (p < 0.001) were significantly lower with LM50 as compared with human insulin mix 50. Both treatment groups were equivalent for HbA1c control, 1-h PPBG and insulin dose requirements. Mean FBG was higher with LM50 than with human insulin mix 50 (p = 0.023). The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and hypoglycaemia rate per 30 days were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions Insulin lispro mix 50 provided better postprandial glycaemic control compared with human insulin mix 50 while providing the convenience of injecting immediately before meals. Both treatments were generally well tolerated by all randomly assigned patients. PMID:18657196

  2. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003469.htm CO2 blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate ...

  3. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  4. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  5. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003490.htm Ferritin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. ...

  6. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  7. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  8. ACTH blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003695.htm ACTH blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This test can help find the causes of certain hormone ...

  9. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  10. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003634.htm Haptoglobin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. ...

  11. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  12. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  13. Screening of gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary finger blood glucose in the diagnosis of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka S Waghmare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at obtaining glucose readings using gingival crevicular blood (GCB to screen for undiagnosed diabetes during routine dental visits. Materials and Methods: The present study included 50 patients who were divided into two groups, i.e. Group A and Group B, based on bleeding on probing at the site of collection of GCB. Group A participants had blood collected from sites having adequate bleeding on probing, whereas Group B participants had blood collected from sites with little bleeding on probing. GCB and capillary finger-stick blood (CFB] glucose readings were obtained using a self-monitoring glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between both the samples were done using Pearson′s correlation. Results: Group A patients′ correlations between GCB and CFB glucose readings were high, whereas in Group B patients, correlations between glucose readings were low. Conclusion: GCB can be an excellent source for screening diabetes during routine dental visits.

  14. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's ... español Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  15. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  16. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Retinol test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Vitamin A (retinol) - ...

  17. Glucose in Urine Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/glucoseinurinetest.html Glucose in Urine Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Glucose in Urine Test? A glucose in urine test ...

  18. Blood glucose control and monitoring in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with blood glucose control and blood glucose monitoring in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: two important aspects of care for and monitoring of critically ill patients. While the precise targets of blood glucose control in ICU patients remain a matter of debate, currently many,

  19. The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on blood glucose in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were grouped into two: groups A (control) and B (Test B1 and Test B2). Group A received water and feed (grower's mash) with grass supplementation. Group B (Test B1 and B2) received 3.33mg/ml and 6.66mg/ml of MSG respectively at libitum. At the end of each week, fasting blood glucose levels were ...

  20. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  1. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help ... specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must ...

  2. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Levels: Evaluating the Impact of a Policy of Quantity Limits on Test-Strip Use and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Martins, Diana; Tadrous, Mina; Paterson, J Michael; Shah, Baiju R; Juurlink, David N; Singh, Samantha; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of new quantity limits for blood glucose test strips (BGTS) in August 2013 on utilization patterns and costs in the elderly population of Ontario, Canada. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional time series analysis of all individuals 65 years of age and older who received publically funded BGTSs between August 1, 2010, and July 31, 2015, in Ontario, Canada. The number of BGTSs dispensed and the associated costs were measured for 4 diabetes therapy subgroups-insulin, hypoglycemia-inducing oral agents, non-hypoglycemia-inducing oral agents, and no drug therapy-each month during the study period. We used interventional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to assess the impact of Ontario's policy change on test strip use and costs. In the course of the study period, 657,338,177 test strips were dispensed to elderly patients in Ontario, at a total cost of CAN$482.3 million. Introduction of quantity limits was associated with significant reductions in the number of monthly strips dispensed and the associated costs (p<0.0001). In the year following the policy's implementation, test strip use decreased by 22.2% compared with the prior year (from 145,232,024 test strips to 113,007,795 test strips, a net decrease of 32,224,229 strips), resulting in a 22.5% reduction in costs (from $106.5 million to $82.6 million, a net cost reduction of approximately $24 million). The introduction of quantity limits, aligned with guidance from the Canadian Diabetes Association, led to immediate significant reductions in BGTS dispensing and costs. More research is needed to assess the impact of this policy on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Both the frequency of HbA1c testing and the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose predict metabolic control: A multicentre analysis of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients from Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, A; Best, F; Biester, T; Grünerbel, A; Kopp, F; Krakow, D; Laimer, M; Wagner, C; Holl, R W

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between metabolic control and frequency of haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurements and of self-monitoring of blood glucose, as well as the interaction of both. Data of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients registered in a standardized electronic health record (DPV) were included. To model the association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing or of self-monitoring of blood glucose, multiple hierarchic regression models with adjustment for confounders were fitted. Tukey-Kramer test was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Vuong test was used to compare non-nested models. The baseline variables of the study population were median age 19.9 [Q1; Q3: 18.4; 32.2] years and diabetes duration 10.4 [6.8; 15.7] years. Haemoglobin A 1c was 60.4 [51.5; 72.5] mmol/mol. Frequency of HbA 1c testing was 8.0 [5.0; 9.0] within 2 years, and daily self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was 5.0 [4.0; 6.0]. After adjustment, a U-shaped association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing was observed with lowest HbA 1c levels in the 3-monthly HbA 1c testing group. There was an inverse relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose and HbA 1c with lower HbA 1c associated with highest frequency of testing (>6 daily measurements). Quarterly HbA 1c testing and frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose were associated with best metabolic control. The adjusted Vuong Z statistic suggests that metabolic control might be better explained by HbA 1c testing compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (P monitoring together with frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes management to reach and maintain target HbA 1c . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Testing quality of a self-monitoring blood glucose sensor with an auto-coding mechanism when used by patients versus technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Kuo, Chih-Yi; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2014-11-01

    In response to the problem of erroneous readings due to miscoding when performing self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG), this study introduces a user-friendly SMBG biosensor with an innovative auto-coding module on the meter and strip. Actual users characterized the performance of the SMBG systems. A total of 105 patients were incorporated in the study and Clarke error grid analysis (EGA) was administered to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the results obtained by the patients versus the technicians. All patients used the questionnaires to comment on the use of the auto-coding sensor. In the imprecision test, the total CV of the 5 BG levels was 2.1%. In the EGA plot, the results of the auto-coding sensor were 96.2%, both lots A and B, in zone A for the patients and 99.0% and 97.1% for the technician. The paired t-test demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the patient and technician measurements. Regression analysis also demonstrated that the measurements taken by the patients agreed with those obtained using the laboratory method. The patients achieved satisfactory performance using the auto-coding SMBG sensor and derived similar results with both laboratory reference and operation by a technician. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of the reference method isotope dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (ID/GC/MS) to establish metrological traceability for calibration and control of blood glucose test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreis, Elisabeth; Küllmer, Kai; Appel, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG) by means of handheld BG systems is a cornerstone in diabetes therapy. The aim of this article is to describe a procedure with proven traceability for calibration and evaluation of BG systems to guarantee reliable BG measurements. Isotope dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (ID/GC/MS) is a method that fulfills all requirements to be used in a higher-order reference measurement procedure. However, this method is not applicable for routine measurements because of the time-consuming sample preparation. A hexokinase method with perchloric acid (PCA) sample pretreatment is used in a measurement procedure for such purposes. This method is directly linked to the ID/GC/MS method by calibration with a glucose solution that has an ID/GC/MS-determined target value. BG systems are calibrated with whole blood samples. The glucose levels in such samples are analyzed by this ID/GC/MS-linked hexokinase method to establish traceability to higher-order reference material. For method comparison, the glucose concentrations in 577 whole blood samples were measured using the PCA-hexokinase method and the ID/GC/MS method; this resulted in a mean deviation of 0.1%. The mean deviation between BG levels measured in >500 valid whole blood samples with BG systems and the ID/GC/MS was 1.1%. BG systems allow a reliable glucose measurement if a true reference measurement procedure, with a noninterrupted traceability chain using ID/GC/MS linked hexokinase method for calibration of BG systems, is implemented. Systems should be calibrated by means of a traceable and defined measurement procedure to avoid bias. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003403.htm Cord blood testing To use the sharing features on this page, ... the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood testing can be done to evaluate a newborn's health. ...

  7. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  8. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  9. MPV Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/mpvbloodtest.html MPV Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an MPV Blood Test? MPV stands for mean platelet volume. Platelets are ...

  10. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  11. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  12. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... doing so for a short time before the test. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  13. Aldosterone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003704.htm Aldosterone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aldosterone blood test measures the level of the hormone aldosterone in ...

  14. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blood test can be done to measure the level of ...

  15. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  16. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003374.htm TBG - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves ...

  17. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003534.htm Anthrax blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The anthrax blood test is used to measure substances (proteins) called antibodies , ...

  18. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  19. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  20. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003716.htm Glucagon blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon ...

  1. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  2. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ethylene glycol - serum ...

  3. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody Blood Tests Researchers have discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of ... do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? ...

  4. Umbilical cord blood glucose levels in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to determine the umbilical cord venous blood level of glucose in full-term newborns and its relationship to the mode of delivery. The investigation included 102 full-term newborn infants, including 33 and 69 babies born via cesar-ean and vaginal delivery, respectively. Umbilical cord serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase test using a Sap-phire-400 biochemical analyzer. In healthy full-term newborns, the mean umbilical cord blood glucose levels were 4,29±0,88 mmol/1 (minimum, 2,9 mmol/1 and maximum, 5,9 mmol/1. In the babies born via cesarean delivery, the umbilical cord blood concentration of glucose was ascertained to be significantly lower than in those born vaginally (3,84+0,71 mmol/1 versus 4,51+0,87 mmol/1; /><0,0001. Abdominal delivery can be apparently considered to be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in neonatal infants.

  5. Effect of Caffeine on the Repeated Modified Agility Test from Some Cardiovascular Factors, Blood Glucose and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEBABLI, Nidhal; OUERGHI, Nejmeddine; BOUABID, Jihen; BETTAIB, Ramzi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the ingestion of either the caffeine (CAF) or the placebo (PLA) on performance of repeated modified agility test (RMAT), some cardiovascular factors, metabolic and notes of perceived exertion (RPE) in young males and females. Methods: In a randomized double-blind study, we enrolled 18 active students (10 males and 8 females) in Sport Sciences pursuing degrees in Exercise Science and Physical Education at the University of Sports of Kef (Tunisia), during the academic year 2013–2014. All participants were ingested CAF (5 mg.kg−1) or PLA 60 min before performing an RMAT. Total times (TT), peak time (PT) and fatigue index (FI) were identified as the RMAT indices. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressures (PA), blood glucose (BG) and RPE were assessed before, during and after the RMAT. Results: Taking caffeine had been improved the performance by the significant decreased of TT on male gender better than female gender and the entire group. In addition, there was a significant improvement on HR during and after RMAT in both genders and the whole group, except after RMAT among male gender. However, the repeated measurement results had demonstrated no effect of caffeine on PA, BG and RPE. Conclusion: Caffeine supplement had a beneficial effect on agility performance and HR in male better than in female, although, there was no improvement in PA, BG and RPE. PMID:28828317

  6. Effect of Caffeine on the Repeated Modified Agility Test from Some Cardiovascular Factors, Blood Glucose and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebabli, Nidhal; Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Bouabid, Jihen; Bettaib, Ramzi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the ingestion of either the caffeine (CAF) or the placebo (PLA) on performance of repeated modified agility test (RMAT), some cardiovascular factors, metabolic and notes of perceived exertion (RPE) in young males and females. In a randomized double-blind study, we enrolled 18 active students (10 males and 8 females) in Sport Sciences pursuing degrees in Exercise Science and Physical Education at the University of Sports of Kef (Tunisia), during the academic year 2013-2014. All participants were ingested CAF (5 mg.kg -1 ) or PLA 60 min before performing an RMAT. Total times (TT), peak time (PT) and fatigue index (FI) were identified as the RMAT indices. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressures (PA), blood glucose (BG) and RPE were assessed before, during and after the RMAT. Taking caffeine had been improved the performance by the significant decreased of TT on male gender better than female gender and the entire group. In addition, there was a significant improvement on HR during and after RMAT in both genders and the whole group, except after RMAT among male gender. However, the repeated measurement results had demonstrated no effect of caffeine on PA, BG and RPE. Caffeine supplement had a beneficial effect on agility performance and HR in male better than in female, although, there was no improvement in PA, BG and RPE.

  7. A Deep Learning Approach to Diabetic Blood Glucose Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh N. Mhaskar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of 30-min prediction of blood glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring devices, using clinical data. While most studies of this nature deal with one patient at a time, we take a certain percentage of patients in the data set as training data, and test on the remainder of the patients; i.e., the machine need not re-calibrate on the new patients in the data set. We demonstrate how deep learning can outperform shallow networks in this example. One novelty is to demonstrate how a parsimonious deep representation can be constructed using domain knowledge.

  8. Body fat content, distribution and blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 50% of subject who had greater body fat content and waist hip ratio had impaired fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerant. Body fat content within the body has significance effects on blood glucose concentration. Consequently, there is a need of increasing awareness about healthy food consumption ...

  9. Protein C blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of ... Certain medicines can change blood test results. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...

  10. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rh factor blood test Overview Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells. If your ... Rh negative, you might need to have another blood test — an antibody screen — during your first trimester and ...

  11. Protein S blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of ... Certain medicines can change blood test results: Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...

  12. Discrete Blood Glucose Control in Diabetic Göttingen Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuous research effort, patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D experience difficulties in daily adjustments of their blood glucose concentrations. New technological developments in the form of implanted intravenous infusion pumps and continuous blood glucose sensors might alleviate obstacles for the automatic adjustment of blood glucose concentration. These obstacles consist, for example, of large time-delays and insulin storage effects for the subcutaneous/interstitial route. Towards the goal of an artificial pancreas, we present a novel feedback controller approach that combines classical loop-shaping techniques with gain-scheduling and modern H ∞ -robust control approaches. A disturbance rejection design is proposed in discrete frequency domain based on the detailed model of the diabetic Göttingen minipig. The model is trimmed and linearised over a large operating range of blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity values. Controller parameters are determined for each of these operating points. A discrete H ∞ loop-shaping compensator is designed to increase robustness of the artificial pancreas against general coprime factor uncertainty. The gain scheduled controller uses subcutaneous insulin injection as a control input and determines the controller input error from intravenous blood glucose concentration measurements, where parameter scheduling is achieved by an estimator of the insulin sensitivity parameter. Thus, only one controller stabilises a family of animal models. The controller is validated in silico with a total number of five Göttingen Minipig models, which were previously obtained by experimental identification procedures. Its performance is compared with an experimentally tested switching PI-controller.

  13. Overnight Control of Blood Glucose in People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and test a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for overnight stabilization of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The controller uses glucose measurements from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and its decisions are implemented by a continuous subcutaneous insulin...

  14. Non-invasive Blood Glucose Quantification Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan JAYAPAL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels which result from defects in insulin secretion. It is very important for the diabetics and normal people to have a correct blood glucose level. The HbA1c test is the most preferred test by renowned doctors for glucose quantification. But this test is an invasive one. At present, there are many available techniques for this purpose but these are mostly invasive or minimally non-invasive and most of these are under research. Among the different methods available, the photo acoustic (PA methods provide a reliable solution since the acoustical energy loss is much less compared to the optical or other techniques. Here a novel framework is presented for blood glucose level measurement using a combination of the HbA1c test and a PA method to get an absolutely consistent and precise, non-invasive technique. The setup uses a pulsed laser diode with pulse duration of 5-15 ns and at a repetition rate of 10 Hz as the source. The detector setup is based on the piezoelectric detection. It consists of a ring detector that includes two double ring sensors that are attached to the ring shaped module that can be worn around the finger. The major aim is to detect the photo acoustic signals from the glycated hemoglobin with the least possible error. The proposed monitoring system is designed with extreme consideration to precision and compatibility with the other computing devices. The results obtained in this research have been studied and analyzed by comparing these with those of in-vitro techniques like the HPLC. The comparison has been plotted and it shows a least error. The results also show a positive drive for using this concept as a basis for future extension in quantifying the other blood components.

  15. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003711.htm Estradiol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... of estrogens. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How to Prepare for the Test Your health care provider may tell you to ...

  16. Creatinine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys ... There are many other conditions for which the test may be ordered, ... pressure, diabetes, or medicine overdose. Your provider will ...

  17. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  18. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p < 0.0001). These in vivo results showed that exogenous oxytocin can be good choice to decrease the blood glucose level very fast.

  19. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  20. STRING BEAN JUICE DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-post test control group design and purposive sampling.  The population were all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Puskesmas Pacar Keling Surabaya. Sample were 12 patients who met inclusion criteria. The independent variable was string bean juice and dependent variable was blood glucose level. Data were analyzed by using Paired T-test with significance level of α≤ 0.05 and Independent T-test with significant level of α≤0.05. Result: The results showed that string bean juice has an effect on decreasing blood glucose between pre test and post test for blood glucose with independent T-test is p=0.003. Analysis: In conclusion, string bean juice has an effect on blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Discussion: The possible explanation for this findings is string bean juice contains two ingredients: thiamine and fiber. Thiamine helps support insulin receptors and glucose transporter in cells hence GLUT-4 could translocated to the cell membrane brought glucouse enter to the  intracellular compartment, that leads to blood glucouse level well regulated.  Dietary fiber reduces food transit time so slowing the glucose absorption. Therefore blood glucose level will be decreased.

  1. Evaluation of blood glucose fluctuation in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus by self-monitoring of blood glucose and continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Nakae, Rie; Watanabe, Kahori; Akagami, Takafumi; Ochi, Fumihiro; Tokuda, Masaru; Murai, Kazuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of blood glucose fluctuation is essential for managing blood glucose control while avoiding hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study, blood glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) whom self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was carried out three or more times per day, and evaluation was performed using blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by CGM and SMBG. Twenty-nine insulin-depleted patients with T1DM were enrolled. Their blood glucose fluctuations were measured at the same time by SMBG and CGM, and the correlations were evaluated. Correlations were found between the following values obtained by SMBG and CGM: mean and standard deviation of blood glucose levels, average daily risk range, Morbus value and high-blood-glucose index. The hypoglycemia duration and the nocturnal hypoglycemia duration showed no correlation with any of the blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by SMBG. The findings suggest that routine SMBG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement are sufficient for evaluation of hyperglycemia in T1DM. On the other hand, blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by SMBG and HbA1c have been shown to have no correlations with either hypoglycemia duration or nocturnal hypoglycemia duration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Deciding between using the first or second drop of blood for the self monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-12-01

    To explore whether the first or the second drop of blood is more suitable for the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). SMBG was employed in hospitalized patients using the first and second drop of blood. Venous blood glucose was measured meanwhile. The differences in blood glucose measurements were then compared in groups with different regions of blood glucose levels. There were 802 groups of blood glucose in 526 patients. There was no significant difference in the blood glucose levels of the first and second drop of blood and venous blood. However, after combining then dividing measurements into six groups according to blood glucose concentration, we found statistically significant differences between the blood glucose levels obtained from the first drop, second drop, and venous blood in the groups containing blood glucose values blood can be used for performing SMBG to assess real-time venous glucose. By categorizing blood glucose into different levels more accurately, we observed that there was no significant difference between the first or second drop of blood and the venous blood glucose value when blood glucose levels were maintained between 10 and 20 mmol/L. When blood glucose levels were below 10 mmol/L, the value obtained from first drop of blood was close to that from venous blood, whereas when the blood glucose level is >20 mmol/L, the blood glucose value from the second drop of blood was more accurate. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Infopia Element™ Auto-coding Blood Glucose Monitoring System for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Il; Lee, Seong-Su; Son, Jang-Won; Kwon, Hee-Sun; Kim, Sung Rae; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Yoo, Soonjib

    2016-11-01

    Element™ Auto-coding Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS; Infopia Co., Ltd., Anyang-si, Korea) was developed for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Precision, linearity, and interference were tested. Eighty-four capillary blood samples measured by Element™ BGMS were compared with central laboratory method (CLM) results in venous serum. Accuracy was evaluated using ISO 15197:2013 criteria. Coefficients of variation (CVs; mean) were 2.4% (44.2 mg/dl), 3.7% (100.6 mg/dl), and 2.1% (259.8 mg/dl). Linearity was shown at concentrations 39.25-456.25 mg/l (y = 0.989 + 0.984x, SE = 17.63). Up to 15 mg/dl of galactose, ascorbic acid, and acetaminophen, interference > 10.4% was not observed. Element™ BGMS glucose was higher than CLM levels by 3.2 mg/dl (at 200 mg/dl) to 8.2 mg/dl (at 100 mg/dl). The minimum specification for bias (3.3%) was met at 140 and 200 mg/l glucose. In the Clarke and consensus error grids, 100% of specimens were within zone A and B. For Element™ BGMS values, 92.9% (78/84) to 94.0% (79/84) were within a 15 mg/dl ( 100 mg/dl) of the average CLM value. Element™ BGMS was considered an appropriate SMBG for home use; however, the positive bias at low-to-mid glucose levels requires further improvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  5. Self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements and glycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intensive diabetes management requires intensive insulin treatment and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurements to obtain immediate information on the status of the blood glucose level and to obtain data for pattern analysis on which meal planning, insulin and lifestyle adjustments can be ...

  6. Blood Glucose Lowering Activities Of Seed Of Persea Americana On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The n-hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Persea americana seeds obtained by cold maceration were assessed for blood glucose lowering activity using two doses of alloxan. The different extracts caused significant blood glucose lowering effect than the glibenclamide in the single dose alloxanized rats but in the ...

  7. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... systems B and C in the Kampala environ. Conclusion: Some of the blood glucose monitoring systems in Kampala, Uganda are poor performers and may lead to the mismanagement of patients. There is need for a system to ensure national quality control of blood glucose monitoring systems. African Health Sciences 2003; ...

  8. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  9. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Luteinizing hormone - blood. In: Chernecky ... Jeelani R, Bluth MH. Reproductive function and pregnancy. In: ...

  10. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... gastrointestinal tract, include: Coughing up and then swallowing blood Nose bleed Abnormal test results require follow-up with your doctor.

  11. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  12. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 3, 2015. Rh factor blood test About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  13. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... most effective in treating the infection Often, a complete blood count (CBC) is ordered along with or prior to ...

