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Sample records for blood glucose measurement

  1. Self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements and glycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intensive diabetes management requires intensive insulin treatment and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurements to obtain immediate information on the status of the blood glucose level and to obtain data for pattern analysis on which meal planning, insulin and lifestyle adjustments can be ...

  2. Comparison of a human portable blood glucose meter, veterinary portable blood glucose meter, and automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Beth M; Fry, Michael M; Flatland, Bente; Kirk, Claudia A

    2009-12-01

    To compare blood glucose concentrations measured with 2 portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) validated for use in dogs (PBGM-D) and humans (PBGM-H) and an automated chemistry analyzer. Validation study. 92 samples of fresh whole blood and plasma from 83 dogs with various diseases. Each PBGM was used to measure whole blood glucose concentration, and the automated analyzer was used to measure plasma glucose concentration. Passing-Bablok linear regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine correlations and bias between the PBGMs and the automated analyzer. Calculated acceptability limits based on combined inherent instrument imprecision were used with Bland-Altman plots to determine agreement. Clinical relevance was assessed via error grid analysis. Although correlation between results of both PBGMs and the standard analyzer was > 0.90, disagreement was greater than could be explained by instrument imprecision alone. Mean difference between PBGM-H and chemistry-analyzer values was -15.8 mg/dL. Mean difference between PBGM-D and chemistry-analyzer values was 2.4 mg/dL. Linear regression analysis revealed proportional bias of PBGM-H (greater disagreement at higher glucose concentrations); no proportional bias was detected for PBGM-D. No constant bias was detected for either PBGM. Error grid analysis revealed all measurements from both PBGMs were within zones without an anticipated effect on clinical outcome. Neither PBGM had exact agreement with the automated analyzer; however, the disagreement detected did not have serious clinical consequences. Our findings stressed the importance of using the same device for monitoring trends in dogs and using instrument-specific reference ranges.

  3. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  4. A Model of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, Martina; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    A reliable model of the probability density function (PDF) of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurement error would be important for several applications in diabetes, like testing in silico insulin therapies. In the literature, the PDF of SMBG error is usually described by a Gaussian function, whose symmetry and simplicity are unable to properly describe the variability of experimental data. Here, we propose a new methodology to derive more realistic models of SMBG error PDF. The blood glucose range is divided into zones where error (absolute or relative) presents a constant standard deviation (SD). In each zone, a suitable PDF model is fitted by maximum-likelihood to experimental data. Model validation is performed by goodness-of-fit tests. The method is tested on two databases collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (OTU2; Lifescan Inc, Milpitas, CA) and the Bayer Contour Next USB (BCN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ). In both cases, skew-normal and exponential models are used to describe the distribution of errors and outliers, respectively. Two zones were identified: zone 1 with constant SD absolute error; zone 2 with constant SD relative error. Goodness-of-fit tests confirmed that identified PDF models are valid and superior to Gaussian models used so far in the literature. The proposed methodology allows to derive realistic models of SMBG error PDF. These models can be used in several investigations of present interest in the scientific community, for example, to perform in silico clinical trials to compare SMBG-based with nonadjunctive CGM-based insulin treatments.

  5. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Xu, Kexin; Chen, Limin; Lin, Yuan; Lu, Luo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin–borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations. (paper)

  6. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...... fluoride (NaF) in combination with potassium oxalate (KOx) are currently used for overcoming this drawback, their efficacy for stabilizing blood glucose is seemingly limited, and probably lower than that of newer additives such as the citrate buffer. Therefore, we performed a critical analysis...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  11. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  12. Insulin overlapping in whole blood FTIR spectroscopy in blood glucose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Cárdenas, G.; Sánchez-López, J. de D.; Luque, P. A.; Cosío-León, M.; Nieto-Hipólito, Juan I.; Vázquez-Briseño, Mabel

    For the last decade, several studies on mid-IR spectroscopy for blood glucose quantification have not considered the compounds involved in the glucose regulation mechanism, in which insulin plays an important role. This work shows how insulin overlaps in the same mid-IR region in which glucose is quantified. This optical absorption interference is an important factor to be considered for this type of studies, in the scope of whole blood modeling for spectroscopy applications and the possible use of computer based metrics.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  15. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

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  16. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of ... Doppler US is expensive and time consuming,.

  17. SPCE based glucose sensor employing novel thermostable glucose dehydrogenase, FADGDH: blood glucose measurement with 150nL sample in one second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Hideaki; Sode, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of the modern therapy for diabetes mellitus. Thanks to the current progress in electronics and sensor fabrication technology, both the time and the blood sample volume required for the measurement have decreased drastically. However, devices that work with an even smaller sample volume and a shorter measurement time are in demand. A disposable glucose sensor that works with an ultra-small sample volume was developed employing the novel thermostable glucose-dehydrogenase (FADGDH) complex composed of a catalytic subunit, an electron transfer subunit (cytochrome c), and a small subunit. The electrode is a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), and hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride (Ru complex) is utilized as the electron mediator. A disposable enzyme sensor was constructed by depositing the FADGDH complex and Ru complex onto the SPCE, and the sensor performance was evaluated. Whole-blood glucose can be measured within 1 sec using this enzyme sensor and a 150-nL whole-blood sample, with high precision (>0.99br>) and high reproducibility (CV) within the glucose concentration range of 0-533 mg/dL. The sensor reading was stable for more than 60 days even at 70 degrees C. The simplicity of the construction and the high precision of this FADGDH-based glucose biosensor makes it an alternative to previously reported commercially available glucose sensors. Especially the sample volume of 150 nL and the 1-sec measurement time are the highest specifications in the world for currently available glucose sensors designed for the SMBG.

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Successful microsurgical lip replantation: Monitoring venous congestion by blood glucose measurements in the replanted lip

    OpenAIRE

    Kazufumi Tachi; Masanori Mori; Reiko Tsukuura; Rintaro Hirai

    2018-01-01

    Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Dynamic Electrochemistry Corrects for Hematocrit Interference on Blood Glucose Determinations with Patient Self-Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musholt, Petra B; Schipper, Christina; Thomé, Nicole; Ramljak, Sanja; Schmidt, Marc; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that dynamic electrochemistry can be used to correct blood glucose measurement results for potentially interfering conditions, such as humidity, hematocrit (HCT) variations, and ascorbic acid. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the potential influence of hematocrit variations on a variety of blood glucose meters applying different measurement technologies. Methods Venous heparinized whole blood was drawn, immediately aliquoted, and manipulated to contain three different blood glucose concentrations (80, 155, and 310 mg/dl) and five different hematocrit levels (25%, 37%, 45%, 52%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured 8 times with the following devices: BGStar, Contour, Accu-Chek Aviva, Accu-Chek Aviva Nano, Breeze 2, Precision Xceed, OneTouch Ultra 2, OneTouch Verio, FreeStyle Freedom Lite, Glucocard G+, GlucoMen LX, GlucoMen GM, and StatStrip [point-of-care (POC) device]. Cobas (Roche Diagnostics, glucose hexokinase method) served as laboratory plasma reference method. Stability to hematocrit influence was assumed when less than 10% bias occurred between the highest and lowest hematocrit levels when analyzing mean deviations for all three glucose concentrations. Results Besides the POC StatStrip device, which is known to measure and correct for hematocrit (resulting in hematocrit variations occur in daily routine (e.g., because of smoking, exercise, hypermenorrhea, pregnancy, stay in mountains, and hemodialysis), our results may encourage use of meters with stable performance under these conditions. Dynamic electrochemistry as used in the BGStar device (sanofi-aventis) appears to be an effective technology to correct for potential hematocrit influence on the meter results. PMID:22027312

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  20. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Correlation between Blood Glucose Measured Using Glucometers and Enzymatic Laboratory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rasouli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is the most common chronic metabolic disease, with many complications including renal failure, blindness and non-traumatic amputation, so it is important to monitor and regulate blood glucose. Considering how easy home blood glucose monitoring is, we decided to evaluate the performance of two available glucometers for detection of blood glucose compared with standard laboratory methods.

     

    Methods: In this analytical study, we compared the capillary blood glucose levels of 60 volunteers with mean age of 32.8±9.6 years in Tabriz Mehr Laboratory as determined by test strips (two different Glucometers with venous blood glucose levels’ measurements by the enzymatic method (the standard laboratory kit. Data were analyzed using one way-ANOVA test, T-test, Pearson correlation and Bland and Altman plot.

     

    Results: The mean differences of No: 1 and No: 2 Glucometers with enzymatic laboratory method were 20.78±11.61 and 4.5±3.76mg/dl respectively. The one way ANOVA test indicated significant differences between three methods (p<0.05. Further Duncan's test revealed significant differences between two devices (p=0.001 and device No.1 and laboratory method (p=0.001; however, the differences between device No.2 and laboratory method were not statistically significant (p=0.83.

     

    Conclusion: According to the results, calibrating the devices with laboratory instruments in order to make major clinical decisions is recommended.

  1. Successful microsurgical lip replantation: Monitoring venous congestion by blood glucose measurements in the replanted lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Tachi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the replanted region. The patient presented to our hospital with an upper lip avulsion that was caused by a dog bite. The lip was replanted by the microvascular anastomoses of one artery and two veins using interposed vein grafts. The replanted lip showed signs of congestion on postoperative day one; exsanguination using medicinal leeches was attempted, while blood glucose levels were measured every three hours. Critical congestion, which did not occur in this patient, was defined as a blood glucose level lower than 40 mg/dL. Lip replantation was successful without any complications in this patient.

  2. Point-of-care blood glucose measurement errors overestimate hypoglycaemia rates in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Corl, Dawn; Onstad, Susan; Yin, Tom; Tylee, Tracy; Suhr, Louise; Thompson, Rachel E; Wisse, Brent E

    2015-02-01

    Hypoglycaemia is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and many hospitals have programmes to minimize hypoglycaemia rates. Recent studies have established the hypoglycaemic patient-day as a key metric and have published benchmark inpatient hypoglycaemia rates on the basis of point-of-care blood glucose data even though these values are prone to measurement errors. A retrospective, cohort study including all patients admitted to Harborview Medical Center Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during 2010 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate a quality improvement programme to reduce inappropriate documentation of point-of-care blood glucose measurement errors. Laboratory Medicine point-of-care blood glucose data and patient charts were reviewed to evaluate all episodes of hypoglycaemia. A quality improvement intervention decreased measurement errors from 31% of hypoglycaemic (measurement errors likely overestimates ICU hypoglycaemia rates and can be reduced by a quality improvement effort. The currently used hypoglycaemic patient-day metric does not evaluate recurrent or prolonged events that may be more likely to cause patient harm. The monitored patient-day as currently defined may not be the optimal denominator to determine inpatient hypoglycaemic risk. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  4. Influence of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Blood Samples on Measurement Performance in Glucose-Oxidase-Based Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Methods Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: pO2 ~70 mmHg, which is considered to be similar to pO2 in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG result at pO2 pO2 pO2 ≥150 mmHg. For both pO2 levels, relative differences of all tested GOx systems were significant (p pO2 values pO2 variations lead to clinically relevant BG measurement deviations in GOx systems, even in GOx systems that are not labeled as being oxygen sensitive. PMID:24351177

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  19. Capillary blood sampling from the ear of dogs and cats and use of portable meters to measure glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wess, G; Reusch, C

    2000-02-01

    Two new methods for collection of capillary blood from the ear of dogs and cats for the measurement of blood glucose concentration using portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are described. The first method uses a lancing device after pre-warming the ear, while the second employs a vacuum lancing device. Both methods generated blood drops of adequate size, although the latter method was faster and easier to perform. Accuracy of the two PBGMs was evaluated clinically and statistically. Although assessment of statistical accuracy revealed differences between the PBGMs and the reference method, all of the PBGM readings were within clinically acceptable ranges. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentration is easy to perform, inexpensive and fast. It may be used by owners to determine blood glucose concentrations at home, and could serve as a new tool for monitoring diabetic dogs and cats.

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Determination of NIR informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement using a Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Li, Yasheng; Bai, Xueqiong; Deng, Chengyang

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose measurement using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy relies on wavebands that provide reliable information about spectral absorption. In this study, we investigated wavebands which are informative for blood glucose in the NIR shortwave band (900˜1450 nm) and the first overtone band (1450˜1700 nm) through a specially designed NIR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), which featured a test fixture (where a sample or subject's finger could be placed) and all-reflective optics, except for a Michelson structure. Different concentrations of glucose solution and seven volunteers who had undergone oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were studied to acquire transmission spectra in the shortwave band and the first overtone band. Characteristic peaks of glucose absorption were identified from the spectra of glucose aqueous solution by second-order derivative processing. The wavebands linked to blood glucose were successfully estimated through spectra of the middle fingertip of OGTT participants by a simple linear regression and correlation coefficient. The light intensity difference showed that glucose absorption in the first overtone band was much more prominent than it was in the shortwave band. The results of the SLR model established from seven OGTTs in total on seven participants enabled a positive estimation of the glucose-linked wavelength. It is suggested that wavebands with prominent characteristic peaks, a high correlation coefficient between blood glucose and light intensity difference and a relatively low standard deviation of predicted values will be the most informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement methods. This work provides a guidance for waveband selection for the development of non-invasive NIR blood glucose measurement.

  5. Hematocrit Interference of Blood Glucose Meters for Patient Self-Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, Sanja; Lock, John Paul; Schipper, Christina; Musholt, Petra B.; Forst, Thomas; Lyon, Martha; Pfützner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Abnormal hematocrit levels may interfere with glucose readings of patient self-assessment blood glucose (BG) meters. The aim of this laboratory investigation was to assess the potential influence of hematocrit variations on a variety of BG meters applying different measurement technologies. Methods Venous heparinized blood was manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (50–90, 120–180, and 280–350 mg/dl) and five different hematocrit levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 65%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure (65–100 mmHg), each sample was measured (eight times) with the following devices: Accu-Chek® Aviva, Nano, and Active, Breeze®2 and Contour®, FreeStyle Freedom Lite®, GlucoDr. auto™, Glucofix® mio Plus, GlucoLab™, GlucoMen® LX Plus, Nova Max® Link, Nova Max® Plus, OneTouch® Ultra®2 and Verio®,On Call® Plus and Platinum, Optium Xceed®, Precision Xceed®, and TaiDoc Fora TD-4227. A YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer served as reference method. Stability to hematocrit influence was assumed, with hematocrit levels. Results Six of the investigated meters showed a stable performance in this investigation: Accu-Chek Active (7%), Glucofix mio Plus (5%), GlucoMen LX Plus (4%), NovaMax Plus (4%), Nova Max Link (7%), and OneTouch Verio (3%). All other meters failed this hematocrit interference test, with FreeStyle Freedom Lite (11%), and On Call Platinum (12%) being the better devices and On Call Plus (68%), GlucoLab (51%), TaiDoc Fora TD-4227 (39%), and Breeze 2 (38%) showing the worst performance. Conclusions Hematocrit may affect BG meter performance in daily routine. In case of interference, low hematocrit values (hematocrit interference. PMID:23439176

  6. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  7. A Comparative Study of Blood Glucose Measurements Using Glucometer Readings and the Standard Method in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torkaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders, associated with severe complications. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and screening of hypoglycemia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine a cut-off value for blood glucose level in glucometer readings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 newborns at risk of hypoglycemia, admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran, Iran in 2012; the subjects were selected via simple sampling. After obtaining informed consents from the newborns’ parents, 1 cc blood samples were sent to the laboratory for measuring the blood glucose level. Moreover, venous blood samples, as well as heel-stick blood samples, were obtained for glucometer measurements. Blood glucose measurements were used to determine the cut-off value by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and make comparisons with the diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia in the literature. Results: A total of 238 infants with the mean weight of 2869±821.9 g were enrolled in this study. The mean (±SD blood glucose levels were 65.1±22.9, 82.9±24.7, and 84.4±24.8 mg/dl, based on the standard laboratory method, glucometer reading of venous blood samples, and glucometer reading of heel-stick capillary blood samples, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for hypoglycemia was determined as 65 mg/dl, using glucometer-based assessment of heel-stick blood samples. Conclusion: The significant difference in blood glucose levels measured by the laboratory method and outpatient glucometer readings highlights the importance of a cut-off value for rapid assessment and control of blood glucose and timely detection of hypoglycemia. In fact, the cut-off value introduced in the present study could facilitate such measurements.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes in your diet ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  15. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentrations by pet owners: a new tool in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Martina; Wess, Gerhard; Reusch, Claudia E

    2002-01-01

    Recently a new method for capillary blood sampling from the ears of dogs and cats was described, which allows the measurement of glucose concentration by means of portable glucose meters. The authors of this report evaluated the suitability of this method for use by pet owners and the potential technical problems. The owners of seven healthy dogs and seven healthy cats were asked to perform two glucose curves (measuring blood glucose concentration every 2 hours for a total of 12 hours). All dog owners and three cat owners were able to perform a reliable blood glucose curve. The most frequently encountered problems were inadequate formation of a blood drop due to excessive digital pressure on the pinna, repeatedly depressing the plunger of the lancet device instead of allowing the negative pressure to slowly build up, and failure to fill the test strip up to the mark. The authors conclude that these steps of the procedure need to be stressed during technique demonstration and that home monitoring of blood glucose concentrations may serve as a new tool in the management of diabetic dogs and cats.

  17. Path modelling of antecedent of diabetes mellitus on blood glucose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Humaira'Abdul; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Azizan, Nor Azlinna; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the non-communicable diseases and public health problems facing the worldwide population that includes Malaysia. Hitherto, the prevalence of DM becomes worsening with an estimated of 3.4 million Malaysians are diabetes sufferers and expectedly increasing year by year. Thus, this study is of great importance by regressing the medical factors that affect the blood glucose level using structural equation modelling (SEM). The SEM with partial least squares (PLS) estimation was applied to a secondary data of 644 respondents, aged ≥ 18 years in Malaysia. The data were collected in 2011 by Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH). The variables under study are blood glucose level, cholesterol level (CL), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). From the modelling analysis, it showed that the cholesterol level (CL), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and waist circumference (WC) showed a positive significant relationship p diabetes mellitus among adults.

  18. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Brouwer, René

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the

  19. A preliminary verification of the floating reference measurement method for non-invasive blood glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiaolin; Liu, Rong; Fu, Bo; Xu, Kexin

    2017-06-01

    In the non-invasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the spectrum is highly susceptible to the unstable and complicated background variations from the human body and the environment. In in vitro analyses, background variations are usually corrected by the spectrum of a standard reference sample that has similar optical properties to the analyte of interest. However, it is hard to find a standard sample for the in vivo measurement. Therefore, the floating reference measurement method is proposed to enable relative measurements in vivo, where the spectra under some special source-detector distance, defined as the floating reference position, are insensitive to the changes in glucose concentration due to the absorption effect and scattering effect. Because the diffuse reflectance signals at the floating reference positions only reflect the information on background variations during the measurement, they can be used as the internal reference. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the floating reference positions in a semi-infinite turbid medium was discussed based on the steady-state diffusion equation and its analytical solutions in a semi-infinite turbid medium (under the extrapolated boundary conditions). Then, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations and in vitro experiments based on a custom-built continuous-moving spatially resolving double-fiber NIR measurement system, configured with two types of light source, a super luminescent diode (SLD) and a super-continuum laser, were carried out to verify the existence of the floating reference position in 5%, 10% and 20% Intralipid solutions. The results showed that the simulation values of the floating reference positions are close to the theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.3 mm in 1100-1320 nm. Great differences can be observed in 1340-1400 nm because the optical properties of Intralipid in this region don not satisfy the conditions of the steady

  20. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  1. Are Tubes Containing Sodium Fluoride Still Needed for the Measurement of Blood Glucose in Hospital Laboratory Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Al-Kharusi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare glucose values obtained using sodium flouride (NaF tubes and serum separation tubes (SST in a tertiary care hospital laboratory setting.  Methods: This study was conducted at the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman. During the study period (1 September–30 November 2013, 50 pairs (one NaF tube and one SST of patient’s blood specimens were randomly collected. Following separation of plasma (NaF tubes and serum (SST, glucose concentrations were measured by hexokinase assay using the Architect c8000. Fifteen pairs of these tubes were kept in the refrigerator at 4°C and plasma/serum glucose concentrations were measured daily up to seven days after collection.  Results: Comparing plasma (NaF and serum (SST results of glucose values (n=50 showed an average difference of 0.00mmol/L (range -0.60 to +0.60mmol/L. Bland Altman analysis gave a non-significant constant bias of 0.10 ±0.195mmol/L (bias ±SD. Pearson correlation between plasma (NaF and serum (SST glucose concentrations revealed a significant correlation approaching unity with r2= 0.9991. No significant differences in glucose values were noted for both plasma and serum in 15 pairs of NaF and SST tubes when analyzed seven days following refrigeration. Hemolysis was observed in five (10% NaF tubes compared with two (4% SST.  Conclusion: There is no difference in glucose values collected from plasma NaF tubes or serum SST, and so SST can be used in hospital laboratory settings as there are practical advantages, including cost-effectiveness and reduction in blood volume drawn when utilizing these tubes for glucose and other tests from a single blood collection tube.

  2. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  3. Investigation on how to choose measurement sites for non-invasive near-infrared blood glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zou, Da; Min, Xiaolin; Ma, Zhenhe; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    With the changing of human diet and the future of an aging society, the number of diabetic patients is growing rapidly and steadily. The major therapeutic method to that disease is monitoring the blood glucose concentration frequently to adjust the dose of the drugs and insulin. In order to avoid the painful finger prick, we choose the ear lobe as a measurement site with finger as a reference. Firstly, we compare the blood glucose concentration results of ear lobe and finger during an oral glucose tolerance test, the results showed a good correlation of the two sites. Secondly, the three-layered skin structure of finger and ear lobe has been studied by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. The result shows that the thickness of each layer at ear lobe is thinner. Finally, the difference between reflectance spectra of finger and ear lobe is compared due to the diverse skin thickness. The results still show a higher absorbance value for ear lobe. In conclusion, the ear lobe is an ideal measurement site for noninvasive blood glucose sensing.

  4. Noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentrations by analysing Fourier transform infra-red absorbance spectra through oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, K; Uemura, T; Kishikawa, H; Nishida, K; Hashiguchi, Y; Uehara, M; Sakakida, M; Ichinose, K; Shichiri, M

    1993-07-01

    Whether Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflection prism could be applied for noninvasive glucose measurement through oral mucosa was evaluated. As a result, the same absorbance peak at 1033 cm-1 as in glucose aqueous solution was found in the absorbance spectra through mucous membrane. However, these glucose specific peaks were interfered with by the baseline drifts owing to prism attachment and the background spectra from body constituents other than glucose. Therefore, to eliminate these interferences, the calibration curve between the second derivatives of the absorbance peak at 1033 cm-1 and those at 2920 cm-1 was calculated (r = 0.910). By using this calibration curve, the spectral changes due to prism attachment were first eliminated. Secondly, by obtaining the second derivative of the difference between the postprandial absorbance peak and the fasting sample as a characteristic of an individual, high correlations between the corrected second derivatives of absorbance spectra through the mucous membrane of the lip at 1033 cm-1 and the increases in blood glucose concentrations above fasting levels were observed (r = 0.910). In conclusion, it was suggested that Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy could be useful for noninvasive monitoring of glucose through oral mucosa.

  5. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...... by the authors at the workshop but were written afterward which allowed to include the findings and conclusions of the various discussions and of course updates. The chapter "Alternative Frameworks for Personalized Insulin-Glucose Models" by Harald Kirchsteiger et al. asks the question whether more and more...... that focus not on the prediction of exact future blood glucose values, but rather on the prediction of changes in the patients’ blood glucose range. The chapter “Accuracy of BG Meters and CGM Systems: Possible Influence Factors for the Glucose Prediction Based on Tissue Glucose Concentrations” by Guido...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Noninvasive and fast measurement of blood glucose in vivo by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintao, Xue; Liming, Ye; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Han, Chen

    2017-05-01

    This research was to develop a method for noninvasive and fast blood glucose assay in vivo. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a more promising technique compared to other methods, was investigated in rats with diabetes and normal rats. Calibration models are generated by two different multivariate strategies: partial least squares (PLS) as linear regression method and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regression method. The PLS model was optimized individually by considering spectral range, spectral pretreatment methods and number of model factors, while the ANN model was studied individually by selecting spectral pretreatment methods, parameters of network topology, number of hidden neurons, and times of epoch. The results of the validation showed the two models were robust, accurate and repeatable. Compared to the ANN model, the performance of the PLS model was much better, with lower root mean square error of validation (RMSEP) of 0.419 and higher correlation coefficients (R) of 96.22%.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of ... enough insulin. Without insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism measured with positron emission tomography are decreased in human type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Golen, Larissa W; Huisman, Marc C; Ijzerman, Richard G; Hoetjes, Nikie J; Schwarte, Lothar A; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-08-01

    Subclinical systemic microvascular dysfunction exists in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that microangiopathy, resulting from long-standing systemic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, may be generalized to the brain, resulting in changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in these patients. We performed dynamic [(15)O]H2O and [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose brain positron emission tomography scans to measure CBF and cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu), respectively, in 30 type 1 diabetic patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls after an overnight fast. Regions of interest were automatically delineated on coregistered magnetic resonance images and full kinetic analysis was performed. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were higher in patients versus controls. Total gray matter CBF was 9%, whereas CMRglu was 21% lower in type 1 diabetic subjects versus control subjects. We conclude that at real-life fasting glucose and insulin levels, type 1 diabetes is associated with decreased resting cerebral glucose metabolism, which is only partially explained by the decreased CBF. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than generalized microangiopathy account for the altered CMRglu observed in well-controlled type 1 diabetes.

  12. Blood glucose measurement in vivo using hollow-fiber based, mid-infrared ATR probe with multi-reflection prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    An attenuated-total-reflection (ATR), mid-infrared spectroscopy system that consists of hollow optical fibers, a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism, and a conventional FT-IR spectrometer has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Owing to the low transmission loss and high flexibility of the hollow-optical fiber, the system can measure any sites of the human body where blood capillaries are close to the surface of mucosa, such as inner lips. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. The results of in-vivo measurement of human inner lips showed the feasibility of the proposed system, and the measurement errors were within 20%.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  14. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  15. All about Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need a change in your meal plan,physical activity,or diabetes medicines.Keep track of when you’ve had ... glucose events.Note possible causes,such as unplanned physical activity.Then talk it over with your ... Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ... to the Association. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble. ...

  17. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J; Weerwind, P W; Teerenstra, S; Brouwer, M H J

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the GEM Premier 3000 was compared with the Ciba Corning 865 analyser for blood gas/electrolytes/metabolites, and for hematocrit with the Sysmex XE 2100 instrument. During a 6-month period, 127 blood samples were analysed on both the GEM Premier 3000 analyser and our laboratory analysers (Ciba Corning 865/Sysmex 2100 instrument), and compared using the agreement analysis for quantitative data. With the exception of K+, the other parameters (pCO2, pO2, Na+, Ca2+, hematocrit, glucose, and lactate) can be described in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the differences. For K+ measurement, a clear linear trend (r=0.79, preference range, the GEM Premier 3000 measured systematically too low or too high, respectively. Furthermore, in comparison with the other parameters, a therapeutically unacceptable systematic difference (mean of difference: -2.2%, p=0.05) in hematocrit measurement on the GEM Premier 3000 was observed for hematocrit values below 30%. The variance of the readings for the GEM Premier 3000 measurements was at clinically acceptable levels. The GEM Premier 3000 analyser seems to be suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes, metabolites, and blood gases during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, its downward bias in hematocrit values below 30% suggests that using the GEM Premier 3000 as a transfusion trigger leads to overtreatment with packed red cells.

  18. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two......-day workshop on the design, use and evaluation of prediction methods for blood glucose concentration was held at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria. One intention of the workshop was to bring together experts working in various fields on the same topic, in order to shed light from different angles...... Freckmann et al. discusses performance metrics used to characterize the accuracy of continuous glucose measurement devices. This topic is highly relevant for prediction models since many of them rely on the data given by the continuous sensors which are previously calibrated with blood glucose meter...

  19. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on t...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ... blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness ...

  2. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... follow the instructions for operating your meter. your hematocrit (the amount of red blood cells in the ... health care provider can tell you if your hematocrit is low or high, and can discuss with ...

  3. A Negative Correlation Between Blood Glucose and Acetone Measured in Healthy and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydosz, Artur

    2015-07-01

    Exhaled acetone analysis has long been recognized as a supplementary tool for diagnosis and monitoring diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes. It is essential, therefore to determine the relationship between exhaled acetone concentration and glucose in blood. Usually, a direct linear correlation between this both compounds has been expected. However, in some cases we can observe a reverse correlation. When blood glucose was increasing, breath acetone declined. The breath analysis as a supplementary tool for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes makes sense only in case of utilization of portable analyzers. This need has created a market for gas sensors. However, commercially available acetone gas sensors are developed for measuring samples at several tens part per million. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using commercial acetone gas sensor (TGS 822, 823 Figaro, Arlington Heights, IL, USA Inc) with micropreconcentrator in low temperature cofired ceramics. The reference analyzer-mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) was used. Twenty-two healthy volunteers with no history of any respiratory disease participated in the research, as did 31 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Respectively, 3 healthy volunteer and 5 type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects with reverse trend were selected. The linear fitting coefficient various from 0.1139 to 0.9573. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the correlation between blood glucose concentrations and under different conditions, for example, insulin levels, as well as correlate the results with clinical tests, for example, Hb1Ac. It is well known that the concentration of acetone is strongly influenced by diet, insulin treatment, and so on. Therefore, much more complex analysis with long-term measurements are required. Thus, presented results should be regarded as tentative, and validation studies with the analysis of clinical test and in a large number of patients, including control groups

  4. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  6. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  7. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-12-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Shreesh Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Deciding between using the first or second drop of blood for the self monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-12-01

    To explore whether the first or the second drop of blood is more suitable for the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). SMBG was employed in hospitalized patients using the first and second drop of blood. Venous blood glucose was measured meanwhile. The differences in blood glucose measurements were then compared in groups with different regions of blood glucose levels. There were 802 groups of blood glucose in 526 patients. There was no significant difference in the blood glucose levels of the first and second drop of blood and venous blood. However, after combining then dividing measurements into six groups according to blood glucose concentration, we found statistically significant differences between the blood glucose levels obtained from the first drop, second drop, and venous blood in the groups containing blood glucose values blood can be used for performing SMBG to assess real-time venous glucose. By categorizing blood glucose into different levels more accurately, we observed that there was no significant difference between the first or second drop of blood and the venous blood glucose value when blood glucose levels were maintained between 10 and 20 mmol/L. When blood glucose levels were below 10 mmol/L, the value obtained from first drop of blood was close to that from venous blood, whereas when the blood glucose level is >20 mmol/L, the blood glucose value from the second drop of blood was more accurate. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “Recent Results on Glucose–Insulin Predictions by Means of a State Observer for Time-Delay Systems” by Pasquale Palumbo et al. introduces a prediction model which in real time predicts the insulin concentration in blood which in turn is used in a control system. The method is tested in simulation......Standard diabetes insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes and late stages of type 2 is based on the expected development of blood glucose (BG) both as a consequence of the metabolic glucose consumption as well as of meals and exogenous insulin intake. Traditionally, this is not done explicitly......, but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...

  11. Preliminary Clinical Validation of a Differential Correction Method for Improving Measurement Accuracy in Noninvasive Measurement of Blood Glucose Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Yu, Xuyao; Xia, Dandan; Liu, Rong; Liu, Jin; Xu, Kexin

    2017-09-01

    One of the main challenges in the noninvasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is the background variations from light source drift, sweating, and temperature change at the human-machine interface. In this paper, a differential correction method based on the spectra from the floating-reference position and measuring position is proposed to eliminate these spectral variations from background interferences. Its effectiveness was validated by in vitro and in vivo experiments in which the diffuse reflectance of intralipid solutions and human skin was collected at the source distances of 0.6 mm and 2 mm by the custom-built system with six super-luminescent emitting diodes (SLEDs) light source. The results showed that, for the in vitro experiments of intralipid solutions, the coefficients of variations of diffuse reflectance decreased by 20.5% under all the six wavelengths after differential correction. For the in vivo experiments of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), partial least squares (PLS) regression models between glucose concentrations and the diffuse reflectance from palm skin were built, and the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) decreased by 38.0% on average after the differential correction. Further, the spectra of the oral water tolerance tests (OWTTs) were collected for correlation with glucose concentration in OGTTs, and their correlation coefficients (R) decreased by 35.0% on average after the differential correction. Therefore, this differential correction method based on the spectra from the floating-reference position and measuring position can weaken the influence of background variations on the NIR spectroscopy and has promising potential in in vivo detection, especially for noninvasive blood glucose measurement.