  14. HCG blood test - quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture . How to Prepare for the Test No special ... but may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Blood accumulating under the skin (hematoma) Infection (a ...

  15. Flattening postprandial blood glucose responses with guar gum: acute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Leo, T A; Mendeloff, A I

    1985-01-01

    It has been proposed that high-carbohydrate, high-fiber (HCF) diets might serve as useful therapeutic modality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). One problem in evaluating clinical trials of this therapy is that, by their very nature, the trials cannot be double blinded. We have developed HCF and placebo granola-type bars using complex absorbable carbohydrate and guar gum fiber to circumvent this methodologic problem. The HCF bars, when consumed with an ad lib. diet, assure an HCF intake without imposing other dietary restrictions. To test the short-term efficacy of the bars, 9 normal adult volunteers, 2 women with impaired glucose tolerance, and 20 patients with NIDDM consumed the bars alone or with meals. Blood glucose responses when HCF bars were consumed alone were blunted when compared with the placebo response (P less than 0.0005 to P less than 0.002), with the most marked suppression occurring in the early postprandial period. In contrast, when the bars were consumed along with breakfast, HCF and placebo responses were virtually identical in the early postprandial period, but showed a progressively greater difference from 90 to 240 min (P less than 0.02 to P less than 0.0005). When consumed with lunch as well as breakfast, the HCF bars caused flattening of blood glucose responses during the late postprandial period after breakfast and maintained flattened responses during the early and late postprandial periods after lunch (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.005). It is concluded that these HCF bars can be used to blunt postprandial blood glucose responses, in subjects with either normal or abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  16. The clinical performance of the EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Lin, Jui-Jane; Hung, Sheng-tien; Chun, Peng-Ting; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2012-07-11

    The novel technique of blood volume detection can improve the reliability and accuracy of a self-monitoring blood glucose system. Self-management of diabetes can be improved, and the glycemic range can be efficiently controlled. A total of 153 patients with diabetes mellitus participated in the clinical study. The accuracy, blood volume detection, interference, and altitude effect of the EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system were evaluated and compared among the fingerstick, alternative site testing, and venous blood. The EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system with fingertip demonstrated an excellent correlation with venous blood (linear regression analysis: slope=1.01, intercept=-0.8972 mg/dl, r(2)=0.96), and with other brands of glucose systems (linear regression analysis: slope=0.99, intercept=+3.5632 mg/dl, r(2)=0.94). The Clarke error grid analysis indicated that the results of fingertip and alternative sites were in the acceptable zones, A and B. The system required 0.6 ul of a blood sample to obtain an accurate reading, and was unaffected by several interferents and altitude. The EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system using various blood samples demonstrated acceptable accuracy and reliability compared to the laboratory reference and other self-monitoring blood glucose systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Fasting Blood Glucose Levels in Different Haemoglobin Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the different Hb genotypes (HBAA, HBAS, HBSC and HBSS) the following mean fasting blood glucose levels were obtained respectively: 71.9±8.Omg/dl 73.4±7.4mgldl, 94.7±6.Imgldl and 94.6±5.9mgldl. There was a significant difference between the mean fasting blood glucose concentrations of blood groups O,A,B and ...

  19. [Intelligent interpretation of home monitoring blood glucose data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dió, Mihály; Deutsch, Tibor; Biczók, Tímea; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-07-19

    Self monitoring of blood glucose is the cornerstone of diabetes management. However, the data obtained by self monitoring of blood glucose have rarely been used with the highest advantage. Few physicians routinely download data from memory-equipped glucose meters and analyse these data systematically at the time of patient visits. There is a need for improved methods for the display and analysis of blood glucose data along with a modular approach for identification of clinical problems. The authors present a systematic methodology for the analysis and interpretation of self monitoring blood glucose data in order to assist the management of patients with diabetes. This approach utilizes the followings 1) overall quality of glycemic control; 2) severity and timing of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia; 3) variability of blood glucose readings; 4) various temporal patterns extracted from recorded data and 5) adequacy of self monitoring blood glucose data. Based on reliable measures of the quality of glycaemic control and glucose variability, a prioritized problem list is derived along with the probable causes of the detected problems. Finally, problems and their interpretation are used to guide clinicians to choose therapeutic actions and/or recommend behaviour change in order to solve the problems that have been identified.

  20. Evaluation of four portable blood glucose meters in diabetic and non-diabetic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jeong, In-Seong; Choi, Gab-Chol; Park, Hee-Myung

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of an animal's blood glucose concentration is critical for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Over the past few decades, portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) have been used to monitor blood glucose concentrations in animals. Recently, new and improved PBGMs have been made available on the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four PBGMs for use in dogs and cats. A total of 155 venous blood samples of dogs and 85 venous blood samples of cats were tested using four PBGMs. Control solutions from manufacturers were used to determine the precision of each meter. The coefficient of variation was calculated to determine precision during a set of replicates. Pearson's correlation analysis, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine the accuracy of four PBGMs against the hexokinase reference method. Error grid analysis was used to evaluate clinical relevance. All PBGMs, except CERA-PET®, were clinically acceptable for monitoring blood glucose concentrations; AlphaTrak® and VetMate® appeared to be the most accurate ones, demonstrating that to use PBGMs for glucose monitoring, it is important to understand the strengths or limitations of each meter. The difference in results between the PBGMs and the reference method increased at high glucose concentration ranges, which were also affected by the hematocrit. Although readings of the PBGMs and the reference method varied across glycemic ranges (low, normal, and high glucose concentrations), most PBGMs were clinically acceptable for monitoring blood glucose concentrations in dogs and cats.

  1. Interstitial Glucose and Lactate Levels Are Inversely Correlated With the Body Mass Index: Need for In Vivo Calibration of Glucose Sensor Results With Blood Values in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, Barbara; Moser, Isabella; Kannan, Cecil; Schwab, Karl Otfried; Urban, Gerald

    2018-03-01

    Continuously measured glucose and lactate levels in interstitial fluid (ISF) may markedly differ from their respective blood levels. Combining microdialysis with a bioanalytical microsystem, the interstitial glucose and lactate concentrations of eight male volunteers with different body mass index (BMI) were monitored during a 2-fold glucose tolerance test over the period of three hours. Significant correlations were found between abdominally measured sensor results and reference measurements ( R 2 = .967 for glucose and R 2 = .936 for lactate, P 34 kg/m 2 showed abdominally as well as the antebrachially significantly reduced tissue glucose values compared to blood glucose values ( P < .001). A very good correlation between abdominally measured sensor results and the results of the reference method verified the reliability of the BioMEMS. The abdominally measured glucose level in ISF decreased significantly with increasing BMI. Therefore, an in vivo calibration of glucose levels in ISF with blood levels seems to be necessary especially in markedly obese subjects.

  2. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents / Blood Test: Testosterone What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation The Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If You Have Questions Print en español Análisis de sangre: testosterona What It Is A testosterone test measures ...

  3. Blood Test: Estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents / Blood Test: Estradiol What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation The Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If You Have Questions Print en español Análisis de sangre: estradiol What It Is An estradiol test measures ...

  4. Self-monitoring of tear glucose: the development of a tear based glucose sensor as an alternative to self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Adams, Anngela; Lin, Chi-En; Engelschall, Erica; Pratt, Breanna; Cook, Curtiss B

    2016-07-28

    Tear glucose sensing for diabetes management has long been sought as an alternative to more invasive self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). However, tear glucose sensors were known to have limitations, including correlation issues with blood glucose due to low sample volume, low concentration of glucose in the tear fluid, and evaporation of the tear sample. An engineering design approach to solve these problems led to the development of an integrated device capable of collecting the tear sample from the ocular surface with little to no stress on the eye, with an extremely low limit of detection, broad dynamic range, and rapid detection and analysis of sample. Here we present the development of a prototypical self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG) sensor, summarizing bench studies on the enzymes and their specificity, the development of the fluid capture device and its manufacture and performance and results of system testing in an animal study where safety, lag time and tear glucose to blood glucose correlation were assessed.

  5. Effectiveness of exclusive self-monitoring of fasting capillary blood glucose in the treatment of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Amancio Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the efficacy of the exclusive self-monitoring of the fasting capillary blood glucose in the control and treatment of diabetic patients. This is a quasi-experimental study, for which five individuals with diabetes were selected, who perform only the fasting capillary blood glucose monitoring, being added about seven other measurements, a variable number according to the individual availability of the volunteer, at different times throughout the day. It was verified that four individuals presented blood glucose values by the use of the fasting capillary blood glucose monitoring, within the parameters of normality for diabetics, between 70-130 mg dL-1 of blood (ADA, 2014b, although in the other measurements, they presented values far from the ideal goal, in a significant part of the time. The study outlines a trend that shows that the glycemic monitoring values based solely on the fasting capillary blood glucose is ineffective, since they can erroneously indicate satisfactory control of the blood glucose levels. Based on the results obtained, to a more effective monitoring and which denotes levels of reliability, it is required at least three measurements of capillary blood glucose throughout the day, and also, the importance of long laboratory tests for glycemic monitoring, such as glycated hemoglobin.

  6. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  7. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parathormone (PTH) intact molecule; Intact PTH; Hyperparathyroidism - PTH blood test; Hypoparathyroidism - PTH blood test ... 28. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - Blood. ... Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  8. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fecaloccultbloodtestfobt.html Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a Fecal Occult Blood Test? A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at ...

  9. Within-Individual Hematocrit Variations and Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, Kaila A.; Cembrowski, George S.

    2013-01-01

    Many self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) systems have generated artefactually increased glucose results in low-hematocrit patients (e.g., intensive care unit and renal failure patients); conversely, these devices could produce artefactually decreased glucose results in high-hematocrit patients (e.g., neonates). The introduction of hematocrit-independent SMBG systems permits more accurate testing in anemic or polycythemic individuals. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Techno...

  10. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin ...

  11. Advances in Patient Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas

    2015-11-29

    In 2 articles of the present issue, Bendini et al report about performance results obtained with 2 blood glucose monitoring systems of the Contour Next platform. Using several analysis methods, the authors demonstrate a very high accuracy, which meets all actual regulatory performance criteria. With consistent MARD results blood glucose meters during the Past 2 decades, starting with an MARD of 12-15% at the end of the past century and reaching an excellent accuracy < 5% today. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Corticosterone and exogenous glucose alter blood glucose levels, neurotoxicity, and vascular toxicity produced by methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, John F; Tranter, Karen M; Sarkar, Sumit; George, Nysia I; Hanig, Joseph P; Kelly, Kimberly A; Michalovicz, Lindsay T; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2017-10-01

    Our previous studies have raised the possibility that altered blood glucose levels may influence and/or be predictive of methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of exogenous glucose and corticosterone (CORT) pretreatment alone or in combination with METH on blood glucose levels and the neural and vascular toxicity produced. METH exposure consisted of four sequential injections of 5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg (2 h between injections) D-METH. The three groups given METH in combination with saline, glucose (METH+Glucose), or CORT (METH+CORT) had significantly higher glucose levels compared to the corresponding treatment groups without METH except at 3 h after the last injection. At this last time point, the METH and METH+Glucose groups had lower levels than the non-METH groups, while the METH+CORT group did not. CORT alone or glucose alone did not significantly increase blood glucose. Mortality rates for the METH+CORT (40%) and METH+Glucose (44%) groups were substantially higher than the METH (glucose during METH exposure increases lethality and may exacerbate neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation, specifically microglial activation, was associated with degenerating neurons in the parietal cortex and thalamus after METH exposure. The activated microglia in the parietal cortex were surrounding vasculature in most cases and the extent of microglial activation was exacerbated by CORT pretreatment. Our findings show that acute CORT exposure and elevated blood glucose levels can exacerbate METH-induced vascular damage, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and lethality. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13819. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  14. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...... metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in AD, and GLP-1 may serve to raise transporter numbers. We hypothesized that the GLP-1 analog liraglutide would prevent the decline of CMRglc in AD by raising blood-brain glucose transfer, depending on the duration of disease. We randomized 38 patients with AD...

  15. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Lead What's ... español Análisis de sangre: plomo What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  16. Assessing portable blood glucose meters for clinical use in cats in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobromylskyj, M J; Sparkes, A H

    2010-09-18

    The aims of this study were to evaluate six portable blood glucose meters for use in cats in a clinical setting and to identify potential sources of inaccuracy such as the effect of glucose concentration and haematocrit. Excess fluorinated whole-blood samples were obtained and were tested using the six meters and a reference laboratory method. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and an error grid analysis was performed, using a grid adapted in this study for diabetic cats. Error grids are a clinically oriented non-parametric approach to blood glucose data, and are designed to determine whether differences between glucometer and laboratory readings are clinically significant. All the meters studied had the potential to under- or overestimate blood glucose levels to varying degrees throughout the glycaemic range. This variation was not consistent enough to be predictable and correctable. The study failed to demonstrate any link between haematocrit and difference between laboratory and glucometer readings.

  17. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a larger study dealing with glucose homeostasis in the toad Bufo gutturalis. Seven groups of seven toads each were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one month. During this period the toads were fed daily on live insects and were housed in a large laboratory terrarium in which the natural habitat was simulated as ...

  18. A Model of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, Martina; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    A reliable model of the probability density function (PDF) of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurement error would be important for several applications in diabetes, like testing in silico insulin therapies. In the literature, the PDF of SMBG error is usually described by a Gaussian function, whose symmetry and simplicity are unable to properly describe the variability of experimental data. Here, we propose a new methodology to derive more realistic models of SMBG error PDF. The blood glucose range is divided into zones where error (absolute or relative) presents a constant standard deviation (SD). In each zone, a suitable PDF model is fitted by maximum-likelihood to experimental data. Model validation is performed by goodness-of-fit tests. The method is tested on two databases collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (OTU2; Lifescan Inc, Milpitas, CA) and the Bayer Contour Next USB (BCN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ). In both cases, skew-normal and exponential models are used to describe the distribution of errors and outliers, respectively. Two zones were identified: zone 1 with constant SD absolute error; zone 2 with constant SD relative error. Goodness-of-fit tests confirmed that identified PDF models are valid and superior to Gaussian models used so far in the literature. The proposed methodology allows to derive realistic models of SMBG error PDF. These models can be used in several investigations of present interest in the scientific community, for example, to perform in silico clinical trials to compare SMBG-based with nonadjunctive CGM-based insulin treatments.

  19. Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. High blood glucose has been associated with loss of muscle strength and mass in the lower extremities. However, in African children, little is known about the association between handgrip strength, flexed arm hang or other measures of muscle strength with blood ...

  20. Fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin concentrations of healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation is associated with loss of blood monthly in women of reproductive age. In some women this physiological phenomenon is also associated with some complaints such as menstrual pain, vomiting, and tiredness. We investigated the fasting blood glucose concentration and hemoglobin concentration before and ...

  1. Plasma Volume Expansion Resulting from Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the degree of plasma volume expansion that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years underwent IVGTTs in which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% was injected as a bolus over 1 min. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 min. The plasma glucose and blood hemoglobin concentrations were used to calculate the volume distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume. Results. The IVGTT caused a virtually instant plasma volume expansion of 10%. The half-life of the glucose averaged 15 min and the plasma volume expansion 16 min. Correction of the fluid kinetic model for osmotic effects after injection reduced CL for the infused volume by 85%, which illustrates the strength of osmosis in allocating fluid back to the intracellular fluid space. Simulations indicated that plasma volume expansion can be reduced to 60% by increasing the injection time from 1 to 5 min and reducing the glucose load from 0.3 to 0.2 g/kg. Conclusion. A regular IVGTT induced an acute plasma volume expansion that peaked at 10% despite the fact that only 50–80 mL of fluid were administered.

  2. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  3. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003571.htm Beta-carotene blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Carotene test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Carotene - serum. In: ...

  4. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  5. Comparison of a human portable blood glucose meter, veterinary portable blood glucose meter, and automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Beth M; Fry, Michael M; Flatland, Bente; Kirk, Claudia A

    2009-12-01

    To compare blood glucose concentrations measured with 2 portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) validated for use in dogs (PBGM-D) and humans (PBGM-H) and an automated chemistry analyzer. Validation study. 92 samples of fresh whole blood and plasma from 83 dogs with various diseases. Each PBGM was used to measure whole blood glucose concentration, and the automated analyzer was used to measure plasma glucose concentration. Passing-Bablok linear regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine correlations and bias between the PBGMs and the automated analyzer. Calculated acceptability limits based on combined inherent instrument imprecision were used with Bland-Altman plots to determine agreement. Clinical relevance was assessed via error grid analysis. Although correlation between results of both PBGMs and the standard analyzer was > 0.90, disagreement was greater than could be explained by instrument imprecision alone. Mean difference between PBGM-H and chemistry-analyzer values was -15.8 mg/dL. Mean difference between PBGM-D and chemistry-analyzer values was 2.4 mg/dL. Linear regression analysis revealed proportional bias of PBGM-H (greater disagreement at higher glucose concentrations); no proportional bias was detected for PBGM-D. No constant bias was detected for either PBGM. Error grid analysis revealed all measurements from both PBGMs were within zones without an anticipated effect on clinical outcome. Neither PBGM had exact agreement with the automated analyzer; however, the disagreement detected did not have serious clinical consequences. Our findings stressed the importance of using the same device for monitoring trends in dogs and using instrument-specific reference ranges.

  6. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  7. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  8. [A blood glucose slide chart for improving diabetes patient education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteau, Marie-Hélène

    2015-03-01

    A blood glucose slide chart has been developed in order to help patients with type 2 diabetes who do not speak French or who have comprehension difficulties. Combined with pictograms to help patients visualise the action they need to take depending on the recorded glucose level, it constitutes a therapeutic education tool which can be useful on a day-to-day basis both for patients as well as caregivers.

  9. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  10. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L Silverman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bernard L Silverman1, Christopher J Barnes2, Barbara N Campaigne3, Douglas B Muchmore31Alkermes, Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2i3 Statprobe, Ann Arbor, MI; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, inhaled insulin, cardiovascular disease, blood glucose

  11. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  12. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  13. A Microwave Metamaterial Inspired Sensor for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vrba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microwave sensor based on an artificial transmission line is proposed for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. A corresponding numerical model of the sensor implemented in microstrip technology is created in the commercial full-wave numerical simulation tool COMSOL Multiphysics and virtually tested by means of numerical simulations. Blood-glucose solution models with various blood glucose concentrations are used as a model of a biological tissue under test. Furthermore, a possible methodology for performing non-invasive tests is proposed. Sensitivity of the sensor developed here is compared to a sensor based on a section of a conventional microstrip transmission line of the same length and width.

  14. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  15. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003472.htm Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test measures the level of the enzyme AST in ...

  16. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003473.htm Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in ...

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of strip performance in multiple blood glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence B; Macleod, Kirsty; Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Pfützner, Andreas; Setford, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose results are required for optimal insulin dosing and detection of hypoglycemia. However, blood glucose monitoring systems may be susceptible to error from test strip, user, environmental and pharmacological factors. This report evaluated 5 blood glucose monitoring systems that each use Verio glucose test strips for precision, effect of hematocrit and interferences in laboratory testing, and lay user and system accuracy in clinical testing according to the guidelines in ISO15197:2013(E). Performance of OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ met or exceeded standards described in ISO15197:2013 for precision, hematocrit performance and interference testing in a laboratory setting. Performance of OneTouch(®) Verio IQ™, OneTouch(®) Verio Pro™, OneTouch(®) Verio™, OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ and Omni Pod each met or exceeded accuracy standards for user performance and system accuracy in a clinical setting set forth in ISO15197:2013(E).

  18. Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Acipayam

    2014-02-01

    Aim: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an important factor in etiology of pathologic neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to indicate the significance of screening glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the cord blood of neonates and the frequency of this deficiency in the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material and Method: The study was performed consecutive 1015 neonates were included. Five hundred fifty six (54.8% of them were male and 459 (45.2% were female. The following parameters were recorded: Gender, birth weight, birth height, head circumference and gestational age. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level of neonates were measured with quantitative method in cord blood. Also, hemoglobine, hematocrite, red blood cell count and blood group were measured. The following parameters were recorded in cases with jaundice: exchange transfusion, phototherapy, physiologic and pathologic jaundice, peak bilirubin day, maximum bilirubin level, total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, beginning time of jaundice. Results: Enzyme deficiency was detected in 133 (13.1% of neonates and 76 (57% of them were male, 57 (43% were female. Significant difference was detected in low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level with jaundice group for total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, maximum total bilirubin level and pathologic jaundice (p<0.05. Discussion: The ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found in Edirne in this study and this ratio was higher than other studies conducted in our country. For this reason, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level in cord blood of neonates should be measured routinely and high risk neonates should be followed up for hyperbilirubinemia and parents should be informed in our region.

  19. Basic Blood Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Basic Blood Chemistry Tests KidsHealth / For Parents / Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Print ... learn how the body’s organs are working. Often, blood tests check electrolytes, the minerals that help keep the ...

  20. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You and your provider can look at your blood sugar patterns together and make adjustments to your medicines, if needed. You and your provider should set a target goal for your blood sugar level for different times of the day. ...

  1. Accuracy and precision of the Prodigy AutoCode blood glucose monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Emily S; Herring, Charles; Russell, Gregory B; Smith, Jennifer D

    2012-04-01

    To assess the accuracy and precision of the Prodigy AutoCode blood glucose monitor. This open-label, prospective equivalence study was conducted at Wilson Community Health Center in Wilson, North Carolina. Accuracy was assessed by comparing finger stick blood glucose values to venipuncture. Precision was assessed by comparing consecutive finger stick blood glucose values from 2 Prodigy AutoCode monitors. Data were analyzed using paired t tests, signed rank tests, regression, and mixed effect models. Fifty-three subjects completed the study. Meter 1 produced 14 (26%) and meter 2 produced 13 (25%) blood glucose readings outside the acceptable error margin of ±20% set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Neither meter was accurate compared to venipuncture (P Prodigy AutoCode demonstrated precision between two different monitors but was inaccurate compared to venipuncture. Less than the required 95% of blood glucose values from each monitor fell within the acceptable 20% error margin relative to venipuncture. All readings outside the acceptable error margin were overestimations, indicating potentially significant safety concerns including untreated or undertreated hypoglycemia.

  2. Effect of Cola acuminate on Blood Glucose and Glycosylated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (GHB) were studied in 42 Wistar rats divided into three groups; controls, group A and group B. Control rats consumed only feeds, group A consumed 0.04g of Cola acuminate, while group B consumed 0.08g of Cola acuminate mixed with their feeds daily for six ...

  3. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  4. Comparative effects of some medicinal plants on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) on blood glucose concentration and lipid levels of diabetic rats were investigated using standard ...

  5. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  6. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of daidzin (DZ) on diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice, with a view to determining its usefulness in the treatment of diabetes. Methods: The effect of DZ (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) on blood glucose was investigated in both ...

  7. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  8. Effects of selenium yeast on blood glucose and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed and the serum samples were collected and evaluated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in blood glucose level in the ...

  9. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was done as a part of safety assessment to determine the effects of Tartrazine E102 on some haematological indices, glucose levels and blood lipid profile in rats. An animal model was used as a basis for interpreting the situation in humans. Consequently, 40 albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each.

  10. Effects of Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Seed on Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, with its associated complications, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of citrullus lanatus seed extract on blood glucose concentration and electrolyte parameters. Citrullus lanatus is an antioxidant and has been shown to reduce oxidative stress (Khaki et al., 2013). Effects ...

  11. Adenosine deaminase activities and fasting blood glucose in obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A complex relationship seems to exist between adenosine deaminase (ADA) and insulin in obesity. Through its effect on adenosine, the enzyme can modulate the action of insulin and affect blood glucose while the administration of insulin is said to decrease the activities of the enzyme. Aim: To investigate the ...

  12. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...

  13. Blood glucose response of normoglycemic adults fed breakfast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of high fibre leguminous products in breakfast porridges, made from Afzelia Africana (AA), Detarium microcarpum (DM), Sphenostylis stenocarpa (SS) and Zea mays on blood glucose level of humans was investigated in this study. The food items were processed into flour using African (Nigerian) traditional processing ...

  14. Effect of leaf extract of Pseudocedrela kotchyi on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of leaf extract of Pseudocedrela kotchi (PK) on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Pseudocedreala kotchi for 14 days. The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period. There was a significant ...

  15. Effect of extract of Abrs Precatorius on blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of leaf extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose level of alloxan- induced diabetic albino wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days. The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period. There was a significant ...

  16. Data Mining Technologies for Blood Glucose and Diabetes Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is the process of selecting, exploring, and modeling large amounts of data to discover unknown patterns or relationships useful to the data analyst. This article describes applications of data mining for the analysis of blood glucose and diabetes mellitus data. The diabetes management

  17. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work involved the measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. It was a prospective case-finding study using laboratory and general practice records. The subjects were confirmed diabetic patients, attending a ...

  18. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  19. Variations of blood glucose in cancer patients during chemotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose (BG) variations in cancer patients during chemotherapy according to tumor types and chemotherapeutic regimens. Materials and Methods: Patients were examined from the Department of Medical Oncology of Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy ...

  20. Impact Of Administration Mulberry Juice On Blood Glucose, Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was designed to study the effects of black and white mulberry juice on blood glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats. Sprague Dawley male rats weighing (125 ± 12.2 g) were divided into eight groups (each of 12 rats). Four healthy control group include normal ...

  1. Reliability of bedside blood glucose estimating methods in detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycaemia occurs in many disease states common in the tropics. Facilities and skilled manpower required for laboratory blood glucose measurement are not always available in health facilities in developing countries. Objective: The study was carried out to determine the validity of bedside methods of ...

  2. Blood glucose lowering activity of five Nigerian medicinal plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood glucose lowering effects of the aqueous leaf extracts of Cassia alata, Acalypha torta and Breynia nivosa, and aqueous root extracts of Daniellia oliveri and Nauclea latifolia traditionally employed in Nigeria in the management of diabetes mellitus were compared in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. The same ...

  3. Variations of blood glucose in cancer patients during chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose (BG) variations in cancer patients during chemotherapy ... Materials and Methods: Patients were examined from the Department of Medical Oncology of Cancer Hospital and .... 68 (LC, 20.5%), colon cancer 63 (CC, 19.0%), rectal cancer.

  4. Evaluation of portable blood glucose meters using canine and feline pooled blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Oda, H; Onozawa, E; Shono, S; Takahashi, T; Yamashita, S; Fujimoto, H; Sako, T

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of a human portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) for canine and feline whole blood. Reference plasma glucose values (RPGV) were concurrently measured using glucose oxidation methods. Fifteen healthy dogs and 6 healthy cats were used for blood sampling. Blood glucose concentrations and hematocrits were adjusted using pooled blood samples for our targeted values. A positive correlation between the PBGM and RPGV was found for both dogs (y = 0.877, x = -24.38, r = 0.9982, n = 73) and cats (y = 1.048, x = -27.06, r = 0.9984, n = 69). Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and RPGV in both dogs and cats; 100% of these results were within zones A and B. Following ISO recommendations, a PBGM is considered accurate if 95% of the measurements are within ± 15 mg/dl of the RPGV when the glucose concentration is cats (39%, 27 of 69 cats). Blood samples with high hematocrits induced lower whole blood glucose values measured by the PBGM than RPGV under hypoglycemic, normoglycemic, and hyperglycemic conditions in both dogs and cats. Therefore, this device is not clinically useful in dogs and cats. New PBGMs which automatically compensate for the hematocrit should be developed in veterinary practice.

  5. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  6. Postprandial Blood Glucose Outweighs Fasting Blood Glucose and HbA1c in screening Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Liu; Gui, Minghui; Aleteng, Qiqige; Wu, Bingjie; Wang, Shanshan; Pan, Baishen; Ling, Yan; Gao, Xin

    2017-10-27

    The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as screening for coronary heart disease (CHD) in an inpatient population undergoing coronary angiography. 1852 consecutive patients scheduled for coronary angiography were classified into Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT), Impaired Glucose Regulation (IGR), and diabetes, based on FBG, PBG, and HbA1c. Correlations of Gensini score with glucose metabolism and insulin resistance were analyzed. The associations between glycemic variables and Gensini score or the presence of CHD were analyzed by multiple linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. CHD was diagnosed in 488, 622, and 414 patients with NGT, IGR, and diabetes, respectively. Gensini score was positively correlated with FBG (r = 0.09, p PBG (r = 0.20, p PBG and HbA1c were pooled altogether, only PBG persisted in its association with Gensini score and the prevalence of CHD. The severity of CHD was associated with glucose rather than insulin resistance in this Chinese population. PBG was optimally correlated with the presence and severity of CHD.

  7. Fibrin degradation products blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behind when clots dissolve in the blood. A blood test can be done to measure these products. ... Certain medicines can change blood test results. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...

  8. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Kuhre, Rune E.; Hornburg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in...

  9. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    2001-01-01

    -blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE......, no differences in the pattern of change of splanchnic blood flow and splanchnic glucose production were observed during ACE blockade compared with controls. This study demonstrates that the normal increase in ANG II levels observed during prolonged exercise in humans does not play a major role in the regulation......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin...

  10. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  11. Glucose predictability, blood capillary permeability, and glucose utilization rate in subcutaneous, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2013-11-01

    This study suggests an approach for the comparison and evaluation of particular compartments with modest experimental setup costs. A glucose level prediction model was used to evaluate the compartment's glucose transport rate across the blood capillary membrane and the glucose utilization rate by the cells. The glucose levels of the blood, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were obtained in experiments conducted on hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats. After the blood glucose level had undergone a rapid change, the experimenter attempted to reach a steady blood glucose level by manually correcting the glucose infusion rate and maintaining a constant insulin infusion rate. The interstitial fluid glucose levels of subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were evaluated to determine the reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level, the interstitial fluid glucose level predictability, the blood capillary permeability, the effect of the concentration gradient, and the glucose utilization rate. Based on these data, the glucose transport rate across the capillary membrane and the utilization rate in a particular tissue were determined. The rates obtained were successfully verified against positron emission tomography experiments. The subcutaneous tissue exhibits the lowest and the most predictable glucose utilization rate, whereas the skeletal muscle tissue has the greatest glucose utilization rate. In contrast, the visceral fat is the least predictable and has the shortest reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level. The reaction delays obtained for the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle tissue were found to be approximately equal using a metric based on the time required to reach half of the increase in the interstitial fluid glucose level. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of transmucosal corn syrup application on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; Shaver, Stephanie L; Semick, Danielle N; Bradley, Nancy C; Kreisler, Rachael E

    2018-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a common clinical practice, the transmucosal (TM) application of corn syrup, on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Methods This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five kittens between the age of 8 and 16 weeks scheduled for surgical sterilization by gonadectomy at an animal shelter were enrolled. Kittens were randomly assigned to either a routine treatment group that received the shelter's typical postoperative application of corn syrup immediately following gonadectomy or to a control group that did not receive typical treatment. Three blood glucose measurements were obtained per kitten: baseline reading prior to preoperative examination, immediately postoperatively and 20 mins postoperatively. The median values of the 20 min postoperative blood glucose reading for the control and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Postoperative application of corn syrup to the oral mucosa of kittens did not result in significant elevations in blood glucose compared with controls. No kitten was hypoglycemic (⩽60 mg/dl) at any point during the study. Conclusions and relevance TM application of corn syrup did not affect postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Protocols that use routine TM administration of corn syrup in kittens should be re-evaluated.

  13. Insulin overlapping in whole blood FTIR spectroscopy in blood glucose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Cárdenas, G.; Sánchez-López, J. de D.; Luque, P. A.; Cosío-León, M.; Nieto-Hipólito, Juan I.; Vázquez-Briseño, Mabel

    For the last decade, several studies on mid-IR spectroscopy for blood glucose quantification have not considered the compounds involved in the glucose regulation mechanism, in which insulin plays an important role. This work shows how insulin overlaps in the same mid-IR region in which glucose is quantified. This optical absorption interference is an important factor to be considered for this type of studies, in the scope of whole blood modeling for spectroscopy applications and the possible use of computer based metrics.

  14. Performance evaluation and labeling comprehension of a new blood glucose monitoring system with integrated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as "very good" or "excellent." CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Introduction of the glucose meter as a tool of self-monitoring of blood glucose for patients from Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Corral de Arêa Leão Souza

    2014-04-01

    Introduction: the introduction of home blood glucose monitoring aimed autonomy for patient self-care, result in reducing the complications of Diabetes mellitus (DM. Objectives: evaluate and analyze the evolution of HbA1c levels in insulin-dependent patients in Santos/SP after the introduction of blood glucose self-monitoring. Methods: through a transversal study with patient forms, it has been selected a sample of 20% of insulin-dependent patients total (160/800 patients according to age range and sex. Those data was analyzed through the SPSS 15.0 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago-IL using ANOVA test with repeated measures, comparing the mean values from before the use of the home self-monitoring with the values of tests performed after its introduction, in order to identify reduction or not of the HbA1c patients' values. This study was approved by ethics committees of UNIFESP and by Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Santos. Results: of the 157 used records, with a total of 471 HbA1c values, only five (3.2% belonged to the range of 21 - 40 years, the range of 41 - 60 years presented with higher population possessing 47 patients (30% and those over 60 years prevailed in the study with 105 patients listed (66.9%. The HbA1c values presented a statically significant reduction after 6 months from starting use the glucose meter with P < 0.05 (0.014, demonstrating that after six months of glucose meter use, it was noticed the statistic reduction in HbA1c levels. Conclusions: the home self-monitoring of blood glucose, coupled with drug intervention, reduces HbA1c levels in a six-month interval.

  16. Simultaneous control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... A questionnaire was used to collect basic information and blood samples were drawn for laboratory measurements. Simultaneous control was defined as HbA1c <7%, BP <130/80 mmHg, and LDL‑C <2.6 mmol/L. Results: A total of 2274 individuals were included, of which 588 individuals (25.9%) achieved ...

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) raises blood-brain glucose transfer capacity and hexokinase activity in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Lerche, Susanne; Egefjord, Lærke

    2013-01-01

    In hyperglycemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) lowers brain glucose concentration together with increased net blood-brain clearance and brain metabolism, but it is not known whether this effect depends on the prevailing plasma glucose (PG) concentration. In hypoglycemia, glucose depletion...... potentially impairs brain function. Here, we test the hypothesis that GLP-1 exacerbates the effect of hypoglycemia. To test the hypothesis, we determined glucose transport and consumption rates in seven healthy men in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design. The acute...... effect of GLP-1 on glucose transfer in the brain was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) during a hypoglycemic clamp (3 mM plasma glucose) with (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) as tracer of glucose. In addition, we jointly analyzed cerebrometabolic effects of GLP-1 from the present...

  18. Non-invasive estimate of blood glucose and blood pressure from a photoplethysmograph by means of machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Moreno, Enric

    2011-10-01

    This work presents a system for a simultaneous non-invasive estimate of the blood glucose level (BGL) and the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, using a photoplethysmograph (PPG) and machine learning techniques. The method is independent of the person whose values are being measured and does not need calibration over time or subjects. The architecture of the system consists of a photoplethysmograph sensor, an activity detection module, a signal processing module that extracts features from the PPG waveform, and a machine learning algorithm that estimates the SBP, DBP and BGL values. The idea that underlies the system is that there is functional relationship between the shape of the PPG waveform and the blood pressure and glucose levels. As described in this paper we tested this method on 410 individuals without performing any personalized calibration. The results were computed after cross validation. The machine learning techniques tested were: ridge linear regression, a multilayer perceptron neural network, support vector machines and random forests. The best results were obtained with the random forest technique. In the case of blood pressure, the resulting coefficients of determination for reference vs. prediction were R(SBP)(2)=0.91, R(DBP)(2)=0.89, and R(BGL)(2)=0.90. For the glucose estimation, distribution of the points on a Clarke error grid placed 87.7% of points in zone A, 10.3% in zone B, and 1.9% in zone D. Blood pressure values complied with the grade B protocol of the British Hypertension society. An effective system for estimate of blood glucose and blood pressure from a photoplethysmograph is presented. The main advantage of the system is that for clinical use it complies with the grade B protocol of the British Hypertension society for the blood pressure and only in 1.9% of the cases did not detect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tips on Blood Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  20. Influence of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Blood Samples on Measurement Performance in Glucose-Oxidase-Based Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Methods Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: pO2 ~70 mmHg, which is considered to be similar to pO2 in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG result at pO2 pO2 pO2 ≥150 mmHg. For both pO2 levels, relative differences of all tested GOx systems were significant (p pO2 values pO2 variations lead to clinically relevant BG measurement deviations in GOx systems, even in GOx systems that are not labeled as being oxygen sensitive. PMID:24351177

  1. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-12-03

    The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 18,231 Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. The PA levels of the respondents were categorised as low, moderate or high according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short form. Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a digital blood pressure-measuring device and finger-prick test, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) level was positively associated with PA level (p = 0.02) whilst no significant association was noted between PA level and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In contrast, respondents with low (adjusted coefficient = 0.17) or moderate (adjusted coefficient = 0.03) level of PA had significantly higher blood glucose level as compared to those who were highly active (p = 0.04). A significant negative association was observed between PA level and blood glucose only. Future studies should employ an objective measurement in estimating PA level in order to elucidate the actual relationship between PA, hypertension and diabetes for the development of effective interventions to combat the increasing burden of premature-mortality and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity in Malaysia.

  2. Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1, 2017. Diagnosis and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Bloomington, Minn.: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. https:// ... Accessed Nov. 20, 2017. Checking your blood glucose. ...

  3. Facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in man and the effect of moderate hypoglycaemia on cerebral glucose utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, G.; Widen, L.; Hellstrand, E.; Gutniak, M.; Grill, V.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of steady-state moderate hypoglycaemia on human brain homeostasis has been studied with positron emission tomography using D-glucose 11 C(ul) as tracer. To rule out any effects of insulin, the plasma insulin concentration was maintained at the same level under normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. Reduction of blood glucose by 55% increased the glucose clearance through the blood-brain barrier by 50% and reduced brain glucose consumption by 40%. Blood flow was not affected. The results are consistent with facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in humans. The maximal transport rate of glucose from blood to brain was found to be 62±19 (mean±SEM) μmol hg -1 min -1 , and the half-saturation constant was found to be 4.1±3.2 mM. (orig.)

  4. Cortisol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Cortisol affects many different body systems. It plays a role in: Bone growth Blood pressure control Immune system function Metabolism of ...

  5. Determination of NIR informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement using a Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Li, Yasheng; Bai, Xueqiong; Deng, Chengyang

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose measurement using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy relies on wavebands that provide reliable information about spectral absorption. In this study, we investigated wavebands which are informative for blood glucose in the NIR shortwave band (900˜1450 nm) and the first overtone band (1450˜1700 nm) through a specially designed NIR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), which featured a test fixture (where a sample or subject's finger could be placed) and all-reflective optics, except for a Michelson structure. Different concentrations of glucose solution and seven volunteers who had undergone oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were studied to acquire transmission spectra in the shortwave band and the first overtone band. Characteristic peaks of glucose absorption were identified from the spectra of glucose aqueous solution by second-order derivative processing. The wavebands linked to blood glucose were successfully estimated through spectra of the middle fingertip of OGTT participants by a simple linear regression and correlation coefficient. The light intensity difference showed that glucose absorption in the first overtone band was much more prominent than it was in the shortwave band. The results of the SLR model established from seven OGTTs in total on seven participants enabled a positive estimation of the glucose-linked wavelength. It is suggested that wavebands with prominent characteristic peaks, a high correlation coefficient between blood glucose and light intensity difference and a relatively low standard deviation of predicted values will be the most informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement methods. This work provides a guidance for waveband selection for the development of non-invasive NIR blood glucose measurement.

  6. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho

    1973-01-01

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of β-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  7. Application of chronic intravascular blood glucose sensor in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J C; Lucisano, J Y; McKean, B D; Gough, D A

    1990-12-01

    An intravenous glucose sensor was implanted in six dogs for 1-15 wk. The glucose sensor is a flexible cylinder, approximately 0.2 cm diam and 30 cm long, with a tip containing immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase coupled to a potentiostatic O2 sensor. The sensor and a similar O2 reference sensor were implanted in the superior vena cava near the entrance of the right atrium. The sensor response was conveyed externally either by a telemetry system implanted nearby, surgically accessed leads, or chronically maintained percutaneous leads. Summing over the six implants, there was a total implantation period of 333 days during which glucose sensors were functional on demand. The sensor response showed agreement with conventionally assayed blood samples after accounting for a response lag. Sensor response to glucose showed little change over the implant period. Biocompatibility, enzyme lifetime, O2 availability, O2 sensor stability, and biochemical interference were not limitations. Results demonstrated that this sensor can function effectively as an implant in dogs for a period of months and has the potential for long-term operation.

  8. The Period of Operation and Perioperative Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic data as well as duration of fast was obtained, blood glucose level was estimated by One touch glucometer (Life Scan Inc. USA) immediately after induction. The mean age of the children was 4.1±2.6 yr and the mean weight was 15.9±6.2 kg. The mean duration of preoperative fast was 13.1±4.2 h (5-23) h.

  9. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Correlation between Blood Glucose Measured Using Glucometers and Enzymatic Laboratory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rasouli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is the most common chronic metabolic disease, with many complications including renal failure, blindness and non-traumatic amputation, so it is important to monitor and regulate blood glucose. Considering how easy home blood glucose monitoring is, we decided to evaluate the performance of two available glucometers for detection of blood glucose compared with standard laboratory methods.

     

    Methods: In this analytical study, we compared the capillary blood glucose levels of 60 volunteers with mean age of 32.8±9.6 years in Tabriz Mehr Laboratory as determined by test strips (two different Glucometers with venous blood glucose levels’ measurements by the enzymatic method (the standard laboratory kit. Data were analyzed using one way-ANOVA test, T-test, Pearson correlation and Bland and Altman plot.

     

    Results: The mean differences of No: 1 and No: 2 Glucometers with enzymatic laboratory method were 20.78±11.61 and 4.5±3.76mg/dl respectively. The one way ANOVA test indicated significant differences between three methods (p<0.05. Further Duncan's test revealed significant differences between two devices (p=0.001 and device No.1 and laboratory method (p=0.001; however, the differences between device No.2 and laboratory method were not statistically significant (p=0.83.

     

    Conclusion: According to the results, calibrating the devices with laboratory instruments in order to make major clinical decisions is recommended.

  10. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  11. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannon Mary C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet. Methods This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes. Results We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb. A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar

  12. Effects on cognitive performance of modulating the postprandial blood glucose profile at breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2012-09-01

    Considering the importance of glucose as a brain substrate, the postprandial rate of glucose delivery to the blood could be expected to affect cognitive functions. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the rate of glucose absorption affected measures of cognitive performance in the postprandial period. In addition, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to individual glucoregulation. A white wheat bread (WWB) enriched with guar gum (G-WWB) with the capacity to produce a low but sustained blood glucose net increment was developed. The G-WWB was evaluated in the postprandial period after breakfast with respect to effects on cognitive function (working memory and selective attention (SA)) in 40 healthy adults (49-71 years, body mass index 20-29 kg/m(2)), using a high glycaemic index WWB for comparison in a randomised crossover design. The G-WWB improved outcome in the cognitive tests (SA test) in the later postprandial period (75-225 min) in comparison with the WWB (Pimportance of carbohydrate foods that induces a low but sustained blood glucose profile in enhancing postprandial cognitive functions.

  13. Impaired first-phase insulin response predicts postprandial blood glucose increment in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C; Rosenfalck, A M; Dejgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between postprandial blood glucose and first-phase insulin response and, furthermore, to assess whether the intravenous glucagon stimulation test can be used as a predictor for increased postprandial glucose in patients with recently diagnosed...... type 2 diabetes....