  12. Comparison between adherence assessments and blood glucose monitoring measures to predict glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telo, Gabriela Heiden; de Souza, Martina Schaan; Andrade, Thais Stürmer; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to treatment has been defined as the degree to which a patient's behavior corresponds to medical or health advice; however, the most appropriate method to evaluate adherence to diabetes care has yet to be identified. We conducted analyses to compare adherence assessments and blood glucose monitoring measures with regard to their ability to predict glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes. We analyzed four instruments to evaluate adherence: Self-Care Inventory-Revised, a self-administered survey; Diabetes Self-Monitoring Profile (DSMP), administered by trained researchers; a categorical (yes/no/sometimes) adherence self-evaluation; and a continuous (0-100) adherence self-evaluation. Blood glucose monitoring frequency was evaluated by self-report, diary, and meter download. Participants (n = 82) were aged 39.0 ± 13.1 years with a mean diabetes duration of 21.2 ± 11.1 years; 27 % monitored blood glucose >4 times/day. The DSMP score was the strongest predictor of glycemic control (r = -0.32, P = 0.004) among adherence assessments, while blood glucose monitoring frequency assessed by meter download was the strongest predictor among blood glucose monitoring measures (r = -40, P self-report assessments had a significant but weak correlation with glycemic control (r ≤ 0.28, P ≤ 0.02). The final adjusted model identified the assessment of blood glucose monitoring frequency by meter download as the most robust predictor of HbA1c (estimate effect size = -0.58, P = 0.003). In efforts to evaluate adherence, blood glucose monitoring frequency assessed by meter download has the strongest relationship with glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes.

  13. Evaluation of blood glucose fluctuation in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus by self-monitoring of blood glucose and continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Nakae, Rie; Watanabe, Kahori; Akagami, Takafumi; Ochi, Fumihiro; Tokuda, Masaru; Murai, Kazuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of blood glucose fluctuation is essential for managing blood glucose control while avoiding hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study, blood glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) whom self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was carried out three or more times per day, and evaluation was performed using blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by CGM and SMBG. Twenty-nine insulin-depleted patients with T1DM were enrolled. Their blood glucose fluctuations were measured at the same time by SMBG and CGM, and the correlations were evaluated. Correlations were found between the following values obtained by SMBG and CGM: mean and standard deviation of blood glucose levels, average daily risk range, Morbus value and high-blood-glucose index. The hypoglycemia duration and the nocturnal hypoglycemia duration showed no correlation with any of the blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by SMBG. The findings suggest that routine SMBG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement are sufficient for evaluation of hyperglycemia in T1DM. On the other hand, blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by SMBG and HbA1c have been shown to have no correlations with either hypoglycemia duration or nocturnal hypoglycemia duration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accuracy of handheld blood glucose meters at high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter de Mol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking, reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6.5 mmol/L and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L. No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. CONCLUSION: At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy.

  15. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  16. Simultaneous, quantitative measurement of local blood flow and glucose utilization in tissue samples in normal and injured feline brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, D S; Yuan, X Q; Becker, D P; Hayes, R L

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) were measured using radioactive microspheres and [14C]2-deoxyglucose, respectively, in 26 brain regions in control animals (n = 8) and in animals (n = 4) sustaining low-level experimental brain injury. Examination of the initial (resting) CBF measurement in the uninjured cats revealed two subgroups with significantly (p less than 0.01) different CBF levels. In uninjured cats with normal CBF levels (33.4 +/- 1.8 ml/100 g/min) there was a close linear relationship between CBF and LCGU (n = 0.71, p less than 0.01). In contrast, the remainder of the uninjured cats exhibited abnormally high levels of CBF (72.6 +/- 9.9 ml/100 g/min) and the absence of a close relationship between CBF and LCGU (r = 0.27). One hour following low-level (2.0 atm) fluid percussion brain injury, CBF was increased and LCGU was decreased, though not significantly. The relationship between CBF and LCGU remained intact (r = 0.66, p less than 0.01) in most brain regions. However, the relationship between CBF and LCGU in the hippocampus differed significantly from the relationship between the two parameters in the rest of the brain. Thus, the use of the radioactive microsphere method for CBF measurements allows multiple measurements of CBF and permits the assessment of the status of the cerebral vasculature prior to experimental manipulations such as traumatic brain injury. In view of our current findings of an abnormal relationship between CBF and LCGU in cats with high resting CBF levels, this is an important advantage. In addition, the combination of the microsphere and 2-DG techniques within the same tissue samples allows for the investigation of the effects of traumatic injury on the important relationship between CBF and LCGU.

  17. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  18. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  19. Blood spot-based measures of glucose homeostasis and diabetes prevalence in a nationally representative population of young US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Whitsel, Eric A; Tabor, Joyce W; Cuthbertson, Carmen C; Wener, Mark H; Potter, Alan J; Halpern, Carolyn T; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Hussey, Jon M; Suchindran, Chirayath; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2014-12-01

    We investigated understudied biomarker-based diabetes among young US adults, traditionally characterized by low cardiovascular disease risk. We examined 15,701 participants aged 24 to 32 years at Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, 2008). The study used innovative and relatively noninvasive methods to collect capillary whole blood via finger prick at in-home examinations in all 50 states. Assays of dried blood spots produced reliable and accurate values of HbA1c. Reliability was lower for fasting glucose and lowest for random glucose. Mean (SD) HbA1c was 5.6% (0.8%). More than a quarter (27.4%) had HbA1c-defined prediabetes. HbA1c was highest in the black, non-Hispanic race/ethnic group, inversely associated with education, and more common among the overweight/obese and physically inactive. The prevalence of diabetes defined by previous diagnosis or use of antidiabetic medication was 2.9%. Further incorporating HbA1c and glucose values, the prevalence increased to 6.8%, and among these participants, 38.9% had a previous diagnosis of diabetes (i.e., aware). Among those aware, 37.6% were treated and 64.0% were controlled (i.e., HbA1c young adults faces a historically high risk of diabetes but there is ample opportunity for early detection and intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  1. The impact of a low glycaemic index (GI) diet on simultaneous measurements of blood glucose and fat oxidation: A whole body calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Quek Yu Chin, Rina; Camps, Stefan; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) foods are known to minimize large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and have been suggested to increase fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to simultaneously investigate glucose excursion and substrate oxidation in a whole body calorimetre when Chinese male subjects were provided a low or high GI meal. In a randomized, controlled crossover non blind design, 12 healthy Chinese male adults (BMI 21.8 ± 1.3 kgm -2 ) attended two sessions consisting of either four low or high glycaemic meals (LGI vs HGI). Breakfast, lunch and snack were consumed in a whole body calorimetre while dinner was consumed at home. Daily changes in glycaemic response (GR) and postprandial GR responses were measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system. The GR was further calculated to obtain the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose concentrations. Glycaemic variability was calculated as mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE). Substrate oxidation was calculated by measuring respiratory quotient and urine nitrogen excretion. After LGI meals in the whole body calorimetre, iAUC for glucose (P = 0.008) was lower compared to the HGI session. The HGI treatment produced a significantly greater MAGE than the LGI treatment over the 24 hour period (P consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  2. Bolus calculator and wirelessly communicated blood glucose measurement effectively reduce hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetic children - randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramotowska, Anna; Szypowska, Agnieszka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bolus calculator function and wireless communication between insulin pump and blood glucose metre on metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes, treated with insulin pumps. In this randomized, controlled, 12-week trial, 156 patients, aged 12.9 ± 2.6 years, with a history of diabetes of 5.1 ± 3.3 years and glycated haemoglobin values of 7.3 ± 1.2% (56.3 ± 13.44 mmol/mol) were included. Children were assigned to one of three arms: group A, subjects using bolus calculator and wireless communication between insulin pump and blood glucose metre; group B, subjects using bolus calculator without communication between the devices and group C, control group. Devices were downloaded at 0, 6 and 12 weeks. There were statistically fewer episodes of hypoglycaemia in children using bolus calculator compared with the control group: A versus C (3.8 ± 3.1 versus 7.8 ± 5.13 episodes/2 weeks, respectively, p calculator function significantly more frequently than patients in group B (4.9 ± 3.4 versus 2.5 ± 2.9 times/24 h, respectively, p = 0.0006). No significant differences in glycated haemoglobin levels were found between the experimental and the control groups: group A versus C (p = 0.699). The use of bolus calculator did not influence post-prandial glycaemia, body mass index-SD score or insulin/kg/24 h. Bolus calculator use reduces hypoglycaemic episodes independently of communication between insulin pump and blood glucose metre. Wireless communication between devices results in more frequent bolus calculator use. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [Intelligent interpretation of home monitoring blood glucose data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dió, Mihály; Deutsch, Tibor; Biczók, Tímea; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-07-19

    Self monitoring of blood glucose is the cornerstone of diabetes management. However, the data obtained by self monitoring of blood glucose have rarely been used with the highest advantage. Few physicians routinely download data from memory-equipped glucose meters and analyse these data systematically at the time of patient visits. There is a need for improved methods for the display and analysis of blood glucose data along with a modular approach for identification of clinical problems. The authors present a systematic methodology for the analysis and interpretation of self monitoring blood glucose data in order to assist the management of patients with diabetes. This approach utilizes the followings 1) overall quality of glycemic control; 2) severity and timing of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia; 3) variability of blood glucose readings; 4) various temporal patterns extracted from recorded data and 5) adequacy of self monitoring blood glucose data. Based on reliable measures of the quality of glycaemic control and glucose variability, a prioritized problem list is derived along with the probable causes of the detected problems. Finally, problems and their interpretation are used to guide clinicians to choose therapeutic actions and/or recommend behaviour change in order to solve the problems that have been identified.

  4. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  6. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Roelsgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    Metabolic processes studied by PET are quantified traditionally using compartmental models, which relate the time course of the tracer concentration in tissue to that in arterial blood. For liver studies, the use of arterial input may, however, cause systematic errors to the estimated kinetic....... Hepatic arterial and portal venous blood samples and flows were measured during the scan. The dual-input function was calculated as the flow-weighted input. RESULTS: For both MG and FDG, the compartmental analysis using arterial input led to systematic underestimation of the rate constants for rapid blood...... estimates that were in agreement with liver physiology. Using the dual-input function, the clearances into the liver cells (K1 = 1.11 +/- 0.11 mL/min/mL for MG; K1 = 1.07 +/- 0.19 mL/min/mL for FDG) were comparable with the liver blood flow (F = 1.02 +/- 0.05 mL/min/mL). As required physiologically...

  7. Simultaneous measurement of local glucose utilization and blood flow in the rat brain: an autoradiographic method using two tracers labeled with carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlow, T.W. Jr.; Martin, R.M.; Harrison, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified technique that uses two radionuclide tracers has been devised to measure local cerebral glucose utilization (ICGU) and local cerebral blood flow (ICBF) in the same rat. The method employs [ 14 C]-2-deoxyglucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine to produce an autoradiogram before and another after extraction into chloroform of the [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine from the brain sections. The chloroform-extracted autoradiogram yields ICGU, and the difference in tissue carbon-14 concentration between the two autoradiograms permits calculation of ICBF. The double-isotope technique provides values of ICGU and ICBF that are statistically indistinguishable from those derived from conventional single-isotope methods

  8. Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. High blood glucose has been associated with loss of muscle strength and mass in the lower extremities. However, in African children, little is known about the association between handgrip strength, flexed arm hang or other measures of muscle strength with blood ...

  9. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : The Use of the First or the Second Drop of Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Logtenberg, Susan J. J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    OBJECTIVE-There is no general agreement regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood for glucose monitoring. This study investigated whether capillary glucose concentrations, as measured in the first and second drops of blood, differed >= 10% compared with a control glucose concentration

  10. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...... by the hydrogen breath technique, was decreased by WB and BF, (p less than 0.05) but not by PF. PF is palatable and may prove beneficial as a fiber supplement for diabetics....

  11. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    Diabetes Study Group 33). Even though the achievement and maintenance of blood glucose concentrations as near normal as possible are major targets of modern diabetic care (UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, 1988), this increases the frequency of hypoglycaemia (Amiel 1998). Hypoglycaemia, the most common ...

  12. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  13. Evaluation of portable blood glucose meters using canine and feline pooled blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Oda, H; Onozawa, E; Shono, S; Takahashi, T; Yamashita, S; Fujimoto, H; Sako, T

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of a human portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) for canine and feline whole blood. Reference plasma glucose values (RPGV) were concurrently measured using glucose oxidation methods. Fifteen healthy dogs and 6 healthy cats were used for blood sampling. Blood glucose concentrations and hematocrits were adjusted using pooled blood samples for our targeted values. A positive correlation between the PBGM and RPGV was found for both dogs (y = 0.877, x = -24.38, r = 0.9982, n = 73) and cats (y = 1.048, x = -27.06, r = 0.9984, n = 69). Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and RPGV in both dogs and cats; 100% of these results were within zones A and B. Following ISO recommendations, a PBGM is considered accurate if 95% of the measurements are within ± 15 mg/dl of the RPGV when the glucose concentration is cats (39%, 27 of 69 cats). Blood samples with high hematocrits induced lower whole blood glucose values measured by the PBGM than RPGV under hypoglycemic, normoglycemic, and hyperglycemic conditions in both dogs and cats. Therefore, this device is not clinically useful in dogs and cats. New PBGMs which automatically compensate for the hematocrit should be developed in veterinary practice.

  14. Screening of gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary finger blood glucose in the diagnosis of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka S Waghmare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at obtaining glucose readings using gingival crevicular blood (GCB to screen for undiagnosed diabetes during routine dental visits. Materials and Methods: The present study included 50 patients who were divided into two groups, i.e. Group A and Group B, based on bleeding on probing at the site of collection of GCB. Group A participants had blood collected from sites having adequate bleeding on probing, whereas Group B participants had blood collected from sites with little bleeding on probing. GCB and capillary finger-stick blood (CFB] glucose readings were obtained using a self-monitoring glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between both the samples were done using Pearson′s correlation. Results: Group A patients′ correlations between GCB and CFB glucose readings were high, whereas in Group B patients, correlations between glucose readings were low. Conclusion: GCB can be an excellent source for screening diabetes during routine dental visits.

  15. The impact of a low glycaemic index (GI diet on simultaneous measurements of blood glucose and fat oxidation: A whole body calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Consumption of LGI meals was capable of attenuating 24-hour blood glucose profiles and decreasing postprandial glucose excursions in healthy Asian males. Additionally, LGI mixed meals were able to promote fat oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation when compared to HGI mixed meals. The consumption of low GI meals may be a strategic approach in improving overall glycaemia and increasing fat oxidation in Asians consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  16. Hematocrit Compensation in Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorczyk, Maria; Cardosi, Marco; Setford, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematocrit (Hct) is a common interferent in test strips used by diabetes patients to self-monitor blood glucose (BG), resulting in measurement bias. Described is an electrochemical BG monitoring system (OneTouch® Verio™) that uses a cofacial sensor design, soluble enzyme chemistry, and multiphasic waveform to effectively correct for patient Hct, delivering an accurate reading for whole BG. Methods The test strip comprises thin-film gold and palladium electrodes arranged cofacially and spatially separated with a thin spacer. Soluble glucose-sensing reagents are located on the lower palladium electrode and are hydrated on sample application. Blood glucose is oxidized by flavoprotein glucose dehydrogenase, with electron transfer via (reduced) potassium ferrocyanide mediator at the palladium electrode. Hematocrit levels are estimated by measuring oxidation of mediator diffusion to the upper gold electrode during the first portion of the assay. The Hct-corrected glucose levels are determined by an on-meter algorithm. Results In performance testing of blood samples at five glucose levels (30–560 mg/dl) and five Hct levels (19–61%), using 12 test meters and 3 test strip lots, 100% of results (N = 2700) met International Organization for Standardization accuracy criteria (within ± 15 mg/dl and ± 20% of reference results at glucose levels of <75 and ≥75 mg/dl, respectively). Furthermore, 99.9% (2698 of 2700) of results were within ±12 mg/dl and ± 15% of reference values at glucose levels <80 and ≥80 mg/dl, respectively. Conclusions The technology used in this system provides accurate BG measurements that are insensitive to Hct levels across the range 20–60%. PMID:22768896

  17. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work involved the measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. It was a prospective case-finding study using laboratory and general practice records. The subjects were confirmed diabetic patients, attending a ...

  18. Reliability of bedside blood glucose estimating methods in detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycaemia occurs in many disease states common in the tropics. Facilities and skilled manpower required for laboratory blood glucose measurement are not always available in health facilities in developing countries. Objective: The study was carried out to determine the validity of bedside methods of ...

  19. Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Acipayam

    2014-02-01

    Aim: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an important factor in etiology of pathologic neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to indicate the significance of screening glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the cord blood of neonates and the frequency of this deficiency in the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material and Method: The study was performed consecutive 1015 neonates were included. Five hundred fifty six (54.8% of them were male and 459 (45.2% were female. The following parameters were recorded: Gender, birth weight, birth height, head circumference and gestational age. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level of neonates were measured with quantitative method in cord blood. Also, hemoglobine, hematocrite, red blood cell count and blood group were measured. The following parameters were recorded in cases with jaundice: exchange transfusion, phototherapy, physiologic and pathologic jaundice, peak bilirubin day, maximum bilirubin level, total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, beginning time of jaundice. Results: Enzyme deficiency was detected in 133 (13.1% of neonates and 76 (57% of them were male, 57 (43% were female. Significant difference was detected in low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level with jaundice group for total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, maximum total bilirubin level and pathologic jaundice (p<0.05. Discussion: The ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found in Edirne in this study and this ratio was higher than other studies conducted in our country. For this reason, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level in cord blood of neonates should be measured routinely and high risk neonates should be followed up for hyperbilirubinemia and parents should be informed in our region.

  20. Hematological indices and their correlation with fasting blood glucose level and anthropometric measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biadgo B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Belete Biadgo,1 Mulugeta Melku,2 Solomon Mekonnen Abebe,3 Molla Abebe1 1School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, Department of Clinical Chemistry, 2School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, 3Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Diabetes mellitus is (DM a global public health problem and a complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that leads to long-term macrovascular and microvascular complications. Recent studies have reported the role of hematological indices in contributing to the vascular injury in diabetic patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine hematological indices and their correlation with fasting blood glucose level and anthropometric measurement in type 2 DM patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the chronic illness clinic of Gondar University Hospital from February to April 2015. A total of 296 participants (148 cases and 148 healthy controls were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and hematological indices were determined by using Bio Systems A25 and Sysmex-KX 21N analyzers, respectively. Independent sample t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and correlation statistics were used. A P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: There was significant difference in red blood cell distribution width (47.3±2.6 fL vs 45.2±3 fL between diabetic patients and controls. Total white blood cells in 103/µL (6.59±1.42 vs 5.56±1.38, absolute lymphocyte count in 103/µL (2.60±0.70 vs 2.04±0.63, and absolute neutrophil count in 103/µL (3.57±1.46 vs 3.11±1.04 increased significantly in diabetic patients compared with controls, respectively. Among platelet indices, mean platelet volume

  1. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  2. Blood glucose control and monitoring in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with blood glucose control and blood glucose monitoring in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: two important aspects of care for and monitoring of critically ill patients. While the precise targets of blood glucose control in ICU patients remain a matter of debate, currently many,

  3. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  4. Is blood glucose predictable from previous values? A solicitation for data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, T; Gough, D A

    1999-03-01

    An important question about blood glucose control in diabetes is, Can present and future blood glucose values be predicted from recent blood glucose history? If this is possible, new continuous blood glucose monitoring technologies under development may lead to qualitatively better therapeutic capabilities. Not only could continuous monitoring technologies alert a user when a hypoglycemic episode or other blood glucose excursion is underway, but measurements may also provide sufficient information to predict near-future blood glucose values. A predictive capability based only on recent blood glucose history would be advantageous because there would be no need to involve models of glucose and insulin distribution, with their inherent requirement for detailed accounting of vascular glucose loads and insulin availability. Published data analyzed here indicate that blood glucose dynamics are not random, and that blood glucose values can be predicted, at least for the near future, from frequently sampled previous values. Data useful in further exploring this concept are limited, however, and an appeal is made for collection of more.

  5. Body fat content, distribution and blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 50% of subject who had greater body fat content and waist hip ratio had impaired fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerant. Body fat content within the body has significance effects on blood glucose concentration. Consequently, there is a need of increasing awareness about healthy food consumption ...

  6. A Deep Learning Approach to Diabetic Blood Glucose Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh N. Mhaskar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of 30-min prediction of blood glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring devices, using clinical data. While most studies of this nature deal with one patient at a time, we take a certain percentage of patients in the data set as training data, and test on the remainder of the patients; i.e., the machine need not re-calibrate on the new patients in the data set. We demonstrate how deep learning can outperform shallow networks in this example. One novelty is to demonstrate how a parsimonious deep representation can be constructed using domain knowledge.

  7. Discrete Blood Glucose Control in Diabetic Göttingen Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuous research effort, patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D experience difficulties in daily adjustments of their blood glucose concentrations. New technological developments in the form of implanted intravenous infusion pumps and continuous blood glucose sensors might alleviate obstacles for the automatic adjustment of blood glucose concentration. These obstacles consist, for example, of large time-delays and insulin storage effects for the subcutaneous/interstitial route. Towards the goal of an artificial pancreas, we present a novel feedback controller approach that combines classical loop-shaping techniques with gain-scheduling and modern H ∞ -robust control approaches. A disturbance rejection design is proposed in discrete frequency domain based on the detailed model of the diabetic Göttingen minipig. The model is trimmed and linearised over a large operating range of blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity values. Controller parameters are determined for each of these operating points. A discrete H ∞ loop-shaping compensator is designed to increase robustness of the artificial pancreas against general coprime factor uncertainty. The gain scheduled controller uses subcutaneous insulin injection as a control input and determines the controller input error from intravenous blood glucose concentration measurements, where parameter scheduling is achieved by an estimator of the insulin sensitivity parameter. Thus, only one controller stabilises a family of animal models. The controller is validated in silico with a total number of five Göttingen Minipig models, which were previously obtained by experimental identification procedures. Its performance is compared with an experimentally tested switching PI-controller.

  8. Overnight Control of Blood Glucose in People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and test a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for overnight stabilization of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The controller uses glucose measurements from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and its decisions are implemented by a continuous subcutaneous insulin...

  9. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  10. NIR photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Kumar Sanki, Pradyut; De, Arijit; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-08-01

    The use of near infra red (NIR) photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for continuous non-invasive glucose measurement is outlined in the paper. A photoacoustic (PA) measurement apparatus was constructed and PA measurements were made on glucose solutions at multiple NIR excitation wavelengths. A variety of time and frequency domain features, including amplitude and area based features, were extracted from the PA measurements. These features were observed to be proportional to the glucose concentration of the sample. PA measurements from samples of whole blood at different glucose concentrations showed similar results. Subsequently, in vivo PA measurements made on a cohort of 30 volunteers were calibrated using a quadratic fit, and the results were compared to reference glucose concentrations made using a regular blood glucose meter. A comparison of 196 measurement pairs of predicted and reference glucose concentrations using a Clarke Error Grid gave a point distribution of 87.24% and 12.76% over zones A and B of the grid, with no measurement pairs falling in unacceptable zones C-E of the error grid. The predicted measurements had a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 12.57 ± 13.90 mg/dl and a mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 9.61% ± 10.55%. This is an improvement over previous results obtained using PAS and other non-invasive techniques, validating the potential of PAS for continuous noninvasive glucose monitoring.

  11. Interstitial Glucose and Lactate Levels Are Inversely Correlated With the Body Mass Index: Need for In Vivo Calibration of Glucose Sensor Results With Blood Values in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, Barbara; Moser, Isabella; Kannan, Cecil; Schwab, Karl Otfried; Urban, Gerald

    2018-03-01

    Continuously measured glucose and lactate levels in interstitial fluid (ISF) may markedly differ from their respective blood levels. Combining microdialysis with a bioanalytical microsystem, the interstitial glucose and lactate concentrations of eight male volunteers with different body mass index (BMI) were monitored during a 2-fold glucose tolerance test over the period of three hours. Significant correlations were found between abdominally measured sensor results and reference measurements ( R 2 = .967 for glucose and R 2 = .936 for lactate, P 34 kg/m 2 showed abdominally as well as the antebrachially significantly reduced tissue glucose values compared to blood glucose values ( P < .001). A very good correlation between abdominally measured sensor results and the results of the reference method verified the reliability of the BioMEMS. The abdominally measured glucose level in ISF decreased significantly with increasing BMI. Therefore, an in vivo calibration of glucose levels in ISF with blood levels seems to be necessary especially in markedly obese subjects.

  12. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  13. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p < 0.0001). These in vivo results showed that exogenous oxytocin can be good choice to decrease the blood glucose level very fast.

  14. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  15. Non-invasive Blood Glucose Quantification Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan JAYAPAL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels which result from defects in insulin secretion. It is very important for the diabetics and normal people to have a correct blood glucose level. The HbA1c test is the most preferred test by renowned doctors for glucose quantification. But this test is an invasive one. At present, there are many available techniques for this purpose but these are mostly invasive or minimally non-invasive and most of these are under research. Among the different methods available, the photo acoustic (PA methods provide a reliable solution since the acoustical energy loss is much less compared to the optical or other techniques. Here a novel framework is presented for blood glucose level measurement using a combination of the HbA1c test and a PA method to get an absolutely consistent and precise, non-invasive technique. The setup uses a pulsed laser diode with pulse duration of 5-15 ns and at a repetition rate of 10 Hz as the source. The detector setup is based on the piezoelectric detection. It consists of a ring detector that includes two double ring sensors that are attached to the ring shaped module that can be worn around the finger. The major aim is to detect the photo acoustic signals from the glycated hemoglobin with the least possible error. The proposed monitoring system is designed with extreme consideration to precision and compatibility with the other computing devices. The results obtained in this research have been studied and analyzed by comparing these with those of in-vitro techniques like the HPLC. The comparison has been plotted and it shows a least error. The results also show a positive drive for using this concept as a basis for future extension in quantifying the other blood components.

  16. Blood Glucose Lowering Activities Of Seed Of Persea Americana On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The n-hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Persea americana seeds obtained by cold maceration were assessed for blood glucose lowering activity using two doses of alloxan. The different extracts caused significant blood glucose lowering effect than the glibenclamide in the single dose alloxanized rats but in the ...

  17. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... systems B and C in the Kampala environ. Conclusion: Some of the blood glucose monitoring systems in Kampala, Uganda are poor performers and may lead to the mismanagement of patients. There is need for a system to ensure national quality control of blood glucose monitoring systems. African Health Sciences 2003; ...

  18. Blood glucose self-monitoring with a long-term subconjunctival glucose sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim Josef; Knuth, Monika; Nikolaus, Katharina Sibylle; Krivánek, Roland; Küster, Frank; Hasslacher, Christoph; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of an implantable subconjunctival glucose monitoring system (SGMS) for long-term glucose monitoring, we investigated the in vivo performance of the system. The SGMS consists of an implantable ocular mini implant (OMI) and a handheld fluorescence photometer. A clinical study was performed on 47 diabetes patients split into two cohorts. Two different types of OMI were used, with and without a biocompatible surface coating. Duration of the study was 1 year. Correlation between capillary blood glucose and SGMS-derived interstitial fluid glucose was investigated during the first 6 months of the study. Both OMI types were tolerated well in the eyes of the patients. At the beginning of the study, the SGMS of both cohorts revealed a high accuracy with mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values of 7-12%. The performance of the uncoated OMIs deteriorated within 3 months of wearing time, exhibiting a MARD value of 20%. The performance of the surface-coated OMIs was preserved longer. Glucose correlation measurement with reasonable results (MARD of 14%) could be performed for up to 6 months of wear. The biocompatible surface coating on the OMIs enabled a longer duration of action of up to 6 months compared with 3 months for uncoated implants in a clinical trial. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Infopia Element™ Auto-coding Blood Glucose Monitoring System for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Il; Lee, Seong-Su; Son, Jang-Won; Kwon, Hee-Sun; Kim, Sung Rae; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Yoo, Soonjib

    2016-11-01

    Element™ Auto-coding Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS; Infopia Co., Ltd., Anyang-si, Korea) was developed for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Precision, linearity, and interference were tested. Eighty-four capillary blood samples measured by Element™ BGMS were compared with central laboratory method (CLM) results in venous serum. Accuracy was evaluated using ISO 15197:2013 criteria. Coefficients of variation (CVs; mean) were 2.4% (44.2 mg/dl), 3.7% (100.6 mg/dl), and 2.1% (259.8 mg/dl). Linearity was shown at concentrations 39.25-456.25 mg/l (y = 0.989 + 0.984x, SE = 17.63). Up to 15 mg/dl of galactose, ascorbic acid, and acetaminophen, interference > 10.4% was not observed. Element™ BGMS glucose was higher than CLM levels by 3.2 mg/dl (at 200 mg/dl) to 8.2 mg/dl (at 100 mg/dl). The minimum specification for bias (3.3%) was met at 140 and 200 mg/l glucose. In the Clarke and consensus error grids, 100% of specimens were within zone A and B. For Element™ BGMS values, 92.9% (78/84) to 94.0% (79/84) were within a 15 mg/dl ( 100 mg/dl) of the average CLM value. Element™ BGMS was considered an appropriate SMBG for home use; however, the positive bias at low-to-mid glucose levels requires further improvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Quantify Glucose Level in Freshly Diabetic's Blood by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the capability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to quantify glucose level in ex vivo freshly diabetic's blood. By investigating the THz spectra of different human blood, we find out THz absorption coefficients reflect a high sensitivity to the glucose level in blood. With a quantitative analysis of 70 patients, we demonstrate that the THz absorption coefficients and the blood glucose levels perform a linear relationship. A comparative experiment between THz measurement and glucometers is also conducted with another 20 blood samples, and the results confirm that the relative error is as less as 15%. Our ex vivo human blood study indicates that THz technique has great potential application to diagnose blood glucose level in clinical practice.

  1. Effectiveness of exclusive self-monitoring of fasting capillary blood glucose in the treatment of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Amancio Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the efficacy of the exclusive self-monitoring of the fasting capillary blood glucose in the control and treatment of diabetic patients. This is a quasi-experimental study, for which five individuals with diabetes were selected, who perform only the fasting capillary blood glucose monitoring, being added about seven other measurements, a variable number according to the individual availability of the volunteer, at different times throughout the day. It was verified that four individuals presented blood glucose values by the use of the fasting capillary blood glucose monitoring, within the parameters of normality for diabetics, between 70-130 mg dL-1 of blood (ADA, 2014b, although in the other measurements, they presented values far from the ideal goal, in a significant part of the time. The study outlines a trend that shows that the glycemic monitoring values based solely on the fasting capillary blood glucose is ineffective, since they can erroneously indicate satisfactory control of the blood glucose levels. Based on the results obtained, to a more effective monitoring and which denotes levels of reliability, it is required at least three measurements of capillary blood glucose throughout the day, and also, the importance of long laboratory tests for glycemic monitoring, such as glycated hemoglobin.

  2. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  3. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    glucose measured in whole blood (x-variable) and in plasma (y-variable) gave the following equations: Y = 0.974 X + 0.55, n = 583 (Exp. 1) and Y = 0.949 X + 0.65, n = 655 (Exp. 2). The net absorption of glucose found in blood was in accordance with that found in plasma: Y = 1.012 X , n = 281 (no intercept......, P = 0.79; Exp. 1) and Y = 0.954 X, n = 316 (no intercept, P = 0.97; Exp. 2). It was concluded that glucose measured in blood and plasma were slightly biased whereas net glucose absorption in blood and in plasma were unbiased......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...

  4. Fasting Blood Glucose Levels in Different Haemoglobin Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the different Hb genotypes (HBAA, HBAS, HBSC and HBSS) the following mean fasting blood glucose levels were obtained respectively: 71.9±8.Omg/dl 73.4±7.4mgldl, 94.7±6.Imgldl and 94.6±5.9mgldl. There was a significant difference between the mean fasting blood glucose concentrations of blood groups O,A,B and ...

  5. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P levels were found to be significant (P levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  6. Effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students.

  7. Non-invasive blood glucose monitor based on spectroscopy using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantu, Vishnu; Vempati, Jagannadh; Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Development of a novel method for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration using smartphone is discussed. Our research work has three major contributions to society and science. First, we modified and extended the Beer-Lambert's law in physics to accommodate for multiple wavelengths. This extension can aid researchers who wish to perform optical spectroscopy. Second, we successfully developed a creative and non-invasive way for diabetic patients to measure glucose levels via a smartphone. Researchers and chemists can now use their smartphones to determine the absorbance and, therefore, concentration of a chemical. Third, we created an inexpensive way to perform optical spectroscopy by using a smartphone. Monitoring blood glucose using a smartphone application that simply uses equipment already available on smartphones will improve the lives of diabetic patients who can continuously check their blood glucose levels while avoiding the current inconvenient, unhygienic, and costly invasive glucose meters.

  8. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Mathuradas Mohota College of Sciences, Nagpur-440009 (India); Dahikar, P. B., E-mail: pbdahikar@rediffmail.com [Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  9. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  10. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  11. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin ...

  12. Simultaneous control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... A questionnaire was used to collect basic information and blood samples were drawn for laboratory measurements. Simultaneous control was defined as HbA1c <7%, BP <130/80 mmHg, and LDL‑C <2.6 mmol/L. Results: A total of 2274 individuals were included, of which 588 individuals (25.9%) achieved ...