  14. Blood glucose self-monitoring with a long-term subconjunctival glucose sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim Josef; Knuth, Monika; Nikolaus, Katharina Sibylle; Krivánek, Roland; Küster, Frank; Hasslacher, Christoph; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of an implantable subconjunctival glucose monitoring system (SGMS) for long-term glucose monitoring, we investigated the in vivo performance of the system. The SGMS consists of an implantable ocular mini implant (OMI) and a handheld fluorescence photometer. A clinical study was performed on 47 diabetes patients split into two cohorts. Two different types of OMI were used, with and without a biocompatible surface coating. Duration of the study was 1 year. Correlation between capillary blood glucose and SGMS-derived interstitial fluid glucose was investigated during the first 6 months of the study. Both OMI types were tolerated well in the eyes of the patients. At the beginning of the study, the SGMS of both cohorts revealed a high accuracy with mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values of 7-12%. The performance of the uncoated OMIs deteriorated within 3 months of wearing time, exhibiting a MARD value of 20%. The performance of the surface-coated OMIs was preserved longer. Glucose correlation measurement with reasonable results (MARD of 14%) could be performed for up to 6 months of wear. The biocompatible surface coating on the OMIs enabled a longer duration of action of up to 6 months compared with 3 months for uncoated implants in a clinical trial. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  16. Treatment and blood glucose level control of diabetes patients aged 30 and above in Balcova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Tarı Selçuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the treatment uptake and control rates of blood glucose, BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels in diabetes patients aged 30 and above in Balcova Heart Study. The association between treatment and blood glucose level control and socio-demographic characteristics will also be evaluated. Methods: The study included data from 1.643 diabetes patients aged 30 and above who participated in the baseline survey of Balcova’s Heart Project. Fasting blood glucose test was carried out for diagnosis of diabetes, and ADA 2011 diagnosis criteria were employed for the overall assessment. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, logistic regression analysis were used. The study was supported by Dokuz Eylul University Scientific Research Projects and Balcova Municipality. Results: Of all patients, 75.4% are receiving treatment, 32.6% of treated patients have blood glucose level, 21.8% have blood pressure, 9.4% have BMI, 34.7% have LDL, 45.2% have HDL, and 52.6% have triglyceride levels under control. According to logistic regression model, diabetes treatment is significantly high for 70 and above age group [OR=1.76, %95.0 CI:1.14-2.72]; for patients with social security[OR=2.21, %95.0 CI:1.39-3.52]; and for patients with coexisting chronic diseases[OR=2.24, %95.0 CI:1.74-2.89]. According to logistic regression model, blood glucose level control of treated patients is significantly high for patients with coexisting chronic diseases [OR=1.49, %95.0 GA:1.12-1.99]. Conclusions: One fourth of diabetes patients are not receiving treatment, and only one third of patients have blood glucose level under control. BMI, blood pressure, lipid control rates are below desired levels. Awareness of diabetes patient on importance of continuous follow-up should be raised, and quality follow-up should be improved.Key Words: Diabetes, diabetes treatment, blood glucose level

  17. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : The Use of the First or the Second Drop of Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Logtenberg, Susan J. J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    OBJECTIVE-There is no general agreement regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood for glucose monitoring. This study investigated whether capillary glucose concentrations, as measured in the first and second drops of blood, differed >= 10% compared with a control glucose concentration

  18. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Effect of Caffeine on the Repeated Modified Agility Test from Some Cardiovascular Factors, Blood Glucose and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Young People

    OpenAIRE

    JEBABLI, Nidhal; OUERGHI, Nejmeddine; BOUABID, Jihen; BETTAIB, Ramzi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the ingestion of either the caffeine (CAF) or the placebo (PLA) on performance of repeated modified agility test (RMAT), some cardiovascular factors, metabolic and notes of perceived exertion (RPE) in young males and females. Methods: In a randomized double-blind study, we enrolled 18 active students (10 males and 8 females) in Sport Sciences pursuing degrees in Exercise Science and Physical Education at the University of Sports ...

  20. Within-Individual Hematocrit Variations and Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kaila A.; Cembrowski, George S.

    2013-01-01

    Many self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) systems have generated artefactually increased glucose results in low-hematocrit patients (e.g., intensive care unit and renal failure patients); conversely, these devices could produce artefactually decreased glucose results in high-hematocrit patients (e.g., neonates). The introduction of hematocrit-independent SMBG systems permits more accurate testing in anemic or polycythemic individuals. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Ramljak and coauthors have created glucose bias graphs for 19 common SMBG devices and declared certain systems to be optimally accurate because of insensitivity to hematocrit variation over a broad hematocrit range. Luckily, the average within-individual variation of hematocrit is low (between 2.9 and 3.3%). As such, a larger spectrum of SMBG devices can be regarded as optimally hematocrit independent. PMID:23439177

  1. System accuracy evaluation of 43 blood glucose monitoring systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose according to DIN EN ISO 15197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2012-09-01

    The accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose is important, as reliable measurement results are a prerequisite for therapeutic decisions. This system accuracy evaluation study was performed according to DIN EN ISO 15197:2003 for 43 Conformité Européenne (CE)-labeled blood glucose (BG) monitoring systems. Measurement results of each system were compared with results of the designated comparison method (manufacturer's measurement procedure): glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 glucose analyzer) or hexokinase method (Hitachi 917/ cobas 501). Complete assessment according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard was performed for 34 out of 43 systems, and 27 (79.4%) meet the requirements of the standard, i.e., ≥95% of their results showed at least the minimum acceptable accuracy. For 9 of the 43 systems, complete accuracy assessment was not performed due to an oxygen sensitivity (manufacturer's labeling). The bias (according to Bland and Altman) of all 43 evaluated systems ranged from -14.1% to +12.4%. From the 34 systems completely assessed, 7 systems did not fulfill the minimal accuracy requirements of the ISO standard. The CE mark apparently does not guarantee that all BG systems provide accuracy according to the standard. Because inaccurate systems bear the risk of false therapeutic decisions, regular and standardized evaluation of BG meters and test strips should be requested in order to ensure adherence to quality standards. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum or hepatic levels of lipid, proinflammatory factors, malondialdehyde (MDA) .... Animals were housed under a constant 12-h light and dark cycle and in an environment of 21 - 23 °C. To test the effect of DZ in normal mice, the animals were randomly divided into ..... hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic db/db.

  3. CA-125 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovarian cancer - CA-125 test ... CA-125 is a protein that is found more in ovarian cancer cells than in other cells. This ... ovarian cancer . The test is useful if the CA-125 level was high when the cancer was first ...

  4. Elevated 1 Hour Glucose During Oral Glucose Tolerance Test- A New Parameter of Impaired Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diugan Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently, large scale studies emphasized the idea of an excess of metabolic and cardiovascular risk in patients currently considered to have normal glucose tolerance but showing an elevated 1 hour glucose (≥155mg/dl during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT.

  5. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, YOSHIO; SHIMIZU, TOMOMI; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; SATO, KENJI; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; IMANISHI, AKIO; WATANABE, MASAYUKI; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathl...

  6. The usefulness of point-of-care (POC) tests in screening elevated glucose and ketone body levels postmortem

    OpenAIRE

    Walta, Anna-Mari; Keltanen, Terhi; Lindroos, Katarina; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the performance of point-of-care (POC) tests in detecting glucose and ketone bodies in postmortem (PM) samples and to assess the usefulness of POC tests in sample screening for more precise analyses. Glucose and ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), were measured from vitreous humor (VH) in 52 autopsy cases with a POC blood glucose monitoring device (BGMD). In addition glucose and ketone bodies, acetone (Ac) and acetoacetate (AcAc), were measured from urine samples ...

  7. Lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a phenomenological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngwanichsetha, Sununta; Phumdoung, Sasitorn

    2017-10-01

    To explore and describe lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant Thai women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an essential practice among pregnant women with diabetes to prevent complications in pregnancy and the newborn infant. Phenomenological research was employed to understand lived experiences in glycemic control. Thirty participants were approached and interviewed using a semistructured interview guides. Qualitative data were analysed following Colaizzi's method. The findings revealed three themes: being worried about diabetes and blood testing, trying to control it and being patient for the child. Their worry comprised three dimensions: (1) wondering about the impacts of diabetes on the child, (2) concern about maternal health and (3) being worried about doing blood test. Trying to control diabetes was composed of three dimensions: (1) learning to test blood glucose, (2) being afraid of elevated blood sugar and (3) being aware of what to eat. Being patient for the child was composed of three dimensions: (1) overcoming food desires, (2) tolerating the fingerprick pain and (3) satisfaction with the outcomes. Women with gestational diabetes experienced being worried and afraid regarding blood glucose self-monitoring; however, they could overcome and tolerate this with some difficulties. These findings can be used to guide nursing practice in assessment of perception and response towards blood glucose self-monitoring in order to improve achievement of a good glycaemic control among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Xu, Kexin; Chen, Limin; Lin, Yuan; Lu, Luo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin–borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations. (paper)

  9. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... two main components. The first component involves both metabolism and the kidneys: the cellular process of converting ...

  10. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring in relation to glycaemic control: observational study with diabetes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josie M M; Newton, Ray W; Ruta, Danny A; MacDonald, Thomas M; Stevenson, Richard J; Morris, Andrew D

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To investigate patterns of self monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients who use insulin and to determine whether frequency of self monitoring is related to glycaemic control. Setting Diabetes database, Tayside, Scotland. Subjects Patients resident in Tayside in 1993-5 who were using insulin and were registered on the database and diagnosed with insulin dependent (type 1) or non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes before 1993. Main outcome measures Number of glucose monitoring reagent strips dispensed (reagent strip uptake) derived from records of prescriptions. First recorded haemoglobin A1c concentration in the study period, and reagent strips dispensed in the previous 6 months. Results Among 807 patients with type 1 diabetes, 128 (16%) did not redeem any prescriptions for glucose monitoring reagent strips in the 3 year study period. Only 161 (20%) redeemed prescriptions for enough reagent strips to test glucose daily. The corresponding figures for the 790 patients with type 2 diabetes who used insulin were 162 (21%; no strips) and 131 (17%; daily tests). Reagent strip uptake was influenced both by age and by deprivation category. There was a direct relation between uptake and glycaemic control for 258 patients (with recorded haemoglobin A1c concentrations) with type 1 diabetes. In a linear regression model the decrease in haemoglobin A1c concentration for every extra 180 reagent strips dispensed was 0.7%. For the 290 patients with type 2 diabetes who used insulin there was no such relation. Conclusions Self monitoring of blood glucose concentration is associated with improved glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Regular self monitoring in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes is uncommon. Key messagesSeveral studies have indicated the importance of self monitoring of blood glucose concentration for prevention of complications in patients with diabetesUptake of reagent strips for self monitoring of blood glucose

  11. [Evaluation of hearing loss parameters in workers and its relationship with fasting blood glucose levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teofila; Lladosa Marco, Silvia; Ramírez-Iñiguez de La Torre, M Victoria; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; López-González, Ángel Arturo

    2014-05-01

    Hearing loss due to noise is considered within the prevention plans of the most common occupational diseases. In addition to evaluation of working conditions, other personal factors increasing the risk of hypoacusis, such as diabetes, should be taken into account. To explore hearing loss in the workplace and its relationship to impaired fasting baseline blood glucose levels. An observational, cross-sectional study enrolling 1636 workers from service companies was conducted. Full audiometric evaluation was performed at different frequencies: high frequency (HF), early loss index (ELI), speech average loss (SAL), and monaural and binaural loss. Results were categorized by baseline blood glucose levels: G1 (125mg/dl). Based on both HF and ELI, 11% of workers had clear indication of deafness. Women with G3 levels showed significant differences in the results of HF and ELI indexes as compared to the G1 group (P=.038 and .046, respectively). A positive association was found between hearing loss and G3 blood glucose levels in HF (OR: .338; p=.002), ELI (OR: .407; p=.007), and the monaural test in the left ear (OR: 4.77×10-5; p=.006). Despite the methodological limitations of this study, there is evidence for an increased risk of high frequency hearing loss in workers with high baseline blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Spike in glucose levels after reperfusion during aortic surgery: assessment by continuous blood glucose monitoring using artificial endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Koji; Sato, Hirotaka; Kadosaki, Mamoru; Egawa, Atsushi; Misawa, Yoshio

    2018-03-01

    Although strict blood glucose control during cardiovascular surgery is essential to avoid postoperative complications, the various changes in glucose levels that occur during surgery have not been investigated in detail. In this study, we continuously monitored blood glucose changes during aortic surgery using the STG-55 Ⓡ artificial endocrine pancreas (Nikkiso Inc., Tokyo). Between December 2015 and 2016, we performed continuous blood glucose monitoring in 22 patients (14 men and 8 women, 72 ± 11 years old), who required hypothermic circulatory arrest during an ascending/aortic arch surgery, at the Jichi Medical University Hospital. Ascending aorta replacements were performed in two patients and partial/total arch replacement, in 20. All the patients required selective cerebral perfusion and hypothermic circulatory arrest (bladder temperature at 25-26 °C) during distal anastomosis. Closed-loop continuous blood glucose monitoring was performed during cardiopulmonary bypass using the STG-55 Ⓡ artificial endocrine pancreas (Nikkiso Co., LTD, Tokyo). Blood glucose concentrations did not increase significantly from the time of the commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass to lower body ischemia. However, they dramatically increased immediately after reperfusion following lower body ischemia, and this hyperglycemia was sustained until the end of cardiopulmonary bypass. The current study clarified the peak glucose concentration during aortic surgery. These data may contribute to the management of blood glucose levels during aortic surgery.

  13. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.V.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U.; Heller, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural and demograp......AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural......% of the patients and less than weekly by 24%. Sixty-seven percent reported to perform routine testing, while the remaining 33% only tested when hypo- or hyperglycaemia was suspected. Age, gender, and level of diabetes-related concern were associated with test pattern. Reported frequencies of mild and severe...

  14. Correlation between macrosomia body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, S; Song, W

    2014-05-01

    To explore the significance of neonatal body indices in identifying pathological macrosomia, we implemented a retrospective study of 254 neonates, including: 100 macrosomia of diabetic pregnancies, 77 macrosomia of healthy pregnancies and 77 normal neonates of healthy pregnancies, using their birth weight, body length, head circumference and chest circumference, to calculate neonatal body indices, multiple regression analysis of the correlation between newborn body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose. The Quetelet Index and Kaup Index of diabetic macrosomia is higher than that of non-diabetic macrosomia; HC:CC (ratio between head circumference and chest circumference) is reversed (p macrosomia.

  15. Asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection of the blood glucose regulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Brandon; Liu, Weijiu

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance. For this, a mathematical model for the glucose disturbance is proposed on the basis of experimental data, and then incorporated into an existing blood glucose regulation model. Because all the eigenvalues of the disturbance model have zero real parts, the center manifold theory is used to establish blood glucose regulator equations. We then use their solutions to synthesize a required feedback and feedforward controller to reject the disturbance and asymptotically track a constant glucose reference of 90  mg/dl. Since the regulator equations are nonlinear partial differential equations and usually impossible to solve analytically, a linear approximation solution is obtained. Our numerical simulations show that, under the linear approximate feedback and feedforward controller, the blood glucose asymptotically tracks its desired level of 90 mg/dl approximately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of liraglutide on myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in stable chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Roni; Jorsal, Anders; Iversen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide increases heart rate and may be associated with more cardiac events in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. We studied whether this could be ascribed to effects on myocardial glucose uptake (MGU), myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBF...... reserve (MFR). METHODS AND RESULTS: CHF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% and without type 2 diabetes were randomized to liraglutide (N = 18) 1.8 mg once daily or placebo (N = 18) for 24 weeks in a double-blinded design. Changes in MGU during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT...

  17. Effect of guar crispbread with cereal products and leguminous seeds on blood glucose concentrations of diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Barker, H M; Fielden, H; Jenkins, A L

    1980-01-01

    To compare the effect on blood glucose concentrations of guar incorporated into crispbreads with that of unprocessed high-fibre foods groups of four to six diabetics took a total of seven test breakfasts on separate days. By comparison with a breakfast of wholemeal bread and cheese, guar crispbread combined with bread reduced the area under the glucose response curve to 51% (p leguminous seeds may not make such meals more acceptable than meals of guar products, but a combination of leguminous seeds and guar may allow smaller and more acceptable amounts of both to be used. PMID:6253021

  18. Blood glucose concentrations in prehospital trauma patients with traumatic shock : A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutziger, Janett; Lederer, Wolfgang; Schmid, Stefan; Ulmer, Hanno; Wenzel, Volker; Nijsten, Maarten W.; Werner, Daniel; Schlechtriemen, Thomas

    BACKGROUND: Deranged glucose metabolism after moderate to severe trauma with either high or low concentrations of blood glucose is associated with poorer outcome. Data on prehospital blood glucose concentrations and trauma are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to describe the relationship

  19. Data Based Prediction of Blood Glucose Concentrations Using Evolutionary Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J Ignacio; Colmenar, J Manuel; Kronberger, Gabriel; Winkler, Stephan M; Garnica, Oscar; Lanchares, Juan

    2017-08-08

    Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections. In particular, we use the following four techniques: genetic programming, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, and grammatical evolution. We propose two new enhanced modeling algorithms for glucose prediction, namely (i) a variant of grammatical evolution which uses an optimized grammar, and (ii) a variant of tree-based genetic programming which uses a three-compartment model for carbohydrate and insulin dynamics. The predictors were trained and tested using data of ten patients from a public hospital in Spain. We analyze our experimental results using the Clarke error grid metric and see that 90% of the forecasts are correct (i.e., Clarke error categories A and B), but still even the best methods produce 5 to 10% of serious errors (category D) and approximately 0.5% of very serious errors (category E). We also propose an enhanced genetic programming algorithm that incorporates a three-compartment model into symbolic regression models to create smoothed time series of the original carbohydrate and insulin time series.

  20. Is blood glucose predictable from previous values? A solicitation for data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, T; Gough, D A

    1999-03-01

    An important question about blood glucose control in diabetes is, Can present and future blood glucose values be predicted from recent blood glucose history? If this is possible, new continuous blood glucose monitoring technologies under development may lead to qualitatively better therapeutic capabilities. Not only could continuous monitoring technologies alert a user when a hypoglycemic episode or other blood glucose excursion is underway, but measurements may also provide sufficient information to predict near-future blood glucose values. A predictive capability based only on recent blood glucose history would be advantageous because there would be no need to involve models of glucose and insulin distribution, with their inherent requirement for detailed accounting of vascular glucose loads and insulin availability. Published data analyzed here indicate that blood glucose dynamics are not random, and that blood glucose values can be predicted, at least for the near future, from frequently sampled previous values. Data useful in further exploring this concept are limited, however, and an appeal is made for collection of more.

  1. Response to fifty grams oral glucose challenge test and pattern of preceding fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbola, Omololu; Ajayi, Godwin Olufemi

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has profound implications for the baby and mother and thus active screening for this is desirable. Fifty grams oral glucose challenge test was administered after obtaining consent to 222 women in good health with singleton pregnancies without diabetes mellitus at 24 to 28 weeks gestation after an overnight fast. Venous blood sample was obtained before and 1 hour after the glucose load. A diagnostic 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test was subsequently performed in all. Two hundred and ten women had a normal response to oral glucose tolerance test i.e. venous plasma glucose below these cut-off levels: fasting 95 mg/dl (5.3 mmol/l), 1 hour 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l), 2 hours 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) and 3 hours 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), while 12 were found to have gestational diabetes mellitus and were subsequently excluded from the study. They were appropriately managed. The mean maternal age was 30.9 ± 4.1 years (range 19 to 45 years) and the mean parity was 1.2 ± 1.1 (range 0 to 5). The mean fasting plasma glucose was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl), while the mean plasma glucose 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test was 115.3 ± 19.1 mg/dl (range 56 to 180 mg/dl). The mean fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl). There is a need to re-appraise and possibly review downwards the World Health Organization fasting plasma glucose diagnostic criteria in pregnant Nigerians for better detection of gestational diabetes mellitus. Pregnant women with venous plasma glucose greater than 153.5 mg/dl (8.5 mmol/l) 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test are strongly recommended for diagnostic test of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  2. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  3. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of an Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Hematocrit Compensation: Improved Accuracy by Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Martha E; Lyon, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    The article entitled “Hematocrit Compensation in Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems” by Teodorczyk and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology demonstrates that the OneTouch® Verio™ glucose meter meets current regulatory expectations for glucose meter performance and is relatively free from interference by hematocrit. The lack of influence of hematocrit on whole blood glucose results is a valuable attribute for hospital applications, where greater ...

  5. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Tomomi; Ota, Makoto; Hirata, Ryuzo; Sato, Kenji; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Imanishi, Akio; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247.4 m in circumference for 5 h while wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system. Blood was obtained at time-points of -1, 1, 3 and 5 h. The athletes had free access to food and fluids throughout the run. The athletes ran at almost the same pace without a sudden decrease in pace. The blood glucose levels increased and remained high in the triathlete, whereas the tennis player remained hypoglycemic throughout the run. Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect the blood glucose levels. The magnitude of hormonal changes, e.g. insulin, adrenaline and cortisol, was greater in the tennis player. The blood glucose concentration did not correlate with the running velocity or the carbohydrate ingestion; however, a discrepancy in blood glucose transition was observed between the triathlete and the tennis player, indicating a possible association between the adaptation to endurance exercise and the blood glucose kinetics during prolonged running.

  6. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  7. Enhanced Predictive Capability of a 1-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nielsen, Mette L

    2018-01-01

    selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly...... blood glucose level is a stronger predictor of future type 2 diabetes than the 2-h level and is associated with diabetes complications and mortality....

  8. Glucose monitoring technologies - complementary or competitive? Role of continuous glucose monitoring versus flash glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have numerous technologies that can help keep a close watch on an individual's glycaemic status and thereby assist in developing successful diabetes management strategies. For more than five decades, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG has remained as the gold standard tool to manage glycaemic status and has gained huge acceptance. Rigorous research further led to the development of more and more advanced technologies such as continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring. These novel technologies are more promising in terms of revealing the complete glycaemic picture and even more user-friendly than the already established blood glucosemetres. However, they are yet to achieve remarkable accuracy and performance. There will also be a subgroup of patients who will be using these technologies only occasionally and thus will definitely require SMBG at other times. Again, with regard to the retrospective ones, glucose data can be obtained only once they are downloaded to the system and hence, real-time values will still have to be procured with the help of an SMBG. In future when the accuracy and performance of these newer technologies become equal to that of glucometres, the glucometres might vanish. Until then, all these technologies will definitely go hand-in-hand and supplement each other than competing each other. All the related literature were retrieved from various databases including 'PubMed' and 'Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews' using specific search terms that were relevant to the topics discussed this manuscript.

  9. Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration by Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajravelu Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early and non-invasive determination of blood glucose level is of great importance. We aimed to present a new technique to accurately infer the blood glucose concentration in peripheral blood flow using non-invasive optical monitoring system.Methods: The data for the research were obtained from 900 individuals. Of them, 750 people had diabetes mellitus (DM. The system was designed using a helium neon laser source of 632.8 nm wavelength with 5mW power, photo detectors and digital storage oscilloscope. The laser beam was directed through a single optical fiber to the index finger and the scattered beams were collected by the photo detectors placed circumferentially to the transmitting fiber. The received signals were filtered using band pass filter and finally sent to a digital storage oscilloscope. These signals were then decomposed into approximation and detail coefficients using modified Haar Wavelet Transform. Back propagation neural and radial basis functions were employed for the prediction of blood glucose concentration.Results: The data of 450 patients were randomly used for training, 225 for testing and the rest for validation. The data showed that outputs from radial basis function were nearer to the clinical value. Significant variations could be seen from signals obtained from patients with DM and those without DM.Conclusion: The proposed non-invasive optical glucose monitoring system is able to predict the glucose concentration by proving that there is a definite variation in hematological distribution between patients with DM and those without DM.

  10. Vitamin K2 Improves Anxiety and Depression but not Cognition in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome: a Role of Blood Glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Silvia M; Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 was given by gavage. At the end of the study (after 10 weeks) behavioral tests were performed and fasting blood glucose was measured. Anxiety was determined using the social interaction test and depression was assessed by the Porsolt test. Memory effects were estimated by the object recognition test. Correlations between fasting blood glucose and behavioral performance were analyzed. The rats from the MS group had elevated blood glucose. They had anxiety, depression and memory deficit. Vitamin K2 normalized blood glucose, reduced anxiety and depression, but did not improve memory. Time of social interaction (inverse index of anxiety) and memory recognition were negatively correlated with blood glucose in the untreated rats but the immobility time (measure of depression) was not. When vitamin K2-treated rats were added, the correlation of blood glucose with the time of social interaction was kept, but the one with the recognition memory was lost. It might be that the anxiolytic effect of vitamin K2 in this setting is at least partly due to its effects on blood glucose, while the anti-depressant effect is glucose-independent. The present study demonstrated that vitamin K2 prevented the development of anxiety and depression, but did not improve the memory deficit caused by the dietary manipulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. It might be that

  11. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  12. The Effect of Curry Leaves (Murayya Koenigii L. on Blood Glucose Levels In Alloxan Diabetic Mice (Mus Musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Fauziah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. on blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic mice (Mus musculus. The diabetic conditions were made by giving alloxan 75 mg/kg body weight (BW and the hypoglycemic effects of extract of curry leaves given with various doses.   This study used 24 male mice strain Balb/c in four groups of treatment with six replications, namely the negative control group, the ethanol extract of curry leaf tree 50% mL/10g body weight group, 70% mL/10g body weight group and 90% mL/10g body weight group. The treatment was given orally by using a gastric sonde for 14 days. Blood samples were taken through the sinus caudalis using a scissors. Blood glucose level was measured at 1st , the 8th and the 24th of treatment using blood glucose test strips and Nesco® Multicheck apparatus. Blood glucose data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variants and followed by Tuckey test at significance level of 5%. The result showed that treatment of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii at various doses significantly affected the decrease on blood glucose levels of mice (Mus musculus alloxan diabetic.

  13. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  14. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentrations by pet owners: a new tool in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Martina; Wess, Gerhard; Reusch, Claudia E

    2002-01-01

    Recently a new method for capillary blood sampling from the ears of dogs and cats was described, which allows the measurement of glucose concentration by means of portable glucose meters. The authors of this report evaluated the suitability of this method for use by pet owners and the potential technical problems. The owners of seven healthy dogs and seven healthy cats were asked to perform two glucose curves (measuring blood glucose concentration every 2 hours for a total of 12 hours). All dog owners and three cat owners were able to perform a reliable blood glucose curve. The most frequently encountered problems were inadequate formation of a blood drop due to excessive digital pressure on the pinna, repeatedly depressing the plunger of the lancet device instead of allowing the negative pressure to slowly build up, and failure to fill the test strip up to the mark. The authors conclude that these steps of the procedure need to be stressed during technique demonstration and that home monitoring of blood glucose concentrations may serve as a new tool in the management of diabetic dogs and cats.

  15. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    glucose measured in whole blood (x-variable) and in plasma (y-variable) gave the following equations: Y = 0.974 X + 0.55, n = 583 (Exp. 1) and Y = 0.949 X + 0.65, n = 655 (Exp. 2). The net absorption of glucose found in blood was in accordance with that found in plasma: Y = 1.012 X , n = 281 (no intercept......, P = 0.79; Exp. 1) and Y = 0.954 X, n = 316 (no intercept, P = 0.97; Exp. 2). It was concluded that glucose measured in blood and plasma were slightly biased whereas net glucose absorption in blood and in plasma were unbiased......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...

  16. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  17. Patterns of self-monitoring of blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes: analysis of a Scottish population over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D; Harris, F M; Evans, J M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of a diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, Scotland, shows that a significant proportion of insulin-treated patients with diabetes are not self-monitoring blood glucose according to current clinical guidance and recommendations, with some not self-monitoring their blood glucose at all. Although there has been an increase in the number of reagent strips dispensed over the past decade, this increase is mainly accounted for by increased testing frequency among people with diabetes already testing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for portable blood glucose meter (glucometer) use in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Karen L; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2016-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGM, glucometers) are a convenient, cost effective, and quick means to assess patient blood glucose concentration. The number of commercially available PBGM is constantly increasing, making it challenging to determine whether certain glucometers may have benefits over others for veterinary testing. The challenge in selection of an appropriate glucometer from a quality perspective is compounded by the variety of analytic methods used to quantify glucose concentrations and disparate statistical analysis in many published studies. These guidelines were developed as part of the ASVCP QALS committee response to establish recommendations to improve the quality of testing using point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld and benchtop devices in veterinary medicine. They are intended for clinical pathologists and laboratory professionals to provide them with background knowledge and specific recommendations for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC), and to serve as a resource to assist the provision of advice to veterinarians and technicians to improve the quality of results obtained when using PBGM. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather they provide a minimum standard for management of PBGM in the veterinary setting. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  20. Artificial neural networks based controller for glucose monitoring during clamp test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merav Catalogna

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is one of the most widespread health problems in modern times. The gold standard for quantification of IR is the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp technique. During the test, a regulated glucose infusion is delivered intravenously to maintain a constant blood glucose concentration. Current control algorithms for regulating this glucose infusion are based on feedback control. These models require frequent sampling of blood, and can only partly capture the complexity associated with regulation of glucose. Here we present an improved clamp control algorithm which is motivated by the stochastic nature of glucose kinetics, while using the minimal need in blood samples required for evaluation of IR. A glucose pump control algorithm, based on artificial neural networks model was developed. The system was trained with a data base collected from 62 rat model experiments, using a back-propagation Levenberg-Marquardt optimization. Genetic algorithm was used to optimize network topology and learning features. The predictive value of the proposed algorithm during the temporal period of interest was significantly improved relative to a feedback control applied at an equivalent low sampling interval. Robustness to noise analysis demonstrates the applicability of the algorithm in realistic situations.

  1. Effects of Chlorophyll in Papaya Leaves on Superoxide Dismutation and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirun Nissa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus results in oxidative stress and increases complication development. Experimental studies have shown that chlorophyll has antioxidant activity and papaya leaves contained chlorophyll more than the other green vegetables. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and hypoglycemic role in chlorophyll rich in papaya leaves on diabetic rats. Thirty six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: without treatment (technique control/TC, diabetic (negative control/NC, diabetic with treatment A (100.3 mg/200 g BW of extract and diabetic with treatment B (200.6 mg/200 g BW of extract. Diabetic induction was conducted by injecting streptozotocin 40 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally. Extract was given by nasogastric tube. Blood glucose level was measured using enzymatic colorimetric GOD-PAP test at before, after 20 and 40 days of treatment. Hepatic superoxide dismutation (SOD level was measured after 40 days of treatment. Blood glucose levels in 3 diabetic groups were significantly raised after seven days of induction. In Anova and post hoc LSD analysis, both treatments had lower hepatic SOD level than TC (p=0.0001, and blood glucose level also decreased after given the treatment (p=0.0001. Treatment B had a better antioxidant and hypoglycemic role than treatment A.

  2. Chickpeas suppress postprandial blood glucose concentration, and appetite and reduce energy intake at the next meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Kabir, Yearul

    2017-03-01

    The current study was designed to explore the beneficial properties of chickpeas consumption on suppressing appetite, excessive blood glucose excursions, and energy intake (EI) from a subsequent meal. Two caloric preloaded foods, chickpeas, and white bread were compared to water control, fed to healthy female subjects at equal energy density, volume, and available carbohydrate content in two experiments spanning over 60 and 120 min. Blood glucose was measured by a portable glucometer and satiety by using a visual analogue scale questionnaire at baseline and every 15 up to 60 min in both experiments and then every 30 until 120 min in Experiment 2 after the preloads ingestion. A test meal was served at the end of both experiments to calculate EI and percent energy compensation (%EC). The results suggest a reduction of 29-36% in blood glucose concentration, and 83-98% EC after the chickpeas in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively compared to white bread. The average appetite showed a positive association with EI. We conclude that the consumption of chickpeas is beneficial on glycemic control and may help in body weight management through suppressing appetite and energy intake.

  3. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes: Recent Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Oliver; Alawi, Hasan; Battelino, Tadej; Ceriello, Antonio; Diem, Peter; Felton, Anne-Marie; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Harno, Kari; Kempler, Peter; Satman, Ilhan; Vergès, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The increasing role for structured and personalized self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in management of type 2 diabetes has been underlined by randomized and prospective clinical trials. These include Structured Testing Program (or STeP), St. Carlos, Role of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Intensive Education in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Not Receiving Insulin, and Retrolective Study Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Outcome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (or ROSSO)-in-praxi follow-up. The evidence for the benefit of SMBG both in insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated patients with diabetes is also supported by published reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines. A Cochrane review reported an overall effect of SMBG on glycemic control up to 6 months after initiation, which was considered to subside after 12 months. Particularly, the 12-month analysis has been criticized for the inclusion of a small number of studies and the conclusions drawn. The aim of this article is to review key publications on SMBG and also to put them into perspective with regard to results of the Cochrane review and current aspects of diabetes management. PMID:23567007

  4. Sodium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/sodiumbloodtest.html Sodium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Sodium Blood Test? A sodium blood test measures the ...

  5. Calcium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/calciumbloodtest.html Calcium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Calcium Blood Test? A calcium blood test measures the amount of ...

  6. Anion Gap Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/aniongapbloodtest.html Anion Gap Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Anion Gap Blood Test? An anion gap blood test is a way ...

  7. Albumin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/albuminbloodtest.html Albumin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Albumin Blood Test? An albumin blood test measures the amount of ...

  8. Heavy Metal Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/heavymetalbloodtest.html Heavy Metal Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Heavy Metal Blood Test? A heavy metal blood test is a group ...

  9. Bilirubin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bilirubinbloodtest.html Bilirubin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Bilirubin Blood Test? A bilirubin blood test measures the levels of ...

  10. Ferritin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/ferritinbloodtest.html Ferritin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Ferritin Blood Test? A ferritin blood test measures the level of ...

  11. The value of episodic, intensive blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated persons with type 2 diabetes: Design of the Structured Testing Program (STeP Study, a cluster-randomised, clinical trial [NCT00674986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelsovsky Zhihong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG in non-insulin treated T2DM has yet to be clearly determined. Findings from studies in this population have been inconsistent, due mainly to design differences and limitations, including the prescribed frequency and timing of SMBG, role of the patient and physician in responding to SMBG results, inclusion criteria that may contribute to untoward floor effects, subject compliance, and cross-arm contamination. We have designed an SMBG intervention study that attempts to address these issues. Methods/design The Structured Testing Program (STeP study is a 12-month, cluster-randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to evaluate whether poorly controlled (HbA1c ≥ 7.5%, non-insulin treated T2DM patients will benefit from a comprehensive, integrated physician/patient intervention using structured SMBG in US primary care practices. Thirty-four practices will be recruited and randomly assigned to an active control group (ACG that receives enhanced usual care or to an enhanced usual care group plus structured SMBG (STG. A total of 504 patients will be enrolled; eligible patients at each site will be randomly selected using a defined protocol. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of at least 204 per arm, which will provide a 90% power to detect a difference of at least 0.5% in change from baseline in HbA1c values, assuming a common standard deviation of 1.5%. Differences in timing and degree of treatment intensification, cost effectiveness, and changes in patient self-management behaviours, mood, and quality of life (QOL over time will also be assessed. Analysis of change in HbA1c and other dependent variables over time will be performed using both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Trial results will be available in 2010. Discussion The intervention and trial design builds upon previous research by emphasizing appropriate and collaborative use of

  12. The value of episodic, intensive blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated persons with Type 2 Diabetes: design of the Structured Testing Program (STeP) study, a cluster-randomised, clinical trial [NCT00674986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, William; Fisher, Lawrence; Schikman, Charles; Hinnen, Deborah; Parkin, Christopher; Jelsovsky, Zhihong; Amstutz, Linda; Schweitzer, Matthias; Wagner, Robin

    2010-05-18

    The value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin treated T2DM has yet to be clearly determined. Findings from studies in this population have been inconsistent, due mainly to design differences and limitations, including the prescribed frequency and timing of SMBG, role of the patient and physician in responding to SMBG results, inclusion criteria that may contribute to untoward floor effects, subject compliance, and cross-arm contamination. We have designed an SMBG intervention study that attempts to address these issues. The Structured Testing Program (STeP) study is a 12-month, cluster-randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to evaluate whether poorly controlled (HbA1c >or= 7.5%), non-insulin treated T2DM patients will benefit from a comprehensive, integrated physician/patient intervention using structured SMBG in US primary care practices. Thirty-four practices will be recruited and randomly assigned to an active control group (ACG) that receives enhanced usual care or to an enhanced usual care group plus structured SMBG (STG). A total of 504 patients will be enrolled; eligible patients at each site will be randomly selected using a defined protocol. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of at least 204 per arm, which will provide a 90% power to detect a difference of at least 0.5% in change from baseline in HbA1c values, assuming a common standard deviation of 1.5%. Differences in timing and degree of treatment intensification, cost effectiveness, and changes in patient self-management behaviours, mood, and quality of life (QOL) over time will also be assessed. Analysis of change in HbA1c and other dependent variables over time will be performed using both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Trial results will be available in 2010. The intervention and trial design builds upon previous research by emphasizing appropriate and collaborative use of SMBG by both patients and physicians. Utilization of per

  13. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  14. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  15. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  16. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hemoglobin ... Análisis de sangre: hemoglobina A1c What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  18. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: Advice for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Shannon; Manroa, Pooja; Doshi, Krupa

    2016-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a critical element in diabetes management. Providers must determine if and when patients are to perform glucose self-monitoring, set blood glucose targets, and help patients to interpret the results. Patients have a variety of continually evolving meters, supplies, and technology from which to choose. Making sense of these expectations and options is perhaps the greatest challenge for providers and patients. Working together, healthcare providers and certified diabetes educators can ensure that people with diabetes get the most out of self-monitoring of blood glucose. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  19. Lower fasting blood glucose in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Jansen, Ann Kristine; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Matos, Camila Maria; Souza, Marcio Leandro Ribeiro; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Riccardi, Vincent Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate a lower occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level is the main criterion used to diagnose DM and glucose intolerance. Therefore, this study compared FBG level between adults with NF1 and non-NF1 controls. We selected clinical records of 57 out of 701 individuals attending the Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The selected patients with NF1 were matched to non-NF1 controls selected from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health according to sex, age (range, 35–74 years) and BMI at a ratio of 1:3. In both groups, individuals with DM were excluded. Median FBG level in the NF1 group (86 mg/dl (range, 56–127 mg/dl)) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (102 mg/dl (range, 85–146 mg/dl)) (P<0.001). Prevalence of FBG level ≥100 mg/dl in the NF1 group (16%) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (63%) (P<0.05). The chance of a high FBG level was 89% lower in the NF1 group (odds ratio, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.067–0.188) (P<0.05). In conclusion, adults with NF1 showed a lower FBG level and a lower prevalence of high FBG level compared with non-NF1 controls. PMID:26631381

  20. Levels of Blood Glucose and Total Protein of Repeat Breeding Dairy Cows From Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhasia Ramandani

    2015-11-01

    breeding case had lower blood glucose and total protein plasm concentrations than that of the normal. The average concentrations of blood glucose and total protein plasm were 48.58±6.675 mg/dl and 6.815±821 g/dl, respectively.

  1. Trends in practice of blood glucose control in critically ill patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R. T. M.; Eslami, S.; de Keizer, N. F.; Bakhshi-Raiez, F.; Bosman, R. J.; Dongelmans, D. A.; van der Voort, P. H. J.; Streefkerk, J. O.; Engelbrecht, W. J.; ten Cate, J.; Huissoon, S.; van Driel, E. M.; van Dijk, I.; Cimic, N.; Beck, O. F. T.; Snellen, F. T. F.; Holman, N. D.; Mulder, H. C.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Schultz, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Publication of the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial in 2009 and several observational studies caused a change in the recommendations for blood glucose control in intensive care patients. We evaluated local trends in blood

  2. Quantify Glucose Level in Freshly Diabetic's Blood by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the capability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to quantify glucose level in ex vivo freshly diabetic's blood. By investigating the THz spectra of different human blood, we find out THz absorption coefficients reflect a high sensitivity to the glucose level in blood. With a quantitative analysis of 70 patients, we demonstrate that the THz absorption coefficients and the blood glucose levels perform a linear relationship. A comparative experiment between THz measurement and glucometers is also conducted with another 20 blood samples, and the results confirm that the relative error is as less as 15%. Our ex vivo human blood study indicates that THz technique has great potential application to diagnose blood glucose level in clinical practice.

  3. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  4. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Revisted | Mshelia | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present review was undertaken to create the required utilization of oral glucose tolerance test in a developing country with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Sources of data: This review is primarily based on available literature on local and international studies on oral glucose ...

  5. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations in the blood of dairy calves as influenced by age, vaccination stress, weaning, and starter intake including evaluation of BHB and glucose markers of starter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Hu, W; Dennis, T S; Hill, T M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research was to determine how blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose are affected by age, time of day, stress, weaning, forced intake restriction, and voluntary starter intake in calves between 1 and 9 wk of age, and to evaluate if either is an acceptable proxy for starter intake. Holstein calves were fed a 27% crude protein, 17% fat milk replacer at 660 g of dry matter daily along with free-choice starter and water. Calves were weaned on d 42. Jugular blood was sampled at 0800, 1200, and 1600 h, and within 5 min of sampling BHB, and glucose concentrations were estimated using test strips (Nova Max Plus meter, Nova Biomedical Corporation, Waltham, MA). Age effects and time of day were estimated by sampling blood weekly (d 6, 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48). To determine vaccination stress, a Pasteurella vaccine was administered after blood sampling at 0800 h on d 36. Effect of voluntary starter intake was tested by selecting calves for low and high intakes (d 35 to 39) and sampling on d 40, 41, 43, and 44. Starter intake restriction was tested by restricting intake in half of the calves and sampling on d 60 and 61. Data were analyzed with repeated measurements in a mixed model procedure with either within-calf effect (day or week) or within-calf effects (hour, and day or week) included in the model. Time of day did not affect blood BHB and glucose in the first 6 wk. Blood BHB was greater in wk 7 versus wk 1 to 6. Blood glucose was greater in the first 5 wk compared with wk 6 and 7. Blood BHB increased and glucose decreased with increasing starter intake. Blood BHB declined due to vaccination, but glucose was unaffected. Starter intake restriction reduced BHB for 3 d and glucose for 2 d after restriction. Both were affected by time of day. Around weaning (d 40 to 44), BHB and glucose increased with increasing starter intake. In this research, neither blood BHB nor glucose was a good proxy for starter intake. Blood BHB was positively and glucose

  6. Compensatory Beliefs about Glucose Testing are Associated with Low Adherence to Treatment and Poor Metabolic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiau, Marjorie A.; Knauper, Barbel; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Sufrategui, Maria; Polychronakos, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate whether compensatory beliefs (CBs) regarding glucose testing predict blood glucose levels and adherence to treatment in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. CBs are convictions that the negative effects of one behavior (e.g. not testing one's glucose level) can be compensated for by engaging in another…

  7. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood ... de sangre: panel metabólico ampliado What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  8. Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood ... de sangre: panel metabólico básico What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  9. Clinical results from a noninvasive blood glucose monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas B.; Ruchti, Timothy L.; Lorenz, Alex D.; Monfre, Stephen L.; Makarewicz, M. R.; Mattu, Mutua; Hazen, Kevin

    2002-05-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has long been proposed as a means for advancing the management of diabetes through increased measurement and control. The use of a near-infrared, NIR, spectroscopy based methodology for noninvasive monitoring has been pursued by a number of groups. The accuracy of the NIR measurement technology is limited by challenges related to the instrumentation, the heterogeneity and time-variant nature of skin tissue, and the complexity of the calibration methodology. In this work, we discuss results from a clinical study that targeted the evaluation of individual calibrations for each subject based on a series of controlled calibration visits. While the customization of the calibrations to individuals was intended to reduce model complexity, the extensive requirements for each individual set of calibration data were difficult to achieve and required several days of measurement. Through the careful selection of a small subset of data from all samples collected on the 138 study participants in a previous study, we have developed a methodology for applying a single standard calibration to multiple persons. The standard calibrations have been applied to a plurality of individuals and shown to be persistent over periods greater than 24 weeks.

  10. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city.METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288 of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics.RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively.CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved.