  13. Advances in Patient Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas

    2015-11-29

    In 2 articles of the present issue, Bendini et al report about performance results obtained with 2 blood glucose monitoring systems of the Contour Next platform. Using several analysis methods, the authors demonstrate a very high accuracy, which meets all actual regulatory performance criteria. With consistent MARD results blood glucose meters during the Past 2 decades, starting with an MARD of 12-15% at the end of the past century and reaching an excellent accuracy < 5% today. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Corticosterone and exogenous glucose alter blood glucose levels, neurotoxicity, and vascular toxicity produced by methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, John F; Tranter, Karen M; Sarkar, Sumit; George, Nysia I; Hanig, Joseph P; Kelly, Kimberly A; Michalovicz, Lindsay T; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2017-10-01

    Our previous studies have raised the possibility that altered blood glucose levels may influence and/or be predictive of methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of exogenous glucose and corticosterone (CORT) pretreatment alone or in combination with METH on blood glucose levels and the neural and vascular toxicity produced. METH exposure consisted of four sequential injections of 5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg (2 h between injections) D-METH. The three groups given METH in combination with saline, glucose (METH+Glucose), or CORT (METH+CORT) had significantly higher glucose levels compared to the corresponding treatment groups without METH except at 3 h after the last injection. At this last time point, the METH and METH+Glucose groups had lower levels than the non-METH groups, while the METH+CORT group did not. CORT alone or glucose alone did not significantly increase blood glucose. Mortality rates for the METH+CORT (40%) and METH+Glucose (44%) groups were substantially higher than the METH (glucose during METH exposure increases lethality and may exacerbate neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation, specifically microglial activation, was associated with degenerating neurons in the parietal cortex and thalamus after METH exposure. The activated microglia in the parietal cortex were surrounding vasculature in most cases and the extent of microglial activation was exacerbated by CORT pretreatment. Our findings show that acute CORT exposure and elevated blood glucose levels can exacerbate METH-induced vascular damage, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and lethality. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13819. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  16. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...... metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in AD, and GLP-1 may serve to raise transporter numbers. We hypothesized that the GLP-1 analog liraglutide would prevent the decline of CMRglc in AD by raising blood-brain glucose transfer, depending on the duration of disease. We randomized 38 patients with AD...

  17. Historical achievements of self-monitoring of blood glucose technology development in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeki

    2011-09-01

    Japanese companies were the first in the world to achieve a colorimetric glucose measurement meter back in 1973. Over the following 40 or so years, they succeeded in achieving a much greater level of user-friendliness and performance and in so doing, have contributed to the spread of self-monitoring of blood glucose. This article aims to unravel the history of blood glucose measurement's technological developments; to look at the direction and features of the development path Japan is taking; as well as to introduce some Japanese products that are on the market. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work

  19. Quality assessment of patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose in community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjome RL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate diabetes patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose using a community pharmacy-based quality assurance procedure, to investigate whether the procedure improved the quality of the patient performance of self monitoring of blood glucose, and to examine the opinions of the patients taking part in the study. Methods: The results of patient blood glucose measurements were compared to the results obtained with HemoCue Glucose 201+ by pharmacy employees in 16 Norwegian community pharmacies. Patient performance was monitored using an eight item checklist. Patients whose blood glucose measurements differed from pharmacy measurements by more than 20% were instructed in the correct use of their glucometer. The patients then re-measured their blood glucose. If the results were still outside the set limits, the control procedure was repeated with a new lot of glucometer strips, and then with a new glucometer. The patients returned for a follow-up visit after three months. Results: During the first visit, 5% of the 338 patients had measurements that deviated from pharmacy blood glucose values by more than 20% and user errors were observed for 50% of the patients. At the second visit, there was no significant change in the analytical quality of patient measurements, but the percentage of patients who made user errors had decreased to 29% (p < 0.001. Eighty-five percent of the patients reported that they used their blood glucose results to adjust medication, exercise or meals. Fifty-one percent of the patients reported a greater trust in their measurements after the second visit. Eighty percent of patients wished to have their measurements assessed yearly. Of these patients, 83% preferred to have the assessment done at the community pharmacy. Conclusion: A community pharmacy-based quality assessment procedure of patients’ self monitoring of blood glucose significantly reduced the number of user errors. The analytical quality of the

  20. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  1. Continuous tissue glucose monitoring correlates with measurement of intermittent capillary glucose in patients with distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, D; Martínez, Ó; Blancas Gómez-Casero, R; Martín Parra, C; López Matamala, B; Estébanez, B; Chana, M

    2015-10-01

    Intermittent glycemic measurements in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) can result in episodes of severe hypoglycemia or in a poor control of glycemia range. We designed a study to assess accuracy and reliability of continuous monitoring of tissue glucose for patients with distributive shock. Consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of distributive shock and the need of insulin infusion for glycemic control were included in the study. These patients were implanted a Continuous Glucose Control Monitoring System (CGMS) with the sensor inserted subcutaneously into the abdominal wall. CGMS values were recorded every 5min. Capillary glucose (CG) was monitored for adjusting insulin perfusion according to the ICU protocol. Correlation between both methods was assessed. A total of 11,673 CGMS and 348 CG values were recorded. In five patients, CGMS failed to detect tissue glucose. A glucose value <3.33mmol/l (<60mg/dl) was observed in 3.6% of CGMS and in 0.29% CG values. 295 pairs of measurements were included in the statistical analysis for correlation assessment. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.706. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.71 (p<0.0001, 95% CI 0.65-0.76). The mean of differences between both measurement methods was 0.22mmol/l (3.98mg/dl) (95% CI 0.66-7.31). When the Continuous Glucose Control Monitoring System (CGMS) is able to obtain data (75% of the patients), there is correlation between the values obtained by this method and capillary blood glucose in patients with distributive shock. CGMS can detect more episodes of glycemic excursions outside the normal range than intermittent capillary glucose monitoring. Variables that may impair glucose metabolism and peripheral soft tissues perfusion could impair CGMS measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a larger study dealing with glucose homeostasis in the toad Bufo gutturalis. Seven groups of seven toads each were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one month. During this period the toads were fed daily on live insects and were housed in a large laboratory terrarium in which the natural habitat was simulated as ...

  3. Institutional point-of-care glucometer identifies population trends in blood glucose associated with war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Matas, Zipora; Chaimy, Tova; Landau, Zohar; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Berlovitz, Yitzhak; Wainstein, Julio

    2013-11-01

    Acute physiological stress has been shown to impair glucose homeostasis. War is a period of acute psychological stress, and its effect on glucose control is unknown. In this study random point-of-care (POC) glucose levels were measured using an automated, institutional glucometer in hospitalized adult patients prior to versus during the Israeli Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012). Random POC glucose values measured with the institutional blood glucose monitoring system were obtained 1 week prior to the Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012) and compared with values to those obtained during the first 4 days of the war (November 14-17, 2012). In total, 3,573 POC glucose measures were included: 1,865 during the pre-war period and 1,708 during the campaign. POC glucose measures were significantly higher during the war compared with the week preceding the war: 9.7±4.7 versus 9.3±4.2 mmol/L (P=0.02). In a general linear model, period (pre-war vs. during war) persisted as a significant predictor of POC glucose even after controlling for age, sex, and department type (internal medicine vs. surgical). Acute stress, such as a wartime situation, is associated with a significant increase in random blood glucose values in a population of hospitalized adults. Long-term follow-up of the individuals hospitalized during these two periods can reveal differences in morbidity and mortality trends.

  4. Fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin concentrations of healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation is associated with loss of blood monthly in women of reproductive age. In some women this physiological phenomenon is also associated with some complaints such as menstrual pain, vomiting, and tiredness. We investigated the fasting blood glucose concentration and hemoglobin concentration before and ...

  5. Opto-acoustic monitoring of blood optical properties as a function of glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednov, Andrey A.; Savateeva, Elena V.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2003-06-01

    Time-resolved optoacoustic (OA) method was employed to measure changes in glucose concentration in the whole and diluted blood. An increase of the glucose level in tissue results in a corresponding decrease of optical scattering. Relative changes in tissue optical scattering can be obtained by measuring the effective optical attenuation coefficient, μeff by exponential fitting of the time-resolved optoacoustic profiles. Glucose effects in blood have been investigated using the forward mode of OA detection performed in the visible (at the wavelength, λ=532 nm) and near infrared (λ=1064 nm) spectral ranges. In our previous set of experiments, the OA studies performed in model media in vitro and biological tissue (sclera) in vivo demonstrated gradual reduction of optical scattering with the increase in glucose level. The present study has supported our previous observations. However, one novel effect was observed comprised of a transient increase in μeff during the first 5-10 minutes after injection of glucose. This phenomenon may be explained by changes in erythrocytes shape and size as a result of their adaptation to hyperglycemic conditions. Our observation was supported by light microscopy images of red blood cells under normal and hyperglycemic conditions. With glucose concentration changing rapidly (osmotic shock), any small reduction in ´eff due to the glucose-induced decrease of relative refraction index of blood, can be compensated or even overwhelmed by the increase in ´eff due to erythrocyte shrinkage and/or spherulation. Further cellular adaptation to glucose make erythrocytes return to their normal shape of biconcave disks about 7-μm in diameter. The kinetics of the effective optical attenuation was studies in response to glucose injection in order to better understand the mechanisms of erythrocyte adaptation to osmotic shock and to determine the time course of RBCs adaptation to various glucose concentrations. Finally, Mannitol as alternative

  6. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  7. Glucometer as a chairside device to assess blood glucose in periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Bala Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common finding in the medical history of patients receiving treatment for periodontal disease. The incidence of diabetes is on the rise worldwide. Virtually, every dentist and especially the periodontist are likely to encounter an increasing number of undiagnosed diabetic patients. The conventional laboratory methods employed to detect blood glucose are time consuming and require elaborative equipment. The advent of blood glucose monitors allows the clinician to assess blood glucose at the chair side. Materials and Methods: The use of gingival capillary blood as a marker for blood glucose estimation using glucometer against the conventional laboratory method has been assessed in 60 diabetics and 70 controls. Results: The correlation between gingival and finger-stick blood was r = 0.996, P<0.001 in diabetics and controls. Correlation between gingival and laboratory method was r = 0.994, P<0.001 in cases and controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that capillary blood from the outer surface of gingiva provide an acceptable source for measuring blood glucose.

  8. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  9. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  10. [A blood glucose slide chart for improving diabetes patient education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteau, Marie-Hélène

    2015-03-01

    A blood glucose slide chart has been developed in order to help patients with type 2 diabetes who do not speak French or who have comprehension difficulties. Combined with pictograms to help patients visualise the action they need to take depending on the recorded glucose level, it constitutes a therapeutic education tool which can be useful on a day-to-day basis both for patients as well as caregivers.

  11. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid ionic regulation, cerebral blood flow, and glucose use during chronic metabolic alkalosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeck, H.K.; Kuschinsky, W. (Univ. of Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-10-01

    Chronic metabolic alkalosis was induced in rats by combining a low K+ diet with a 0.2 M NaHCO3 solution as drinking fluid for either 15 or 27 days. Local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization were measured in 31 different structures of the brain in conscious animals by means of the iodo-(14C)antipyrine and 2-(14C)deoxy-D-glucose method. The treatment induced moderate (15 days, base excess (BE) 16 mM) to severe (27 days, BE 25 mM) hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and K+ depletion. During moderate metabolic alkalosis no change in cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow was detectable in most brain structures when compared with controls. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K+ and H+ concentrations were significantly decreased. During severe hypochloremic alkalosis, cerebral blood flow was decreased by 19% and cerebral glucose utilization by 24% when compared with the control values. The decrease in cerebral blood flow during severe metabolic alkalosis is attributed mainly to the decreased cerebral metabolism and to a lesser extent to a further decrease of the CSF H+ concentration. CSF K+ concentration was not further decreased. The results show an unaltered cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a decrease in CSF H+ and K+ concentrations at moderate metabolic alkalosis and a decrease in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a further decreased CSF H+ concentration at severe metabolic alkalosis.

  13. A review of metabolism of labeled glucoses for use in measuring glucose recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The fate of tritium from each carbon of D-glucose and the metabolism of L-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose are known. Differences in metabolism of labeled glucoses can be used to quantify physical and chemical recycling of glucose. Only physical recycling is measured by [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, whereas [U- 14 C]-D-glucose measures total recycling. The difference between [1- 3 H]-L-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose, therefore, is chemical recycling. Recycling from extracellular binding sites and hepatic glucose 6-phosphate can be measured by difference between [1,2- 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, and the difference in irreversible loss of the two will measure extrahepatic uptake of D-glucose. Recycling via Cori-alanine cycle plus CO 2 is the difference in irreversible loss measured by using [6- 3 H]-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose. Recycling via the hexose monophosphate pathway can be determined by difference in irreversible loss between [1- 3 H]-D-glucose and [6- 3 H]-D-glucose. Recycling via CO 2 and glycerol must be measured directly with [U- 14 C]glucose, bicarbonate, and glycerol. Recycling via hepatic glycogen can be estimated by subtracting all other measured chemical recycling from total chemical recycling. This review describes means to quantify glucose recycling in vivo, enabling studies of mechanisms for conservation and utilization of glucose. 54 references

  14. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L Silverman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bernard L Silverman1, Christopher J Barnes2, Barbara N Campaigne3, Douglas B Muchmore31Alkermes, Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2i3 Statprobe, Ann Arbor, MI; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, inhaled insulin, cardiovascular disease, blood glucose

  15. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  16. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  17. Blood glucose control in the intensive care unit: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Jan; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal blood glucose levels are common during critical illness and are associated with outcomes that correspond to a J-shaped curve, the lowest risk associated with normoglycemia. Three proof-of-concept randomized-controlled-trials performed in the surgical, medical, and pediatric intensive care units of the Leuven University Hospital in Belgium demonstrated that maintaining strict age-adjusted normal fasting levels of glycemia (80-110 mg/dl in adults, 70-100 mg/dl in children, 50-80 mg/dl in infants) with intensive insulin therapy reduced morbidity and mortality as compared with tolerating stress hyperglycemia as a potentially beneficial response. Recently, concern has risen about the safety of this intervention, as a multicenter adult study reported an, as yet unexplained, increased mortality with targeting normoglycemia as compared with an intermediate blood glucose level of around 140 mg/dl. This apparent contradiction may be explained by several methodological differences among studies, comprising, among others, different glucose target ranges in the control groups, different feeding policies, and variable accuracy of tools used for glucose measurement and insulin infusion. Hence, efficacy and safety of intensive insulin therapy may be affected by patient-related and ICU setting-related variables. Therefore, no single optimal blood glucose target range for ICU patients can be advocated. It appears safe not to embark on targeting "age-normal" levels in intensive care units (ICUs) that are not equipped to accurately and frequently measure blood glucose, and have not acquired extensive experience with intravenous insulin administration using a customized guideline. A simple fallback position could be to control blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible without evoking unacceptable blood glucose fluctuations, hypoglycemia, and hypokalemia.

  18. Umbilical cord blood glucose levels in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to determine the umbilical cord venous blood level of glucose in full-term newborns and its relationship to the mode of delivery. The investigation included 102 full-term newborn infants, including 33 and 69 babies born via cesar-ean and vaginal delivery, respectively. Umbilical cord serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase test using a Sap-phire-400 biochemical analyzer. In healthy full-term newborns, the mean umbilical cord blood glucose levels were 4,29±0,88 mmol/1 (minimum, 2,9 mmol/1 and maximum, 5,9 mmol/1. In the babies born via cesarean delivery, the umbilical cord blood concentration of glucose was ascertained to be significantly lower than in those born vaginally (3,84+0,71 mmol/1 versus 4,51+0,87 mmol/1; /><0,0001. Abdominal delivery can be apparently considered to be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in neonatal infants.

  19. Measurement of lactate formation from glucose using [6-3H]- and [6-14C]glucose in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkamaeki, A.P.; Puhakainen, I.; Nurjhan, N.; Gerich, J.E.; Yki-Jaervinen, H.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the validity of determining the origin of plasma lactate from the ratio of lactate and glucose specific activities (SA) during infusion of labeled glucose, normal subjects received infusions of [6-3H]- and [6-14C]glucose for 4 h after a 12 h fast, and, on another day, cold glucose labeled with both tracers during 4-6 h of hyperinsulinemia (approximately 650 microU/ml). Basally, less lactate was derived from plasma glucose when measured with [6-3H]glucose (27 +/- 2%) than with [6-14C]glucose (40 +/- 2%, P less than 0.001). Insulin did not increase the percent of lactate derived from plasma glucose when measured with [6-3H]glucose (29 +/- 2%) but did increase when measured with [6-14C]glucose (60 +/- 4%). The arterialized blood (A) [3H]lactate SA was 30-40% higher (P less than 0.01) than deep venous blood (V) [3H]lactate SA, whereas A and V [14C]lactate SA were similar. During conversion of alanine to lactate with glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, 32 +/- 2% of 3H in [3-3H]alanine was found in water and 68 +/- 2% in lactate. During infusion of [6-3H]- and [6-14C]glucose, the ratio of [14C]alanine to lactate SA (0.88 +/- 0.05) was less than the ratio of [3H]alanine to lactate SA (0.31 +/- 0.03, P less than 0.001). In conclusion (1) loss of 3H relative to 14C from position 6 in glucose occurs during lactate formation in extrahepatic tissues possibly due to the GPT reaction (alanine conversion to pyruvate), and (2) even under supraphysiologic hyperinsulinemic conditions not all of plasma lactate originates from plasma glucose

  20. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  1. A portable measuring system for a competitive binding glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Lydia E.; Means, A. Kristen; Grunlan, Melissa A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2018-02-01

    Central to minimizing the long- and short-term complications associated with diabetes is careful monitoring and maintenance of blood glucose at normal levels. Towards replacing conventionally used finger-prick glucose testing, indwelling continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) based on amperometric electrodes have been introduced to the market. Envisioned to lead to a CGM with an increased lifetime, we report herein a fluorescently-labeled competitive binding assay contained within a hydrogel membrane whose glucose response is measured via a novel portable system. The optical system design included a laser source, bifurcated fiber, laser filter and simple fiber coupled spectrometer to obtain the change in FRET pair ratio of the assay. Glucose response of the assay in free solution was measured using this system across the physiologic range (0-200 mg/dL). The FRET pair ratio signal was seen to increase with glucose and the standard error of calibration was 22.42 mg/dL with a MARD value of 14.85%. When the assay was contained within the hydrogel membrane's central cavity and similarly analyzed, the standard error increased but the assay maintained its reversibility.

  2. Effect of Cola acuminate on Blood Glucose and Glycosylated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (GHB) were studied in 42 Wistar rats divided into three groups; controls, group A and group B. Control rats consumed only feeds, group A consumed 0.04g of Cola acuminate, while group B consumed 0.08g of Cola acuminate mixed with their feeds daily for six ...

  3. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  4. Comparative effects of some medicinal plants on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) on blood glucose concentration and lipid levels of diabetic rats were investigated using standard ...

  5. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  6. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of daidzin (DZ) on diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice, with a view to determining its usefulness in the treatment of diabetes. Methods: The effect of DZ (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) on blood glucose was investigated in both ...

  7. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  8. Effects of selenium yeast on blood glucose and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed and the serum samples were collected and evaluated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in blood glucose level in the ...

  9. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was done as a part of safety assessment to determine the effects of Tartrazine E102 on some haematological indices, glucose levels and blood lipid profile in rats. An animal model was used as a basis for interpreting the situation in humans. Consequently, 40 albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each.

  10. Effects of Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Seed on Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, with its associated complications, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of citrullus lanatus seed extract on blood glucose concentration and electrolyte parameters. Citrullus lanatus is an antioxidant and has been shown to reduce oxidative stress (Khaki et al., 2013). Effects ...

  11. Adenosine deaminase activities and fasting blood glucose in obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A complex relationship seems to exist between adenosine deaminase (ADA) and insulin in obesity. Through its effect on adenosine, the enzyme can modulate the action of insulin and affect blood glucose while the administration of insulin is said to decrease the activities of the enzyme. Aim: To investigate the ...

  12. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...

  13. Blood glucose response of normoglycemic adults fed breakfast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of high fibre leguminous products in breakfast porridges, made from Afzelia Africana (AA), Detarium microcarpum (DM), Sphenostylis stenocarpa (SS) and Zea mays on blood glucose level of humans was investigated in this study. The food items were processed into flour using African (Nigerian) traditional processing ...

  14. Effect of leaf extract of Pseudocedrela kotchyi on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of leaf extract of Pseudocedrela kotchi (PK) on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Pseudocedreala kotchi for 14 days. The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period. There was a significant ...

  15. Effect of extract of Abrs Precatorius on blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of leaf extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose level of alloxan- induced diabetic albino wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days. The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period. There was a significant ...

  16. Data Mining Technologies for Blood Glucose and Diabetes Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is the process of selecting, exploring, and modeling large amounts of data to discover unknown patterns or relationships useful to the data analyst. This article describes applications of data mining for the analysis of blood glucose and diabetes mellitus data. The diabetes management

  17. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  18. Variations of blood glucose in cancer patients during chemotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose (BG) variations in cancer patients during chemotherapy according to tumor types and chemotherapeutic regimens. Materials and Methods: Patients were examined from the Department of Medical Oncology of Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy ...

  19. Impact Of Administration Mulberry Juice On Blood Glucose, Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was designed to study the effects of black and white mulberry juice on blood glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats. Sprague Dawley male rats weighing (125 ± 12.2 g) were divided into eight groups (each of 12 rats). Four healthy control group include normal ...

  20. Blood glucose lowering activity of five Nigerian medicinal plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood glucose lowering effects of the aqueous leaf extracts of Cassia alata, Acalypha torta and Breynia nivosa, and aqueous root extracts of Daniellia oliveri and Nauclea latifolia traditionally employed in Nigeria in the management of diabetes mellitus were compared in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. The same ...

  1. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  2. Variations of blood glucose in cancer patients during chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose (BG) variations in cancer patients during chemotherapy ... Materials and Methods: Patients were examined from the Department of Medical Oncology of Cancer Hospital and .... 68 (LC, 20.5%), colon cancer 63 (CC, 19.0%), rectal cancer.

  3. Chronotopic and blood pressure response to oral glucose load in chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Guariento

    Full Text Available Cardiac chronotropic and pressor responses after an oral load of glucose were assessed in sixteen Chagasic subjects and 28 controls by means of blood pressure and pulse rate measurements. Cardiovascular response was correlated with serum insulin and glucose levels. The experiment identified a subgroup of Chagasic subjects (n=8 with a hypoinsulinemic behavior presenting less chronotropic and pressor responses than controls. This may indicate a lower insulin activity and/or an early Autonomic Nervous System dysfunction in this subgroup.

  4. On the suitability of refractometry for the analysis of glucose in blood-derived fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirk, K; Poetzschke, H

    2004-07-01

    Refractometry is the determination of the optical refractive index of a substance or a mixture of substances. It is a very sensitive method for the detection and quantification of dissolved analytes, but it is incapable of distinguishing between different analytes. The aim of this investigation was to determine the principle suitability of refractometry for the quantification of glucose (blood sugar) in blood and various blood fluids which can readily be obtained for medical diagnosis, in particular blood plasma, blood serum, and their ultrafiltrates. After the oral intake of freshly dissolved alpha-glucose, the in vivo blood contents of the alpha and beta anomers of glucose were found to be in an at least approximate equilibrium at all times. This observation is a prerequisite for a refractometrical determination of glucose due to the fact that both molecule forms have different refractive index increments. An assessment of the glucose content in untreated blood fluids was not possible, since no suitable relationship to the refractive index was found, most probably due to the influence of the many other substances present in blood on this parameter. However, after removal of certain macromolecules by ultrafiltration, value pairs showed a high level of correlation, providing the nominal molecular weight limit (cut-off) of the ultrafilter used possessed a maximum of 300 kDa. Besides macromolecules, the osmolality of the fluids undergoing measurement also proved to be a considerable interfering factor, particularly when values were outside the normal physiological range between 285 and 293 mmol/L. If a clinical application of this method is to be contemplated it is imperative (1) that blood cells are separated and removed, (2) that macromolecules present in plasma or serum are removed, e.g. by ultrafiltration, and (3) that beyond the results presented the influence of all small molecules other than glucose on the overall refractive index be determined and included in

  5. Glucose-induced time-dependent potentiation of insulin release, but not islet blood perfusion, in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Leif; Bodin, Birgitta; Källskog, Orjan

    2008-01-01

    Repeated administration of glucose in vivo leads to a time-dependent potentiation of insulin release. Glucose is also known to stimulate pancreatic islet blood flow, but whether this is associated with a time-dependent potentiation is unknown. We therefore repeatedly administered glucose to anesthetized rats and evaluated effects on insulin release and islet blood flow. Male Wistar-Furth rats, anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, were injected intravenously with 1 ml of saline or glucose at times 0, 30 and 60 min. The combinations used were saline + saline + saline (SSS), glucose + saline + saline (GSS), saline + saline + glucose (SSG) and glucose + glucose + glucose (GGG). Regional organ blood flow values were measured 3 min after the final injection with a microsphere technique, and at this time also serum insulin concentrations were determined with ELISA. Serum insulin concentrations as well as total pancreatic, pancreatic islet and duodenal blood flow were higher in SSG and GGG-treated rats when compared to those given SSS and GSS. However, only insulin concentrations, not blood flow values, were higher in GGG rats when compared to SSG animals. Glucose-induced time-dependent potentiation of insulin release occurs in vivo in thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats, but is not associated with a further increase in islet blood flow.

  6. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-12-03

    The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 18,231 Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. The PA levels of the respondents were categorised as low, moderate or high according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short form. Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a digital blood pressure-measuring device and finger-prick test, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) level was positively associated with PA level (p = 0.02) whilst no significant association was noted between PA level and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In contrast, respondents with low (adjusted coefficient = 0.17) or moderate (adjusted coefficient = 0.03) level of PA had significantly higher blood glucose level as compared to those who were highly active (p = 0.04). A significant negative association was observed between PA level and blood glucose only. Future studies should employ an objective measurement in estimating PA level in order to elucidate the actual relationship between PA, hypertension and diabetes for the development of effective interventions to combat the increasing burden of premature-mortality and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity in Malaysia.

  7. Postprandial Blood Glucose Outweighs Fasting Blood Glucose and HbA1c in screening Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Liu; Gui, Minghui; Aleteng, Qiqige; Wu, Bingjie; Wang, Shanshan; Pan, Baishen; Ling, Yan; Gao, Xin

    2017-10-27

    The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as screening for coronary heart disease (CHD) in an inpatient population undergoing coronary angiography. 1852 consecutive patients scheduled for coronary angiography were classified into Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT), Impaired Glucose Regulation (IGR), and diabetes, based on FBG, PBG, and HbA1c. Correlations of Gensini score with glucose metabolism and insulin resistance were analyzed. The associations between glycemic variables and Gensini score or the presence of CHD were analyzed by multiple linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. CHD was diagnosed in 488, 622, and 414 patients with NGT, IGR, and diabetes, respectively. Gensini score was positively correlated with FBG (r = 0.09, p PBG (r = 0.20, p PBG and HbA1c were pooled altogether, only PBG persisted in its association with Gensini score and the prevalence of CHD. The severity of CHD was associated with glucose rather than insulin resistance in this Chinese population. PBG was optimally correlated with the presence and severity of CHD.

  8. A Post-Marketing Surveillance Study to Evaluate Performance of the EXIMO™ Blood Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandnani, Sonia R; Ramakrishna, C D; Dave, Bhargav A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Thakkar, Ashok S

    2017-05-01

    The performance of Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS) is critical as the information provided by the system guide the patient or health care professional in making treatment decisions. However, besides evaluating accuracy of the BGMS in laboratory setting, it is equally important that the intended users (healthcare professionals and patients) should be able to achieve blood glucose measurements with similar level of high accuracy. To assess the performance of EXIMO™ (Meril Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., Vapi, Gujarat, India) BGMS as per International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. This was a non-randomized and post-marketing study conducted at a tertiary care centre of India. A total of 1005 patients with diabetes themselves performed fingertip blood glucose measurement using EXIMO™ BGMS. Immediately after capillary blood glucose measurement using the blood glucose monitoring system, venous blood sample from each patient was obtained by a trained technician which was assessed by reference laboratory method- Cobas Integra 400 plus (Roche Instrument Centre, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). All the blood glucose measurements assessed by EXIMO™ were compared with laboratory results. Performance of the system was assessed as per ISO 15197:2013 criteria using Bland-Altman plot, Parkes-Consensus Error Grid (CEG) and Surveillance Error Grid analyses (SEG). A total of 1005 patients participated in the study. Average age of the patients was 44.93±14.65 years. Evaluation of capillary fingertip blood glucose measurements demonstrated that 95.82% measurements fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. All the results lie within clinically non-critical zones; Zone A (99.47%; n=1000) and Zone B (0.53%; n=05) of the CEG analysis. As per SEG analysis, majority of the results fell within "no-risk" zone (risk score 0 to 0.5; 90.42%). The result of the study confirmed that intended users are able to obtain accurate

  9. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Kuhre, Rune E.; Hornburg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in...

  10. Clinical results from a noninvasive blood glucose monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas B.; Ruchti, Timothy L.; Lorenz, Alex D.; Monfre, Stephen L.; Makarewicz, M. R.; Mattu, Mutua; Hazen, Kevin

    2002-05-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has long been proposed as a means for advancing the management of diabetes through increased measurement and control. The use of a near-infrared, NIR, spectroscopy based methodology for noninvasive monitoring has been pursued by a number of groups. The accuracy of the NIR measurement technology is limited by challenges related to the instrumentation, the heterogeneity and time-variant nature of skin tissue, and the complexity of the calibration methodology. In this work, we discuss results from a clinical study that targeted the evaluation of individual calibrations for each subject based on a series of controlled calibration visits. While the customization of the calibrations to individuals was intended to reduce model complexity, the extensive requirements for each individual set of calibration data were difficult to achieve and required several days of measurement. Through the careful selection of a small subset of data from all samples collected on the 138 study participants in a previous study, we have developed a methodology for applying a single standard calibration to multiple persons. The standard calibrations have been applied to a plurality of individuals and shown to be persistent over periods greater than 24 weeks.

  11. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    2001-01-01

    -blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE......, no differences in the pattern of change of splanchnic blood flow and splanchnic glucose production were observed during ACE blockade compared with controls. This study demonstrates that the normal increase in ANG II levels observed during prolonged exercise in humans does not play a major role in the regulation......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin...

  12. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  13. Glucose predictability, blood capillary permeability, and glucose utilization rate in subcutaneous, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2013-11-01

    This study suggests an approach for the comparison and evaluation of particular compartments with modest experimental setup costs. A glucose level prediction model was used to evaluate the compartment's glucose transport rate across the blood capillary membrane and the glucose utilization rate by the cells. The glucose levels of the blood, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were obtained in experiments conducted on hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats. After the blood glucose level had undergone a rapid change, the experimenter attempted to reach a steady blood glucose level by manually correcting the glucose infusion rate and maintaining a constant insulin infusion rate. The interstitial fluid glucose levels of subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were evaluated to determine the reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level, the interstitial fluid glucose level predictability, the blood capillary permeability, the effect of the concentration gradient, and the glucose utilization rate. Based on these data, the glucose transport rate across the capillary membrane and the utilization rate in a particular tissue were determined. The rates obtained were successfully verified against positron emission tomography experiments. The subcutaneous tissue exhibits the lowest and the most predictable glucose utilization rate, whereas the skeletal muscle tissue has the greatest glucose utilization rate. In contrast, the visceral fat is the least predictable and has the shortest reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level. The reaction delays obtained for the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle tissue were found to be approximately equal using a metric based on the time required to reach half of the increase in the interstitial fluid glucose level. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effect of transmucosal corn syrup application on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; Shaver, Stephanie L; Semick, Danielle N; Bradley, Nancy C; Kreisler, Rachael E

    2018-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a common clinical practice, the transmucosal (TM) application of corn syrup, on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Methods This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five kittens between the age of 8 and 16 weeks scheduled for surgical sterilization by gonadectomy at an animal shelter were enrolled. Kittens were randomly assigned to either a routine treatment group that received the shelter's typical postoperative application of corn syrup immediately following gonadectomy or to a control group that did not receive typical treatment. Three blood glucose measurements were obtained per kitten: baseline reading prior to preoperative examination, immediately postoperatively and 20 mins postoperatively. The median values of the 20 min postoperative blood glucose reading for the control and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Postoperative application of corn syrup to the oral mucosa of kittens did not result in significant elevations in blood glucose compared with controls. No kitten was hypoglycemic (⩽60 mg/dl) at any point during the study. Conclusions and relevance TM application of corn syrup did not affect postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Protocols that use routine TM administration of corn syrup in kittens should be re-evaluated.

  15. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: Copy numbers, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tasker, S?verine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either M. haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), `Candidatus M. haemominutum? (Group HM: 3 cats) or `Candidatus M. turicensis? (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed...

  16. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management.

  17. Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Valera, Beatriz; Nielsen, Nina O; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2015-11-01

    The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c-peptide were measured in blood. Fasting participants without diabetes were classified into normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glycemia, or type 2 diabetes. We calculated hepatic insulin resistance with homoeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance index, peripheral insulin sensitivity by ISI0,120., and relative beta cell function by c-peptide/insulin ratio. We conducted adjusted linear- and logistic regression analyses. For an increase in whole blood mercury of 5 µg/L we found a positive association with fasting glucose [% change=0.25 (95% CI: 0.20; 0.30); p<0.001], and 2-h glucose [% change=0.23 (95% CI: 0.05; 0.40); p=0.01]. Mercury was weakly associated with impaired fasting glycemia [OR=1.03 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.05)], and type 2 diabetes [OR=1.02 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.04)]. While the study found a weak but statistically significant association between whole blood mercury and both impaired fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes, no associations were found with measures of underlying disturbances in glucose homoeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in man and the effect of moderate hypoglycaemia on cerebral glucose utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, G.; Widen, L.; Hellstrand, E.; Gutniak, M.; Grill, V.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of steady-state moderate hypoglycaemia on human brain homeostasis has been studied with positron emission tomography using D-glucose 11 C(ul) as tracer. To rule out any effects of insulin, the plasma insulin concentration was maintained at the same level under normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. Reduction of blood glucose by 55% increased the glucose clearance through the blood-brain barrier by 50% and reduced brain glucose consumption by 40%. Blood flow was not affected. The results are consistent with facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in humans. The maximal transport rate of glucose from blood to brain was found to be 62±19 (mean±SEM) μmol hg -1 min -1 , and the half-saturation constant was found to be 4.1±3.2 mM. (orig.)