  11. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  12. Effect of post-exercise caffeine and green coffee bean extract consumption on blood glucose and insulin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Jason R; Gibson, Ann L; Kerksick, Chad M; Conn, Carole A; White, Ailish C; Mermier, Christine M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine and green coffee bean extract on blood glucose and insulin concentrations during a post-exercise oral glucose tolerance test. Ten male cyclists (age: 26 ± 5 y; height: 179.9 ± 5.4 cm; weight: 77.6 ± 13.3 kg; body mass index: 24 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); VO2 peak: 55.9 ± 8.4 mL·kg·min(-1)) participated in this study. In a randomized order, each participant completed three 30-min bouts of cycling at 60% of peak power output. Immediately after exercise, each participant consumed 75 g of dextrose with either 5 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 10 mg/kg of green coffee bean extract (5 mg/kg chlorogenic acid), or placebo. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and after exercise during completion of the oral glucose tolerance test. No significant time × treatment effects for blood glucose and insulin were found. Two-h glucose and insulin area under the curve values, respectively, for the caffeine (658 ± 74 mmol/L and 30,005 ± 13,304 pmol/L), green coffee bean extract (637 ± 100 mmol/L and 31,965 ± 23,586 pmol/L), and placebo (661 ± 77 mmol/L and 27,020 ± 12,339 pmol/L) trials were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Caffeine and green coffee bean extract did not significantly alter postexercise blood glucose and insulin concentrations when compared with a placebo. More human research is needed to determine the impact of these combined nutritional treatments and exercise on changes in blood glucose and insulin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... tested by laboratory personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio(®) showed no hematocrit interference or variation...... routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when...

  14. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio® showed no hematocrit interference or variation between strip lots......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...

  15. Blood glucose and insulin levels in normal subjects following a meal with and without added sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredger, J; Sheard, C; Marks, V

    1981-09-01

    The fibrous components of sugar beet pulp were investigated to determine whether they would reduce the post-prandial rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels when incorporated into a mixed meal. On two separate occasions six healthy volunteers were given either a control meal (providing 86 g carbohydrate) or an identical meal with the addition of 20 g sugar beet pulp (test meal). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured post-prandially for 3 hours. There was no significant difference between the mean blood glucose of plasma insulin curves at any time after the two meals. Since viscous types of dietary fibers are known to be effective in reducing post-prandial hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia, it would seem that either the physio-chemical nature of the fibre or the procedure employed to extract the sugar renders the particulate fibre inactive.

  16. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of glucose concentration in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y C; Davies, A G; Linfield, E H; Elsey, T S; Taday, P F; Arnone, D D

    2003-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy has been used for the determination of glucose concentration in whole blood samples from 28 patients. A 4-vector partial least-squares calibration model, using the spectral range 950-1200 cm -1 , yielded a standard-error-of-prediction of 0.59 mM for an independent test set. For blood samples from a single patient, we found that the glucose concentration was proportional to the difference between the values of the second derivative spectrum at 1082 cm -1 and 1093 cm -1 . This indicates that spectroscopy at these two specific wavenumbers alone could be used to determine the glucose concentration in blood plasma samples from a single patient, with a prediction error of 0.95 mM

  17. [Mathematical Modeling of the Blood Glucose Regulation System in Diabetes Mellitus Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel'ev, V A; Filippov, Yu I; Tarasov, Yu V; Boyarsky, M D; Mayorov, A Yu; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the mathematical modeling of the carbohydrate metabolism regulation system increases in recent years. This is associated with a "closed loop" insulin pump development (it controls an insulin infusion depending on the blood glucose level). To create an algorithm for the automatic control of insulin (and other hormones) infusion using an insulin pump it is necessary to accurately predict glycaemia level. So, the primary objective of mathematical modeling is to predict the blood glucose level changes, caused by the wide range of external factors. This review discusses the main mathematical models of blood glucose level control physiological system (simplified insulin-glucose system). The two major classes of models--empirical and theoretical--are described in detail. The ideal mathematical model of carbohydrate metabolism regulatory system is absent. However, the success in the field of blood glucose level control modeling and simulating is essentialfor the further development of diabetes prevention and treatment technologies, and creating an artificial pancreas in particular.

  18. SPCE based glucose sensor employing novel thermostable glucose dehydrogenase, FADGDH: blood glucose measurement with 150nL sample in one second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Hideaki; Sode, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of the modern therapy for diabetes mellitus. Thanks to the current progress in electronics and sensor fabrication technology, both the time and the blood sample volume required for the measurement have decreased drastically. However, devices that work with an even smaller sample volume and a shorter measurement time are in demand. A disposable glucose sensor that works with an ultra-small sample volume was developed employing the novel thermostable glucose-dehydrogenase (FADGDH) complex composed of a catalytic subunit, an electron transfer subunit (cytochrome c), and a small subunit. The electrode is a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), and hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride (Ru complex) is utilized as the electron mediator. A disposable enzyme sensor was constructed by depositing the FADGDH complex and Ru complex onto the SPCE, and the sensor performance was evaluated. Whole-blood glucose can be measured within 1 sec using this enzyme sensor and a 150-nL whole-blood sample, with high precision (>0.99br>) and high reproducibility (CV) within the glucose concentration range of 0-533 mg/dL. The sensor reading was stable for more than 60 days even at 70 degrees C. The simplicity of the construction and the high precision of this FADGDH-based glucose biosensor makes it an alternative to previously reported commercially available glucose sensors. Especially the sample volume of 150 nL and the 1-sec measurement time are the highest specifications in the world for currently available glucose sensors designed for the SMBG.

  19. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K

    2017-07-01

    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.V.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U.; Heller, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    and demographic characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional Danish-British multicentre survey of 1076 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes, who completed a detailed questionnaire on SMBG and related issues. The key variables were test frequency and motive. RESULTS: SMBG was performed daily by 39......AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural...

  1. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=-0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=-0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254-3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007-1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women. Moreover, both

  2. The experiences of diabetics on self-monitoring of blood glucose: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Chang Yeh, Mei

    2015-03-01

    To interpret, describe and analyse the results of various qualitative studies and comprehensively elucidate the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients, and to make recommendations based on these findings for clinical practices. Patients exhibited both positive and negative perceptions towards the self-monitoring of blood glucose. Numerous recent qualitative studies have explored the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients; however, no integrated results have been provided. Qualitative metasynthesis. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between January 2004 and April 2014. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Airiti library and PsycInfo. Seven studies were assessed in the final analysis; the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to evaluate these studies. The self-monitoring experiences of patients with diabetes were divided into five themes: perceived disease severity, effects on daily life, lifestyle adjustments after becoming aware of blood glucose levels, determining the meaning of self-monitoring, and the differences between diabetic patients who use and do not use insulin. Individual differences in blood glucose self-monitoring vary widely among diabetic patients. These differences result from personal cognition and feelings concerning blood glucose monitoring. Insights into and discussions regarding the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients enable health care professionals to understand the factors that influence the intentions of patients to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose and facilitate establishing customised self-monitoring of blood glucose treatment plans. Health care professionals must adopt flexible and individualised criteria to determine patient cognitive misconceptions, understand negative emotional reactions and

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We...... and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money...

  4. Self-monitoring blood glucose--non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joan; Valenti, Lisa; Bayram, Clare; Miller, Graeme

    2013-09-01

    Benefits of self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (T2D) are questionable. We investigated proportions of general practitioner (GP) patients who self-monitor, and associations between SMBG, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI). Sub-studies of the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) program, involving 5 730 patients from 194 GPs. Outcomes Type 2 diabetes prevalence; HbA1c; BMI; blood glucose (BG) monitoring routine. Prevalence of non-insulin-treated T2D was 6.7%. Mean HbA1c level was 7.1%. Almost half (47.5%) of T2D patients were obese compared with 26.7% of patients at all BEACH encounters in 2011-2012. Of 344 non-insulin-treated T2D patients, 79.4% self-monitored fasting BG and 69.7% of 314 self-monitored post-prandial BG. For both groups, mean HbA1c was significantly higher for those who tested daily than for those who never tested. Patients with non-insulin-treated T2D who test BG daily may be those struggling for control. For others, benefits seem minimal for the proportion utilising self-monitoring.

  5. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  6. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Mathuradas Mohota College of Sciences, Nagpur-440009 (India); Dahikar, P. B., E-mail: pbdahikar@rediffmail.com [Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  7. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  8. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  9. Lipoprotein (a) Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/lipoproteinabloodtest.html Lipoprotein (a) Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Lipoprotein (a) Blood Test? A lipoprotein (a) test measures the level of ...

  10. Efficacy of 50-G Glucose Challenge Test in The Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan İnan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim in this study was to investigate the efficacy of 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and to determine a cut-off value for screening. Methods: 50-g GCT was performed in 444 pregnant women at 24-28 gestational weeks. The threshold was taken as 130 mg/dl in order not to miss GDM cases. A plasma glucose level of ≥130 mg/dl at the first hour was considered to be a positive result and 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was given to these women. Results: The cut-off value for 50-g GCT was found to be 145 mg/dl. The sensitivity and specificity of the test for predicting GDM at the levels of ≥145 mg/dl were determined to be 96.30% and 80.34%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the test at the level of 88 mg/dl determined for fasting blood glucose cut-off value were found to be 48.15% and 70.84%, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the efficacy in making diagnosis of GDM was increased at the first hour blood glucose levels of ≥145 mg/dl, especially in 50-g GCT, and fasting blood glucose level could not be a good screening test for GDM. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 181-6

  11. Control of Blood Glucose for People with Type 1 Diabetes: an in Vivo Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Schmidt, Signe; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Since continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology and insulin pumps have improved recent years, a strong interest in a closed-loop articial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes has arisen. Presently, a fully automated controller of blood glucose must face many challenges, such as daily...... variations of patient's physiology and lack of accuracy of glucose sensors. In this paper we design and discuss an algorithm for overnight closed-loop control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The algorithm is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). We use an oset-free autoregressive model...... during daytime. These trials demonstrate the importance of observer design in ARMAX models and show the possibility of stabilizing blood glucose during the night....

  12. Non-invasive blood glucose monitor based on spectroscopy using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantu, Vishnu; Vempati, Jagannadh; Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Development of a novel method for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration using smartphone is discussed. Our research work has three major contributions to society and science. First, we modified and extended the Beer-Lambert's law in physics to accommodate for multiple wavelengths. This extension can aid researchers who wish to perform optical spectroscopy. Second, we successfully developed a creative and non-invasive way for diabetic patients to measure glucose levels via a smartphone. Researchers and chemists can now use their smartphones to determine the absorbance and, therefore, concentration of a chemical. Third, we created an inexpensive way to perform optical spectroscopy by using a smartphone. Monitoring blood glucose using a smartphone application that simply uses equipment already available on smartphones will improve the lives of diabetic patients who can continuously check their blood glucose levels while avoiding the current inconvenient, unhygienic, and costly invasive glucose meters.

  13. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work

  14. Stable-label intravenous glucose tolerance test minimal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avogaro, A.; Bristow, J.D.; Bier, D.M.; Cobelli, C.; Toffolo, G.

    1989-01-01

    The minimal model approach to estimating insulin sensitivity (Sl) and glucose effectiveness in promoting its own disposition at basal insulin (SG) is a powerful tool that has been underutilized given its potential applications. In part, this has been due to its inability to separate insulin and glucose effects on peripheral uptake from their effects on hepatic glucose inflow. Prior enhancements, with radiotracer labeling of the dosage, permit this separation but are unsuitable for use in pregnancy and childhood. In this study, we labeled the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) dosage with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, [2- 2 H]glucose, or both stable isotopically labeled glucose tracers and modeled glucose kinetics in six postabsorptive, nonobese adults. As previously found with the radiotracer model, the tracer-estimated S*l derived from the stable-label IVGTT was greater than Sl in each case except one, and the tracer-estimated SG* was less than SG in each instance. More importantly, however, the stable-label IVGTT estimated each parameter with an average precision of +/- 5% (range 3-9%) compared to average precisions of +/- 74% (range 7-309%) for SG and +/- 22% (range 3-72%) for Sl. In addition, because of the different metabolic fates of the two deuterated tracers, there were minor differences in basal insulin-derived measures of glucose effectiveness, but these differences were negligible for parameters describing insulin-stimulated processes. In conclusion, the stable-label IVGTT is a simple, highly precise means of assessing insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness at basal insulin that can be used to measure these parameters in individuals of all ages, including children and pregnant women

  15. Increasing Blood Glucose Variability Is a Precursor of Sepsis and Mortality in Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pisarchik, Alexander N.; Pochepen, Olga N.; Pisarchyk, Liudmila A.

    2012-01-01

    High glycemic variability, rather than a mean glucose level, is an important factor associated with sepsis and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. In this retrospective study we analyze the blood glucose data of 172 nondiabetic patients 18-60 yrs old with second and third-degree burns of total body surface area greater than 30% and 5%, respectively, admitted to ICU in 2004-2008. The analysis identified significant association of increasing daily glucose excursion (DELTA) accompanie...

  16. Are Tubes Containing Sodium Fluoride Still Needed for the Measurement of Blood Glucose in Hospital Laboratory Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Al-Kharusi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare glucose values obtained using sodium flouride (NaF tubes and serum separation tubes (SST in a tertiary care hospital laboratory setting.  Methods: This study was conducted at the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman. During the study period (1 September–30 November 2013, 50 pairs (one NaF tube and one SST of patient’s blood specimens were randomly collected. Following separation of plasma (NaF tubes and serum (SST, glucose concentrations were measured by hexokinase assay using the Architect c8000. Fifteen pairs of these tubes were kept in the refrigerator at 4°C and plasma/serum glucose concentrations were measured daily up to seven days after collection.  Results: Comparing plasma (NaF and serum (SST results of glucose values (n=50 showed an average difference of 0.00mmol/L (range -0.60 to +0.60mmol/L. Bland Altman analysis gave a non-significant constant bias of 0.10 ±0.195mmol/L (bias ±SD. Pearson correlation between plasma (NaF and serum (SST glucose concentrations revealed a significant correlation approaching unity with r2= 0.9991. No significant differences in glucose values were noted for both plasma and serum in 15 pairs of NaF and SST tubes when analyzed seven days following refrigeration. Hemolysis was observed in five (10% NaF tubes compared with two (4% SST.  Conclusion: There is no difference in glucose values collected from plasma NaF tubes or serum SST, and so SST can be used in hospital laboratory settings as there are practical advantages, including cost-effectiveness and reduction in blood volume drawn when utilizing these tubes for glucose and other tests from a single blood collection tube.

  17. Hematocrit Interference of Blood Glucose Meters for Patient Self-Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, Sanja; Lock, John Paul; Schipper, Christina; Musholt, Petra B.; Forst, Thomas; Lyon, Martha; Pfützner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Abnormal hematocrit levels may interfere with glucose readings of patient self-assessment blood glucose (BG) meters. The aim of this laboratory investigation was to assess the potential influence of hematocrit variations on a variety of BG meters applying different measurement technologies. Methods Venous heparinized blood was manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (50–90, 120–180, and 280–350 mg/dl) and five different hematocrit levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 65%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure (65–100 mmHg), each sample was measured (eight times) with the following devices: Accu-Chek® Aviva, Nano, and Active, Breeze®2 and Contour®, FreeStyle Freedom Lite®, GlucoDr. auto™, Glucofix® mio Plus, GlucoLab™, GlucoMen® LX Plus, Nova Max® Link, Nova Max® Plus, OneTouch® Ultra®2 and Verio®,On Call® Plus and Platinum, Optium Xceed®, Precision Xceed®, and TaiDoc Fora TD-4227. A YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer served as reference method. Stability to hematocrit influence was assumed, with hematocrit levels. Results Six of the investigated meters showed a stable performance in this investigation: Accu-Chek Active (7%), Glucofix mio Plus (5%), GlucoMen LX Plus (4%), NovaMax Plus (4%), Nova Max Link (7%), and OneTouch Verio (3%). All other meters failed this hematocrit interference test, with FreeStyle Freedom Lite (11%), and On Call Platinum (12%) being the better devices and On Call Plus (68%), GlucoLab (51%), TaiDoc Fora TD-4227 (39%), and Breeze 2 (38%) showing the worst performance. Conclusions Hematocrit may affect BG meter performance in daily routine. In case of interference, low hematocrit values (hematocrit interference. PMID:23439176

  18. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...

  19. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2015-11-11

    dose ... hypoglycemic effect in rats, no negative effect was observed on lipid profile. KEY WORDS: Tartrazine E102; glucose; haematological; cholesterol; triacylglycerol ... sulfanilic acid and aminopyrazolone. The pyrazolone ...

  20. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  1. Effect of blood glucose level on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Haibo; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Zuo Chuantao; Hua Fengchun; Tang Wenying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood glucose level on the image quality of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging. Methods: Eighty patients referred to the authors' department for routine whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT check up were recruited into this study. The patients were classified into 9 groups according to their blood glucose level: normal group avg and SUV max ) of liver on different slices. SPSS 12.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: (1) There were significant differences among the 9 groups in image quality scores and image noises (all P avg and SUV max : 0.60 and 0.33, P<0.05). Conclusions: The higher the blood glucose level, the worse the image quality. When the blood glucose level is more than or equal to 12.0 mmol/L, the image quality will significantly degrade. (authors)

  2. 75 FR 2549 - Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    .... When registering, you must provide your name, title, company or organization (if applicable), address... and clinical use of blood glucose meters, to share ideas on the challenges associated with their use...

  3. Effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students.

  4. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos T Tsaousis

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study confirms that dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels are prevalent among the rural populations of Greece and therefore informative campaigns and structured screening programs are required to promote preventive health care.

  5. Dimethylarginines, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Gudjoncik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that in patients with acute MI, SDMA, and only weakly ADMA, are associated with admission blood glucose, beyond traditional dimethylarginine determinants and may therefore have biological activity beyond renal function.

  6. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk; Michaely, Mark

    2004-01-01

    of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol x kg x min) and placebo over 8 hrs, each administered in randomized order in the fasting state. C-reactive protein concentrations of 4.9+/-4.2 mg/dL indicated a systemic inflammation. Blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, glucagon......, and GLP-1 (specific immunoassays). Statistics were done with repeated-measures analysis of variance and Duncan's post hoc tests. MAIN RESULTS: During the intravenous infusion of GLP-1, plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lowered, reaching the normoglycemic fasting glucose range within 150...... mins, but they remained elevated during placebo infusion (p infusion led to a significant increase of insulin secretion (p

  7. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  8. Opto-acoustic monitoring of blood optical properties as a function of glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednov, Andrey A.; Savateeva, Elena V.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2003-06-01

    Time-resolved optoacoustic (OA) method was employed to measure changes in glucose concentration in the whole and diluted blood. An increase of the glucose level in tissue results in a corresponding decrease of optical scattering. Relative changes in tissue optical scattering can be obtained by measuring the effective optical attenuation coefficient, μeff by exponential fitting of the time-resolved optoacoustic profiles. Glucose effects in blood have been investigated using the forward mode of OA detection performed in the visible (at the wavelength, λ=532 nm) and near infrared (λ=1064 nm) spectral ranges. In our previous set of experiments, the OA studies performed in model media in vitro and biological tissue (sclera) in vivo demonstrated gradual reduction of optical scattering with the increase in glucose level. The present study has supported our previous observations. However, one novel effect was observed comprised of a transient increase in μeff during the first 5-10 minutes after injection of glucose. This phenomenon may be explained by changes in erythrocytes shape and size as a result of their adaptation to hyperglycemic conditions. Our observation was supported by light microscopy images of red blood cells under normal and hyperglycemic conditions. With glucose concentration changing rapidly (osmotic shock), any small reduction in ´eff due to the glucose-induced decrease of relative refraction index of blood, can be compensated or even overwhelmed by the increase in ´eff due to erythrocyte shrinkage and/or spherulation. Further cellular adaptation to glucose make erythrocytes return to their normal shape of biconcave disks about 7-μm in diameter. The kinetics of the effective optical attenuation was studies in response to glucose injection in order to better understand the mechanisms of erythrocyte adaptation to osmotic shock and to determine the time course of RBCs adaptation to various glucose concentrations. Finally, Mannitol as alternative

  9. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabet...

  10. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  11. Glucometer as a chairside device to assess blood glucose in periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Bala Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common finding in the medical history of patients receiving treatment for periodontal disease. The incidence of diabetes is on the rise worldwide. Virtually, every dentist and especially the periodontist are likely to encounter an increasing number of undiagnosed diabetic patients. The conventional laboratory methods employed to detect blood glucose are time consuming and require elaborative equipment. The advent of blood glucose monitors allows the clinician to assess blood glucose at the chair side. Materials and Methods: The use of gingival capillary blood as a marker for blood glucose estimation using glucometer against the conventional laboratory method has been assessed in 60 diabetics and 70 controls. Results: The correlation between gingival and finger-stick blood was r = 0.996, P<0.001 in diabetics and controls. Correlation between gingival and laboratory method was r = 0.994, P<0.001 in cases and controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that capillary blood from the outer surface of gingiva provide an acceptable source for measuring blood glucose.

  12. The effects of celery leaf (apium graveolens L.) treatment on blood glucose and insulin levels in elderly pre-diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusni, Yusni; Zufry, Hendra; Meutia, Firdalena; Sucipto, Krishna W

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the effect of celery leaf extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in elderly pre-diabetics. Methods: This study was conducted between March and November 2014 at the Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with a control group was conducted with elderly pre-diabetic volunteers. The subjects included 16 elderly pre-diabetics older than 60 (6 males and 10 females). The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: a control group (placebo-treated) and a treatment group (celery-treated). The treatment consisted of celery leaf extract capsules at the dose of 250 mg, 3 times per day (morning, afternoon and evening), 30 minutes before a meal, for 12 days. Data analysis was performed using the t-test (p less than 0.05). Results: There was a significant decrease in pre-prandial plasma glucose levels (p=0.01) and post-prandial plasma glucose levels (p=0.00), but no significant increase in plasma insulin levels (p=0.15) after celery leaf treatment in elderly pre-diabetics. Conclusion: Celery was effective at reducing blood glucose levels, but there was a lack of association between blood glucose levels and plasma insulin levels in elderly pre-diabetics.

  13. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Laura Sterian; Novis, Renata Britto; Nascimento, Veridiana Toledo; Nóbrega, Miriam Siesler; Saad, Mário José Abdalla

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98). There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05).This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of ...

  14. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    Full Text Available We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98. There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05.This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of diabetes mellitus, and may also be very useful in the diagnosis of postprandial hypoglycemia and other special situations.

  15. [Self-monitoring of blood glucose in France: data from a national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerci, Bruno; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Durain, Danièle; Bahloul, Amar; Jeanbat, Viviane; Detournay, Bruno

    2017-04-27

    Objectives: To describe Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) practices in France in patients with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes, by estimating the proportion of patients performing SMBG at the recommended testing frequency and the proportion of patients complying with the current quality control guidelines on SMBG. Materials and methods: National cross-sectional study conducted in 238 pharmacies. A questionnaire was completed with adult diabetic patients buying SMBG devices or reagent strips for themselves, using a blood glucose meter for at least 6 months, treated with insulin or sulfonylurea/glinides ± other oral hypoglycaemic agents (HA). Results: Data from 449 patients were analysed: 85 T1DM and 121 T2DM patients treated by multiple basal-bolus injections ± HA (Group A and Group B), 123 T2DM patients treated by basal insulin ± HA (Group C), 102 patients treated by other insulin regimens ± HA (Group D) and 120 T2DM patients treated by sulfonylurea / glinides without insulin ± other HA (Group E). The recommended test frequency was observed by 29.8%, 36.4%, 61.8% and 69.2% of patients in Group A, Group B, Group C, and Group E, respectively. The quality of self-monitoring was insufficient in terms of device cleaning, storage conditions/expiry date of reagent strips, or use of control solutions. Patients displayed a limited capacity to take decisions in relation to their SMBG results (Group A: 56.5%, Group B: 70.2%, Group C: 49.2%, Group E: 36.0%) and limited knowledge about their glucose targets (Group A: 81%, Group B: 80.5%, Group C: 68.6%, Group E: 73.7%). Conclusion: SMBG use and compliance with quality guidelines must be improved, but healthcare professionals and patients must also focus their efforts on education to interpret SMBG results.

  16. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid ionic regulation, cerebral blood flow, and glucose use during chronic metabolic alkalosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeck, H.K.; Kuschinsky, W. (Univ. of Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-10-01

    Chronic metabolic alkalosis was induced in rats by combining a low K+ diet with a 0.2 M NaHCO3 solution as drinking fluid for either 15 or 27 days. Local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization were measured in 31 different structures of the brain in conscious animals by means of the iodo-(14C)antipyrine and 2-(14C)deoxy-D-glucose method. The treatment induced moderate (15 days, base excess (BE) 16 mM) to severe (27 days, BE 25 mM) hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and K+ depletion. During moderate metabolic alkalosis no change in cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow was detectable in most brain structures when compared with controls. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K+ and H+ concentrations were significantly decreased. During severe hypochloremic alkalosis, cerebral blood flow was decreased by 19% and cerebral glucose utilization by 24% when compared with the control values. The decrease in cerebral blood flow during severe metabolic alkalosis is attributed mainly to the decreased cerebral metabolism and to a lesser extent to a further decrease of the CSF H+ concentration. CSF K+ concentration was not further decreased. The results show an unaltered cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a decrease in CSF H+ and K+ concentrations at moderate metabolic alkalosis and a decrease in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a further decreased CSF H+ concentration at severe metabolic alkalosis.

  18. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  19. Empirically establishing blood glucose targets to achieve HbA1c goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nancy; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the average fasting, postprandial, and bedtime self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentrations associated with specified HbA1c levels using data from the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ADAG study was a multicenter observational study that used continuous glucose monitoring and SMBG testing to determine the relationship between mean average glucose and HbA1c. We used the SMBG data from 470 of the ADAG study participants (237 with type 1 diabetes and 147 with type 2 diabetes) to determine the average fasting, premeal, 90-min postmeal, and bedtime blood glucose (BG) for predefined target HbA1c groups between 5.5 and 8.5% (37-69 mmol/mol). t Tests were used to compare mean BG values between type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. RESULTS The average fasting BG needed to achieve predefined HbA1c target levels of 5.5-6.49% (37-47 mmol/mol), 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol), 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol), 7.5-7.99% (58-64 mmol/mol), and 8.0-8.5% (64-69 mmol/mol) were 122 mg/dL with 95% CI 117-127, 142 mg/dL (135-150), 152 mg/dL (143-162), 167 mg/dL (157-177), and 178 mg/dL (164-192), respectively. Postmeal BG to achieve the HbA1c level of 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol) and 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol) were 139 mg/dL (134-144) and 152 mg/dL (147-157), respectively. Bedtime BG was 153 mg/dL (145-161) and 177 mg/dL (166-188), respectively. CONCLUSIONS We have determined the average BG at premeal, postmeal, and bedtime to achieve a variety of HbA1c targets. These results, based on empirical data, will help patients and providers set realistic day-to-day SMBG targets to achieve individualized HbA1c goals.

  20. Diabetes Technology: Markers, Monitoring, Assessment, and Control of Blood Glucose Fluctuations in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris P. Kovatchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available People with diabetes face a life-long optimization problem: to maintain strict glycemic control without increasing their risk for hypoglycemia. Since the discovery of insulin in 1921, the external regulation of diabetes by engineering means has became a hallmark of this optimization. Diabetes technology has progressed remarkably over the past 50 years—a progress that includes the development of markers for diabetes control, sophisticated monitoring techniques, mathematical models, assessment procedures, and control algorithms. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM was introduced in 1999 and has evolved from means for retroactive review of blood glucose profiles to versatile reliable devices, which monitor the course of glucose fluctuations in real time and provide interactive feedback to the patient. Technology integrating CGM with insulin pumps is now available, opening the field for automated closed-loop control, known as the artificial pancreas. Following a number of in-clinic trials, the quest for a wearable ambulatory artificial pancreas is under way, with a first prototype tested in outpatient setting during the past year. This paper discusses key milestones of diabetes technology development, focusing on the progress in the past 10 years and on the artificial pancreas—still not a cure, but arguably the most promising treatment of diabetes to date.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1345 - Glucose test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glucose test system. 862.1345 Section 862.1345 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  2. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  3. Reduction of Central Blood Pressure in Response to Oral Glucose Loading Is Blunted in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Tadanao; Kurisu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Noriaki; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Shimonaga, Takashi; Iwasaki, Toshitaka; Ishibashi, Ken; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Yukihiro; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that arterial stiffness is reduced after meal intake. We evaluated the acute response of central hemodynamics to glucose loading and the variation in their responses among normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM). The study enrolled 85 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Central hemodynamic measurements were assessed using radial applanation tonometry at fasting, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose loading. Glucose loading decreased the augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75) (81.6±13.9 to 74.5±14.1%, P < 0.01) and central systolic blood pressure (SBP) (115±22 to 109±21mm Hg, P < 0.01) at 120 minutes without a significant change in brachial SBP (126±25 to 125±25mm Hg, P = 0.93). Glucose loading decreased central SBP in NGT and IGT groups but did not affect the DM group. Change in AIx@75 at 120 minutes after glucose loading was blunted in IGT and DM groups compared with the NGT group (-5.7±4.4 vs. -3.6±4.1 vs. -9.3±6.2%, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified DM as an independent factor associated with the presence of blunted response of AIx to glucose loading. Oral glucose loading decreased central SBP and AIx@75 without a significant change in brachial SBP, and these central hemodynamic responses were blunted in patients with DM. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comparative study of HbA1cand fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, H; Ambreen, A; Jamil, M; Garred, P; Petersen, J H; Nielsen, S D; Bygbjerg, I C; Christensen, D L

    2017-06-01

    To compare HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA 1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39) were diagnosed with diabetes using HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose criteria, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.79 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.94) for HbA 1c and 0.61 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.73) for fasting plasma glucose, with a borderline significant difference between the two tests (P=0.07). HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood glucose fluctuations when using fasting plasma glucose. HbA 1c may be a more reliable test in individuals with transient hyperglycaemia. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  5. Effects of 50 mg vildagliptin twice daily vs. 50 mg sitagliptin once daily on blood glucose fluctuations evaluated by long-term self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Kimachi, Kimihiko; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kameda, Hiraku; Cho, Kyu Yong; Nakamura, Akinobu; Nagai, So; Kondo, Takuma; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-04-29

    To date, several clinical trials have compared differences in glucose fluctuation observed with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, most patients were assessed for limited periods or during hospitalization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of switching from sitagliptin to vildagliptin, or vice versa, on 12-week glucose fluctuations using self-monitoring of blood glucose in the standard care setting. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label controlled trial in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-two patients were treated with vildagliptin (50 mg) twice daily or sitagliptin (50 mg) once daily and were allocated to one of two groups: vildagliptin treatment for 12 weeks before switching to sitagliptin for 12 weeks, or vice versa. Daily profiles of blood glucose were assessed several times during each treatment period, and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions and M-value were calculated. Metabolic biomarkers such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol were also assessed. With vildagliptin treatment, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions was significantly improved compared with sitagliptin treatment (57.9 ± 22.2 vs. 68.9 ± 33.0 mg/dL; p=0.0045). M-value (p=0.019) and mean blood glucose (p=0.0021) were also lower with vildagliptin, as were HbA1c, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. There were no significant differences in other metabolic parameters evaluated. Reduction of daily blood glucose profile fluctuations by vildagliptin was superior to that of sitagliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Low blood glucose precipitates spike-and-wave activity in genetically predisposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Historical achievements of self-monitoring of blood glucose technology development in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeki

    2011-09-01

    Japanese companies were the first in the world to achieve a colorimetric glucose measurement meter back in 1973. Over the following 40 or so years, they succeeded in achieving a much greater level of user-friendliness and performance and in so doing, have contributed to the spread of self-monitoring of blood glucose. This article aims to unravel the history of blood glucose measurement's technological developments; to look at the direction and features of the development path Japan is taking; as well as to introduce some Japanese products that are on the market. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), in which the blood glucose level is higher than normal but not as high as in diabetes, is also a major public health problem. People with IGT have a higher risk of developing T2D and CVD, and especially the magnitude and duration of the postprandial blood glucose concentration (PPG) seems of crucial importance. In Norway, immigrants from...

  9. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  10. ALT Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/altbloodtest.html ALT Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an ALT Blood Test? ALT, which stands for alanine transaminase, is an ...

  11. Allergy Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/allergybloodtest.html Allergy Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Allergy Blood Test? Allergies are a common and chronic condition that ...

  12. Practical approaches for self-monitoring of blood glucose: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ji, Linong; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Yu, Neng-Chun; Tan, Eng Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Comprehensive glycemic control is necessary to improve outcomes and avoid complications in individuals with diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key enabler of glycemic assessment, providing real-time information that complements HbA1c monitoring and supports treatment optimization. However, SMBG is under-utilized by patients and physicians within the Asia-Pacific region, because of barriers such as the cost of monitoring supplies, lack of diabetes self-management skills, or concerns about the reliability of blood glucose readings. Practice recommendations in international and regional guidelines vary widely, and may not be detailed or specific enough to guide SMBG use effectively. This contributes to uncertainty among patients and physicians about how best to utilize this tool: when and how often to test, and what action(s) to take in response to high or low readings. In developing a practical SMBG regimen, the first step is to determine the recommended SMBG frequency and intensity needed to support the chosen treatment regimen. If there are practical obstacles to monitoring, such as affordability or access, physicians should identify the most important aspects of glycemic control to target for individual patients, and modify monitoring patterns accordingly. This consensus paper proposes a selection of structured, flexible SMBG patterns that can be tailored to the clinical, educational, behavioral, and financial requirements of individuals with diabetes.

  13. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  14. Cluster-randomized trial of a mobile phone personalized behavioral intervention for blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene C; Shardell, Michelle D; Terrin, Michael L; Barr, Erik A; Ballew, Shoshana H; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L

    2011-09-01

    To test whether adding mobile application coaching and patient/provider web portals to community primary care compared with standard diabetes management would reduce glycated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cluster-randomized clinical trial, the Mobile Diabetes Intervention Study, randomly assigned 26 primary care practices to one of three stepped treatment groups or a control group (usual care). A total of 163 patients were enrolled and included in analysis. The primary outcome was change in glycated hemoglobin levels over a 1-year treatment period. Secondary outcomes were changes in patient-reported diabetes symptoms, diabetes distress, depression, and other clinical (blood pressure) and laboratory (lipid) values. Maximal treatment was a mobile- and web-based self-management patient coaching system and provider decision support. Patients received automated, real-time educational and behavioral messaging in response to individually analyzed blood glucose values, diabetes medications, and lifestyle behaviors communicated by mobile phone. Providers received quarterly reports summarizing patient's glycemic control, diabetes medication management, lifestyle behaviors, and evidence-based treatment options. The mean declines in glycated hemoglobin were 1.9% in the maximal treatment group and 0.7% in the usual care group, a difference of 1.2% (P = 0.001) [corrected] over 12 months. Appreciable differences were not observed between groups for patient-reported diabetes distress, depression, diabetes symptoms, or blood pressure and lipid levels (all P > 0.05). The combination of behavioral mobile coaching with blood glucose data, lifestyle behaviors, and patient self-management data individually analyzed and presented with evidence-based guidelines to providers substantially reduced glycated hemoglobin levels over 1 year.

  15. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakmak HA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Altug Cakmak,1 Burcu Dincgez Cakmak,2 Ayse Ender Yumru,3 Serkan Aslan,4 Asim Enhos,1 Ali Kemal Kalkan,4 Ebru Inci Coskun,5 Abdullah Serdar Acikgoz,6 Suat Karatas3 1Department of Cardiology, Mustafakemalpasa Government Hospital, Bursa, 2Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Rize Kackar Government Hospital, Rize, 3Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Inonu University, Malatya, 6Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups.Results: Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003, and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001 were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001, and

  17. Institutional point-of-care glucometer identifies population trends in blood glucose associated with war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Matas, Zipora; Chaimy, Tova; Landau, Zohar; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Berlovitz, Yitzhak; Wainstein, Julio

    2013-11-01

    Acute physiological stress has been shown to impair glucose homeostasis. War is a period of acute psychological stress, and its effect on glucose control is unknown. In this study random point-of-care (POC) glucose levels were measured using an automated, institutional glucometer in hospitalized adult patients prior to versus during the Israeli Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012). Random POC glucose values measured with the institutional blood glucose monitoring system were obtained 1 week prior to the Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012) and compared with values to those obtained during the first 4 days of the war (November 14-17, 2012). In total, 3,573 POC glucose measures were included: 1,865 during the pre-war period and 1,708 during the campaign. POC glucose measures were significantly higher during the war compared with the week preceding the war: 9.7±4.7 versus 9.3±4.2 mmol/L (P=0.02). In a general linear model, period (pre-war vs. during war) persisted as a significant predictor of POC glucose even after controlling for age, sex, and department type (internal medicine vs. surgical). Acute stress, such as a wartime situation, is associated with a significant increase in random blood glucose values in a population of hospitalized adults. Long-term follow-up of the individuals hospitalized during these two periods can reveal differences in morbidity and mortality trends.

  18. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  19. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  20. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  1. Examination of liver and muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... consist 1% of the total body weight. This source is sufficient to provide the energy need for a .... Atlantic salmon consists 0.5 to 9.5% of the liver weight. Ali and Jauncey (2005) stated that liver glycogen ..... Plasma glucose and liver glycogen of. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to petrol. J. Fish. Int.

  2. Accuracy of devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose: A stochastic error model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, M; Facchinetti, A; Sparacino, G; Cobelli, C

    2015-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) devices are portable systems that allow measuring glucose concentration in a small drop of blood obtained via finger-prick. SMBG measurements are key in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, e.g. for tuning insulin dosing. A reliable model of SMBG accuracy would be important in several applications, e.g. in in silico design and optimization of insulin therapy. In the literature, the most used model to describe SMBG error is the Gaussian distribution, which however is simplistic to properly account for the observed variability. Here, a methodology to derive a stochastic model of SMBG accuracy is presented. The method consists in dividing the glucose range into zones in which absolute/relative error presents constant standard deviation (SD) and, then, fitting by maximum-likelihood a skew-normal distribution model to absolute/relative error distribution in each zone. The method was tested on a database of SMBG measurements collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (Lifescan Inc., Milpitas, CA). In particular, two zones were identified: zone 1 (BG≤75 mg/dl) with constant-SD absolute error and zone 2 (BG>75mg/dl) with constant-SD relative error. Mean and SD of the identified skew-normal distributions are, respectively, 2.03 and 6.51 in zone 1, 4.78% and 10.09% in zone 2. Visual predictive check validation showed that the derived two-zone model accurately reproduces SMBG measurement error distribution, performing significantly better than the single-zone Gaussian model used previously in the literature. This stochastic model allows a more realistic SMBG scenario for in silico design and optimization of T1D insulin therapy.

  3. Blood glucose control in the intensive care unit: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Jan; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal blood glucose levels are common during critical illness and are associated with outcomes that correspond to a J-shaped curve, the lowest risk associated with normoglycemia. Three proof-of-concept randomized-controlled-trials performed in the surgical, medical, and pediatric intensive care units of the Leuven University Hospital in Belgium demonstrated that maintaining strict age-adjusted normal fasting levels of glycemia (80-110 mg/dl in adults, 70-100 mg/dl in children, 50-80 mg/dl in infants) with intensive insulin therapy reduced morbidity and mortality as compared with tolerating stress hyperglycemia as a potentially beneficial response. Recently, concern has risen about the safety of this intervention, as a multicenter adult study reported an, as yet unexplained, increased mortality with targeting normoglycemia as compared with an intermediate blood glucose level of around 140 mg/dl. This apparent contradiction may be explained by several methodological differences among studies, comprising, among others, different glucose target ranges in the control groups, different feeding policies, and variable accuracy of tools used for glucose measurement and insulin infusion. Hence, efficacy and safety of intensive insulin therapy may be affected by patient-related and ICU setting-related variables. Therefore, no single optimal blood glucose target range for ICU patients can be advocated. It appears safe not to embark on targeting "age-normal" levels in intensive care units (ICUs) that are not equipped to accurately and frequently measure blood glucose, and have not acquired extensive experience with intravenous insulin administration using a customized guideline. A simple fallback position could be to control blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible without evoking unacceptable blood glucose fluctuations, hypoglycemia, and hypokalemia.

  4. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days.

  5. On the suitability of refractometry for the analysis of glucose in blood-derived fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirk, K; Poetzschke, H

    2004-07-01

    Refractometry is the determination of the optical refractive index of a substance or a mixture of substances. It is a very sensitive method for the detection and quantification of dissolved analytes, but it is incapable of distinguishing between different analytes. The aim of this investigation was to determine the principle suitability of refractometry for the quantification of glucose (blood sugar) in blood and various blood fluids which can readily be obtained for medical diagnosis, in particular blood plasma, blood serum, and their ultrafiltrates. After the oral intake of freshly dissolved alpha-glucose, the in vivo blood contents of the alpha and beta anomers of glucose were found to be in an at least approximate equilibrium at all times. This observation is a prerequisite for a refractometrical determination of glucose due to the fact that both molecule forms have different refractive index increments. An assessment of the glucose content in untreated blood fluids was not possible, since no suitable relationship to the refractive index was found, most probably due to the influence of the many other substances present in blood on this parameter. However, after removal of certain macromolecules by ultrafiltration, value pairs showed a high level of correlation, providing the nominal molecular weight limit (cut-off) of the ultrafilter used possessed a maximum of 300 kDa. Besides macromolecules, the osmolality of the fluids undergoing measurement also proved to be a considerable interfering factor, particularly when values were outside the normal physiological range between 285 and 293 mmol/L. If a clinical application of this method is to be contemplated it is imperative (1) that blood cells are separated and removed, (2) that macromolecules present in plasma or serum are removed, e.g. by ultrafiltration, and (3) that beyond the results presented the influence of all small molecules other than glucose on the overall refractive index be determined and included in

  6. Quality assessment of patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose in community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjome RL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate diabetes patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose using a community pharmacy-based quality assurance procedure, to investigate whether the procedure improved the quality of the patient performance of self monitoring of blood glucose, and to examine the opinions of the patients taking part in the study. Methods: The results of patient blood glucose measurements were compared to the results obtained with HemoCue Glucose 201+ by pharmacy employees in 16 Norwegian community pharmacies. Patient performance was monitored using an eight item checklist. Patients whose blood glucose measurements differed from pharmacy measurements by more than 20% were instructed in the correct use of their glucometer. The patients then re-measured their blood glucose. If the results were still outside the set limits, the control procedure was repeated with a new lot of glucometer strips, and then with a new glucometer. The patients returned for a follow-up visit after three months. Results: During the first visit, 5% of the 338 patients had measurements that deviated from pharmacy blood glucose values by more than 20% and user errors were observed for 50% of the patients. At the second visit, there was no significant change in the analytical quality of patient measurements, but the percentage of patients who made user errors had decreased to 29% (p < 0.001. Eighty-five percent of the patients reported that they used their blood glucose results to adjust medication, exercise or meals. Fifty-one percent of the patients reported a greater trust in their measurements after the second visit. Eighty percent of patients wished to have their measurements assessed yearly. Of these patients, 83% preferred to have the assessment done at the community pharmacy. Conclusion: A community pharmacy-based quality assessment procedure of patients’ self monitoring of blood glucose significantly reduced the number of user errors. The analytical quality of the

  7. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  8. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : Professional Advice and Daily Practice of Patients With Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; van der Bijl, Jaap J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the advice given by diabetes educators in Europe, and the daily practice of Dutch patients with diabetes regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood and other aspects concerning self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Method During a diabetes conference in

  9. A tripeptide Diapin effectively lowers blood glucose levels in male type 2 diabetes mice by increasing blood levels of insulin and GLP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is rapidly increasing worldwide. Effective therapies, such as insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, require injections, which are costly and result in less patient compliance. Here, we report the identification of a tripeptide with significant potential to treat T2D. The peptide, referred to as Diapin, is comprised of three natural L-amino acids, GlyGlyLeu. Glucose tolerance tests showed that oral administration of Diapin effectively lowered blood glucose after oral glucose loading in both normal C57BL/6J mice and T2D mouse models, including KKay, db/db, ob/ob mice, and high fat diet-induced obesity/T2D mice. In addition, Diapin treatment significantly reduced casual blood glucose in KKay diabetic mice in a time-dependent manner without causing hypoglycemia. Furthermore, we found that plasma GLP-1 and insulin levels in diabetic models were significantly increased with Diapin treatment compared to that in the controls. In summary, our findings establish that a peptide with minimum of three amino acids can improve glucose homeostasis and Diapin shows promise as a novel pharmaceutical agent to treat patients with T2D through its dual effects on GLP-1 and insulin secretion.