  19. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=-0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=-0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254-3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007-1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women. Moreover, both

  20. System accuracy evaluation of 43 blood glucose monitoring systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose according to DIN EN ISO 15197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2012-09-01

    The accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose is important, as reliable measurement results are a prerequisite for therapeutic decisions. This system accuracy evaluation study was performed according to DIN EN ISO 15197:2003 for 43 Conformité Européenne (CE)-labeled blood glucose (BG) monitoring systems. Measurement results of each system were compared with results of the designated comparison method (manufacturer's measurement procedure): glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 glucose analyzer) or hexokinase method (Hitachi 917/ cobas 501). Complete assessment according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard was performed for 34 out of 43 systems, and 27 (79.4%) meet the requirements of the standard, i.e., ≥95% of their results showed at least the minimum acceptable accuracy. For 9 of the 43 systems, complete accuracy assessment was not performed due to an oxygen sensitivity (manufacturer's labeling). The bias (according to Bland and Altman) of all 43 evaluated systems ranged from -14.1% to +12.4%. From the 34 systems completely assessed, 7 systems did not fulfill the minimal accuracy requirements of the ISO standard. The CE mark apparently does not guarantee that all BG systems provide accuracy according to the standard. Because inaccurate systems bear the risk of false therapeutic decisions, regular and standardized evaluation of BG meters and test strips should be requested in order to ensure adherence to quality standards. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  2. Smart point-of-care systems for molecular diagnostics based on nanotechnology: whole blood glucose analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P.; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-07-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) film chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations of blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent was adsorbed onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the PET film chip. The AFSiO2 nanoparticles can immobilize the assay reagent with an electrostatic attraction and eased to develop the opaque platform which was technically suitable chip to analyze by the camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique. The photon number decreases with increasing glucose concentration. The simple sensing approach, utilizing enzyme immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticle chip and assay detection method was developed for quantitative glucose measurement.

  3. Application of chronic intravascular blood glucose sensor in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J C; Lucisano, J Y; McKean, B D; Gough, D A

    1990-12-01

    An intravenous glucose sensor was implanted in six dogs for 1-15 wk. The glucose sensor is a flexible cylinder, approximately 0.2 cm diam and 30 cm long, with a tip containing immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase coupled to a potentiostatic O2 sensor. The sensor and a similar O2 reference sensor were implanted in the superior vena cava near the entrance of the right atrium. The sensor response was conveyed externally either by a telemetry system implanted nearby, surgically accessed leads, or chronically maintained percutaneous leads. Summing over the six implants, there was a total implantation period of 333 days during which glucose sensors were functional on demand. The sensor response showed agreement with conventionally assayed blood samples after accounting for a response lag. Sensor response to glucose showed little change over the implant period. Biocompatibility, enzyme lifetime, O2 availability, O2 sensor stability, and biochemical interference were not limitations. Results demonstrated that this sensor can function effectively as an implant in dogs for a period of months and has the potential for long-term operation.

  4. The Period of Operation and Perioperative Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic data as well as duration of fast was obtained, blood glucose level was estimated by One touch glucometer (Life Scan Inc. USA) immediately after induction. The mean age of the children was 4.1±2.6 yr and the mean weight was 15.9±6.2 kg. The mean duration of preoperative fast was 13.1±4.2 h (5-23) h.

  5. The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on blood glucose in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were grouped into two: groups A (control) and B (Test B1 and Test B2). Group A received water and feed (grower's mash) with grass supplementation. Group B (Test B1 and B2) received 3.33mg/ml and 6.66mg/ml of MSG respectively at libitum. At the end of each week, fasting blood glucose levels were ...

  6. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city.METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288 of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics.RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively.CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved.

  7. Introduction of the glucose meter as a tool of self-monitoring of blood glucose for patients from Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Corral de Arêa Leão Souza

    2014-04-01

    Introduction: the introduction of home blood glucose monitoring aimed autonomy for patient self-care, result in reducing the complications of Diabetes mellitus (DM. Objectives: evaluate and analyze the evolution of HbA1c levels in insulin-dependent patients in Santos/SP after the introduction of blood glucose self-monitoring. Methods: through a transversal study with patient forms, it has been selected a sample of 20% of insulin-dependent patients total (160/800 patients according to age range and sex. Those data was analyzed through the SPSS 15.0 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago-IL using ANOVA test with repeated measures, comparing the mean values from before the use of the home self-monitoring with the values of tests performed after its introduction, in order to identify reduction or not of the HbA1c patients' values. This study was approved by ethics committees of UNIFESP and by Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Santos. Results: of the 157 used records, with a total of 471 HbA1c values, only five (3.2% belonged to the range of 21 - 40 years, the range of 41 - 60 years presented with higher population possessing 47 patients (30% and those over 60 years prevailed in the study with 105 patients listed (66.9%. The HbA1c values presented a statically significant reduction after 6 months from starting use the glucose meter with P < 0.05 (0.014, demonstrating that after six months of glucose meter use, it was noticed the statistic reduction in HbA1c levels. Conclusions: the home self-monitoring of blood glucose, coupled with drug intervention, reduces HbA1c levels in a six-month interval.

  8. Blood plasma separation in ZnO nanoflowers-supported paper based microfluidic for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Luthviyah Choirotul; Roekmono, Hadi, Harsono; Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2018-04-01

    Blood plasma separation is essential to analyze and quantify the bio-substances in the human blood and hence, allows for diagnosing various diseases. This paper presents the two layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers (ZnO NF-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing. Plasma separation in ZnO NF-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose detection was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The glucose concentrations in the red blood samples investigated here vary in the range of 150 - 310 mg.dl-1. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 240 ± 93 s. The spectroscopic data reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose are increasing at higher glucose concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO NF and the paper, linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

  9. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wróbel, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described

  10. Non-invasive estimate of blood glucose and blood pressure from a photoplethysmograph by means of machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Moreno, Enric

    2011-10-01

    This work presents a system for a simultaneous non-invasive estimate of the blood glucose level (BGL) and the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, using a photoplethysmograph (PPG) and machine learning techniques. The method is independent of the person whose values are being measured and does not need calibration over time or subjects. The architecture of the system consists of a photoplethysmograph sensor, an activity detection module, a signal processing module that extracts features from the PPG waveform, and a machine learning algorithm that estimates the SBP, DBP and BGL values. The idea that underlies the system is that there is functional relationship between the shape of the PPG waveform and the blood pressure and glucose levels. As described in this paper we tested this method on 410 individuals without performing any personalized calibration. The results were computed after cross validation. The machine learning techniques tested were: ridge linear regression, a multilayer perceptron neural network, support vector machines and random forests. The best results were obtained with the random forest technique. In the case of blood pressure, the resulting coefficients of determination for reference vs. prediction were R(SBP)(2)=0.91, R(DBP)(2)=0.89, and R(BGL)(2)=0.90. For the glucose estimation, distribution of the points on a Clarke error grid placed 87.7% of points in zone A, 10.3% in zone B, and 1.9% in zone D. Blood pressure values complied with the grade B protocol of the British Hypertension society. An effective system for estimate of blood glucose and blood pressure from a photoplethysmograph is presented. The main advantage of the system is that for clinical use it complies with the grade B protocol of the British Hypertension society for the blood pressure and only in 1.9% of the cases did not detect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  12. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  13. Abnormal oral glucose tolerance and glucose malabsorption after vagotomy and pyloroplasty. A tracer method for measuring glucose absorption rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziuk, J.; Bondy, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the abnormal glucose tolerance in patients who had undergone vagotomy and pyloroplasty were investigated by measuring the rates of absorption of ingested glucose and the clearance rate of glucose using tracer methods. These methods are based on labeling a 100-g oral glucose load with [1- 14 C]glucose and measuring glucose clearance using plasma levels of infused [3- 3 H]glucose. The rate of appearance of both ingested and total glucose is then calculated continuously using a two-compartment model of glucose kinetics. It was found that about 30% of the ingested glucose (100 g) failed to appear in the systemic circulation. That this was due to malabsorption was confirmed using breath-hydrogen analysis. The absorption period is short (101 +/- 11 min) compared with normal values but the clearance of glucose is identical to that in control subjects, and it peaks 132 +/- 7 min after glucose loading. The peak plasma insulin values were more than four times higher in patients than in normal subjects, and this may afford an explanation of rates of glucose clearance that are inappropriate for the short absorption period. The combination of glucose malabsorption and this clearance pattern could yield the hypoglycemia that may be observed in patients after gastric surgery

  14. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) raises blood-brain glucose transfer capacity and hexokinase activity in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Lerche, Susanne; Egefjord, Lærke

    2013-01-01

    In hyperglycemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) lowers brain glucose concentration together with increased net blood-brain clearance and brain metabolism, but it is not known whether this effect depends on the prevailing plasma glucose (PG) concentration. In hypoglycemia, glucose depletion...... potentially impairs brain function. Here, we test the hypothesis that GLP-1 exacerbates the effect of hypoglycemia. To test the hypothesis, we determined glucose transport and consumption rates in seven healthy men in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design. The acute...... effect of GLP-1 on glucose transfer in the brain was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) during a hypoglycemic clamp (3 mM plasma glucose) with (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) as tracer of glucose. In addition, we jointly analyzed cerebrometabolic effects of GLP-1 from the present...

  16. Flattening postprandial blood glucose responses with guar gum: acute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Leo, T A; Mendeloff, A I

    1985-01-01

    It has been proposed that high-carbohydrate, high-fiber (HCF) diets might serve as useful therapeutic modality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). One problem in evaluating clinical trials of this therapy is that, by their very nature, the trials cannot be double blinded. We have developed HCF and placebo granola-type bars using complex absorbable carbohydrate and guar gum fiber to circumvent this methodologic problem. The HCF bars, when consumed with an ad lib. diet, assure an HCF intake without imposing other dietary restrictions. To test the short-term efficacy of the bars, 9 normal adult volunteers, 2 women with impaired glucose tolerance, and 20 patients with NIDDM consumed the bars alone or with meals. Blood glucose responses when HCF bars were consumed alone were blunted when compared with the placebo response (P less than 0.0005 to P less than 0.002), with the most marked suppression occurring in the early postprandial period. In contrast, when the bars were consumed along with breakfast, HCF and placebo responses were virtually identical in the early postprandial period, but showed a progressively greater difference from 90 to 240 min (P less than 0.02 to P less than 0.0005). When consumed with lunch as well as breakfast, the HCF bars caused flattening of blood glucose responses during the late postprandial period after breakfast and maintained flattened responses during the early and late postprandial periods after lunch (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.005). It is concluded that these HCF bars can be used to blunt postprandial blood glucose responses, in subjects with either normal or abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  17. Performance evaluation and labeling comprehension of a new blood glucose monitoring system with integrated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as "very good" or "excellent." CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Effect of decrease in both postprandial blood glucose (PBG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in normal beagle dogs with nateglinide enteric coated granules and immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Chisato; Ninomiya, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hidetoshi; Orita, Haruo; Okano, Akira; Yabuki, Akira

    2006-04-01

    Nateglinide is a new quick action/short duration (QRSD) type of oral blood glucose regulator, and nateglinide immediate release tablets are used for patients with mild diabetes under the trade name of Fastic((R)) tablets. In this study, we attempted to determine if it was possible to control both post-prandial blood glucose level (PBG) and fasting blood glucose level (FBG) for moderate or severe diabetes through controlled release of nateglinide. Enteric coated granules were selected for the administration form for controlled release of nateglinide, and three types of enteric coated granules were prepared having dissolution pH values of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.2. The three types of enteric coated granules were each administered separately or the enteric coated granules having an dissolution pH of 6.5 were administered simultaneous to administration of nateglinide immediate release tablets to normal beagle dogs just before feeding followed by measurement of plasma nateglinide concentration, plasma insulin concentration and blood glucose level. In the case of administering enteric coated granules alone (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), the absorption of nateglinide was confirmed to tend to be delayed as the dissolution pH increased. In the case of an dissolution pH of 5.5, decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed. In the case of dissolution pH values of 6.5 and 7.2, only decrease in FBG was observed. In case of nateglinide immediate release tablets (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), only decrease in PBG was observed. Decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed in the case of simultaneous administration of dissolution pH 6.5 enteric coated granules and nateglinide immediate release tablets just before feeding (nateglinide: 90 mg/head+60 mg/head). A correlation was observed between plasma nateglinide concentrations and blood glucose levels. On the other hand, there were no correlations observed between changes in plasma insulin concentrations and blood glucose levels. In case of nateglinide

  19. Blood concentrations of lactate, glucose and corticosterone in dispersing hatchling sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Pereira

    2012-11-01

    Natal dispersal of sea turtles is an energetically demanding activity that is fuelled primarily by aerobic metabolism. However, during intense exercise reptiles can use anaerobic metabolism to supplement their energy requirements. We assessed anaerobic metabolism in dispersing hatchling loggerhead and flatback turtles by measuring the concentrations of blood lactate during crawling and at different times during the first four hours of their frenzy swim. We also measured concentrations of blood glucose and corticosterone. Blood lactate (12.13 to 2.03 mmol/L, glucose (6.25 to 3.8 mmol/L and corticosterone (8.13 to 2.01 ng/mL concentrations decreased significantly over time in both loggerhead and flatback hatchlings and no significant differences were found between the species. These results indicate that anaerobic metabolism makes a significant contribution to the dispersal phase of hatchling sea turtles during the beach crawl and the first few hours of the frenzy swim.

  20. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, YOSHIO; SHIMIZU, TOMOMI; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; SATO, KENJI; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; IMANISHI, AKIO; WATANABE, MASAYUKI; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathl...

  1. Effects on cognitive performance of modulating the postprandial blood glucose profile at breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2012-09-01

    Considering the importance of glucose as a brain substrate, the postprandial rate of glucose delivery to the blood could be expected to affect cognitive functions. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the rate of glucose absorption affected measures of cognitive performance in the postprandial period. In addition, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to individual glucoregulation. A white wheat bread (WWB) enriched with guar gum (G-WWB) with the capacity to produce a low but sustained blood glucose net increment was developed. The G-WWB was evaluated in the postprandial period after breakfast with respect to effects on cognitive function (working memory and selective attention (SA)) in 40 healthy adults (49-71 years, body mass index 20-29 kg/m(2)), using a high glycaemic index WWB for comparison in a randomised crossover design. The G-WWB improved outcome in the cognitive tests (SA test) in the later postprandial period (75-225 min) in comparison with the WWB (Pimportance of carbohydrate foods that induces a low but sustained blood glucose profile in enhancing postprandial cognitive functions.

  2. A randomized, double-blind clinical study to determine the effect of ANKASCIN 568 plus on blood glucose regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ruei Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is the fourth major cause of death in Taiwan. High blood glucose can lead to macrovascular diseases, small vessel diseases (retinopathy, kidney disease, and neuropathy. This study aimed to investigate whether Monascus-fermented products (ANKASCIN 568 plus can regulate blood glucose and blood lipids. This study enrolled 39 patients with a fasting blood glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 180 mg/dL, and a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level of <9%. All patients were randomly divided into placebo (n=20 and experimental (n=19 groups. Each patient received two placebo capsules (maltodextrin or ANKASCIN 568 plus capsules daily for 12 weeks. The patients were screened during follow-up 4 weeks after the administration of sample or placebo had been discontinued. Blood and urine samples were collected at the initial, 6th week, 12th week, and 16th week. The anthropometric indicators of blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose level, postprandial plasma glucose level, insulin level, insulin resistance, blood lipid changes, and liver, kidney, and thyroid function indices were measured. After 6 weeks, changes in fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and total cholesterol (TC levels showed that ANKASCIN 568 plus had a more favorable effect than the placebo. Compared to baseline, a statistically significant decrease of 8.5%, 10.3%, and 7.5% was observed in fasting blood glucose, LDL-C and, TC levels, respectively (p<0.05 for all pairs. Therefore, ANKASCIN 568 plus produced by Monascus purpureus NTU 568 fermentation may be a potentially useful agent for the regulation of blood glucose and blood lipids and for treatment of coronary artery diseases.

  3. A randomized, double-blind clinical study to determine the effect of ANKASCIN 568 plus on blood glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Ruei; Liu, Sheng-Fu; Shen, You-Cheng; Chen, Chien-Li; Huang, Chine-Ning; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes is the fourth major cause of death in Taiwan. High blood glucose can lead to macrovascular diseases, small vessel diseases (retinopathy, kidney disease), and neuropathy. This study aimed to investigate whether Monascus-fermented products (ANKASCIN 568 plus) can regulate blood glucose and blood lipids. This study enrolled 39 patients with a fasting blood glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 180 mg/dL, and a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of plus capsules daily for 12 weeks. The patients were screened during follow-up 4 weeks after the administration of sample or placebo had been discontinued. Blood and urine samples were collected at the initial, 6 th week, 12 th week, and 16 th week. The anthropometric indicators of blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose level, postprandial plasma glucose level, insulin level, insulin resistance, blood lipid changes, and liver, kidney, and thyroid function indices were measured. After 6 weeks, changes in fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC) levels showed that ANKASCIN 568 plus had a more favorable effect than the placebo. Compared to baseline, a statistically significant decrease of 8.5%, 10.3%, and 7.5% was observed in fasting blood glucose, LDL-C and, TC levels, respectively (pplus produced by Monascus purpureus NTU 568 fermentation may be a potentially useful agent for the regulation of blood glucose and blood lipids and for treatment of coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Accuracy and Time Delay of Glucose Measurements of Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Bedside Artificial Pancreas During Hyperglycemic and Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemic Glucose Clamp Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Akio; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Akehi, Yuko; Mori, Hiroyasu; Tamaki, Motoyuki; Suzuki, Reiko; Otsuka, Yinhua; Matsuhisa, Munehide

    2017-11-01

    Glucose values of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have time delays compared with plasma glucose (PG) values. The artificial pancreas (STG-55, Nikkiso, Japan) (AP), which measures venous blood glucose directly, also has a time delay because of the long tubing lines from sampling vessel to the glucose sensor. We investigate accuracy and time delay of CGM and AP in comparison with PG values during 2-step glucose clamp study. Seven patients with type 2 diabetes and 2 healthy volunteers were included in this study. CGM (Enlite sensor, Medtronic, Northridge, CA, USA) was attached on the day before the experiment. Hyperglycemic (200 mg/dL) clamp was performed for 90 minutes, followed by euglycemic (100 mg/dL) hyperinsulinemic (100 μU/mL) clamp for 90-120 minutes using AP. CGM sensor glucose was calibrated just before and after the clamp study. AP and CGM values were compared with PG values. AP values were significantly lower than PG values at 5, 30 minute during hyperglycemic clamp. In comparison, CGM value at 0 minute was significantly higher, and its following values were almost significantly lower than PG values. The time delay of AP and CGM values to reach maximum glucose levels were 5.0 ± 22.3 (NS) and 28.6 ± 32.5 ( P < .05) min, respectively. Mean absolute rate difference of CGM was significantly higher than AP (24.0 ± 7.6 vs 15.3 ± 4.6, P < .05) during glucose rising period (0-45 min); however, there were no significant differences during other periods. Both CGM and AP failed to follow plasma glucose values during nonphysiologically rapid glucose rising, but indicated accurate values during physiological glucose change.

  5. Spike in glucose levels after reperfusion during aortic surgery: assessment by continuous blood glucose monitoring using artificial endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Koji; Sato, Hirotaka; Kadosaki, Mamoru; Egawa, Atsushi; Misawa, Yoshio

    2018-03-01

    Although strict blood glucose control during cardiovascular surgery is essential to avoid postoperative complications, the various changes in glucose levels that occur during surgery have not been investigated in detail. In this study, we continuously monitored blood glucose changes during aortic surgery using the STG-55 Ⓡ artificial endocrine pancreas (Nikkiso Inc., Tokyo). Between December 2015 and 2016, we performed continuous blood glucose monitoring in 22 patients (14 men and 8 women, 72 ± 11 years old), who required hypothermic circulatory arrest during an ascending/aortic arch surgery, at the Jichi Medical University Hospital. Ascending aorta replacements were performed in two patients and partial/total arch replacement, in 20. All the patients required selective cerebral perfusion and hypothermic circulatory arrest (bladder temperature at 25-26 °C) during distal anastomosis. Closed-loop continuous blood glucose monitoring was performed during cardiopulmonary bypass using the STG-55 Ⓡ artificial endocrine pancreas (Nikkiso Co., LTD, Tokyo). Blood glucose concentrations did not increase significantly from the time of the commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass to lower body ischemia. However, they dramatically increased immediately after reperfusion following lower body ischemia, and this hyperglycemia was sustained until the end of cardiopulmonary bypass. The current study clarified the peak glucose concentration during aortic surgery. These data may contribute to the management of blood glucose levels during aortic surgery.

  6. Trend Estimation of Blood Glucose Level Fluctuations Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamaguchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated calorie-calculating software that calculates and records the total calorific food intake by choosing a meal menu selected using a computer mouse. The purpose of this software was to simplify data collection throughout a person's normal life, even if they were inexperienced computer operators. Three portable commercial devices have also been prepared a blood glucose monitor, a metabolic rate monitor and a mobile-computer, and linked into the calorie-calculating software. Time-course changes of the blood glucose level, metabolic rate and food intake were measured using these devices during a 3 month period. Based on the data collected in this study we could predict blood glucose levels of the next morning (FBG by modeling using data mining. Although a large error rate was found for predicting the absolute value, conditions could be found that improved the accuracy of the predicting trends in blood glucose level fluctuations by up to 90 %. However, in order to further improve the accuracy of estimation it was necessary to obtain further details about the patients' life style or to optimise the input variables that were dependent on each patient rather than collecting data over longer periods.

  7. Change of blood glucose level and its possible mechanism in patients with cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weizhen; Zhang Yong; Zhang Zikang; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the change of blood glucose levels in patients with cerebral stroke, the levels of blood glucose, cortisol, glucogen, insulin, growth hormone, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were dynamically measured in 90 patients with cerebral stroke. The circumstances of brain middle line movement, lateral ventricle oppression and entrance brain ventricle of burst hematoma of the patients were examines by CT scan. The total incidence of hyperglycemia in the patients was 42.22%. The blood glucose level was positively related to the cortisol and glucogen levels, and negatively related to the T 3 level. The changed level of blood glucose and its related hormones both returned to normal range in 10 days. Both the ACTH level and the rate of cerebral pathological change in hyperglycemia group were significantly higher than that in normoglycemia and control groups. The rate of cerebral pathological change in elevated ACTH level group was higher than that in normal ACTH level group. The mechanism of hyperglycemia in the patients with cerebral stroke might be related to the stimulation of the hypothalamus, which may induce the discharge of ACTH and glucagon releasing factor, and to that the level of cortisol and glucagon increased, the level of T 3 decreased

  8. Correlation between macrosomia body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, S; Song, W

    2014-05-01

    To explore the significance of neonatal body indices in identifying pathological macrosomia, we implemented a retrospective study of 254 neonates, including: 100 macrosomia of diabetic pregnancies, 77 macrosomia of healthy pregnancies and 77 normal neonates of healthy pregnancies, using their birth weight, body length, head circumference and chest circumference, to calculate neonatal body indices, multiple regression analysis of the correlation between newborn body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose. The Quetelet Index and Kaup Index of diabetic macrosomia is higher than that of non-diabetic macrosomia; HC:CC (ratio between head circumference and chest circumference) is reversed (p macrosomia.

  9. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows...

  10. Asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection of the blood glucose regulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Brandon; Liu, Weijiu

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance. For this, a mathematical model for the glucose disturbance is proposed on the basis of experimental data, and then incorporated into an existing blood glucose regulation model. Because all the eigenvalues of the disturbance model have zero real parts, the center manifold theory is used to establish blood glucose regulator equations. We then use their solutions to synthesize a required feedback and feedforward controller to reject the disturbance and asymptotically track a constant glucose reference of 90  mg/dl. Since the regulator equations are nonlinear partial differential equations and usually impossible to solve analytically, a linear approximation solution is obtained. Our numerical simulations show that, under the linear approximate feedback and feedforward controller, the blood glucose asymptotically tracks its desired level of 90 mg/dl approximately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    , either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study...

  12. Blood glucose concentrations in prehospital trauma patients with traumatic shock : A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutziger, Janett; Lederer, Wolfgang; Schmid, Stefan; Ulmer, Hanno; Wenzel, Volker; Nijsten, Maarten W.; Werner, Daniel; Schlechtriemen, Thomas

    BACKGROUND: Deranged glucose metabolism after moderate to severe trauma with either high or low concentrations of blood glucose is associated with poorer outcome. Data on prehospital blood glucose concentrations and trauma are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to describe the relationship

  13. Fat Intake, Blood Pressure and Randomed Blood Glucose Levels as Risk Factor of Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescent of Junior School in Denpasar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Suiraoka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome in children is defined when 3 of the 5 components are classified: hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, high serum triglyceride, high blood glucose levels, and central obesity. This study was a retrospective study with case-control design. Data collection was conducted from August to October 2014. The population of this study were all students in 8 selected junior high schools. Based on the calculation result, it was known that the sample size for case and control group are 128 people. Case and control determination began with screening of waist circumference using a tape measure, measured from the diameter between the lower ribs 10 with the iliac crest at the end of normal expiration. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured using a digital blood pressure gauge under the Omron brand. Blood glucose levels were measured using a multicheck parameter tool under the Nesco brand. BMI based on weight and height were measured using body scales and Microtoise. Fat intake data were collected using semi-quantitative food frequency method. Data were analyzed descriptively in the range and mean for waist circumference variable, blood pressure, randomed blood glucose levels, and fat intake. Furthermore, the calculation of Odd Ratio. Based on the results be concluded that adolescents who consume fat above 25% risk 3.3 times greater to experience metabolic syndrome. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI and blood glucose levels as the case group was higher than the control group.

  14. Accuracy of blood glucose meters for self-monitoring affects glucose control and hypoglycemia rate in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Claudia; Dost, Axel; Wudy, Stefan A; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Borkenstein, Martin; Schiel, Ralf; Weitzel, Dieter; Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, Susanne; Wolf, Johannes; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of blood glucose meters for self-monitoring and its influence on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and the frequency of hypoglycemic coma. Self-measured and simultaneously obtained laboratory blood glucose values from 9,163 patients with type 1 diabetes glucose control and hypoglycemia rates. Depending on the respective subgroup (defined by sex, age, duration of diabetes, mode of insulin therapy), 78.7-94.7% of the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) values met the old and 79.7-88.6% met the new ISO criteria. In Clarke and Parkes error grid analyses, the percentages of SMBG values in Zone A ranged between 92.8% and 94.6% (Clarke) and between 92.2% and 95.0% (Parkes). The patient group with SMBG devices measuring "far too low" (compared with the laboratory-obtained glucose levels) presented with a higher HbA1c level than those measuring "far too high," "too high," "identical/almost identical," or "too low" (based on quintiles of deviation). Performing "far too high" was associated with the highest rate of hypoglycemic coma in comparison with the other deviation quintiles. This study showed that current SMBG devices fulfilled neither the previous nor the new ISO criteria. Large deviations of the SMBG values from the "true" glucose levels resulted in higher HbA1c levels and markedly increased rates of hypoglycemic events.

  15. Data Based Prediction of Blood Glucose Concentrations Using Evolutionary Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J Ignacio; Colmenar, J Manuel; Kronberger, Gabriel; Winkler, Stephan M; Garnica, Oscar; Lanchares, Juan

    2017-08-08

    Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections. In particular, we use the following four techniques: genetic programming, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, and grammatical evolution. We propose two new enhanced modeling algorithms for glucose prediction, namely (i) a variant of grammatical evolution which uses an optimized grammar, and (ii) a variant of tree-based genetic programming which uses a three-compartment model for carbohydrate and insulin dynamics. The predictors were trained and tested using data of ten patients from a public hospital in Spain. We analyze our experimental results using the Clarke error grid metric and see that 90% of the forecasts are correct (i.e., Clarke error categories A and B), but still even the best methods produce 5 to 10% of serious errors (category D) and approximately 0.5% of very serious errors (category E). We also propose an enhanced genetic programming algorithm that incorporates a three-compartment model into symbolic regression models to create smoothed time series of the original carbohydrate and insulin time series.

  16. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...

  17. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...... polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). RESULTS: The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under...

  18. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  19. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakmak HA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Altug Cakmak,1 Burcu Dincgez Cakmak,2 Ayse Ender Yumru,3 Serkan Aslan,4 Asim Enhos,1 Ali Kemal Kalkan,4 Ebru Inci Coskun,5 Abdullah Serdar Acikgoz,6 Suat Karatas3 1Department of Cardiology, Mustafakemalpasa Government Hospital, Bursa, 2Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Rize Kackar Government Hospital, Rize, 3Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Inonu University, Malatya, 6Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups.Results: Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003, and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001 were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001, and

  20. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure of diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mokhtari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with aging, unhealthy diets, obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinational effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan (BBG on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 24 women with the mean age of 49 years and a blood glucose level of 110-280 mg/dl were purposefully selected and randomly divided into three groups: a group of aerobic exercise with diet (n=8, b diet group (n=8 c control group (n=8. The diet group consumed one barley bread, containing 4 g of β glucan, each day for 12 weeks. The group of aerobic exercise, who was on diet, participated in a progressive walking program with the intensity of %60-70% of maximal heart rate in addition to diet program (barley bread. Blood glucose, weight, fat percentage, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were measured in pre-and post-training. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the experimental groups compared to the control group, while no major changes were observed in body composition and blood pressure. Conclusion: It seems that the combined program (aerobic training with diet or consumption of β-glucan alone can decrease blood glucose in patients with diabetes.

  2. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring in relation to glycaemic control: observational study with diabetes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josie M M; Newton, Ray W; Ruta, Danny A; MacDonald, Thomas M; Stevenson, Richard J; Morris, Andrew D

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To investigate patterns of self monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients who use insulin and to determine whether frequency of self monitoring is related to glycaemic control. Setting Diabetes database, Tayside, Scotland. Subjects Patients resident in Tayside in 1993-5 who were using insulin and were registered on the database and diagnosed with insulin dependent (type 1) or non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes before 1993. Main outcome measures Number of glucose monitoring reagent strips dispensed (reagent strip uptake) derived from records of prescriptions. First recorded haemoglobin A1c concentration in the study period, and reagent strips dispensed in the previous 6 months. Results Among 807 patients with type 1 diabetes, 128 (16%) did not redeem any prescriptions for glucose monitoring reagent strips in the 3 year study period. Only 161 (20%) redeemed prescriptions for enough reagent strips to test glucose daily. The corresponding figures for the 790 patients with type 2 diabetes who used insulin were 162 (21%; no strips) and 131 (17%; daily tests). Reagent strip uptake was influenced both by age and by deprivation category. There was a direct relation between uptake and glycaemic control for 258 patients (with recorded haemoglobin A1c concentrations) with type 1 diabetes. In a linear regression model the decrease in haemoglobin A1c concentration for every extra 180 reagent strips dispensed was 0.7%. For the 290 patients with type 2 diabetes who used insulin there was no such relation. Conclusions Self monitoring of blood glucose concentration is associated with improved glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Regular self monitoring in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes is uncommon. Key messagesSeveral studies have indicated the importance of self monitoring of blood glucose concentration for prevention of complications in patients with diabetesUptake of reagent strips for self monitoring of blood glucose

  3. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose to Assess Dawn Phenomenon in Chinese People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Huang, Yuxin; Qiu, Jieyuzhen; Sun, Jiao; Wang, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Aims . We investigated whether self-monitoring of blood glucose could be used to assess dawn phenomenon in Chinese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods . A total of 306 people with T2DM underwent continuous glucose monitoring and self-monitoring of blood glucose for 72 h. A linear model was used to fit the optimal linear formula of the magnitude of dawn phenomenon (ΔDawn) and self-monitoring of blood glucose values. Results . The prevalence of dawn phenomenon was similar within different oral antidiabetic drug groups (42.5%, 31.5%, and 40.9%, P = 0.216). Multiple variable linear regression showed that prebreakfast, prelunch, and predinner glucose measurements were independently and significantly correlated with ΔDawn. The linear formula between ΔDawn and blood glucose was as follows: ΔDawn (mg/dL) = 0.557 × prebreakfast - 0.065 × prelunch - 0.164 × predinner - 20.894 (mg/dL) (adjusted R 2 = 0.302, P = 0.000). Conclusions . Dawn phenomenon could be partly assessed by blood glucose self-monitoring in Chinese people with T2DM using the abovementioned formula. The incidence of dawn phenomenon was similar among patients in different oral antidiabetic drug groups.

  4. Glucose-l-13C as a tracer for the measurement of systemic glucose production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalhan, S.C.; Savin, S.M.; Adam, P.A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Glucose-1- 13 C was used as a tracer for the quantitative measurement of systemic glucose production in 4 dogs and one human subject. The C-1 carbon atom of glucose was extracted as CO 2 by enzymatic decarboxylation of glucose with coupled hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activities. The 13 C/ 12 C ratio of the CO 2 was measured using a magnetic deflection, double collector, mass spectrometer. The methods were checked in three normal and one diabetic dog by infusing glucose-1- 14 C and glucose-1- 13 C simultaneously according to the prime-constant-infusion technique. The systemic glucose production rates measured by the two methods were similar. Systemic glucose production rate was also measured in one normal adult man by infusing glucose-1- 13 C at the rate of 5.4 μg/kg min following a prime injection of 22.8 mg. The calculated glucose production rate was 2.1 mg/kg min which is similar to results from previous radioisotope dilution studies in man

  5. Analysis of an Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Hematocrit Compensation: Improved Accuracy by Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Martha E; Lyon, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    The article entitled “Hematocrit Compensation in Electrochemical Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems” by Teodorczyk and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology demonstrates that the OneTouch® Verio™ glucose meter meets current regulatory expectations for glucose meter performance and is relatively free from interference by hematocrit. The lack of influence of hematocrit on whole blood glucose results is a valuable attribute for hospital applications, where greater ...

  6. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Tomomi; Ota, Makoto; Hirata, Ryuzo; Sato, Kenji; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Imanishi, Akio; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247.4 m in circumference for 5 h while wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system. Blood was obtained at time-points of -1, 1, 3 and 5 h. The athletes had free access to food and fluids throughout the run. The athletes ran at almost the same pace without a sudden decrease in pace. The blood glucose levels increased and remained high in the triathlete, whereas the tennis player remained hypoglycemic throughout the run. Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect the blood glucose levels. The magnitude of hormonal changes, e.g. insulin, adrenaline and cortisol, was greater in the tennis player. The blood glucose concentration did not correlate with the running velocity or the carbohydrate ingestion; however, a discrepancy in blood glucose transition was observed between the triathlete and the tennis player, indicating a possible association between the adaptation to endurance exercise and the blood glucose kinetics during prolonged running.

  7. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  8. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Blood glucose lowering effect of ophiopogonis tuber extract and mechanism of anti-insulin-resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng NING

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the hypoglycemic effect and insulin sensitization mechanism of ophiopogonis tuber extracts on the 3T3-L1-induced adipocytes, and also in rats with reproduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods  3T3-L1 cells were induced and differentiated into adipocytes. After the intervention with ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPSR and ophiopogonin (OPG, glucose consuming rate was detected for screening the extracts which may have effective hypoglycemic effects. The insulin resistance (IR adipocyte model was established by dexamethasone induction, and then it was treated with OPSR. The protein expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were detected by Western blotting. The T2DM rat model was reproduced and then treated with OPSR for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW, triglyeride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINs of the rats were measured respectively. Results  OPSR in dosage of 0.5-50mg/L promoted glucose consumption of adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, the glucose consumption ratios were 32.27%, 75.14% and 90.47% respectively. OPG of 50mg/L showed very weak activity with glucose consumption ratio of only 8.49%. OPSR could significantly promote the protein expression of leptin and adiponectin, and showed an inhibitory effect on the protein expression of resistin (P<0.05. After treatment with OPSR for 4 weeks, the BW of rats increased obviously, while TG, FBG and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions  OPSR may promote glucose transport and utilization of adipocytes, decrease the level of FBG and TG, and improve the condition of IR in T2DM rats. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering effect may be attributed to secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin by IR adipocytes.

  10. Glucose monitoring technologies - complementary or competitive? Role of continuous glucose monitoring versus flash glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have numerous technologies that can help keep a close watch on an individual's glycaemic status and thereby assist in developing successful diabetes management strategies. For more than five decades, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG has remained as the gold standard tool to manage glycaemic status and has gained huge acceptance. Rigorous research further led to the development of more and more advanced technologies such as continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring. These novel technologies are more promising in terms of revealing the complete glycaemic picture and even more user-friendly than the already established blood glucosemetres. However, they are yet to achieve remarkable accuracy and performance. There will also be a subgroup of patients who will be using these technologies only occasionally and thus will definitely require SMBG at other times. Again, with regard to the retrospective ones, glucose data can be obtained only once they are downloaded to the system and hence, real-time values will still have to be procured with the help of an SMBG. In future when the accuracy and performance of these newer technologies become equal to that of glucometres, the glucometres might vanish. Until then, all these technologies will definitely go hand-in-hand and supplement each other than competing each other. All the related literature were retrieved from various databases including 'PubMed' and 'Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews' using specific search terms that were relevant to the topics discussed this manuscript.

  11. Overweight, high blood pressure and impaired fasting glucose in Uyghur, Han, and Kazakh Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W L; Li, X S; Wang, Q; Huang, Y D; Zhang, W G; Zhai, X H; Wang, C C; Lee, J H

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the levels of blood pressure and fasting glucose differ among Chinese children of three different ethnicities (i.e., Uyghurs, Kazakhs, and Hans) and whether the differences are explained by childhood obesity. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a large three ethnic pediatric population (n = 6633), whose ages ranged from 7 to 18 years. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured using standard protocols. Fasting glucose was measured in a subset of children (n = 2295) who were randomly selected based on ethnicity and age. The age-sex stratified Chinese national cut-offs were used to define obesity and high blood pressure (HBP). The prevalence of HBP, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), mean levels of blood pressure, and glucose were compared among three ethnic groups. 2142 Uyghurs, 2078 Han, and 1997 Kazakhs were analyzed. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the mean blood pressure for Uyghurs was on average, 2-4 mm Hg lower than those for Hans and Kazakhs. Kazakhs had the lowest mean fasting glucose compared with Hans and Uyghurs (4.5 vs. 5.0 vs. 4.8 mmol/L, respectively). The differences in blood pressure and fasting glucose persisted even after adjusting for age and BMI, and the differences among ethnic groups in blood pressure levels and fasting glucose levels were observed as early as 7-9 years of age. The prevalence of HBP and IFG differed significantly among Uyghurs, Hans, and Kazakhs, and the ethnic differences observed in childhood were consistent with those observed in adults from the same region. While childhood obesity is a significant risk factor for hypertension and elevated glucose, the differences among ethnic groups were not explained by obesity alone.

  12. Overweight, High Blood Pressure and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Uyghur, Han and Kazakh Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Huang, Y. D.; Zhang, W. G.; Zhai, X. H.; Wang, C.C.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether levels of blood pressure and fasting glucose differ among Chinese children of three different ethnicities (i.e., Uyghurs, Kazakhs and Hans) and whether the differences are explained by childhood obesity. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a large three ethnic pediatric population (n=6,633), whose ages ranged from 7–18 years. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured using standard protocols. Fasting glucose was measured in a subset of children (n=2,295) who were randomly selected based on ethnicity and age. The age-sex stratified Chinese national cutoffs were used to define obesity and high blood pressure (HBP). The prevalence of HBP, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), mean levels of blood pressure and glucose were compared among three ethnic groups. Results 2,142 Uyghurs, 2,078 Han and 1,997 Kazakhs were analyzed. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the mean blood pressure for Uyghurs was on average, 2–4 mmHg lower than those for Hans and Kazakhs. Kazakhs had the lowest mean fasting glucose compared with Hans and Uyghurs (4.5 vs 5.0 vs. 4.8mmol/L, respectively). The differences in blood pressure and fasting glucose persisted even after adjusting for age and BMI, and the differences among ethnic groups in blood pressure levels and fasting glucose levels were observed as early as 7 to 9 years of age. Conclusions The prevalence of HBP and IFG differed significantly among Uyghurs, Hans and Kazakhs, and the ethnic differences observed in childhood were consistent with those observed in adults from the same region. While childhood obesity is a significant risk factor for hypertension and elevated glucose, the differences among ethnic groups were not explained by obesity alone. PMID:24904957

  13. The clinical utility of two human portable blood glucose meters in canine and feline practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domori, Asuka; Sunahara, Ayano; Tateno, Morihiro; Miyama, Takako Shimokawa; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are useful for serial measurements of blood glucose and creation of blood glucose curves in veterinary practice. However, it is necessary to validate PBGMs designed for people for veterinary use. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of 2 PBGMs designed for people for use in dogs and cats. The blood glucose levels were determined in blood samples collected from 69 dogs and 26 cats admitted to the Kagoshima University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, using a MEDISAFE [PBGM-T] and an Antsense III [PBGM-H], and a FUJI DRI-CHEM 7000V as reference method. The correlations and agreements among the results were statistically analyzed. Simple regression analyses revealed a high correlation between values from both PBGMs and the reference method in both dogs and cats. However, Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman analyses revealed that the data from both PBGMs did not show statistical agreement with the reference values. Concordance correlated coefficients were moderate for the PBGM-T and almost perfect for the PBGM-H for canine samples, and were poor for the PBGM-T and substantial for the PBGM-H for feline samples. Hematocrit values significantly affected the results of the PBGM-T, but not the PBGM-H. Error grid analyses revealed that all measurements from both PBGMs would lead to acceptable treatment decisions. Our findings suggest that both PBGMs, especially the PBGM-H, would be clinically useful in small animal practice, although there was a bias between each PBGM and the reference method. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Chronic fructose substitution for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages has little effect on fasting blood glucose, insulin, or triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rebecca A; Frese, Michael; Romero, Julio; Cunningham, Judy H; Mills, Kerry E

    2017-08-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the role of long-term fructose consumption on health. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of other sugars and its effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for a reduction in fasting glycemic and insulinemic markers after chronic, isoenergetic replacement of glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages by fructose. The target populations were persons without diabetes, those with impaired glucose tolerance, and those with type 2 diabetes. Design: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov The date of the last search was 26 April 2016. We included randomized controlled trials of isoenergetic replacement of glucose, sucrose, or both by fructose in adults or children with or without diabetes of ≥2 wk duration that measured fasting blood glucose. The main outcomes analyzed were fasting blood glucose and insulin as well as fasting triglycerides, blood lipoproteins, HbA1c, and body weight. Results: We included 14 comparison arms from 11 trials, including 277 patients. The studies varied in length from 2 to 10 wk (mean: 28 d) and included doses of fructose between 40 and 150 g/d (mean: 68 g/d). Fructose substitution in some subgroups resulted in significantly but only slightly lowered fasting blood glucose (-0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.036 mmol/L), HbA1c [-10 g/L (95% CI: -12.90, -7.10 g/L; impaired glucose tolerance) and -6 g/L (95% CI: -8.47, -3.53 g/L; normoglycemia)], triglycerides (-0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02 mmol/L), and body weight (-1.40 kg; 95% CI: -2.07, -0.74 kg). There was no effect on fasting blood insulin or blood lipids. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that the substitution of fructose for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages may be of benefit

  15. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

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    Reed JW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James W Reed Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose

  16. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  17. The influence of blood glucose level on distribution of 18F-FDG in mice with tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhanli; Lin Jinghui; Wang Rongfu; Zhu Shaoli; Zhang Chunli; Pan Zhongyun

    2003-01-01

    To explore the influence of blood glucose level on 18 F-FDG uptake in tumor and normal tissues of mice, thirty five mice carrying Ehrlich ascitic cancer (EAC) are fasted 20 h and divided into four groups. The glucose loading group (n=12) and the control group (n=11) is given a solution of 50% glucose and distilled water orally just one hour before the 18 F FDG injection. Another two groups (n=5, n=7) is given a solution of 10%, 30% glucose respectively. Before 18 F-FDG intravenous injection, blood glucose levels are measured. The mice are killed one hour after the 18 F FDG injection. The tumor and normal tissues are excised, weighed, and counted by a γ well counter. The quantity of 18 F-FDG uptake is expressed as standardized uptake value (SUV). Blood glucose levels of the mice with EAC in the glucose loading group are significantly elevated than the control group (11.98 ± 3.01 mmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 1. 11 mmol/L, P 18 F-FDG uptake ratios of tumor and muscle in the glucose-loading group (1.34, 0.86, 0.48, 0.09, 1.38 respectively) are significantly lower than those in the control group (3.02, 2.62, 0.80, 0.16, 5.38 respectively) (P 18 F-FDG uptake ratios of tumor and brain, heart and blood in the glucose loading group (8.31. 1.05, 1.58, 103.00 respectively) are significantly higher than those in the control group (1.57, 0.64, 1.20, 9.73 respectively) (P 18 F-FDG distribution in mice. suggesting the blood glucose level should be controlled during clinically 18 F-FDG imaging

  18. Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuntao; Yu, Junxing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Yun; Su, Jinmei; Wei, Guoqing; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gao, Jingsheng; Gao, Wenyuan; Wu, Shouling

    2017-01-01

    To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes. We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were measured during 2011 to 2016. Multivariate regression model was used to estimate the difference of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of arterial stiffness risk, according to the fasting blood glucose trajectories. We identified five distinct fasting blood glucose trajectories and each of the trajectories was labeled according to its range and change over 2006-2010 survey: elevated-stable pattern (5.0% of participants), elevated-decreasing pattern (6.6%), moderate-increasing pattern (10.9%), moderate-stable pattern (59.3%), and low-stable pattern (18.2%). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with elevated-stable pattern had a 42.6 cm/s (95%CI: 24.7 to 60.6 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 37% (OR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.66) higher arterial stiffness risk, and individuals with moderate-increasing pattern had a 19.6 cm/s (95%CI: 6.9 to 32.3 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 17% (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.33) higher arterial stiffness risk, related to individuals with moderate-stable pattern. We did not find significant associations of the elevated-decreasing or low-stable patterns with arterial stiffness. Consistently, the cumulative average, variability, and increased rate of fasting blood glucose during 2006-2010 survey were significantly associated with the arterial stiffness risk. Discrete fasting blood glucose trajectories were associated with the arterial stiffness risk in non-diabetic individuals.

  19. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  20. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  1. Effects of Chlorophyll in Papaya Leaves on Superoxide Dismutation and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats

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    Choirun Nissa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus results in oxidative stress and increases complication development. Experimental studies have shown that chlorophyll has antioxidant activity and papaya leaves contained chlorophyll more than the other green vegetables. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and hypoglycemic role in chlorophyll rich in papaya leaves on diabetic rats. Thirty six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: without treatment (technique control/TC, diabetic (negative control/NC, diabetic with treatment A (100.3 mg/200 g BW of extract and diabetic with treatment B (200.6 mg/200 g BW of extract. Diabetic induction was conducted by injecting streptozotocin 40 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally. Extract was given by nasogastric tube. Blood glucose level was measured using enzymatic colorimetric GOD-PAP test at before, after 20 and 40 days of treatment. Hepatic superoxide dismutation (SOD level was measured after 40 days of treatment. Blood glucose levels in 3 diabetic groups were significantly raised after seven days of induction. In Anova and post hoc LSD analysis, both treatments had lower hepatic SOD level than TC (p=0.0001, and blood glucose level also decreased after given the treatment (p=0.0001. Treatment B had a better antioxidant and hypoglycemic role than treatment A.

  2. Remote Blood Glucose Monitoring in mHealth Scenarios: A Review

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    Giordano Lanzola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient’s significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her. In all of these cases, a remote monitoring system, in charge of delivering the relevant information to the right player, becomes an important part of the sensing architecture. In this paper, we review how the remote monitoring architectures have evolved over time, paralleling the progress in the Information and Communication Technologies, and describe our experiences with the design of telemedicine systems for blood glucose monitoring in three medical applications. The paper ends summarizing the lessons learned through the experiences of the authors and discussing the challenges arising from a large-scale integration of sensors and actuators.

  3. A Lab-on-a-Chip-Based Non-Invasive Optical Sensor for Measuring Glucose in Saliva

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    Dong Geon Jung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A lab-on-a-chip (LOC-based non-invasive optical sensor for measuring glucose in saliva was fabricated. Existing glucose sensors utilizing blood require acquisition of a blood sample by pricking the finger, which is painful and inconvenient. To overcome these limitations, we propose a non-invasive glucose sensor with LOC, micro-electro-mechanical system and optical measurement technology. The proposed sensor for measuring glucose in saliva involves pretreatment, mixing, and measurement on a single tiny chip. Saliva containing glucose and glucose oxidase for glucose oxidation are injected through Inlets 1 and 2, respectively. Next, H2O2 is produced by the reaction between glucose and glucose oxidase in the pretreatment part. The saliva and generated H2O2 are mixed with a colorizing agent injected through Inlet 3 during the mixing part and the absorbance of the colorized mixture is measured in the measurement part. The absorbance of light increases as a function of glucose concentration at a wavelength of 630 nm. To measure the absorbance of the colorized saliva, a light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 630 nm and a photodiode were used during the measurement part. As a result, the measured output current of the photodiode decreased as glucose concentration in the saliva increased.

  4. Continuous postoperative blood glucose monitoring and control by artificial pancreas in patients having pancreatic resection: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Nishimori, Isao; Yamashita, Koichi; Sugimoto, Takeki; Maeda, Hiromichi; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kohsaki, Takuhiro; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate a closed-loop system providing continuous monitoring and strict control of perioperative blood glucose following pancreatic resection. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Thirty patients who had pancreatic resection for pancreatic neoplasm. Patients were prospectively randomized. Perioperative blood glucose levels were continuously monitored using an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-22). Glucose levels were controlled using either the sliding scale method (sliding scale group, n = 13) or the artificial pancreas (artificial pancreas group, n = 17). Incidence of severe hypoglycemia (artificial pancreas. The secondary outcome measure was the total amount of insulin required for glycemic control in the first 18 hours after pancreatic resection in each patient group. In the sliding scale group, postoperative blood glucose levels rose initially before reaching a plateau of approximately 200 mg/dL between 4 and 6 hours after pancreatectomy. The levels remained high for 18 hours postoperatively. In the artificial pancreas group, blood glucose levels reduced steadily, reaching the target zone (80-110 mg/dL) by 6 hours after surgery. The total insulin dose administered per patient during the first postoperative 18 hours was significantly higher in the artificial pancreas group (mean [SD], 107 [109] IU) than the sliding scale group (8 [6] IU; P artificial endocrine pancreas to control pancreatogenic diabetes after pancreatic resection is an easy and effective way to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels. The artificial pancreas shows promise for use as insulin treatment for patients with pancreatogenic diabetes after pancreatic resection.

  5. Vitamin K2 Improves Anxiety and Depression but not Cognition in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome: a Role of Blood Glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Silvia M; Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 was given by gavage. At the end of the study (after 10 weeks) behavioral tests were performed and fasting blood glucose was measured. Anxiety was determined using the social interaction test and depression was assessed by the Porsolt test. Memory effects were estimated by the object recognition test. Correlations between fasting blood glucose and behavioral performance were analyzed. The rats from the MS group had elevated blood glucose. They had anxiety, depression and memory deficit. Vitamin K2 normalized blood glucose, reduced anxiety and depression, but did not improve memory. Time of social interaction (inverse index of anxiety) and memory recognition were negatively correlated with blood glucose in the untreated rats but the immobility time (measure of depression) was not. When vitamin K2-treated rats were added, the correlation of blood glucose with the time of social interaction was kept, but the one with the recognition memory was lost. It might be that the anxiolytic effect of vitamin K2 in this setting is at least partly due to its effects on blood glucose, while the anti-depressant effect is glucose-independent. The present study demonstrated that vitamin K2 prevented the development of anxiety and depression, but did not improve the memory deficit caused by the dietary manipulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. It might be that

  6. Self-monitoring of tear glucose: the development of a tear based glucose sensor as an alternative to self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Adams, Anngela; Lin, Chi-En; Engelschall, Erica; Pratt, Breanna; Cook, Curtiss B

    2016-07-28

    Tear glucose sensing for diabetes management has long been sought as an alternative to more invasive self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). However, tear glucose sensors were known to have limitations, including correlation issues with blood glucose due to low sample volume, low concentration of glucose in the tear fluid, and evaporation of the tear sample. An engineering design approach to solve these problems led to the development of an integrated device capable of collecting the tear sample from the ocular surface with little to no stress on the eye, with an extremely low limit of detection, broad dynamic range, and rapid detection and analysis of sample. Here we present the development of a prototypical self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG) sensor, summarizing bench studies on the enzymes and their specificity, the development of the fluid capture device and its manufacture and performance and results of system testing in an animal study where safety, lag time and tear glucose to blood glucose correlation were assessed.

  7. High incidence of hypoglycemia in stable insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus: continuous glucose monitoring vs. self-monitored blood glucose. Observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos-Couselo, Marcos; García-López, Jose Manuel; González-Rodríguez, Maria; Gude, Francisco; Mayán-Santos, Jose Manuel; Rodríguez-Segade, Santiago; Rodríguez-García, Javier; Casanueva, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Hypoglycemia is a limiting factor in the achievement of strict glycemic control. The primary objective of this 9-week study was to determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in patients with stable insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus by comparing self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) measurement with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was an observational prospective study. Included in the study were 63 stable, insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. They were instructed to record 2 daily capillary blood glucose readings, pre- and/or postprandial, in a sequential way during 8 consecutive weeks. A CGM system was worn during an additional week. We evaluated the frequency of hypoglycemia using the 8-week SMBG profile and the 1 CGM week. SMBG revealed that 50% of the patients had experienced hypoglycemia. CGM found hypoglycemia in 59% of patients. Significantly higher percentages of hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic episodes were detected by CGM than by capillary blood glucose measurements (61.1% vs. 50.8%; p=0.047) and (3.8% vs. 1.7%; p=0.016); 33% of patients experienced nocturnal hypoglycemia, and 19% of patients who had no data concerning hypoglycemia recorded in the capillary blood glucose diary had experienced hypoglycemia as measured by CGM, and the hypoglycemia occurred mainly during the nocturnal period. In stable well-controlled, insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes, CGM showed higher numbers of hypoglycemic events than did SMBG, especially at night. CGM is a useful tool that provides clinically valuable information about glucose control in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a portable blood glucose meter to determine insulin dose in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietiker-Moretti, S; Müller, C; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N; Tschuor, F; Osto, M; Franchini, M; Ackermann, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Zini, E

    2011-01-01

    The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) Guardian REAL-Time(®) allows the generation of very detailed glucose profiles in cats. The performance of CGMS to generate short-term glucose profiles to evaluate treatment response has not been yet evaluated in diabetic cats. Analysis of glucose profiles generated using the CGMS produces insulin dose recommendations that differ from those of profiles generated using the portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) in diabetic cats. Thirteen client-owned diabetic cats. Prospective, observational study. Simultaneous glucose profiles were generated over an 8-10 hour period using the CGMS, blood glucose concentration was measured every 2 hours with the PBGM. Profiles were submitted to three internal medicine specialists who used them to determine the insulin dose. Differences between insulin doses deduced from paired profiles were compared. Percentages of nadirs recorded with the CGMS that were lower, higher, or equal to those derived with the PBGM were calculated. Twenty-one paired glucose profiles were obtained. There was no difference of insulin doses based on CGMS and PBGM profiles (median 0 U; range: -1 to +0.5). Treatment decisions did not differ among investigators. Compared with the observed PBGM nadir, the CGMS nadir was lower, higher, or equal in 17, 2, and 2 of 21 cases, respectively. Adjustments in insulin dose based on glucose profiles generated with the CGMS are similar to those based on the PBGM. The common occurrence of lower nadirs recorded with the CGMS suggests that this device detects hypoglycemic periods that are not identified with the PBGM. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. The Effect of Curry Leaves (Murayya Koenigii L. on Blood Glucose Levels In Alloxan Diabetic Mice (Mus Musculus

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    Fauziah Fauziah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. on blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic mice (Mus musculus. The diabetic conditions were made by giving alloxan 75 mg/kg body weight (BW and the hypoglycemic effects of extract of curry leaves given with various doses.   This study used 24 male mice strain Balb/c in four groups of treatment with six replications, namely the negative control group, the ethanol extract of curry leaf tree 50% mL/10g body weight group, 70% mL/10g body weight group and 90% mL/10g body weight group. The treatment was given orally by using a gastric sonde for 14 days. Blood samples were taken through the sinus caudalis using a scissors. Blood glucose level was measured at 1st , the 8th and the 24th of treatment using blood glucose test strips and Nesco® Multicheck apparatus. Blood glucose data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variants and followed by Tuckey test at significance level of 5%. The result showed that treatment of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii at various doses significantly affected the decrease on blood glucose levels of mice (Mus musculus alloxan diabetic.

  10. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  11. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  12. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  13. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  14. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  15. Chickpeas suppress postprandial blood glucose concentration, and appetite and reduce energy intake at the next meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Kabir, Yearul

    2017-03-01

    The current study was designed to explore the beneficial properties of chickpeas consumption on suppressing appetite, excessive blood glucose excursions, and energy intake (EI) from a subsequent meal. Two caloric preloaded foods, chickpeas, and white bread were compared to water control, fed to healthy female subjects at equal energy density, volume, and available carbohydrate content in two experiments spanning over 60 and 120 min. Blood glucose was measured by a portable glucometer and satiety by using a visual analogue scale questionnaire at baseline and every 15 up to 60 min in both experiments and then every 30 until 120 min in Experiment 2 after the preloads ingestion. A test meal was served at the end of both experiments to calculate EI and percent energy compensation (%EC). The results suggest a reduction of 29-36% in blood glucose concentration, and 83-98% EC after the chickpeas in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively compared to white bread. The average appetite showed a positive association with EI. We conclude that the consumption of chickpeas is beneficial on glycemic control and may help in body weight management through suppressing appetite and energy intake.

  16. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  17. Using Radar Plots to Demonstrate the Accuracy and Precision of 6 Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Simmons, David A

    2017-09-01

    Previously, fingertip capillary blood glucose measurements from the CONTOUR ® NEXT (CN) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) and 5 other BGMSs were evaluated in comparison with measurements from a reference YSI glucose analyzer. Here, we use Radar Plots to graphically represent the accuracy and precision results from the previous study, including whether they met ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria. A Radar Plot, a new method for capturing a distinct, single visualization of BGMS analytical performance, is a collection of concentric circles, each representing a particular magnitude of error. The center of the plot represents zero error (BGMS result is equivalent to reference result); as points are more distant from the center, the error increases, expressed in units of mg/dL or percentage for YSI values data point above or below the horizontal line bisecting the plot indicates whether the BGMS measurement error was positive (BGMS result > YSI result) or negative (BGMS result Radar Plots provide a different method for visually comparing the analytical performance of multiple BGMSs. The tight clustering of data points at the center of the CN Radar Plot illustrates the analytical performance of CN compared with 5 other BGMSs.

  18. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: Advice for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Shannon; Manroa, Pooja; Doshi, Krupa

    2016-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a critical element in diabetes management. Providers must determine if and when patients are to perform glucose self-monitoring, set blood glucose targets, and help patients to interpret the results. Patients have a variety of continually evolving meters, supplies, and technology from which to choose. Making sense of these expectations and options is perhaps the greatest challenge for providers and patients. Working together, healthcare providers and certified diabetes educators can ensure that people with diabetes get the most out of self-monitoring of blood glucose. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  19. The accuracy of blood glucose testing by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumph, P S; Odoroff, C L; Amatruda, J M

    1988-04-01

    While studies have evaluated the accuracy of adult patients and health personnel in reading various glucose oxidase impregnated strips to estimate blood glucose, there are no studies exclusively evaluating the accuracy of children with diabetes reading their own strips as compared to a staff member, and meter to meter variability in reading these strips. We evaluated the accuracy of reading chemstrip bG by children at a summer camp. The children's visual readings of their own strips were compared to the visual reading of a single staff member. A total of 356 Chemstrip bG's were visually read by diabetic children and a single trained staff member at a summer camp for diabetics. The strips were then analyzed by two Accu-Chek bG meters. Intermachine variability was found to be negligible over the entire bG range. For the purposes of this study, we define accurate visual readings as those within +/- 15 percent of the meter reading of a given strip. At low bG values (40-79 mg/dl), accuracy by children and staff is low, with underestimating occurring in 39 percent of staff readings and 57 percent of children's readings. At intermediate bG values (120-239 mg/dl) readings are more accurate, especially when read by the staff, with misreadings occurring in only 16-19 percent of the strips. At high bG values (240-399 mg/dl), accuracy by children is decreased, with underestimation 500 percent more often than staff. We conclude that children are less accurate at reading Chemstrip bG than a trained staff member (51% versus 33% misreading), especially at the upper and lower ranges of bG values when visual readings are least accurate, and the need for therapeutic intervention is the greatest.

  20. Lower fasting blood glucose in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Jansen, Ann Kristine; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Matos, Camila Maria; Souza, Marcio Leandro Ribeiro; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Riccardi, Vincent Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate a lower occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level is the main criterion used to diagnose DM and glucose intolerance. Therefore, this study compared FBG level between adults with NF1 and non-NF1 controls. We selected clinical records of 57 out of 701 individuals attending the Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The selected patients with NF1 were matched to non-NF1 controls selected from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health according to sex, age (range, 35–74 years) and BMI at a ratio of 1:3. In both groups, individuals with DM were excluded. Median FBG level in the NF1 group (86 mg/dl (range, 56–127 mg/dl)) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (102 mg/dl (range, 85–146 mg/dl)) (P<0.001). Prevalence of FBG level ≥100 mg/dl in the NF1 group (16%) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (63%) (P<0.05). The chance of a high FBG level was 89% lower in the NF1 group (odds ratio, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.067–0.188) (P<0.05). In conclusion, adults with NF1 showed a lower FBG level and a lower prevalence of high FBG level compared with non-NF1 controls. PMID:26631381

  1. Levels of Blood Glucose and Total Protein of Repeat Breeding Dairy Cows From Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhasia Ramandani

    2015-11-01

    breeding case had lower blood glucose and total protein plasm concentrations than that of the normal. The average concentrations of blood glucose and total protein plasm were 48.58±6.675 mg/dl and 6.815±821 g/dl, respectively.

  2. Trends in practice of blood glucose control in critically ill patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R. T. M.; Eslami, S.; de Keizer, N. F.; Bakhshi-Raiez, F.; Bosman, R. J.; Dongelmans, D. A.; van der Voort, P. H. J.; Streefkerk, J. O.; Engelbrecht, W. J.; ten Cate, J.; Huissoon, S.; van Driel, E. M.; van Dijk, I.; Cimic, N.; Beck, O. F. T.; Snellen, F. T. F.; Holman, N. D.; Mulder, H. C.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Schultz, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Publication of the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial in 2009 and several observational studies caused a change in the recommendations for blood glucose control in intensive care patients. We evaluated local trends in blood

  3. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  4. Alternative sampling site for blood glucose testing in cats: giving the ears a rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeugswetter, Florian K; Rebuzzi, Laura; Karlovits, Sonja

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY RATIONALE: Home monitoring is an important part of the long-term management of diabetic cats. Despite the extensive use of glucometers in this species, up until now only the pinna of the ear has been validated as a testing site. This cross-sectional study investigated the feasibility and validity of sampling from the metacarpal/metatarsal pads in hospitalised cats with various diseases. The large pads were compared with the ear as a sampling site in 75 cats. Lancing the pads was tolerated very well. If the initial drop of blood was too small, an adequate volume of blood was almost always achieved by squeezing the pads. No significant differences were observed in first-attempt success rate or glucose values between the two sites. Due to the inability to obtain an adequate volume of blood or struggling, no measurement was possible in four cats. While further work is necessary to assess the utility of this technique, especially in the home environment, the results indicate that the metacarpal pads, in particular, may offer a viable alternative testing site for the measurement of blood glucose concentrations, especially if ear sampling fails. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The clinical performance of the EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Lin, Jui-Jane; Hung, Sheng-tien; Chun, Peng-Ting; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2012-07-11

    The novel technique of blood volume detection can improve the reliability and accuracy of a self-monitoring blood glucose system. Self-management of diabetes can be improved, and the glycemic range can be efficiently controlled. A total of 153 patients with diabetes mellitus participated in the clinical study. The accuracy, blood volume detection, interference, and altitude effect of the EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system were evaluated and compared among the fingerstick, alternative site testing, and venous blood. The EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system with fingertip demonstrated an excellent correlation with venous blood (linear regression analysis: slope=1.01, intercept=-0.8972 mg/dl, r(2)=0.96), and with other brands of glucose systems (linear regression analysis: slope=0.99, intercept=+3.5632 mg/dl, r(2)=0.94). The Clarke error grid analysis indicated that the results of fingertip and alternative sites were in the acceptable zones, A and B. The system required 0.6 ul of a blood sample to obtain an accurate reading, and was unaffected by several interferents and altitude. The EGV1 self-monitoring blood glucose system using various blood samples demonstrated acceptable accuracy and reliability compared to the laboratory reference and other self-monitoring blood glucose systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [A non-invasive glucose measurement method based on orthogonal twin-polarized light and its pilot experimental investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Baoming; Liu, Ding

    2010-04-01

    In order to overcome the existing shortcomings of the non-invasive blood glucose polarized light measurement methods of optical heterodyne detection and direct detection, we present in this paper a new orthogonal twin-polarized light (OTPL) non-invasive blood glucose measurement method, which converts the micro-angle rotated by an optical active substance such as glucose to the energy difference of OTPL, amplifies the signals by the high-sensitivity lock-in amplifier made of relevant principle, controls Faraday coil current to compensate the changes in deflection angle caused by blood glucose, and makes use of the linear relationship between blood glucose concentration and Faraday coil current to calculate blood glucose concentration. In our comparative experiment using the data measured by LX-20 automatic biochemical analyzer as a standard, a 0.9777 correlation coefficient is obtained in glucose concentration experiment, and a 0.952 in serum experiment. The result shows that this method has higher detection sensitivity and accuracy and lays a foundation for the development of practical new type of non-invasive blood glucose tester for diabetic patients.