  10. Impact of streptozotocin on altering normal glucose homeostasis during insulin testing in diabetic rats compared to normoglycemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinna, Nidal A; Badwan, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is currently the most used diabetogenic agent in testing insulin and new antidiabetic drugs in animals. Due to the toxic and disruptive nature of STZ on organs, apart from pancreas, involved in preserving the body’s normal glucose homeostasis, this study aims to reassess the action of STZ in inducing different glucose response states in diabetic rats while testing insulin. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ were classified according to their initial blood glucose levels into stages. The effect of randomizing rats in such a manner was investigated for the severity of interrupting normal liver, pancreas, and kidney functions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of subcutaneously injected insulin in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were compared. Interruption of glucose homeostasis by STZ was challenged by single and repeated administrations of injected insulin and oral glucose to diabetic rats. In diabetic rats with high glucose (451–750 mg/dL), noticeable changes were seen in the liver and kidney functions compared to rats with lower basal glucose levels. Increased serum levels of recombinant human insulin were clearly indicated by a significant increase in the calculated maximum serum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve. Reversion of serum glucose levels to normal levels pre- and postinsulin and oral glucose administrations to STZ diabetic rats were found to be variable. In conclusion, diabetic animals were more responsive to insulin than nondiabetic animals. STZ was capable of inducing different levels of normal glucose homeostasis disruption in rats. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of insulin were altered when different initial blood glucose levels of STZ diabetic rats were selected for testing. Such findings emphasize the importance of selecting predefined and unified glucose levels when using STZ as a diabetogenic agent in experimental protocols evaluating new antidiabetic agents

  11. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... and metabolism was originally performed using the Kety-Schmidt method and this method still represent the gold standard by which subsequent methods have been evaluated. However, in its classical setting, the method overestimates cerebral blood flow. Studies of metabolic changes during activation must take...... difficulties due to limitation in resolution and partial volume effects. In contrast to the tight coupling between regional glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow, there is an uncoupling between flow and oxygen consumption as the latter only increases to a limited extend. The excess glucose uptake is thus...

  12. Comparative effectiveness of 50g glucose challenge test and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Gestational diabeles mellitus (GDM) complicates 3- 5% of pregnancies. Prompt diagnosis helps to prevent its subsequent complications and one-step effective screening method is desirable for our environment. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of 50g glucose challenge test (GCT) with risk factors alone in ...

  13. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycolysis in the control of blood glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Guo; Honggui Li; Hang Xu; Shihlung Woo; Hui Dong; Fuer Lu; Alex J. Lange; Chaodong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Glycolysis, a simple pathway of glucose metabolism, critically regulates insulin secretion and metabolic functions of various cells. Depending on cell types, rates of glycolysis are determined at various steps of glycolysis that are subjected to the control of key metabolic and regulatory enzyme(s), which include glucokinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. These enzymes are regulated by both nutritional and hormonal signals at the levels of...

  15. Effects of exposure to malathion on blood glucose concentration: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Vargas, Marco Antonio; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Uriostegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Alvarez-Fitz, Patricia; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Moreno-Godinez, Ma Elena

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to malathion (an organophosphate pesticide widely used around the world) has been associated with alterations in blood glucose concentration in animal models. However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether malathion exposure can disturb the concentrations of blood glucose in exposed rats. We performed a literature search of online databases including PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar and reviewed original articles that analyzed the relation between malathion exposure and glucose levels in animal models. The selection of articles was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The database search identified thirty-five possible articles, but only eight fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The effect of malathion on blood glucose concentration showed a non-monotonic dose-response curve. In addition, pooled analysis showed that blood glucose concentrations were 3.3-fold higher in exposed rats than in the control group (95% CI, 2-5; Z = 3.9; p < 0.0001) in a random-effect model. This result suggested that alteration of glucose homeostasis is a possible mechanism of toxicity associated with exposure to malathion.

  16. Dapagliflozin-lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrand, Annika; Wingren, Cecilia; Benjamin, Audra; Tregoning, John S; Garnett, James P; Groves, Helen; Gill, Simren; Orogo-Wenn, Maria; Lundqvist, Anders J; Walters, Dafydd; Smith, David M; Taylor, John D; Baker, Emma H; Baines, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti-diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid-filled lung technique. Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Mathematical modelling of the intravenous glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gaetano, A; Arino, O

    2000-02-01

    Several attempts at building a satisfactory model of the glucose-insulin system are recorded in the literature. The minimal model, which is the model currently mostly used in physiological research on the metabolism of glucose, was proposed in the early eighties for the interpretation of the glucose and insulin plasma concentrations following the intravenous glucose tolerance test. It is composed of two parts: the first consists of two differential equations and describes the glucose plasma concentration time-course treating insulin plasma concentration as a known forcing function; the second consists of a single equation and describes the time course of plasma insulin concentration treating glucose plasma concentration as a known forcing function. The two parts are to be separately estimated on the available data. In order to study glucose-insulin homeostasis as a single dynamical system, a unified model would be desirable. To this end, the simple coupling of the original two parts of the minimal model is not appropriate, since it can be shown that, for commonly observed combinations of parameter values, the coupled model would not admit an equilibrium and the concentration of active insulin in the "distant" compartment would be predicted to increase without bounds. For comparison, a simple delay-differential model is introduced, is demonstrated to be globally asymptotically stable around a unique equilibrium point corresponding to the pre-bolus conditions, and is shown to have positive and bounded solutions for all times. The results of fitting the delay-differential model to experimental data from ten healthy volunteers are also shown. It is concluded that a global unified model is both theoretically desirable and practically usable, and that any such model ought to undergo formal analysis to establish its appropriateness and to exclude conflicts with accepted physiological notions.

  18. Glycolysis in the control of blood glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycolysis, a simple pathway of glucose metabolism, critically regulates insulin secretion and metabolic functions of various cells. Depending on cell types, rates of glycolysis are determined at various steps of glycolysis that are subjected to the control of key metabolic and regulatory enzyme(s, which include glucokinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. These enzymes are regulated by both nutritional and hormonal signals at the levels of transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. In hepatocytes, glycolysis is involved in the control of hepatic glucose production. The latter, when excessive, contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. In pancreatic β cells, glycolysis couples glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Absolute or relatively low levels of circulating insulin causes hyperglycemia. In adipocytes, glycolysis generates metabolites for lipogenesis and channels fatty acids from excessive oxidation to triglyceride synthesis, thereby reducing oxidative stress. With increased proinflammatory status, adipocytes produce pro-hyperglycemic factors and bring about hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In hypothalamic neurons, glycolysis conveys nutrient sensing that is related to feeding control. Dysregulation of glycolysis occurs in conditions of insulin deficiency or resistance, and is attributable to inappropriate amount and/or activities of metabolic and regulatory enzymes of glycolysis. Targeting key metabolic and regulatory enzymes to enhance glycolysis may offer viable approaches for treatment of diabetes.

  19. The Role of Untimed Blood Glucose in Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a High Prevalent Diabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cuschieri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global prevalence increase of diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes (GDM has led to increased awareness and screening of pregnant women for GDM. Ideally screening for GDM should be done by an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT, which is laborious and time consuming. A randomized glucose test incorporated with anthropomorphic characteristics may be an appropriate cost-effective combined clinical and biochemical screening protocol for clinical practice as well as cutting down on oGTTs. A retrospective observational study was performed on a randomized sample of pregnant women who required an OGTT during their pregnancy. Biochemical and anthropomorphic data along with obstetric outcomes were statistically analyzed. Backward stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics curves were used to obtain a suitable predictor for GDM without an oGTT and formulate a screening protocol. Significant GDM predictive variables were fasting blood glucose (p=0.0001 and random blood glucose (p=0.012. Different RBG and FBG cutoff points with anthropomorphic characteristics were compared to carbohydrate metabolic status to diagnose GDM without oGTT, leading to a screening protocol. A screening protocol incorporating IADPSG diagnostic criteria, BMI, and different RBG and FBG criteria would help predict GDM among high-risk populations earlier and reduce the need for oGTT test.

  20. Effect of decrease in both postprandial blood glucose (PBG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in normal beagle dogs with nateglinide enteric coated granules and immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Chisato; Ninomiya, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hidetoshi; Orita, Haruo; Okano, Akira; Yabuki, Akira

    2006-04-01

    Nateglinide is a new quick action/short duration (QRSD) type of oral blood glucose regulator, and nateglinide immediate release tablets are used for patients with mild diabetes under the trade name of Fastic((R)) tablets. In this study, we attempted to determine if it was possible to control both post-prandial blood glucose level (PBG) and fasting blood glucose level (FBG) for moderate or severe diabetes through controlled release of nateglinide. Enteric coated granules were selected for the administration form for controlled release of nateglinide, and three types of enteric coated granules were prepared having dissolution pH values of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.2. The three types of enteric coated granules were each administered separately or the enteric coated granules having an dissolution pH of 6.5 were administered simultaneous to administration of nateglinide immediate release tablets to normal beagle dogs just before feeding followed by measurement of plasma nateglinide concentration, plasma insulin concentration and blood glucose level. In the case of administering enteric coated granules alone (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), the absorption of nateglinide was confirmed to tend to be delayed as the dissolution pH increased. In the case of an dissolution pH of 5.5, decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed. In the case of dissolution pH values of 6.5 and 7.2, only decrease in FBG was observed. In case of nateglinide immediate release tablets (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), only decrease in PBG was observed. Decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed in the case of simultaneous administration of dissolution pH 6.5 enteric coated granules and nateglinide immediate release tablets just before feeding (nateglinide: 90 mg/head+60 mg/head). A correlation was observed between plasma nateglinide concentrations and blood glucose levels. On the other hand, there were no correlations observed between changes in plasma insulin concentrations and blood glucose levels. In case of nateglinide

  1. Investigation on how to choose measurement sites for non-invasive near-infrared blood glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zou, Da; Min, Xiaolin; Ma, Zhenhe; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    With the changing of human diet and the future of an aging society, the number of diabetic patients is growing rapidly and steadily. The major therapeutic method to that disease is monitoring the blood glucose concentration frequently to adjust the dose of the drugs and insulin. In order to avoid the painful finger prick, we choose the ear lobe as a measurement site with finger as a reference. Firstly, we compare the blood glucose concentration results of ear lobe and finger during an oral glucose tolerance test, the results showed a good correlation of the two sites. Secondly, the three-layered skin structure of finger and ear lobe has been studied by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. The result shows that the thickness of each layer at ear lobe is thinner. Finally, the difference between reflectance spectra of finger and ear lobe is compared due to the diverse skin thickness. The results still show a higher absorbance value for ear lobe. In conclusion, the ear lobe is an ideal measurement site for noninvasive blood glucose sensing.

  2. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  3. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  4. Blood glucose monitoring in type 2 diabetes – Nepalese patients’ opinions and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Sujata; Brien, Jo-anne E; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Blood glucose monitoring forms a vital component of diabetes care. Monitoring conducted at home using glucometers, and in laboratories by professionals, are two common methods of blood glucose monitoring in clinical practice. Objective: To investigate Nepalese patients’ perceptions and practices of blood glucose monitoring in diabetes. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 48 Nepalese participants with type 2 diabetes in Sydney and Kathmandu. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Results: In Australia, most participants perceived home monitoring as useful; and both home and laboratory monitoring were conducted at fairly regular intervals. In Nepal, only a small number conducted home monitoring and the laboratory method formed the primary method of day-to-day monitoring. The laboratory method was preferred due to easy access to laboratories, lack of faith in glucometers and perceptions that home monitoring is costlier. However, overall monitoring was irregular in Nepal. In addition to the healthcare system which enabled cheaper self-monitoring in Australia, Nepalese in Australia also tended to have a better understanding about the purpose of home monitoring. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the disparity in perceptions and practices related to blood glucose monitoring. Understanding the importance of blood glucose monitoring and access to affordable resources are critical facilitators for conducting regular monitoring. Both patient and health-system factors play a key role in ensuring continued diabetes monitoring and management. PMID:28585892

  5. Conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. Primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in dogs. After an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with [U-14C]glucose (16.9 muCi/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 ± 0.03 mM at basal to a peak of 1.04 ± 0.07 mM at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 ± 0.07 mM at 240 min. Arterial blood 14 Clactate peaked at 60 min and then decreased to ∼ 35% of the peak at 4 h. When arterial blood lactate peaked at 45 min, the proportion of arterial lactate that was derived from oral glucose was 34 ± 3%. The integrated area under the curve of lactate derived from exogenous glucose was 40 ± 2% of that of total lactate. The splanchnic bed released lactate and 14 Clactate during the initial 2 h after oral 14 Cglucose. Thus, the splanchnic bed apparently contributed to the conversion of exogenous glucose to lactate. In the matched experiments (protocol 2, n = 5), dogs were given the same amount of oral glucose but no 14 Cglucose, and [U-14C]lactate was infused into the right atrium to match the splanchnic 14 Clactate release from the first experiment. Despite a well-matched splanchnic 14 Clactate contribution, arterial concentrations of 14 Clactate were markedly lower in protocol 2 compared with protocol 1. The integrated area under the 14 Clactate profile in protocol 2 was only 11 ± 1% of that in protocol 1. These results indicate that the splanchnic bed is responsible for only 11% of arterial blood lactate that was derived from oral glucose. They concluded that (1) after oral glucose loading, a major portion of circulating lactate has its origin not in exogenous glucose but in endogenous sources, and (2) the splanchnic bed is not the major site of oral glucose conversion to lactate after glucose ingestion

  6. Use of a Connected Glucose Meter and Certified Diabetes Educator Coaching to Decrease the Likelihood of Abnormal Blood Glucose Excursions: The Livongo for Diabetes Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Janelle; Bollyky, Jenna; Schneider, Jennifer

    2017-07-11

    The Livongo for Diabetes Program offers members (1) a cellular technology-enabled, two-way messaging device that measures blood glucose (BG), centrally stores the glucose data, and delivers messages back to the individual in real time; (2) unlimited BG test strips; and (3) access to a diabetes coaching team for questions, goal setting, and automated support for abnormal glucose excursions. The program is sponsored by at-risk self-insured employers, health plans and provider organizations where it is free to members with diabetes or it is available directly to the person with diabetes where they cover the cost. The objective of our study was to evaluate BG data from 4544 individuals with diabetes who were enrolled in the Livongo program from October 2014 through December 2015. Members used the Livongo glucose meter to measure their BG levels an average of 1.8 times per day. We estimated the probability of having a day with a BG reading outside of the normal range (70-180 mg/dL, or 3.9-10.0 mmol/L) in months 2 to 12 compared with month 1 of the program, using individual fixed effects to control for individual characteristics. Livongo members experienced an average 18.4% decrease in the likelihood of having a day with hypoglycemia (BG 180 mg/dL) in months 2-12 compared with month 1 as the baseline. The biggest impact was seen on hyperglycemia for nonusers of insulin. We do not know all of the contributing factors such as medication or other treatment changes during the study period. These findings suggest that access to a connected glucose meter and certified diabetes educator coaching is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of abnormal glucose excursions, which can lead to diabetes-related health care savings. ©Janelle Downing, Jenna Bollyky, Jennifer Schneider. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.

  7. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  8. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Methods Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a represen...

  9. Automated blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes: A review of progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertachi, Arthur; Ramkissoon, Charrise M; Bondia, Jorge; Vehí, Josep

    2018-03-01

    Since the 2000s, research teams worldwide have been working to develop closed-loop (CL) systems able to automatically control blood glucose (BG) levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. This emerging technology is known as artificial pancreas (AP), and its first commercial version just arrived in the market. The main objective of this paper is to present an extensive review of the clinical trials conducted since 2011, which tested various implementations of the AP for different durations under varying conditions. A comprehensive table that contains key information from the selected publications is provided, and the main challenges in AP development and the mitigation strategies used are discussed. The development timelines for different AP systems are also included, highlighting the main evolutions over the clinical trials for each system. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva R B; Pussinen, Christel; Danielson, Kristin; Djurisic, Snezana; Eilertsen, Heidi; Garabet, Lamya; Greibe, Eva; Lauritzen, Trine; Olsen, Dorte A; Othman, Suher; Palimaru, Irina; Westerlund, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio(®). The OneTouch Verio(®) was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio(®) by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio(®) system). Results were compared to a validated routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio(®) showed no hematocrit interference or variation between strip lots. The OneTouch Verio(®) displayed sufficient analytical quality and satisfactory user-friendliness. It is suitable for point-of-care testing of blood glucose concentration when handled by patients and healthcare professionals.

  11. GLP-1 analog raises glucose transport capacity of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, M.; Brock, B.; Egefjord, L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Glucose enters the brain tissue from plasma by facilitated diffusion across the two membranes of the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). There is evidence in Alzheimer's disease (AD) of reduction of glucose transport across...... the blood-brain barrier, due to diminished GLUT1 translocation and expression at the BBB. Reduced BBB GLUT1 expression is known to aggravate AD pathology and further impair cognitive function, implying that GLUT1 may be a potential target of therapy directed towards AD neurovascular dysfunction...... and degeneration. Hypothesis: The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution in AD, and GLP-1 may directly activate GLUT1 transport in brain capillary endothelium. For this reason, we here...

  12. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet : blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood

  13. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W

    2016-05-01

    Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled "Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program" is attached as supplementary material. This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Increasing blood glucose variability is a precursor of sepsis and mortality in burned patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N Pisarchik

    Full Text Available High glycemic variability, rather than a mean glucose level, is an important factor associated with sepsis and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. In this retrospective study we analyze the blood glucose data of 172 nondiabetic patients 18-60 yrs old with second and third-degree burns of total body surface area greater than 30% and 5%, respectively, admitted to ICU in 2004-2008. The analysis identified significant association of increasing daily glucose excursion (DELTA accompanied by evident episodes of hyperglycemia (>11 mmol/l and hypoglycemia (<2.8 mmol/l, with sepsis and forthcoming death, even when the mean daily glucose was within a range of acceptable glycemia. No association was found in sepsis complication and hospital mortality with doses of intravenous insulin and glucose infusion. A strong increase in DELTA before sepsis and death is treated as fluctuation amplification near the onset of dynamical instability.

  16. Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Valera, Beatriz; Nielsen, Nina O; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2015-11-01

    The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c-peptide were measured in blood. Fasting participants without diabetes were classified into normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glycemia, or type 2 diabetes. We calculated hepatic insulin resistance with homoeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance index, peripheral insulin sensitivity by ISI0,120., and relative beta cell function by c-peptide/insulin ratio. We conducted adjusted linear- and logistic regression analyses. For an increase in whole blood mercury of 5 µg/L we found a positive association with fasting glucose [% change=0.25 (95% CI: 0.20; 0.30); p<0.001], and 2-h glucose [% change=0.23 (95% CI: 0.05; 0.40); p=0.01]. Mercury was weakly associated with impaired fasting glycemia [OR=1.03 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.05)], and type 2 diabetes [OR=1.02 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.04)]. While the study found a weak but statistically significant association between whole blood mercury and both impaired fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes, no associations were found with measures of underlying disturbances in glucose homoeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronotopic and blood pressure response to oral glucose load in chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Guariento

    Full Text Available Cardiac chronotropic and pressor responses after an oral load of glucose were assessed in sixteen Chagasic subjects and 28 controls by means of blood pressure and pulse rate measurements. Cardiovascular response was correlated with serum insulin and glucose levels. The experiment identified a subgroup of Chagasic subjects (n=8 with a hypoinsulinemic behavior presenting less chronotropic and pressor responses than controls. This may indicate a lower insulin activity and/or an early Autonomic Nervous System dysfunction in this subgroup.

  18. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  19. Assessment of blood glucose predictors: the prediction-error grid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivananthan, Sampath; Naumova, Valeriya; Man, Chiara Dalla; Facchinetti, Andrea; Renard, Eric; Cobelli, Claudio; Pereverzyev, Sergei V

    2011-08-01

    Prediction of the future blood glucose (BG) evolution from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data is a promising direction in diabetes therapy management, and several glucose predictors have recently been proposed. This raises the problem of their assessment. There were attempts to use for such assessment the continuous glucose-error grid analysis (CG-EGA), originally developed for CGM devices. However, in the CG-EGA the BG rate of change is estimated from past BG readings, whereas predictors provide BG estimation ahead of time. Therefore, the original CG-EGA should be modified to assess predictors. Here we propose a new version of the CG-EGA, the Prediction-Error Grid Analysis (PRED-EGA). The analysis is based both on simulated data and on data from clinical trials, performed in the European FP7-project "DIAdvisor." Simulated data are used to test the ability of the analyzed CG-EGA modifications to capture erroneous predictions in controlled situation. Real data are used to show the impact of the different CG-EGA versions in the evaluation of a predictor. Using the data of 10 virtual and 10 real subjects and analyzing two different predictors, we demonstrate that the straightforward application of the CG-EGA does not adequately classify the prediction performance. For example, we observed that up to 70% of 20 min ahead predictions in the hyperglycemia region that are classified by this application as erroneous are, in fact, accurate. Moreover, for predictions during hypoglycemia the assessments produced by the straightforward application of the CG-EGA are not only too pessimistic (in up to 60% of cases), but this version is not able to detect real erroneous predictions. In contrast, the proposed modification of the CG-EGA, where the rate of change is estimated on the predicted BG profile, is an adequate metric for the assessment of predictions. We propose a new CG-EGA, the PRED-EGA, for the assessment of glucose predictors. The presented analysis shows that

  20. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003458.htm Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme GGT in ...