  7. Transcutaneous Measurement of Blood Analyte Concentration Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Singh, Gajendra P.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2008-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, affecting nearly 200 million people worldwide. Acute complications, such as hypoglycemia, cardiovascular disease and retinal damage, may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. As diabetes has no known cure, tight control of glucose levels is critical for the prevention of such complications. Given the necessity for regular monitoring of blood glucose, development of non-invasive glucose detection devices is essential to improve the quality of life in diabetic patients. The commercially available glucose sensors measure the interstitial fluid glucose by electrochemical detection. However, these sensors have severe limitations, primarily related to their invasive nature and lack of stability. This necessitates the development of a truly non-invasive glucose detection technique. NIR Raman Spectroscopy, which combines the substantial penetration depth of NIR light with the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, provides an excellent tool to meet the challenges involved. Additionally, it enables simultaneous determination of multiple blood analytes. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of Raman spectroscopy for blood analytes' detection in biological media. The preliminary success of our non-invasive glucose measurements both in vitro (such as in serum and blood) and in vivo has provided the foundation for the development of feasible clinical systems. However, successful application of this technology still faces a few hurdles, highlighted by the problems of tissue luminescence and selection of appropriate reference concentration. In this article we explore possible avenues to overcome these challenges so that prospective prediction accuracy of blood analytes can be brought to clinically acceptable levels.

  8. Investigation of Glucose Non-Invasive Measurement Based on NIR Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingna Zheng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy represents a feasible and promising approach to the noninvasive prediction of blood glucose concentration. This paper experimentally studied and proposed a novel method to develop a stand-alone measurement system, in which laser beams at several particular wavelengths are collimated and illuminated a sample with low-energy NIR by an optical fibre probe, and the diffused reflectance from the sample is collected by a detector. The experimental scheme of the measurement system has been demonstrated to be reasonable and suitable for detecting the change of diffuse reflected absorbance from phantoms and finger tissue. The experimental results have presented the good correlation between the diffuse reflected absorbance and glucose concentration at several particular wavelengths. The spectra lines are perfectly separate from each other at different glucose concentration in vitro. Obvious differences exist in the diffuse reflected absorbance for different glucose concentration. According to the testing standard of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT, the dynamic changes, which the diffuse reflected absorbance from tissue is accompanied with the change of the glucose concentration, have been explored by taking a certain amount oral glucose solution. The results have presented that the sensing system proposed is already able to sense the glucose change from fingertip tissue though the overlapping spectra are encountered. Also, the temperature effect of the sample on the diffuse reflected absorbance of the glucose has been taken into consideration.

  9. Evaluation of four portable blood glucose meters in diabetic and non-diabetic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jeong, In-Seong; Choi, Gab-Chol; Park, Hee-Myung

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of an animal's blood glucose concentration is critical for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Over the past few decades, portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) have been used to monitor blood glucose concentrations in animals. Recently, new and improved PBGMs have been made available on the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four PBGMs for use in dogs and cats. A total of 155 venous blood samples of dogs and 85 venous blood samples of cats were tested using four PBGMs. Control solutions from manufacturers were used to determine the precision of each meter. The coefficient of variation was calculated to determine precision during a set of replicates. Pearson's correlation analysis, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine the accuracy of four PBGMs against the hexokinase reference method. Error grid analysis was used to evaluate clinical relevance. All PBGMs, except CERA-PET®, were clinically acceptable for monitoring blood glucose concentrations; AlphaTrak® and VetMate® appeared to be the most accurate ones, demonstrating that to use PBGMs for glucose monitoring, it is important to understand the strengths or limitations of each meter. The difference in results between the PBGMs and the reference method increased at high glucose concentration ranges, which were also affected by the hematocrit. Although readings of the PBGMs and the reference method varied across glycemic ranges (low, normal, and high glucose concentrations), most PBGMs were clinically acceptable for monitoring blood glucose concentrations in dogs and cats.

  10. Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network to Predict Blood Glucose in Overweight Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wang, F; Liu, Y; Xu, J; Lin, H; Jia, B; Zuo, W; Jiang, Y; Hu, L; Lin, F

    2016-01-01

    Overweight individuals are at higher risk for developing type II diabetes than the general population. We conducted this study to analyze the correlation between blood glucose and biochemical parameters, and developed a blood glucose prediction model tailored to overweight patients. A total of 346 overweight Chinese people patients ages 18-81 years were involved in this study. Their levels of fasting glucose (fs-GLU), blood lipids, and hepatic and renal functions were measured and analyzed by multiple linear regression (MLR). Based the MLR results, we developed a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model by selecting tansig as the transfer function of the hidden layers nodes, and purelin for the output layer nodes, with training goal of 0.5×10(-5). There was significant correlation between fs-GLU with age, BMI, and blood biochemical indexes (P<0.05). The results of MLR analysis indicated that age, fasting alanine transaminase (fs-ALT), blood urea nitrogen (fs-BUN), total protein (fs-TP), uric acid (fs-BUN), and BMI are 6 independent variables related to fs-GLU. Based on these parameters, the BP-ANN model was performed well and reached high prediction accuracy when training 1 000 epoch (R=0.9987). The level of fs-GLU was predictable using the proposed BP-ANN model based on 6 related parameters (age, fs-ALT, fs-BUN, fs-TP, fs-UA and BMI) in overweight patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  12. STRING BEAN JUICE DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-post test control group design and purposive sampling.  The population were all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Puskesmas Pacar Keling Surabaya. Sample were 12 patients who met inclusion criteria. The independent variable was string bean juice and dependent variable was blood glucose level. Data were analyzed by using Paired T-test with significance level of α≤ 0.05 and Independent T-test with significant level of α≤0.05. Result: The results showed that string bean juice has an effect on decreasing blood glucose between pre test and post test for blood glucose with independent T-test is p=0.003. Analysis: In conclusion, string bean juice has an effect on blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Discussion: The possible explanation for this findings is string bean juice contains two ingredients: thiamine and fiber. Thiamine helps support insulin receptors and glucose transporter in cells hence GLUT-4 could translocated to the cell membrane brought glucouse enter to the  intracellular compartment, that leads to blood glucouse level well regulated.  Dietary fiber reduces food transit time so slowing the glucose absorption. Therefore blood glucose level will be decreased.

  13. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  14. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... tested by laboratory personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio(®) showed no hematocrit interference or variation...... routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when...

  15. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio® showed no hematocrit interference or variation between strip lots......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...

  16. Blood glucose and insulin levels in normal subjects following a meal with and without added sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredger, J; Sheard, C; Marks, V

    1981-09-01

    The fibrous components of sugar beet pulp were investigated to determine whether they would reduce the post-prandial rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels when incorporated into a mixed meal. On two separate occasions six healthy volunteers were given either a control meal (providing 86 g carbohydrate) or an identical meal with the addition of 20 g sugar beet pulp (test meal). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured post-prandially for 3 hours. There was no significant difference between the mean blood glucose of plasma insulin curves at any time after the two meals. Since viscous types of dietary fibers are known to be effective in reducing post-prandial hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia, it would seem that either the physio-chemical nature of the fibre or the procedure employed to extract the sugar renders the particulate fibre inactive.

  17. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  18. [Mathematical Modeling of the Blood Glucose Regulation System in Diabetes Mellitus Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel'ev, V A; Filippov, Yu I; Tarasov, Yu V; Boyarsky, M D; Mayorov, A Yu; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the mathematical modeling of the carbohydrate metabolism regulation system increases in recent years. This is associated with a "closed loop" insulin pump development (it controls an insulin infusion depending on the blood glucose level). To create an algorithm for the automatic control of insulin (and other hormones) infusion using an insulin pump it is necessary to accurately predict glycaemia level. So, the primary objective of mathematical modeling is to predict the blood glucose level changes, caused by the wide range of external factors. This review discusses the main mathematical models of blood glucose level control physiological system (simplified insulin-glucose system). The two major classes of models--empirical and theoretical--are described in detail. The ideal mathematical model of carbohydrate metabolism regulatory system is absent. However, the success in the field of blood glucose level control modeling and simulating is essentialfor the further development of diabetes prevention and treatment technologies, and creating an artificial pancreas in particular.

  19. Blood Glucose Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 4 screens]. Available from: http://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/glucose-tolerence-test/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health ...

  20. The experiences of diabetics on self-monitoring of blood glucose: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Chang Yeh, Mei

    2015-03-01

    To interpret, describe and analyse the results of various qualitative studies and comprehensively elucidate the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients, and to make recommendations based on these findings for clinical practices. Patients exhibited both positive and negative perceptions towards the self-monitoring of blood glucose. Numerous recent qualitative studies have explored the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients; however, no integrated results have been provided. Qualitative metasynthesis. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between January 2004 and April 2014. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Airiti library and PsycInfo. Seven studies were assessed in the final analysis; the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to evaluate these studies. The self-monitoring experiences of patients with diabetes were divided into five themes: perceived disease severity, effects on daily life, lifestyle adjustments after becoming aware of blood glucose levels, determining the meaning of self-monitoring, and the differences between diabetic patients who use and do not use insulin. Individual differences in blood glucose self-monitoring vary widely among diabetic patients. These differences result from personal cognition and feelings concerning blood glucose monitoring. Insights into and discussions regarding the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients enable health care professionals to understand the factors that influence the intentions of patients to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose and facilitate establishing customised self-monitoring of blood glucose treatment plans. Health care professionals must adopt flexible and individualised criteria to determine patient cognitive misconceptions, understand negative emotional reactions and

  1. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-03-16

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN

  2. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We...... and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money...

  4. Glucose Monitoring System Based on Osmotic Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra LEAL

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a prototype sensor unit for implementation in a long-term glucose monitoring system suitable for estimating glucose levels in people suffering from diabetes mellitus. The system utilizes osmotic pressure as the sensing mechanism and consists of a sensor prototype that is integrated together with a pre-amplifier and data acquisition unit for both data recording and processing. The sensor prototype is based on an embedded silicon absolute pressure transducer and a semipermeable nanoporous membrane that is enclosed in the sensor housing. The glucose monitoring system facilitates the integration of a low power microcontroller that is combined with a wireless inductive powered communication link. Experimental verification have proven that the system is capable of tracking osmotic pressure changes using albumin as a model compound, and thereby show a proof of concept for novel long term tracking of blood glucose from remote sensor nodes.

  5. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  6. MicroRNA Expression Varies according to Glucose Tolerance, Measurement Platform, and Biological Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA expression is observed during type 2 diabetes (T2D, although the consistency of miRNA expression across measurement platform and biological source is uncertain. Here we report miRNA profiling in the whole blood and serum of South African women with different levels of glucose tolerance, using next generation sequencing (NGS and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. Whole blood-derived miRNAs from women with newly diagnosed T2D (n=4, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (n=4, and normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=4 were subjected to NGS, whereafter transcript levels of selected miRNAs were quantified in the whole blood and serum of these women using qRT-PCR. Of the five significantly differentially expressed miRNAs identified by NGS, only the directional increase of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT was confirmed in whole blood and serum, using qRT-PCR. Functional enrichment of miR-27b gene targets identified biological pathways associated with glucose transport and insulin regulation. In conclusion, this study showed poor correlation in miRNA expression profiled using NGS and qRT-PCR and in whole blood and serum. The consistent increased expression of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT across measurement platform and biological source holds potential as a biomarker for risk stratification in our population.

  7. Atypical blood glucose response to continuous and interval exercise in a person with type 1 diabetes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Othmar; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mueller, Alexander; Groeschl, Werner; Pieber, Thomas R; Koehler, Gerd; Eckstein, Max L; Bracken, Richard M; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-30

    Therapy must be adapted for people with type 1 diabetes to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia caused by increased exercise-related glucose uptake into muscles. Therefore, to avoid hypoglycemia, the preexercise short-acting insulin dose must be reduced for safety reasons. We report a case of a man with long-lasting type 1 diabetes in whom no blood glucose decrease during different types of exercise with varying exercise intensities and modes was found, despite physiological hormone responses. A Caucasian man diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for 24 years performed three different continuous high-intensity interval cycle ergometer exercises as part of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02075567). Intensities for both modes of exercises were set at 5% below and 5% above the first lactate turn point and 5% below the second lactate turn point. Short-acting insulin doses were reduced by 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively. Measurements taken included blood glucose, blood lactate, gas exchange, heart rate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin-like growth factor-1. Unexpectedly, no significant blood glucose decreases were observed during all exercise sessions (start versus end, 12.97 ± 2.12 versus 12.61 ± 2.66 mmol L -1 , p = 0.259). All hormones showed the expected response, dependent on the different intensities and modes of exercises. People with type 1 diabetes typically experience a decrease in blood glucose levels, particularly during low- and moderate-intensity exercises. In our patient, we clearly found no decline in blood glucose, despite a normal hormone response and no history of any insulin insensitivity. This report indicates that there might be patients for whom the recommended preexercise therapy adaptation to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia needs to be questioned because this could increase the risk of severe hyperglycemia and ketosis.

  8. Control of Blood Glucose for People with Type 1 Diabetes: an in Vivo Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Schmidt, Signe; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Since continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology and insulin pumps have improved recent years, a strong interest in a closed-loop articial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes has arisen. Presently, a fully automated controller of blood glucose must face many challenges, such as daily...... variations of patient's physiology and lack of accuracy of glucose sensors. In this paper we design and discuss an algorithm for overnight closed-loop control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The algorithm is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). We use an oset-free autoregressive model...... during daytime. These trials demonstrate the importance of observer design in ARMAX models and show the possibility of stabilizing blood glucose during the night....

  9. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  10. Accuracy of devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose: A stochastic error model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, M; Facchinetti, A; Sparacino, G; Cobelli, C

    2015-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) devices are portable systems that allow measuring glucose concentration in a small drop of blood obtained via finger-prick. SMBG measurements are key in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, e.g. for tuning insulin dosing. A reliable model of SMBG accuracy would be important in several applications, e.g. in in silico design and optimization of insulin therapy. In the literature, the most used model to describe SMBG error is the Gaussian distribution, which however is simplistic to properly account for the observed variability. Here, a methodology to derive a stochastic model of SMBG accuracy is presented. The method consists in dividing the glucose range into zones in which absolute/relative error presents constant standard deviation (SD) and, then, fitting by maximum-likelihood a skew-normal distribution model to absolute/relative error distribution in each zone. The method was tested on a database of SMBG measurements collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (Lifescan Inc., Milpitas, CA). In particular, two zones were identified: zone 1 (BG≤75 mg/dl) with constant-SD absolute error and zone 2 (BG>75mg/dl) with constant-SD relative error. Mean and SD of the identified skew-normal distributions are, respectively, 2.03 and 6.51 in zone 1, 4.78% and 10.09% in zone 2. Visual predictive check validation showed that the derived two-zone model accurately reproduces SMBG measurement error distribution, performing significantly better than the single-zone Gaussian model used previously in the literature. This stochastic model allows a more realistic SMBG scenario for in silico design and optimization of T1D insulin therapy.

  11. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K

    2017-07-01

    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Increasing Blood Glucose Variability Is a Precursor of Sepsis and Mortality in Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pisarchik, Alexander N.; Pochepen, Olga N.; Pisarchyk, Liudmila A.

    2012-01-01

    High glycemic variability, rather than a mean glucose level, is an important factor associated with sepsis and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. In this retrospective study we analyze the blood glucose data of 172 nondiabetic patients 18-60 yrs old with second and third-degree burns of total body surface area greater than 30% and 5%, respectively, admitted to ICU in 2004-2008. The analysis identified significant association of increasing daily glucose excursion (DELTA) accompanie...

  13. Within-Individual Hematocrit Variations and Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, Kaila A.; Cembrowski, George S.

    2013-01-01

    Many self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) systems have generated artefactually increased glucose results in low-hematocrit patients (e.g., intensive care unit and renal failure patients); conversely, these devices could produce artefactually decreased glucose results in high-hematocrit patients (e.g., neonates). The introduction of hematocrit-independent SMBG systems permits more accurate testing in anemic or polycythemic individuals. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Techno...

  14. Perspectives of patients with type 1 or insulintreated type 2 diabetes on self-monitoring of blood glucose : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; Kars, Marijke C.; Wierenga, Willem S.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J. G.; van der Bijl, Jaap J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), including self-regulation, is an important tool to achieve good glycemic control. However, many patients measure their glucose concentrations less often than is recommended. This study investigates patients' perspectives of SMBG and all relevant

  15. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  16. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...

  17. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  18. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2015-11-11

    dose ... hypoglycemic effect in rats, no negative effect was observed on lipid profile. KEY WORDS: Tartrazine E102; glucose; haematological; cholesterol; triacylglycerol ... sulfanilic acid and aminopyrazolone. The pyrazolone ...

  19. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  20. Effect of blood glucose level on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Haibo; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Zuo Chuantao; Hua Fengchun; Tang Wenying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood glucose level on the image quality of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging. Methods: Eighty patients referred to the authors' department for routine whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT check up were recruited into this study. The patients were classified into 9 groups according to their blood glucose level: normal group avg and SUV max ) of liver on different slices. SPSS 12.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: (1) There were significant differences among the 9 groups in image quality scores and image noises (all P avg and SUV max : 0.60 and 0.33, P<0.05). Conclusions: The higher the blood glucose level, the worse the image quality. When the blood glucose level is more than or equal to 12.0 mmol/L, the image quality will significantly degrade. (authors)

  1. 75 FR 2549 - Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    .... When registering, you must provide your name, title, company or organization (if applicable), address... and clinical use of blood glucose meters, to share ideas on the challenges associated with their use...

  2. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos T Tsaousis

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study confirms that dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels are prevalent among the rural populations of Greece and therefore informative campaigns and structured screening programs are required to promote preventive health care.

  3. Assessing portable blood glucose meters for clinical use in cats in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobromylskyj, M J; Sparkes, A H

    2010-09-18

    The aims of this study were to evaluate six portable blood glucose meters for use in cats in a clinical setting and to identify potential sources of inaccuracy such as the effect of glucose concentration and haematocrit. Excess fluorinated whole-blood samples were obtained and were tested using the six meters and a reference laboratory method. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and an error grid analysis was performed, using a grid adapted in this study for diabetic cats. Error grids are a clinically oriented non-parametric approach to blood glucose data, and are designed to determine whether differences between glucometer and laboratory readings are clinically significant. All the meters studied had the potential to under- or overestimate blood glucose levels to varying degrees throughout the glycaemic range. This variation was not consistent enough to be predictable and correctable. The study failed to demonstrate any link between haematocrit and difference between laboratory and glucometer readings.

  4. Dimethylarginines, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Gudjoncik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that in patients with acute MI, SDMA, and only weakly ADMA, are associated with admission blood glucose, beyond traditional dimethylarginine determinants and may therefore have biological activity beyond renal function.

  5. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  6. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations in the blood of dairy calves as influenced by age, vaccination stress, weaning, and starter intake including evaluation of BHB and glucose markers of starter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Hu, W; Dennis, T S; Hill, T M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research was to determine how blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose are affected by age, time of day, stress, weaning, forced intake restriction, and voluntary starter intake in calves between 1 and 9 wk of age, and to evaluate if either is an acceptable proxy for starter intake. Holstein calves were fed a 27% crude protein, 17% fat milk replacer at 660 g of dry matter daily along with free-choice starter and water. Calves were weaned on d 42. Jugular blood was sampled at 0800, 1200, and 1600 h, and within 5 min of sampling BHB, and glucose concentrations were estimated using test strips (Nova Max Plus meter, Nova Biomedical Corporation, Waltham, MA). Age effects and time of day were estimated by sampling blood weekly (d 6, 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48). To determine vaccination stress, a Pasteurella vaccine was administered after blood sampling at 0800 h on d 36. Effect of voluntary starter intake was tested by selecting calves for low and high intakes (d 35 to 39) and sampling on d 40, 41, 43, and 44. Starter intake restriction was tested by restricting intake in half of the calves and sampling on d 60 and 61. Data were analyzed with repeated measurements in a mixed model procedure with either within-calf effect (day or week) or within-calf effects (hour, and day or week) included in the model. Time of day did not affect blood BHB and glucose in the first 6 wk. Blood BHB was greater in wk 7 versus wk 1 to 6. Blood glucose was greater in the first 5 wk compared with wk 6 and 7. Blood BHB increased and glucose decreased with increasing starter intake. Blood BHB declined due to vaccination, but glucose was unaffected. Starter intake restriction reduced BHB for 3 d and glucose for 2 d after restriction. Both were affected by time of day. Around weaning (d 40 to 44), BHB and glucose increased with increasing starter intake. In this research, neither blood BHB nor glucose was a good proxy for starter intake. Blood BHB was positively and glucose

  7. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabet...

  8. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  9. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Laura Sterian; Novis, Renata Britto; Nascimento, Veridiana Toledo; Nóbrega, Miriam Siesler; Saad, Mário José Abdalla

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98). There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05).This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of ...

  10. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    Full Text Available We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98. There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05.This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of diabetes mellitus, and may also be very useful in the diagnosis of postprandial hypoglycemia and other special situations.

  11. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk; Michaely, Mark

    2004-01-01

    of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol x kg x min) and placebo over 8 hrs, each administered in randomized order in the fasting state. C-reactive protein concentrations of 4.9+/-4.2 mg/dL indicated a systemic inflammation. Blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, glucagon......, and GLP-1 (specific immunoassays). Statistics were done with repeated-measures analysis of variance and Duncan's post hoc tests. MAIN RESULTS: During the intravenous infusion of GLP-1, plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lowered, reaching the normoglycemic fasting glucose range within 150...... mins, but they remained elevated during placebo infusion (p infusion led to a significant increase of insulin secretion (p

  12. Effects of 50 mg vildagliptin twice daily vs. 50 mg sitagliptin once daily on blood glucose fluctuations evaluated by long-term self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Kimachi, Kimihiko; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kameda, Hiraku; Cho, Kyu Yong; Nakamura, Akinobu; Nagai, So; Kondo, Takuma; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-04-29

    To date, several clinical trials have compared differences in glucose fluctuation observed with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, most patients were assessed for limited periods or during hospitalization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of switching from sitagliptin to vildagliptin, or vice versa, on 12-week glucose fluctuations using self-monitoring of blood glucose in the standard care setting. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label controlled trial in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-two patients were treated with vildagliptin (50 mg) twice daily or sitagliptin (50 mg) once daily and were allocated to one of two groups: vildagliptin treatment for 12 weeks before switching to sitagliptin for 12 weeks, or vice versa. Daily profiles of blood glucose were assessed several times during each treatment period, and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions and M-value were calculated. Metabolic biomarkers such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol were also assessed. With vildagliptin treatment, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions was significantly improved compared with sitagliptin treatment (57.9 ± 22.2 vs. 68.9 ± 33.0 mg/dL; p=0.0045). M-value (p=0.019) and mean blood glucose (p=0.0021) were also lower with vildagliptin, as were HbA1c, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. There were no significant differences in other metabolic parameters evaluated. Reduction of daily blood glucose profile fluctuations by vildagliptin was superior to that of sitagliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Low blood glucose precipitates spike-and-wave activity in genetically predisposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), in which the blood glucose level is higher than normal but not as high as in diabetes, is also a major public health problem. People with IGT have a higher risk of developing T2D and CVD, and especially the magnitude and duration of the postprandial blood glucose concentration (PPG) seems of crucial importance. In Norway, immigrants from...

  15. A Miniature Graphene-based Biosensor for Intracellular Glucose Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Kamran ul; Asif, Muhammad H.; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Sandberg, Mats O.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Fagerholm, Siri; Strålfors, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report on a small and simple graphene-based potentiometric sensor for the measurement of intracellular glucose concentration. A fine borosilicate glass capillary coated with graphene and subsequently immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme is inserted into the intracellular environment of a single human cell. The functional groups on the edge plane of graphene assist the attachment with the free amine terminals of GOD enzyme, resulting in a better immobilization. The sensor exhibits a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential against an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode which is linear across the whole concentration range of interest (10 – 1000 μM). Glucose concentration in human fat cell measured by our graphene-based sensor is in good agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

  16. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Reduction of Central Blood Pressure in Response to Oral Glucose Loading Is Blunted in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Tadanao; Kurisu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Noriaki; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Shimonaga, Takashi; Iwasaki, Toshitaka; Ishibashi, Ken; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Yukihiro; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that arterial stiffness is reduced after meal intake. We evaluated the acute response of central hemodynamics to glucose loading and the variation in their responses among normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM). The study enrolled 85 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Central hemodynamic measurements were assessed using radial applanation tonometry at fasting, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose loading. Glucose loading decreased the augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75) (81.6±13.9 to 74.5±14.1%, P < 0.01) and central systolic blood pressure (SBP) (115±22 to 109±21mm Hg, P < 0.01) at 120 minutes without a significant change in brachial SBP (126±25 to 125±25mm Hg, P = 0.93). Glucose loading decreased central SBP in NGT and IGT groups but did not affect the DM group. Change in AIx@75 at 120 minutes after glucose loading was blunted in IGT and DM groups compared with the NGT group (-5.7±4.4 vs. -3.6±4.1 vs. -9.3±6.2%, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified DM as an independent factor associated with the presence of blunted response of AIx to glucose loading. Oral glucose loading decreased central SBP and AIx@75 without a significant change in brachial SBP, and these central hemodynamic responses were blunted in patients with DM. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  19. Biochemical relationships between bone turnover markers and blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rasha M

    2017-11-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop many complications including osteopenia, which is associated with high fracture risk. Osteocalcin is a non collagenous protein derived from the osteoblasts. Recently, it was found that osteocalcin enhances the pancreatic beta cell proliferation, insulin secretion and protection against type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the association of serum osteocalcin and other bone turnover markers with blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus duration in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients together with 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium concentrations were measured by commercial ELISA kits. The results showed that type 2 diabetic patients exhibited a significantly lower serum osteocalcin and calcium (p=0.0001 and 0.002 respectively) and a higher alkaline phosphatase (p=0.008) compared to the controls. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum osteocalcin was inversely associated with fasting blood glucose and Diabetes Mellitus duration (β=- 0.018; p=0.007 and β=- 0.085; p=0.014 respectively) in Type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, alkaline phosphatase was positively associated (β=0.828; p=0.015) while serum calcium was negatively associated (β=- 0.046; p=0.048) with Diabetes Mellitus duration. These results refer to the strong association between diabetes and bone turnover markers and call for monitoring of diabetes-associated osteopenia in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Periodontal disease associated with blood glucose levels in urban Koreans aged 50 years and older: the Dong-gu study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Suk; Shin, Min-Ho; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lee, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ok-Joon; Kim, Young-Joon; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association of periodontal disease and the number of teeth present with the risk of prediabetes and diabetes as well as with blood glucose and HbA1c levels in adult Koreans. The relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes has not been fully elucidated. Cross-sectional data from 5535 participants aged ≥50 years were obtained from 2008 to 2010. Periodontal status was measured as pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) recorded. The percentage of sites with a PD ≥4 mm, CAL ≥4 mm (CAL4) and BOP (BOP%) were recorded. Participants were divided into three groups according to PD4, CAL4 and BOP% measurements. Number of teeth present was divided into four groups. Participants were classified as normoglycaemic, prediabetic or diabetic based on HbA1c and fasting glucose levels. After full adjustment, the highest tertile of CAL4 (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.18-2.02, p Periodontal disease severity was positively associated with HbA1c and glucose levels. The number of teeth present was positively associated with HbA1c, but not glucose, levels. Periodontal disease and the number of teeth present are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and increased blood glucose and HbA1c levels in Koreans aged ≥50 years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Age-adjusted glycated albumin accurately reflects blood glucose in patients with neonatal diabetes mellitus: comparison with calculated glycated albumin determined by past blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furuya, Akiko; Oshima, Miho; Amamiya, Satoshi; Nakao, Atsushi; Wada, Keiko; Okuhara, Koji; Hayano, Satoshi; Imamoto, Aya; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Glycated albumin is a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus. However, glycated albumin concentrations in infants are lower than those in adults and increase in an age-dependent manner. Based on our investigation of non-diabetic subjects, we proposed the possibility that the reference range for adults may be used regardless of age, provided that age-adjusted glycated albumin is employed. In the present study, we evaluate the usefulness of age-adjusted glycated albumin in neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. Six neonatal diabetes mellitus patients (four patients with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and two patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus) were included. Measured glycated albumin or age-adjusted glycated albumin was compared to calculated glycated albumin, which was determined using calculation formulae we had reported based on past blood glucose over the 50 days before measurement of glycated albumin. Measured glycated albumin was significantly lower than calculated glycated albumin (20.5 ± 4.9% versus 28.2 ± 6.1%; p diabetes mellitus in remission were lower than the reference range for adults, whereas age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were within the reference range for adults. We demonstrated that age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were consistent with calculated glycated albumin. Age-adjusted glycated albumin is therefore a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  3. Examination of liver and muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... consist 1% of the total body weight. This source is sufficient to provide the energy need for a .... Atlantic salmon consists 0.5 to 9.5% of the liver weight. Ali and Jauncey (2005) stated that liver glycogen ..... Plasma glucose and liver glycogen of. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to petrol. J. Fish. Int.

  4. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum or hepatic levels of lipid, proinflammatory factors, malondialdehyde (MDA) .... Animals were housed under a constant 12-h light and dark cycle and in an environment of 21 - 23 °C. To test the effect of DZ in normal mice, the animals were randomly divided into ..... hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic db/db.

  5. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Negahdarizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medicine. The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa on blood glucose and serum lipids in streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, five groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of five were administered with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to become diabetic. Group I were fed normal diet. Group II of animals received 20 mg/kg/day Capparis spinosa extract. Group III received no treatment (diabetic control and animals of groups IV and V were treated with capparis spinosa fruit extract 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for three weeks. Blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and body weight were measured in all animals. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the 30 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa fruit extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL level. In addition, administration of 20 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa extract decreased blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the oral administration of capparis spinosa extract at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body weight has glucose and lipids lowering activity in diabetic rats.

  6. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days.

  7. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : Professional Advice and Daily Practice of Patients With Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; van der Bijl, Jaap J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the advice given by diabetes educators in Europe, and the daily practice of Dutch patients with diabetes regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood and other aspects concerning self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Method During a diabetes conference in

  8. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy.

  9. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  10. Use of a Connected Glucose Meter and Certified Diabetes Educator Coaching to Decrease the Likelihood of Abnormal Blood Glucose Excursions: The Livongo for Diabetes Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Janelle; Bollyky, Jenna; Schneider, Jennifer

    2017-07-11

    The Livongo for Diabetes Program offers members (1) a cellular technology-enabled, two-way messaging device that measures blood glucose (BG), centrally stores the glucose data, and delivers messages back to the individual in real time; (2) unlimited BG test strips; and (3) access to a diabetes coaching team for questions, goal setting, and automated support for abnormal glucose excursions. The program is sponsored by at-risk self-insured employers, health plans and provider organizations where it is free to members with diabetes or it is available directly to the person with diabetes where they cover the cost. The objective of our study was to evaluate BG data from 4544 individuals with diabetes who were enrolled in the Livongo program from October 2014 through December 2015. Members used the Livongo glucose meter to measure their BG levels an average of 1.8 times per day. We estimated the probability of having a day with a BG reading outside of the normal range (70-180 mg/dL, or 3.9-10.0 mmol/L) in months 2 to 12 compared with month 1 of the program, using individual fixed effects to control for individual characteristics. Livongo members experienced an average 18.4% decrease in the likelihood of having a day with hypoglycemia (BG 180 mg/dL) in months 2-12 compared with month 1 as the baseline. The biggest impact was seen on hyperglycemia for nonusers of insulin. We do not know all of the contributing factors such as medication or other treatment changes during the study period. These findings suggest that access to a connected glucose meter and certified diabetes educator coaching is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of abnormal glucose excursions, which can lead to diabetes-related health care savings. ©Janelle Downing, Jenna Bollyky, Jennifer Schneider. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.

  11. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... and metabolism was originally performed using the Kety-Schmidt method and this method still represent the gold standard by which subsequent methods have been evaluated. However, in its classical setting, the method overestimates cerebral blood flow. Studies of metabolic changes during activation must take...... difficulties due to limitation in resolution and partial volume effects. In contrast to the tight coupling between regional glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow, there is an uncoupling between flow and oxygen consumption as the latter only increases to a limited extend. The excess glucose uptake is thus...

  12. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: copy numbers, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Knowles, Toby G; Day, Michael J; Helps, Chris R

    2009-11-18

    The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' (Group HM: 3 cats) or 'Candidatus M. turicensis' (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as PCats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (Pcats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 degrees C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 degrees C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P=0.006) and HM (P=0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies.

  13. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng” or a savoury (broth preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2. There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012, with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214. Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001. Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  14. Glycolysis in the control of blood glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Guo; Honggui Li; Hang Xu; Shihlung Woo; Hui Dong; Fuer Lu; Alex J. Lange; Chaodong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Glycolysis, a simple pathway of glucose metabolism, critically regulates insulin secretion and metabolic functions of various cells. Depending on cell types, rates of glycolysis are determined at various steps of glycolysis that are subjected to the control of key metabolic and regulatory enzyme(s), which include glucokinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. These enzymes are regulated by both nutritional and hormonal signals at the levels of...

  15. Effects of exposure to malathion on blood glucose concentration: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Vargas, Marco Antonio; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Uriostegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Alvarez-Fitz, Patricia; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Moreno-Godinez, Ma Elena

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to malathion (an organophosphate pesticide widely used around the world) has been associated with alterations in blood glucose concentration in animal models. However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether malathion exposure can disturb the concentrations of blood glucose in exposed rats. We performed a literature search of online databases including PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar and reviewed original articles that analyzed the relation between malathion exposure and glucose levels in animal models. The selection of articles was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The database search identified thirty-five possible articles, but only eight fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The effect of malathion on blood glucose concentration showed a non-monotonic dose-response curve. In addition, pooled analysis showed that blood glucose concentrations were 3.3-fold higher in exposed rats than in the control group (95% CI, 2-5; Z = 3.9; p < 0.0001) in a random-effect model. This result suggested that alteration of glucose homeostasis is a possible mechanism of toxicity associated with exposure to malathion.

  16. Dapagliflozin-lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrand, Annika; Wingren, Cecilia; Benjamin, Audra; Tregoning, John S; Garnett, James P; Groves, Helen; Gill, Simren; Orogo-Wenn, Maria; Lundqvist, Anders J; Walters, Dafydd; Smith, David M; Taylor, John D; Baker, Emma H; Baines, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti-diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid-filled lung technique. Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Glycolysis in the control of blood glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycolysis, a simple pathway of glucose metabolism, critically regulates insulin secretion and metabolic functions of various cells. Depending on cell types, rates of glycolysis are determined at various steps of glycolysis that are subjected to the control of key metabolic and regulatory enzyme(s, which include glucokinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. These enzymes are regulated by both nutritional and hormonal signals at the levels of transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. In hepatocytes, glycolysis is involved in the control of hepatic glucose production. The latter, when excessive, contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. In pancreatic β cells, glycolysis couples glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Absolute or relatively low levels of circulating insulin causes hyperglycemia. In adipocytes, glycolysis generates metabolites for lipogenesis and channels fatty acids from excessive oxidation to triglyceride synthesis, thereby reducing oxidative stress. With increased proinflammatory status, adipocytes produce pro-hyperglycemic factors and bring about hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In hypothalamic neurons, glycolysis conveys nutrient sensing that is related to feeding control. Dysregulation of glycolysis occurs in conditions of insulin deficiency or resistance, and is attributable to inappropriate amount and/or activities of metabolic and regulatory enzymes of glycolysis. Targeting key metabolic and regulatory enzymes to enhance glycolysis may offer viable approaches for treatment of diabetes.

  18. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of blood glucose and thyroid function in Sudanese diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarib, M.O.A.

    2008-03-01

    This study composes of two parts. The first one is a survey of thyroid abnormalities, and the second one is experiment to estimate the level of thyroid hormones (T 4 , T 3 , TSH) among diabetic population and the relationship between the level of glucose, thyroid hormones and lipid profile (TC, LDL, TG, HDL) and comparison of the results with non diabetic group. The survey part of the study to determine the thyroid abnormalities, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism clinical or subclinical. Also the study group was divided in to two groups according to insulin requirement. Type I is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and type II is non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The study subjects selected for this study consist of one hundred Sudanese diabetic patients, they had mean age of 46.51±10.672 years, a mean height of 162.06±10.77 cm and a mean weight of 73.47±14.91 kg. Fifty healthy non-diabetic people without endocrine disease were chosen as controls. Glucose, and thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (total T 4 and T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. In addition hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were also measured in both groups. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated for each sample. Physical examinations such as height, weight, and history of diabetes, family history, treatment were recorded in both groups. Determination of serum hormones concentration was carried out using highly sensitive RIA technique. While determination of blood glucose, hemoglobin, and lipid profile was carried out using enzymatic colorimetric method. The results of this study showed that: 13 patients of the population screened had thyroid disease. The commonest diagnosis was sub clinical hyperthyroidism (6%), followed by sub clinical hypothyroidism (5%) and hyperthyroidism (2%). Female patients with diabetes had the highest annual risk of developing thyroid disease but all patient

  20. The Effect of Acute Consumption of Energy Drinks on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Blood Glucose in the Group of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are very popular among young people, who consume them for various reasons. A standard ED typically contains 80 mg of caffeine, as well as glucose, taurine, vitamins and other ingredients. Excessive consumption of EDs and accumulation of the above ingredients, as well as their mutual interactions, can be hazardous to the health of young adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute consumption of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose. Methods: The study involved 68 volunteers, healthy young adults (mean age 25 years, who were divided into two groups: the first consumed three EDs at one-hour intervals, and the second drank the same amount of water. All participants had their blood pressure (BP—systolic and diastolic (SBP and DBP—as well as heart rate (HR and blood glucose (BG measured. In addition, participants could report any health problems before and after consuming each portion of ED. Results: In the above experiment, having consumed three portions of ED (240 mg of caffeine, the participants presented a significant increase in DBP (p = 0.003, by over 8%, which coincided with a lack of any significant impact on SBP (p = 0.809. No significant changes were noted in HR (p = 0.750. Consumption of EDs caused a significant increase (p < 0.001 in BG, by ca. 21%, on average. Some participants reported various discomforts, which escalated after 2 and 3 EDs. Conclusions: Acute consumption of EDs contributed to increased diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and level of discomfort in healthy young people. Our results reinforce the need for further studies on a larger population to provide sufficient evidence.

  1. The Effect of Acute Consumption of Energy Drinks on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Blood Glucose in the Group of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Gośliński, Michał; Nowatkowska, Kamila

    2018-03-19

    Energy drinks (EDs) are very popular among young people, who consume them for various reasons. A standard ED typically contains 80 mg of caffeine, as well as glucose, taurine, vitamins and other ingredients. Excessive consumption of EDs and accumulation of the above ingredients, as well as their mutual interactions, can be hazardous to the health of young adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute consumption of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose. The study involved 68 volunteers, healthy young adults (mean age 25 years), who were divided into two groups: the first consumed three EDs at one-hour intervals, and the second drank the same amount of water. All participants had their blood pressure (BP)-systolic and diastolic (SBP and DBP)-as well as heart rate (HR) and blood glucose (BG) measured. In addition, participants could report any health problems before and after consuming each portion of ED. In the above experiment, having consumed three portions of ED (240 mg of caffeine), the participants presented a significant increase in DBP ( p = 0.003), by over 8%, which coincided with a lack of any significant impact on SBP ( p = 0.809). No significant changes were noted in HR ( p = 0.750). Consumption of EDs caused a significant increase ( p < 0.001) in BG, by ca. 21%, on average. Some participants reported various discomforts, which escalated after 2 and 3 EDs. Acute consumption of EDs contributed to increased diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and level of discomfort in healthy young people. Our results reinforce the need for further studies on a larger population to provide sufficient evidence.

  2. Development of automatic blood extraction device with a micro-needle for blood-sugar level measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Kaichiro; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2008-12-01

    In this study, a portable type HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is newly developed. It has features 1) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 2) extracting and transferring human blood and 3) measuring blood glucose level. This miniature SMBG (Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose) device employs a syringe reciprocal blood extraction system equipped with an electro-mechanical control unit for accurate and steady operations. The device consists of a) a disposable syringe unit, b) a non-disposable body unit, and c) a glucose enzyme sensor. The syringe unit consists of a syringe itself, its cover, a piston and a titanium alloy micro-needle, whose inner diameter is about 100µm. The body unit consists of a linear driven-type stepping motor, a piston jig, which connects directly to the shaft of the stepping motor, and a syringe jig, which is driven by combining with the piston jig and slider, which fixes the syringe jig. The required thrust to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Because of this driving mechanism, the automatic blood extraction and discharging processes are completed by only one linear driven-type stepping motor. The experimental results using our miniature SMBG device was confirmed to output more than 90% volumetric efficiency under the driving speed of the piston, 1.0mm/s. Further, the blood sugar level was measured successfully by using the glucose enzyme sensor.

  3. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  4. Blood glucose monitoring in type 2 diabetes – Nepalese patients’ opinions and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Sujata; Brien, Jo-anne E; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Blood glucose monitoring forms a vital component of diabetes care. Monitoring conducted at home using glucometers, and in laboratories by professionals, are two common methods of blood glucose monitoring in clinical practice. Objective: To investigate Nepalese patients’ perceptions and practices of blood glucose monitoring in diabetes. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 48 Nepalese participants with type 2 diabetes in Sydney and Kathmandu. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Results: In Australia, most participants perceived home monitoring as useful; and both home and laboratory monitoring were conducted at fairly regular intervals. In Nepal, only a small number conducted home monitoring and the laboratory method formed the primary method of day-to-day monitoring. The laboratory method was preferred due to easy access to laboratories, lack of faith in glucometers and perceptions that home monitoring is costlier. However, overall monitoring was irregular in Nepal. In addition to the healthcare system which enabled cheaper self-monitoring in Australia, Nepalese in Australia also tended to have a better understanding about the purpose of home monitoring. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the disparity in perceptions and practices related to blood glucose monitoring. Understanding the importance of blood glucose monitoring and access to affordable resources are critical facilitators for conducting regular monitoring. Both patient and health-system factors play a key role in ensuring continued diabetes monitoring and management. PMID:28585892

  5. Accuracy and precision of the Prodigy AutoCode blood glucose monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Emily S; Herring, Charles; Russell, Gregory B; Smith, Jennifer D

    2012-04-01

    To assess the accuracy and precision of the Prodigy AutoCode blood glucose monitor. This open-label, prospective equivalence study was conducted at Wilson Community Health Center in Wilson, North Carolina. Accuracy was assessed by comparing finger stick blood glucose values to venipuncture. Precision was assessed by comparing consecutive finger stick blood glucose values from 2 Prodigy AutoCode monitors. Data were analyzed using paired t tests, signed rank tests, regression, and mixed effect models. Fifty-three subjects completed the study. Meter 1 produced 14 (26%) and meter 2 produced 13 (25%) blood glucose readings outside the acceptable error margin of ±20% set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Neither meter was accurate compared to venipuncture (P Prodigy AutoCode demonstrated precision between two different monitors but was inaccurate compared to venipuncture. Less than the required 95% of blood glucose values from each monitor fell within the acceptable 20% error margin relative to venipuncture. All readings outside the acceptable error margin were overestimations, indicating potentially significant safety concerns including untreated or undertreated hypoglycemia.

  6. Conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. Primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in dogs. After an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with [U-14C]glucose (16.9 muCi/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 ± 0.03 mM at basal to a peak of 1.04 ± 0.07 mM at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 ± 0.07 mM at 240 min. Arterial blood 14 Clactate peaked at 60 min and then decreased to ∼ 35% of the peak at 4 h. When arterial blood lactate peaked at 45 min, the proportion of arterial lactate that was derived from oral glucose was 34 ± 3%. The integrated area under the curve of lactate derived from exogenous glucose was 40 ± 2% of that of total lactate. The splanchnic bed released lactate and 14 Clactate during the initial 2 h after oral 14 Cglucose. Thus, the splanchnic bed apparently contributed to the conversion of exogenous glucose to lactate. In the matched experiments (protocol 2, n = 5), dogs were given the same amount of oral glucose but no 14 Cglucose, and [U-14C]lactate was infused into the right atrium to match the splanchnic 14 Clactate release from the first experiment. Despite a well-matched splanchnic 14 Clactate contribution, arterial concentrations of 14 Clactate were markedly lower in protocol 2 compared with protocol 1. The integrated area under the 14 Clactate profile in protocol 2 was only 11 ± 1% of that in protocol 1. These results indicate that the splanchnic bed is responsible for only 11% of arterial blood lactate that was derived from oral glucose. They concluded that (1) after oral glucose loading, a major portion of circulating lactate has its origin not in exogenous glucose but in endogenous sources, and (2) the splanchnic bed is not the major site of oral glucose conversion to lactate after glucose ingestion

  7. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  8. Glucose metabolism in chronic diabetic foot ulcers measured in vivo using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Holstein, P; Larsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Ten subjects with diabetes mellitus and unilateral chronic foot ulcer were investigated. Local tissue concentrations of glucose and lactate were measured using the microdialysis method at a distance of 0.5-1 cm from the edge of the ulcer and in normal skin in the contralateral foot. Subcutaneous...... blood flow in the area investigated was measured using the 133Xewashout technique. The interstitial glucose concentration in the ulcer was found to be lower than in intact skin (8.0 +/- 1.0 mmol l-1 vs. 8.5 +/- 1.1 mmol l-1) (P ... than in intact skin (3.2 +/- 0.2 mmol l-1 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.3 mmol l-1) (P local glucose uptake and lactate outputs were twofold higher in the ulcer than in the intact skin. However, the molar...

  9. Evaluation of serum fructosamine concentration as an index of blood glucose control in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, J J; Kawamoto, M; Heusner, A A; Feldman, E C; Koizumi, I

    1992-10-01

    Fructosamine, a glycated serum protein, was evaluated as an index of glycemic control in normal and diabetic cats. Fructosamine was determined manually by use of a modification of an automated method. The within-run precision was 2.4 to 3.2%, and the day-to-day precision was 2.7 to 3.1%. Fructosamine was found to be stable in serum samples stored for 1 week at 4 C and for 2 weeks at -20 C. The reference range for serum fructosamine concentration in 31 clinically normal colony cats was 2.19 to 3.47 mmol/L (mean, 2.83 +/- 0.32 mmol/L). In 27 samples from 16 cats with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, the range for fructosamine concentration was 3.04 to 8.83 mmol/L (mean, 5.93 +/- 1.35 mmol/L). Fructosamine concentration was directly and highly correlated to blood glucose concentration. Fructosamine concentration also remained high in consort with increased blood glucose concentration in cats with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus over extended periods. It is concluded that measurement of serum fructosamine concentration can be a valuable adjunct to blood glucose monitoring to evaluate glycemic control in diabetic cats. The question of whether fructosamine can replace glucose for monitoring control of diabetes mellitus requires further study.

  10. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  11. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Methods Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a represen...

  12. GLP-1 analog raises glucose transport capacity of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, M.; Brock, B.; Egefjord, L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Glucose enters the brain tissue from plasma by facilitated diffusion across the two membranes of the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). There is evidence in Alzheimer's disease (AD) of reduction of glucose transport across...... the blood-brain barrier, due to diminished GLUT1 translocation and expression at the BBB. Reduced BBB GLUT1 expression is known to aggravate AD pathology and further impair cognitive function, implying that GLUT1 may be a potential target of therapy directed towards AD neurovascular dysfunction...... and degeneration. Hypothesis: The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution in AD, and GLP-1 may directly activate GLUT1 transport in brain capillary endothelium. For this reason, we here...

  13. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet : blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood

  14. Increasing blood glucose variability is a precursor of sepsis and mortality in burned patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N Pisarchik

    Full Text Available High glycemic variability, rather than a mean glucose level, is an important factor associated with sepsis and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. In this retrospective study we analyze the blood glucose data of 172 nondiabetic patients 18-60 yrs old with second and third-degree burns of total body surface area greater than 30% and 5%, respectively, admitted to ICU in 2004-2008. The analysis identified significant association of increasing daily glucose excursion (DELTA accompanied by evident episodes of hyperglycemia (>11 mmol/l and hypoglycemia (<2.8 mmol/l, with sepsis and forthcoming death, even when the mean daily glucose was within a range of acceptable glycemia. No association was found in sepsis complication and hospital mortality with doses of intravenous insulin and glucose infusion. A strong increase in DELTA before sepsis and death is treated as fluctuation amplification near the onset of dynamical instability.

  15. Influence of magnesium status and magnesium intake on the blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Pedrosa, Lucia Fátima Campos; Lima, Josivan Gomes; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura; Colli, Célia

    2011-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess magnesium intake and magnesium status in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to identify the parameters that best predict alterations in fasting glucose and plasma magnesium. A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 51; 53.6 ± 10.5 y) selected within the inclusion factors, at the University Hospital Onofre Lopes. Magnesium intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls. Urine, plasma and erythrocytes magnesium, fasting and 2-h postprandial glucose, HbA1, microalbuminuria, proteinuria, and serum and urine creatinine were measured. Mean magnesium intake (9.37 ± 1.76 mmol/d), urine magnesium (2.80 ± 1.51 mmol/d), plasma magnesium (0.71 ± 0.08 mmol/L) and erythrocyte magnesium (1.92 ± 0.23 mmol/L) levels were low. Seventy-seven percent of participants presented one or more magnesium status parameters below the cut-off points of 3.00 mmol/L for urine, 0.75 mmol/L for plasma and 1.65 mmol/L for erythrocytes. Subjects presented poor blood glucose control with fasting glucose of 8.1 ± 3.7 mmol/L, 2-h postprandial glucose of 11.1 ± 5.1 mmol/L, and HbA1 of 11.4 ± 3.0%. The parameters that influenced fasting glucose were urine, plasma and dietary magnesium, while plasma magnesium was influenced by creatinine clearance. Magnesium status was influenced by kidney depuration and was altered in patients with type 2 diabetes, and magnesium showed to play an important role in blood glucose control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva R B; Pussinen, Christel; Danielson, Kristin; Djurisic, Snezana; Eilertsen, Heidi; Garabet, Lamya; Greibe, Eva; Lauritzen, Trine; Olsen, Dorte A; Othman, Suher; Palimaru, Irina; Westerlund, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio(®). The OneTouch Verio(®) was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio(®) by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio(®) system). Results were compared to a validated routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio(®) showed no hematocrit interference or variation between strip lots. The OneTouch Verio(®) displayed sufficient analytical quality and satisfactory user-friendliness. It is suitable for point-of-care testing of blood glucose concentration when handled by patients and healthcare professionals.

  17. Monitoring blood glucose levels in female mink during the reproductive cycle: 2. Effects of short-term fish oil, chromium picolinate, and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation during late lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Amber M.J.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2007-01-01

    Mink nursing sickness is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia that is similar to the metabolic syndrome associated with type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus. This research studied the effects of short-term administration of antidiabetic supplements on the blood glucose concentration in female mink during late lactation. Female mink that had blood glucose levels acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg) for 1 wk starting at day 21 post partum. In the NG mink, most of the treatments did not significantly change the blood glucose concentration from day 28 to 42 post partum. However, treatment with ASA alone and treatment with the combination HerO-CrPic-ASA elevated the blood glucose levels when compared with those of the control group, which had received just the basal diet. In the HG mink, all treatment combinations except CrPic alone and ASA alone, reduced the blood glucose concentration. Thus, in lactating mink with hyperglycemia, the blood glucose concentration may be effectively lowered by dietary antidiabetic supplementation; however, because hyperglycemia also occurs before nursing, preventive measures are recommended throughout the year. PMID:17955898

  18. Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Valera, Beatriz; Nielsen, Nina O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole...... blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c...

  19. A Microwave Metamaterial Inspired Sensor for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vrba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microwave sensor based on an artificial transmission line is proposed for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. A corresponding numerical model of the sensor implemented in microstrip technology is created in the commercial full-wave numerical simulation tool COMSOL Multiphysics and virtually tested by means of numerical simulations. Blood-glucose solution models with various blood glucose concentrations are used as a model of a biological tissue under test. Furthermore, a possible methodology for performing non-invasive tests is proposed. Sensitivity of the sensor developed here is compared to a sensor based on a section of a conventional microstrip transmission line of the same length and width.

  20. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannon Mary C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet. Methods This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes. Results We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb. A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar

  1. A novel reagentless sensing system for measuring glucose based on the galactose/glucose-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salins, L. L.; Ware, R. A.; Ensor, C. M.; Daunert, S.

    2001-01-01

    The galactose/glucose-binding protein (GBP) is synthesized in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in a precursor form and exported into the periplasmic space upon cleavage of a 23-amino-acid leader sequence. GBP binds galactose and glucose in a highly specific manner. The ligand induces a hinge motion in GBP and the resultant protein conformational change constitutes the basis of the sensing system. The mglB gene, which codes for GBP, was isolated from the chromosome of E. coli using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since wild-type GBP lacks cysteines in its structure, introducing this amino acid by site-directed mutagenesis ensures single-label attachment at specific sites with a sulfhydro-specific fluorescent probe. Site-directed mutagenesis by overlap extension PCR was performed to prepare three different mutants to introduce a single cysteine residue at positions 148, 152, and 182. Since these residues are not involved in ligand binding and since they are located at the edge of the binding cleft, they experience a significant change in environment upon binding of galactose or glucose. The sensing system strategy is based on the fluorescence changes of the probe as the protein undergoes a structural change on binding. In this work a reagentless sensing system has been rationally designed that can detect submicromolar concentrations of glucose. The calibration plots have a linear working range of three orders of magnitude. Although the system can sense galactose as well, this epimer is not a potential interfering substance since its concentration in blood is negligible. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Evaluation of day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves in diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Linda M; Rand, Jacquie S

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Prospective clinical study. 10 dogs with diabetes mellitus. Paired 12-hour serial blood glucose concentration curves performed during 2 consecutive days were obtained on 3 occasions from each dog. Dogs received the same dose of insulin and meal every 12 hours on both days. For each pair of curves, comparison was made between the results of days 1 and 2. Mean absolute difference (without regard to sign) between days 1 and 2 for each parameter was significantly > 0, disproving the hypothesis that there is minimal day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves when insulin dose and meals are kept constant. Coefficient of variation of the absolute difference between days 1 and 2 for each parameter ranged from 68 to 103%. Evaluation of the paired curves led to an opposite recommendation for adjustment of the insulin dose on day 2, compared with day 1, on 27% of occasions. Disparity between dosage recommendations was more pronounced when glucose concentration nadir was dogs. Day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves has important clinical implications, particularly in dogs with good glycemic control.

  3. A comprehensive evaluation of strip performance in multiple blood glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence B; Macleod, Kirsty; Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Pfützner, Andreas; Setford, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose results are required for optimal insulin dosing and detection of hypoglycemia. However, blood glucose monitoring systems may be susceptible to error from test strip, user, environmental and pharmacological factors. This report evaluated 5 blood glucose monitoring systems that each use Verio glucose test strips for precision, effect of hematocrit and interferences in laboratory testing, and lay user and system accuracy in clinical testing according to the guidelines in ISO15197:2013(E). Performance of OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ met or exceeded standards described in ISO15197:2013 for precision, hematocrit performance and interference testing in a laboratory setting. Performance of OneTouch(®) Verio IQ™, OneTouch(®) Verio Pro™, OneTouch(®) Verio™, OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ and Omni Pod each met or exceeded accuracy standards for user performance and system accuracy in a clinical setting set forth in ISO15197:2013(E).

  4. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  5. The Effects of Blood Glucose Concentration on the Shivering Threshold in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Hirofumi; Masamune, Taishi; Sato, Hiroaki; Okuyama, Katsumi; Wada, Keiichi; Iwashita, Hironobu; Ishiyama, Tadahiko; Oguchi, Takeshi; Sessler, Daniel I; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Hyperglycemia is common in critically ill and surgical patients, as are core temperature disturbances. The effect of hyperglycemia on thermoregulatory defenses remains unknown. We determined the effect of blood glucose concentration on the shivering threshold in rabbits. Twenty-seven rabbits lightly anesthetized with isoflurane were randomly assigned to infusions of (1) saline, (2) insulin titrated to produce blood glucose concentrations 60 to 100 mg/dL, or (3) 50% dextrose titrated to produce blood glucose concentrations 200 to 300 mg/dL. Core temperature was reduced at a rate of 2 to 3°C/h by perfusing water at 10°C through a plastic tube positioned in the colon. Cooling continued until shivering was observed by an investigator blinded to treatment or until esophageal (core) temperature reached 34°C. Core temperatures at the onset of shivering defined the threshold. All analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Rabbits given saline shivered at 37.2 ± 0.5°C (mean ± SD). Rabbits given insulin shivered at 36.3 ± 1.1°C. Rabbits given dextrose shivered at 38.0 ± 0.6°C. The shivering threshold increased as a function of blood glucose concentration: shivering threshold (°C) = 0.009 [blood glucose concentration (mg/dL)] + 35.6, r = 0.53. The shivering threshold thus increased approximately 1°C for each 100 mg/dL increase in blood glucose concentration. Hyperglycemia increases the threshold for shivering, whereas hypoglycemia lowers the threshold on rabbits.

  6. Carbohydrate ingestion before and during soccer match play and blood glucose and lactate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise when CHO-electrolyte beverages were consumed regularly. Therefore, the metabolic effects of CHO beverage consumption throughout soccer match play remain unclear. To investigate the blood glucose and blood lactate responses to CHOs ingested before and during soccer match play. Crossover study. Applied research study. Ten male outfield academy soccer players (age = 15.6 ± 0.2 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.02 m, mass = 65.3 ± 1.9 kg, estimated maximal oxygen consumption = 58.4 ± 0.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Players received a 6% CHO-electrolyte solution or an electrolyte (placebo) solution 2 hours before kickoff, before each half (within 10 minutes), and every 15 minutes throughout exercise. Blood samples were obtained at rest, every 15 minutes during the match (first half: 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 minutes; second half: 45-60, 60-75, and 75-90 minutes) and 10 minutes into the halftime break. Metabolic responses (blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations) and markers of exercise intensity (heart rate) were recorded. Supplementation influenced the blood glucose response to exercise (time × treatment interaction effect: P ≤ .05), such that glucose concentrations were higher at 30 to 45 minutes in the CHO than in the placebo condition. However, in the second half, blood glucose concentrations were similar between conditions because of transient reductions from peak values occurring in both trials at halftime. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above those at rest in the first 15 minutes of exercise (time-of-sample effect: P < .001) and remained elevated throughout exercise. Supplementation did not influence the pattern of

  7. Treatment and blood glucose level control of diabetes patients aged 30 and above in Balcova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Tarı Selçuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the treatment uptake and control rates of blood glucose, BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels in diabetes patients aged 30 and above in Balcova Heart Study. The association between treatment and blood glucose level control and socio-demographic characteristics will also be evaluated. Methods: The study included data from 1.643 diabetes patients aged 30 and above who participated in the baseline survey of Balcova’s Heart Project. Fasting blood glucose test was carried out for diagnosis of diabetes, and ADA 2011 diagnosis criteria were employed for the overall assessment. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, logistic regression analysis were used. The study was supported by Dokuz Eylul University Scientific Research Projects and Balcova Municipality. Results: Of all patients, 75.4% are receiving treatment, 32.6% of treated patients have blood glucose level, 21.8% have blood pressure, 9.4% have BMI, 34.7% have LDL, 45.2% have HDL, and 52.6% have triglyceride levels under control. According to logistic regression model, diabetes treatment is significantly high for 70 and above age group [OR=1.76, %95.0 CI:1.14-2.72]; for patients with social security[OR=2.21, %95.0 CI:1.39-3.52]; and for patients with coexisting chronic diseases[OR=2.24, %95.0 CI:1.74-2.89]. According to logistic regression model, blood glucose level control of treated patients is significantly high for patients with coexisting chronic diseases [OR=1.49, %95.0 GA:1.12-1.99]. Conclusions: One fourth of diabetes patients are not receiving treatment, and only one third of patients have blood glucose level under control. BMI, blood pressure, lipid control rates are below desired levels. Awareness of diabetes patient on importance of continuous follow-up should be raised, and quality follow-up should be improved.Key Words: Diabetes, diabetes treatment, blood glucose level

  8. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Uemura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundContinuous glucose monitoring (CGM is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET. Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hyperglycemia using CGM data as a reference.MethodsThirty-eight inpatients with diabetes undergoing CGM were enrolled. MIET comprised a pretreatment step using a plastic microneedle array and glucose accumulation step with a hydrogel patch, which was placed on two sites from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM or from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM. IG AUC was calculated by accumulated glucose extracted by hydrogel patches using sodium ion as standard. ResultsA significant correlation was observed between the predicted AUC by MIET and CGM in daytime (r=0.76 and nighttime (r=0.82. The optimal cutoff for the IG AUC value of MIET to predict hyperglycemia over 200 mg/dL measured by CGM for 8 hours was 1,067.3 mg·hr/dL with 88.2% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity.ConclusionWe showed that 8-hour IG AUC levels using MIET were valuable in estimating the blood glucose AUC without blood sampling. The results also supported the concept of using this technique for evaluating glucose excursion and for screening hyperglycemia during 8 hours in patients with diabetes at any time of day.

  9. Evaluation of the Blood-Glucose Reducing Effects of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: All the aqueous extracts of (Caraway) CA, (Coriander) CO, (Cumin) CU, (Dill) DI and (Fennel) FE were administered at dose levels of 300 mg/kg body weight orally to different groups each containing 5 animals. A control group was also maintained simultaneously and received distilled water orally.Blood samples ...

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Elevated Blood Glucose Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was increased risk for the prevalence of T2DM as it was attributed to high blood pressure. According to the study by Feldstein (2002), an estimated 35% to 75% of diabetic complications were triggered by hypertension. Hypertension and T2DM occured together so frequently that they are considered to be comorbidities likely.

  11. Peripheral and central venous blood glucose concentrations in dogs and cats with acute arterial thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainbart, S; Kelmer, E; Vidmayer, B; Bdolah-Abram, T; Segev, G; Aroch, I

    2014-01-01

    Acute limb paralysis because of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) occurs in cats and less commonly in dogs. ATE is diagnosed based on physical examination findings and, occasionally, advanced imaging. Peripheral, affected limb venous glucose concentration is decreased in ATE, whereas its systemic concentration is within or above reference interval. Client-owned cats and dogs were divided into 3 respective groups: acute limb paralysis because of ATE (22 cats and 9 dogs); acute limb paralysis secondary to orthopedic or neurologic conditions (nonambulatory controls; 10 cats and 11 dogs); ambulatory animals presented because of various diseases (ambulatory controls; 10 cats and 9 dogs). Prospective observational, clinical study. Systemic and local (affected limb) blood glucose concentrations were measured. Their absolute and relative differences (ΔGlu and %ΔGlu, respectively) were compared among groups. ΔGlu and %ΔGlu were significantly higher in the ATE cats and dogs groups, compared to both of their respective controls (P cats, respectively, and 1.00 and 1.00, in dogs, respectively. ΔGlu cutoffs of 30 mg/dL and 16 mg/dL, in cats and dogs, respectively, corresponded to sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 90% in cats, respectively, and 100% in dogs. ΔGlu and %ΔGlu are accurate, readily available, diagnostic markers of acute ATE in paralyzed cats and dogs. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. [Gestational diabetes mellitus: importance of blood glucose monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Le-Roux, Juana A; Benaiges Boix, David; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common during pregnancy, and is frequently associated with maternal and perinatal complications. Intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy has been shown to reduce perinatal morbidity. In women with pregestational type 1 or 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia during labour and delivery is an important factor in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia. There are no generally accepted recommendations for women with GDM. Recent studies evaluating patients with GDM show that peripartum glucose control can be achieved in these women without the need for insulin use in the majority of cases. Hyperglycaemia during labour is not related with treatment established during pregnancy but rather with non-compliance of endocrinological follow-up. Factors such as ethnic origin, neonatal hypoxaemia, and large for gestational age seem to play an important role in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEA. All rights reserved.

  13. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M V; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Heller, S R

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural and demograp......AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural...

  14. Perceptions of Caribbean type 2 diabetes patients on self-monitoring of blood glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwaka, C. E.; Olukoga, A.; Onuoha, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The views of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients have not been considered in the debate on the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of T2DM. Objective: To assess the views of T2DM patients on SMBG. Methods: Two previously trained research assistants used a struct......Context: The views of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients have not been considered in the debate on the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of T2DM. Objective: To assess the views of T2DM patients on SMBG. Methods: Two previously trained research assistants used...

  15. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  16. The food and drug administration is now preparing to establish tighter performance requirements for blood glucose monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C

    2010-05-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) Tight Glycemic Control. Many officials from the Center for Devices and Radiologic Health and the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices, which are the parts of FDA that regulate approval of blood glucose monitors, either spoke on the agenda or attended in the audience. Approximately 300 people attended; they were mostly clinicians (such as adult endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, internists, clinical chemists, intensivists, surgeons, nurses, and diabetes educators) or industry officials from companies involved in glucose monitoring, pharmaceutical products, data analysis, or regulatory consulting. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  18. Female rat pancreatic blood flow measured by 133Xe clearance technique: pregnancy influence and oestradiol immediate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Annette; Vuillemin, J.-P.; Ducassou, Dominique; Bouchard, Alain; Valeyre, Jacques; Sutter-Dub, M.-T.

    1981-01-01

    Female Rat pancreatic blood flow is measured by 133 Xe clearance technique without interruption blood circulation. Its value is enhanced during late pregnancy, but not immediately influenced by exogenous glucose and/or oestradiol. Relation with glucose-induced insulin hypersecretion is discussed [fr

  19. [Effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Sun, Qiuhong; Yang, Hua

    2015-05-19

    To explore the effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 72 ICU patients with severe acute pancreatitis were recruited and divided randomly into observation and control groups (n = 36 each). Both groups were treated conventionally. And the observation group achieved stable blood glucose at 6.1-8.3 mmol/L with intensive glucose control. The length of ICU and hospital stays, ICU mortality rate, transit operative rate, concurrent infection rate, admission blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, mean insulin dose, mean blood glucose, blood glucose value standard deviation (GLUSD), glycemic liability index (GLUGLI) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (GLUMAGE) of two groups were compared. At the same time, the relationship between blood glucose variability, ICU mortality rate and its predictive value were analyzed by correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The lengths of ICU and hospital stays of observation group were all significantly less than those of the control group [(11.7 ± 9.9) vs (15.9 ± 8.02) days, (21.8 ± 10.8) vs (28.2 ± 12.7) days, P control group (72.22%, 38.89%, P blood glucose value and GLUSD of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group [(7.4 ± 1.1) vs (9.6 ± 1.2), (1.8 ± 1.0) vs (2.5 ± 1.3) mmol/L]. The differences were statistically significant (P control group (P control in patients with severe acute pancreatitis helps reduce the blood sugar fluctuations, lower the risks of infectious complications and promote the patient rehabilitation. And GLUGLI is positively correlated with ICU mortality rate. It has good predictive values.

  20. COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE SELFMONITORING AND CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy is one of the indications for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM. The data on its efficiency in pregnant women are contradictory.Aim: To compare the results of blood glucose self-monitoring (SMBG and CGM in pregnant women with previous diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods: We performed a cross-sectional comparative study of glycemia in 18 pregnant women with previous type 1 (87.8% of patients and type 2 diabetes (22.2% of patients with various degrees of glycemic control. Their age was 27.7 ± 4.9 year. At study entry, the patients were at 17.2 ± 6.1 weeks of gestation. CGM and SMBG were performed in and by all patients for the duration of 5.4 ± 1.5 days. Depending on their HbA1c levels, all patients were divided into two groups: group 1 – 12 women with the HbA1c above the target (8.5 ± 1%, and group 2 – 6 women with the HbA1c levels within the target (5.6 ± 0.3%.Results: According to SMBG results, women from group 2 had above-the-target glycemia levels before breakfast, at 1 hour after breakfast and at bedtime: 6.2 ± 1.6, 8.7 ± 2.1, and 5.7 ± 1.9 mmol/L, respectively. According to CGM, patients from group 1 had higher postprandial glycemia than those from group 2 (8.0 ± 2.1 and 6.9 ± 1.8 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.03. The analysis of glycemia during the day time revealed significant difference between the groups only at 1 hour after dinner (7.1 ± 1.4 mmol/L in group 1 and 5.8 ± 0.9 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.041 and the difference was close to significant before lunch (6.0 ± 2.2 mmol/L in group 1 and 4.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.053. Comparison of SMBG and CGM results demonstrated significant difference only at one timepoint (at 1 hour after lunch and only in group 1: median glycemia was 7.4 [6.9; 8.1] mmol/L by SMBG and 6 [5.4; 6.6] mmol/L by CGM measurement (р = 0.001. Lower median values by CGM measurement could be explained by averaging of three successive measurements carried out in the

  1. Mobile Diabetes Intervention Study of Patient Engagement and Impact on Blood Glucose: Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene Connolly; Butler, Erin C; Swasey, Krystal K; Shardell, Michelle D; Terrin, Michael D; Barr, Erik A; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L

    2018-02-02

    Successful treatment of diabetes includes patient self-management behaviors to prevent or delay complications and comorbid diseases. On the basis of findings from large clinical trials and professional guidelines, diabetes education programs and health providers prescribe daily regimens of glucose monitoring, healthy eating, stress management, medication adherence, and physical activity. Consistent, long-term commitment to regimens is challenging. Mobile health is increasingly being used to assist patients with lifestyle changes and self-management behaviors between provider visits. The effectiveness of mobile health to improve diabetes outcomes depends on patient engagement with a technology, content, or interactions with providers. In the current analysis, we aimed to identify patient engagement themes in diabetes messaging with diabetes providers and determine if differences in engagement in the Mobile Diabetes Intervention Study (MDIS) influenced changes in glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) over a 1-year treatment period (1.9% absolute decrease in the parent study). In the primary MDIS study, 163 patients were enrolled into 1 of 3 mobile intervention groups or a usual care control group based on their physician cluster randomization assignment. The control group received care from their physicians as usual. Participants in each intervention group had access to a patient portal where they could record monitoring values for blood glucose, blood pressure, medication changes, or other self-management information while also assigned to varying levels of physician access to patient data. Intervention participants could choose to send and receive messages to assigned certified diabetes educators with questions or updates through the secure Web portal. For this secondary analysis, patient engagement was measured using qualitative methods to identify self-care themes in 4109 patient messages. Mixed methods were used to determine the impact of patient engagement on

  2. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Nicolaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in extremely premature infants.Methods:Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g, and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g. Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g. The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results:The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05.Conclusion:The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns’ somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  3. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study of healthy subjects showed that intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduced postprandial blood glucose and the gastric emptying rate (GER) without affecting satiety. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on GER, postprandial blood...... glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)], the ghrelin response, and satiety in healthy subjects. DESIGN: GER was measured by using real-time ultrasonography after ingestion of rice pudding...... with and without 1 or 3 g cinnamon. Fifteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. RESULTS: The addition of 1 or 3 g cinnamon had no significant effect on GER, satiety, glucose, GIP, or the ghrelin response. The insulin response at 60 min and the area under the curve (AUC) at 120 min were...

  4. Effect of VCO to leucocyte differential count, glucose levels and blood creatinine of hyperglycemic and ovalbumin sensitized Mus musculus Balb/c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBEN DHARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Handajani NS, Dharmawan R. 2009. Effect of VCO to leucocyte differential count, glucose levels and blood creatinine of hyperglycemic and ovalbumin sensitized Mus musculus Balb/c. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 1-8. Chemical medicines and insulin can decrease glucose blood level on hyperglycemic patients with macro vascular side effect. Diabetes and allergy incidences are influenced by quality and quantity of leucocytes. Lauric acid within VCO reports decreased glucose blood level of diabetes and some allergy incidents. The purpose of the study is to know the effect of VCO on glucose blood level, differential leucocytes count and creatinine blood level on hyperglycemic and normoglicemic ovalbumin sensitized mice. Forty five (45 male (mice of Mus musculus Balb/c with average weight of 35 g are divided into 9 groups with 5 repetitions, those are 4 non alloxan groups and 5 alloxan induced hyperglycemic groups. On 22nd day to 36th day they are sensitize to ovalbumin as allergen. Blood sample was obtained by orbital vena using heparin as anti coagulant in order measuring glucose blood level by GOD method to 6 times, on 1st, 4th, 18th, 22nd, 32nd and 37th days, then are tested by ANOVA followed by DMRT 0.05. On 37th day, differential leucocytes are determined, blood level are counted, and then compared to normal value. The result of this study were that within differential leucocytes count of hyperglycemic mice, neutrophile percentage were much lower than the normal value (3.22%, and lymphocyte percentage were much higher than the normal value (94.54%. Consumed 0.003 mL/35 g VCO more 18 days decreased glucose blood level on hyperglycemic mice, decreased basophile percentage of ovalbumin sensitized mice, normalized neutrophile percentage no increased creatinine blood level.

  5. Pre-analytical variation in glucose concentration due to atmospheric temperature and clot in blood specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Masud, K.; Khan, J.A.; Bhatti, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of temperature and contact of clot with serum on laboratory results of glucose concentration in blood. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: December 2014 to August 2015 at the laboratory of Shoaib Hospital, Fateh Jang, Attock Pakistan. Material and Methods: Samples were collected for estimation of blood glucose (Random) concentration from patients reporting to the hospital. Blood specimens (n=94) of such volunteers were analyzed for glucose level. Each sample was put up in five tubes. When the blood clotted the serum from tube-1 was analyzed for glucose level within 30 minutes. In tube-2 and tube-3 serum was kept for 24 hours at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. In tube-4 and tube-5 serum was not separated from clot and kept at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. The value of tube 1 was taken as reference value for comparison with other parts of the specimen. The equipment used for blood glucose level estimation was semi auto chemistry analyzer (Rayto, China). The kit used for analysis was Glucose - Liquizyme (Germany). Results: The difference between the mean reference value (tube-1) and refrigerated serum without clot (tube-3) was 4.63 mg/100 ml while that of unrefrigerated portion (tube-2) had a difference of 10.68 mg/100 ml. The mean of unrefrigerated (tube-4) and refrigerated (tube-5) portions of serum kept with the clot had difference of 42.05 mg/100 ml and 25.84 mg/100 ml respectively. The fall in the blood glucose level in all (n=94) the samples in the tube number 3 (serum separated and kept at refrigerated temperature) was 4.63 mg/100 ml +- 3.68 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 0 to 20 mg/100 ml whereas fall was maximum in the tube number 4 (serum with clotted blood and kept at room temperature) was 42.04 mg/100 ml +- 10.61 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 13 to 82 mg/100 ml. The sample in

  6. Glucagon Receptor Blockade With a Human Antibody Normalizes Blood Glucose in Diabetic Mice and Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Haruka; Kim, Jinrang; Aglione, JohnPaul; Lee, Joseph; Cavino, Katie; Na, Erqian; Rafique, Ashique; Kim, Jee Hae; Harp, Joyce; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-08-01

    Antagonizing glucagon action represents an attractive therapeutic option for reducing hepatic glucose production in settings of hyperglycemia where glucagon excess plays a key pathophysiological role. We therefore generated REGN1193, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits glucagon receptor (GCGR) signaling in vitro. REGN1193 administration to diabetic ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice lowered blood glucose to levels observed in GCGR-deficient mice. In diet-induced obese mice, REGN1193 reduced food intake, adipose tissue mass, and body weight. REGN1193 increased circulating levels of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 and was associated with reversible expansion of pancreatic α-cell area. Hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia was observed in fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice treated with REGN1193. Single administration of REGN1193 to diabetic cynomolgus monkeys normalized fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance and increased circulating levels of glucagon and amino acids. Finally, administration of REGN1193 for 8 weeks to normoglycemic cynomolgus monkeys did not cause hypoglycemia or increase pancreatic α-cell area. In summary, the GCGR-blocking antibody REGN1193 normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice and monkeys but does not produce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic monkeys. Thus, REGN1193 provides a potential therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemic conditions.

  7. Design andIn VitroInterference Test of Microwave Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heungjae; Naylon, Jack; Luzio, Steve; Beutler, Jan; Birchall, James; Martin, Chris; Porch, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    A design of a microwave noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring sensor and its interference test results are presented. The novelty of the proposed sensor is that it comprises two spatially separated split-ring resonators, where one interacts with the change in glucose level of a sample under test while the other ring is used as a reference. The reference ring has a slightly different resonant frequency and is desensitized to the sample owing to its location, thus allowing changes in temperature to be calibrated out. From an oral glucose tolerance test with two additional commercially available sensors (blood strip and continuous glucose monitor) in parallel, we obtained encouraging performance for our sensor comparable with those of the commercial sensors. The effects of endogenous interferents common to all subjects, i.e., common sugars, vitamins (ascorbic acid), and metabolites (uric acid) have also been investigated by using a large Franz cell assembly. From the interference test, it is shown that the change in sensor response is dominated by changes in glucose level for concentrations relevant to blood, and the effects of interferents are negligible in comparison.

  8. The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone on blood glucose concentrations in the perioperative period: a randomized, placebo-controlled investigation in gynecologic surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Avram, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven B; Shear, Torin; Vender, Jeffery S; Gray, Jayla; Landry, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone therapy on perioperative blood glucose concentrations has not been well characterized. In this investigation, we examined the effect of 2 commonly used doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg at induction of anesthesia) on blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration. Two hundred women patients were randomized to 1 of 6 groups: Early-control (saline); Early-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); Early-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone); Late-control (saline); Late-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); and Late-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone). Blood glucose concentrations were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after administration in the early groups and at baseline and 8 and 24 hours after administration in the late groups. The incidence of hyperglycemic events (the number of patients with at least 1 blood glucose concentration >180 mg/dL) was determined. Blood glucose concentrations increased significantly over time in all control and dexamethasone groups (from median baselines of 94 to 102 mg/dL to maximum medians ranging from 141 to 161.5 mg/dL, all P < 0.001). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups receiving dexamethasone (either 4 or 8 mg) and those receiving saline at any measurement time. The incidence of hyperglycemic events did not differ in any of the early (21%-28%, P = 0.807) or late (13%-24%, P = 0.552) groups. Because blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration of single low-dose dexamethasone did not differ from those observed after saline administrations, these results suggest clinicians need not avoid using dexamethasone for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis out of concerns related to hyperglycemia.

  9. Bats: Body mass index, forearm mass index, blood glucose levels and SLC2A2 genes for diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wenjie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Bats have an unusually large volume of endocrine tissue, with a large population of beta cells, and an elevated sensitivity to glucose and insulin. This makes them excellent animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. We evaluated bats as models for diabetes in terms of lifestyle and genetic factors. For lifestyle factors, we generated data sets of 149 body mass index (BMI) and 860 forearm mass index (FMI) measurements for different species of bats. Both showed negative inter-species correlations with blood glucose levels in sixteen bats examined. The negative inter-species correlations may reflect adaptation of a small insectivorous ancestor to a larger frugivore. We identified an 11 bp deletion in the proximal promoter of SLC2A2 that we predicted would disrupt binding sites for the transcription repressor ZNF354C. In frugivorous bats this could explain the relatively high expression of this gene, resulting in a better capacity to absorb glucose and decrease blood glucose levels. PMID:27439361

  10. Childhood cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and adult measures of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Brooklyn J; Blizzard, Leigh; Schmidt, Michael D; Juonala, Markus; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J; Magnussen, Costan G

    2018-02-14

    To assess whether childhood cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness phenotypes (strength, power, endurance) predict adult glucose homeostasis measures. Prospective longitudinal study. Study examining participants who had physical fitness measured in childhood (aged 7-15 years) and who attended follow-up clinics approximately 20 years later and provided a fasting blood sample which was tested for glucose and insulin. Physical fitness measurements included muscular strength (right and left grip, shoulder flexion, shoulder and leg extension), power (standing long jump distance) and endurance (number of push-ups in 30s), and CRF (1.6km run duration). In adulthood, fasting glucose and insulin levels were used to derive glucose homeostasis measures of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA2-β). A standard deviation increase in childhood CRF or muscular strength (males) was associated with fasting glucose (CRF: β=-0.06mmol/L), fasting insulin (CRF: β=-0.73mU/L; strength: β=-0.40mU/L), HOMA2-IR (CRF: β=-0.06; strength: β=-0.05) and HOMA2-β (CRF: β=-3.06%; strength: β=-2.62%) in adulthood, independent of the alternative fitness phenotype (all p0.06). CRF and muscular fitness in childhood were inversely associated with measures of fasting insulin, insulin resistance and beta cell function in adulthood. Childhood CRF and muscular fitness could both be potential independent targets for strategies to help reduce the development of adverse glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10–0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04–0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05–0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09–0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  12. Transdermally delivered peroxovanadium can lower blood glucose levels in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, R M; Hamel, F G

    1999-06-25

    The element vanadium can have insulin mimetic properties and therefore has been suggested as a possible therapeutic agent for treatment of diabetes. A series of peroxovanadium compounds that are more potent at lowering blood glucose levels than sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate and vanadyl sulfate have recently been synthesized. These compounds probably will not be orally active so transdermal administration is a potential option. A patch containing either the peroxovanadium compound [VO(O2)2 1-10 phenanthroline], abbreviated bpV(phen), or placebo was placed on the back of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and was delivered either passively (16 h) or iontophoretically (0.5 mA/cm2 for 4 h). Blood samples were analyzed for glucose and vanadium levels. Mean blood glucose levels were 83+/-1% and 109+/-1% of the starting values for animals iontophoretically treated with bpV(phen) and vehicle, respectively. The compound's insulin mimetic properties were evident within 60 min of current initiation. Blood glucose levels were reduced to 74+/-14% of the original level after 16 h of passive treatment. The compound was ineffective when fed to animals. Transdermal delivery of bpV(phen) resulted in significantly greater blood levels of vanadium than the orally delivered compound (P<0.05). Overall these experiments demonstrate that peroxovanadium delivered through the skin can lower blood glucose levels in rats. Further experiments are warranted to better characterize the nature of the response and to determine the potential for using these compounds in humans.

  13. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2011-02-04

    Abstract Background To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Results Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  14. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. RESULTS: Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  15. Determination of time delay between blood and interstitial adipose tissue glucose concentration change by microdialysis in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, KJC; Schoonen, AJM

    2001-01-01

    For the development and use of subcutaneous glucose sensors it is important to know the time lag between changes in blood glucose and subcutaneous interstitial glucose concentration. To determine the time lag we inserted a microdialysis probe into the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy

  16. The Effect of Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring Among Inmates With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Buskey, Robin N; Mathieson, Kathleen; Leafman, Joan S; Feinglos, Mark N

    2015-10-01

    The increasing prevalence and risk of complications from diabetes necessitate patient participation and attentiveness to select appropriate foods, perform regular physical activity, and be active in diabetes management and self-maintenance. Diabetes is often largely asymptomatic; consequently, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Inmates are a unique population challenged by the increased prevalence of chronic conditions including diabetes. Diabetes standards for inmates contain diagnostic and treatment management guidelines that incorporate personal glucose monitoring for insulin users. In December 2009, the Federal Bureau of Prisons initiated a program to distribute glucose meters to insulin-dependent inmates to facilitate self-monitoring blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these glucose meters on hemoglobin A1c levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Within-Individual Hematocrit Variations and Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kaila A.; Cembrowski, George S.

    2013-01-01

    Many self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) systems have generated artefactually increased glucose results in low-hematocrit patients (e.g., intensive care unit and renal failure patients); conversely, these devices could produce artefactually decreased glucose results in high-hematocrit patients (e.g., neonates). The introduction of hematocrit-independent SMBG systems permits more accurate testing in anemic or polycythemic individuals. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Ramljak and coauthors have created glucose bias graphs for 19 common SMBG devices and declared certain systems to be optimally accurate because of insensitivity to hematocrit variation over a broad hematocrit range. Luckily, the average within-individual variation of hematocrit is low (between 2.9 and 3.3%). As such, a larger spectrum of SMBG devices can be regarded as optimally hematocrit independent. PMID:23439177

  18. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.A.; Moraes, V.M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R.L.; Macari, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T 4 and T 3 concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T 4 level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  19. Glucose concentration and blood acid-basis status in high-yielding dairy cows during heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanac Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effect of heat stress on glucose and pH values in blood of high-yielding dairy cows in the early stage of lactation, as well as to determine whether the changes in these parameters are interdependent under such conditions. An experiment was performed on high-yielding dairy cows during the summer and the spring periods. Forty cows were selected, twenty each for the two periods under investigation. In the course of the experiment, the temperature humidity index (THI was determined for the entire period of investigations, and then also the average daily THI, nightmorning THI (average value of hourly THI measured from 22h on the previous day until 10h of the current day, as well as the day-night THI (average value of hourly THI measured during the period from 10h to 22h of the current day. The pH and glucose concentration were determined in blood samples taken in the morning and afternoon of days 30, 60, and 90 of lactation during the spring and summer periods of the investigations. Based on the results for the THI, it was established that the animals were not exposed to the effect of extreme heat stress during the spring period of investigations, while they were periodically exposed to moderate but also extreme heat stress during the summer, in particular in the afternoon hours. It can be concluded from the results obtained for the blood pH that the cows were in respiratory alkalosis during the summer in the morning and afternoon hours on day 30, in the afternoon hours of days 60 and 90 of lactation, as well as in the afternoon on day 90 of lactation during the spring period of investigations. During the summer period, there were no statistically significant differences between the pH value determined in the morning and afternoon hours on day 30 of lactation, while the pH value was significantly higher in the afternoon hours than in the morning hours on days 60 and 90 of lactation. There were no

  20. GLUT-1 GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS IN THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER: DIFFERENTIAL PHOSPHORYLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devraj, Kavi; Klinger, Marianne E.; Myers, Roland L.; Mokashi, Ashwini; Hawkins, Richard A.; Simpson, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for the mammalian brain and a continuous supply is required to maintain normal CNS function. The transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the brain is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT-1. Prior studies (Simpson et al. 2001) had revealed that the conformations of the GLUT-1 transporter were different in luminal (blood facing) and abluminal (brain facing) membranes of bovine cerebral endothelial cells, based on differential antibody recognition. In this study we have extended these observations and using a combination of 2D-PAGE/Western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy we determined that these different conformations are exhibited in vivo and arise from differential phosphorylation of GLUT-1 and not from alternative splicing or altered O- or N-linked glycosylation. PMID:21910135

  1. Radially oriented nanostrand electrodes to boost glucose sensing in mammalian blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naeem; El-Safty, Sherif A; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Architecture of nanoscale electrochemical sensors for ultra-trace detection of glucose in blood is important in real-life sampling and analysis. To broaden the application of electrochemical sensing of glucose, we fabricated, for the first time, a glucose sensor electrode based on radially oriented NiO nanostrands (NSTs) onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate for monitoring, as well as selective and sensitive sensing of glucose in mammalian blood. The simple, scalable one-pot fabrication of this NST-Ni sensor design enabled control of the pattern of radially oriented NSTs onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate. The radial orientation of NST-Ni electrode onto the interior of the 3D porous substrate with controlled crystal structure size and atomic arrangement along the axis of the strands, intrinsic surface defects, and superior surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, high surface energy, and high density led to highly exposed catalytic active sites. The hierarchical NST-Ni electrode was used to develop a sensitive and selective sensor over a wide range of glucose concentrations among actively competitive ions, chemical species and molecular agents, and multi-cyclic sensing assays. The NST-Ni electrode shows significant glucose sensing performance in terms of unimpeded diffusion pathways, a wide range of concentration detection, and lower limit of detection (0.186 µM) than NiO nanosheet (NS)-Ni foam electrode pattern, indicating the effectiveness of the shape-dependent structural architecture of NST-Ni electrode. In this study, the NST-Ni electrode is fabricated to develop a simple, selective method for detecting glucose in physiological fluids (e.g., mammalian blood). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  3. Comparison electrical stimulation and passive stretching for blood glucose control type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsianti, Rika Wahyuni; Parman, Dewy Haryanti; Lesmana, Hendy

    2018-04-01

    Physical exercise is one of the cornerstones for management and treatment type 2 diabetes mellitus. But not all people are able to perform physical exercise because of their physical limitation condition. The strategy for those people in this study is electrical stimulation and passive stretching. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of electrical stimulation and passive stretching to lowering blood glucose level. 20 subjects is divided into electrical stimulation and passive stretching group. The provision of electrical stimulation on lower extremities muscles for 30 minutes for electrical stimulation group (N=10). And other underwent passive stretching for 30 minutes (N=10). The result shows that blood glucose level is decrease from 192.9 ± 10.7087 mg/dL to 165.3 ± 10.527 mg/dL for electrical stimulation intervention group while for the passive stretching group the blood glucose decrease from 153 ± 12.468 mg/dL to 136.1 ± 12.346 mg/dL. Both electrical stimulation and passive stretching are effective to lowering blood glucose level and can be proposed for those people restricted to perform exercise.

  4. Higher Blood Glucose within the Normal Range Is Associated with More Severe Strokes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Rolf J; Ratan, Rajiv R; Reding, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Background. Higher fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations in the hyperglycemic range are associated with more severe strokes. Whether this association also extends into patients with FBG in the normoglycemic range is unclear. We studied the association of stroke severity and FBG in normoglyce...

  5. Effect of self-monitoring of blood glucose on glycaemic outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which leads to complications especially when not properly managed. The role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in type 2 diabetic patients using oral hypoglycaemic agents has been a source of controversy. Objective: The objective was to study the ...

  6. Effects of self-monitoring of blood glucose on diabetes control in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus places an enormous burden upon both patients and countries' health systems. Integral to achieving control is patients assuming responsibility for their condition. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) can serve as a powerful tool modifying lifestyle behaviour and can aid in achieving ...

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  8. Bihormonal control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tárnik, Marían; Murgaš, Ján

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a bihormonal artificial pancreas (AP) for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) designed to provide a safe blood glucose control with minimal use of glucagon. The control algorithm uses insulin as well as glucagon to prevent hyper- and hypoglycemia. We employ a novel prediction...

  9. Bihormonal model predictive control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tarnik, Marian; Murgas, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a bihormonal control system that controls blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We use insulin together with glucagon to mitigate the negative effects of hyper- and hypoglycemia. The system consists of a Kalman filter, a micro-bolus insulin and glucagon...

  10. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  11. What do professionals recommend regarding the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, J.; Kleefstra, N.; Houweling, S. T.; van der Bijl, J. J.; Gans, R. O. B.; Bilo, H. J. G.

    Background: Patients' adherence to guidelines regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is limited. However, there are no previous reports about the recommendations that are given in clinical practice concerning SMBG. The aim of this study was to investigate what healthcare providers

  12. Self-monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy: indications and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is an important tool to treat diabetes during pregnancy. However, proper implementation of SMBG in pregnant women requires understanding of its applications and limitations. This article reviews issues related to the implementation, efficacy, and accuracy of SMBG and discusses factors that can confound results of SMBG during pregnancy.

  13. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in tablet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (ZODIAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanno; Hortensius, J.; Logtenberg, Susan; Slingerland, R. J.; Groenier, K. H.; Houweling, S. T.; Gans, R. O. B.; van Ballegooie, E; Bilo, H. J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whether self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not using insulin is questionable. Our aim was to investigate the effects of SMBG in patients with T2DM who were in persistent moderate glycaemic control whilst not

  14. Integration of Remote Blood Glucose Meter Upload Technology into a Clinical Pharmacist Medication Therapy Management Service

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Robert J.; Schenk, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    A pharmacist-delivered, outpatient-focused medication therapy management (MTM) program is using a remote blood glucose (BG) meter upload device to provide better care and to improve outcomes for its patients with diabetes. Sharing uploaded BG meter data, presented in easily comprehensible graphs and charts, enables patients, caregivers, and the medical team to better understand how the patients’ diabetes care is progressing.

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money...

  16. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  17. [Evaluation of hearing loss parameters in workers and its relationship with fasting blood glucose levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teofila; Lladosa Marco, Silvia; Ramírez-Iñiguez de La Torre, M Victoria; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; López-González, Ángel Arturo

    2014-05-01

    Hearing loss due to noise is considered within the prevention plans of the most common occupational diseases. In addition to evaluation of working conditions, other personal factors increasing the risk of hypoacusis, such as diabetes, should be taken into account. To explore hearing loss in the workplace and its relationship to impaired fasting baseline blood glucose levels. An observational, cross-sectional study enrolling 1636 workers from service companies was conducted. Full audiometric evaluation was performed at different frequencies: high frequency (HF), early loss index (ELI), speech average loss (SAL), and monaural and binaural loss. Results were categorized by baseline blood glucose levels: G1 (125mg/dl). Based on both HF and ELI, 11% of workers had clear indication of deafness. Women with G3 levels showed significant differences in the results of HF and ELI indexes as compared to the G1 group (P=.038 and .046, respectively). A positive association was found between hearing loss and G3 blood glucose levels in HF (OR: .338; p=.002), ELI (OR: .407; p=.007), and the monaural test in the left ear (OR: 4.77×10-5; p=.006). Despite the methodological limitations of this study, there is evidence for an increased risk of high frequency hearing loss in workers with high baseline blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. SELF BLOOD GLUCOSE MONITORING UNDERESTIMATES HYPERGLYCEMIA AND HYPOGLYCEMIA AS COMPARED TO CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrola, Devna; Cox, Christine; Furman, Arianne S; Krishnan, Sridevi; Karakas, Sidika E

    2018-01-01

    When glucose records from self blood glucose monitoring (SBGM) do not reflect estimated average glucose from glycosylated hemoglobin (HgBA1) or when patients' clinical symptoms are not explained by their SBGM records, clinical management of diabetes becomes a challenge. Our objective was to determine the magnitude of differences in glucose values reported by SBGM versus those documented by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The CGM was conducted by a clinical diabetes educator (CDE)/registered nurse by the clinic protocol, using the Medtronic iPRO2 ™ system. Patients continued SBGM and managed their diabetes without any change. Data from 4 full days were obtained, and relevant clinical information was recorded. De-identified data sets were provided to the investigators. Data from 61 patients, 27 with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and 34 with T2DM were analyzed. The lowest, highest, and average glucose recorded by SBGM were compared to the corresponding values from CGM. The lowest glucose values reported by SBGM were approximately 25 mg/dL higher in both T1DM ( P = .0232) and T2DM ( P = .0003). The highest glucose values by SBGM were approximately 30 mg/dL lower in T1DM ( P = .0005) and 55 mg/dL lower in T2DM ( Pglucose by SBGM and CGM. The lowest glucose values were seen most frequently during sleep and before breakfast; the highest were seen during the evening and postprandially. SBGM accurately estimates the average glucose but underestimates glucose excursions. CGM uncovers glucose patterns that common SBGM patterns cannot. CDE = certified diabetes educator; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; HgBA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin; MAD = mean absolute difference; SBGM = self blood glucose monitoring; T1DM = type 1 diabetes; T2DM = type 2 diabetes.

  19. Impairment of brain endothelial glucose transporter by methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrin L Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH, an addictive psycho-stimulant drug with euphoric effect is known to cause neurotoxicity due to oxidative stress, dopamine accumulation and glial cell activation. Here we hypothesized that METH-induced interference of glucose uptake and transport at the endothelium can disrupt the energy requirement of the blood-brain barrier (BBB function and integrity. We undertake this study because there is no report of METH effects on glucose uptake and transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB to date. Results In this study, we demonstrate that METH-induced disruption of glucose uptake by endothelium lead to BBB dysfunction. Our data indicate that a low concentration of METH (20 μM increased the expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1 in primary human brain endothelial cell (hBEC, main component of BBB without affecting the glucose uptake. A high concentration of 200 μM of METH decreased both the glucose uptake and GLUT1 protein levels in hBEC culture. Transcription process appeared to regulate the changes in METH-induced GLUT1 expression. METH-induced decrease in GLUT1 protein level was associated with reduction in BBB tight junction protein occludin and zonula occludens-1. Functional assessment of the trans-endothelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers and permeability of dye tracers in animal model validated the pharmacokinetics and molecular findings that inhibition of glucose uptake by GLUT1 inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB aggravated the METH-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. Application of acetyl-L-carnitine suppressed the effects of METH on glucose uptake and BBB function. Conclusion Our findings suggest that impairment of GLUT1 at the brain endothelium by METH may contribute to energy-associated disruption of tight junction assembly and loss of BBB integrity.

  20. Personalized blood glucose prediction: A hybrid approach using grammatical evolution and physiological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Contreras

    Full Text Available The large patient variability in human physiology and the effects of variables such as exercise or meals challenge current prediction modeling techniques. Physiological models are very precise but they are typically complex and specific physiological knowledge is required. In contrast, data-based models allow the incorporation of additional inputs and accurately capture the relationship between these inputs and the outcome, but at the cost of losing the physiological meaning of the model. In this work, we designed a hybrid approach comprising physiological models for insulin and grammatical evolution, taking into account the clinical harm caused by deviations from the target blood glucose by using a penalizing fitness function based on the Clarke error grid. The prediction models were built using data obtained over 14 days for 100 virtual patients generated by the UVA/Padova T1D simulator. Midterm blood glucose was predicted for the 100 virtual patients using personalized models and different scenarios. The results obtained were promising; an average of 98.31% of the predictions fell in zones A and B of the Clarke error grid. Midterm predictions using personalized models are feasible when the configuration of grammatical evolution explored in this study is used. The study of new alternative models is important to move forward in the development of alarm-and-control applications for the management of type 1 diabetes and the customization of the patient's treatments. The hybrid approach can be adapted to predict short-term blood glucose values to detect continuous glucose-monitoring sensor errors and to estimate blood glucose values when the continuous glucose-monitoring system fails to provide them.

  1. Impact of Admission Blood Glucose on Coronary Collateral Flow in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmus, Ozge; Aslan, Turgay; Ekici, Berkay; Baglan Uzunget, Sezen; Karaarslan, Sukru; Tanindi, Asli; Erkan, Aycan Fahri; Akgul Ercan, Ebru; Kervancıoglu, Celal

    2018-01-01

    In patients with acute myocardial infarction, glucose metabolism is altered and acute hyperglycemia on admission is common regardless of diabetes status. The development of coronary collateral is heterogeneous among individuals with coronary artery disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether glucose value on admission is associated with collateral flow in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. We retrospectively evaluated 190 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of first STEMI within 12 hours of onset of chest pain. Coronary collateral development was graded according to Rentrop classification. Rentrop 0-1 was graded as poor collateral development, and Rentrop 2-3 was graded as good collateral development. Admission glucose was measured and compared between two groups. Mean admission glucose level was 173.0 ± 80.1 mg/dl in study population. Forty-five (23.7%) patients had good collateral development, and 145 (76.3%) patients had poor collateral development. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics between two groups. Three-vessel disease was more common in patients with good collateral development ( p =0.026). Mean admission glucose level was higher in patients with poor collateral than good collateral (180.6 ± 84.9 mg/dl versus 148.7 ± 56.6 mg/dl, resp., p =0.008). In univariate analysis, higher admission glucose was associated with poor collateral development, but multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a borderline result (odds ratio 0.994, 95% CI 0.989-1.000, p =0.049). Our results suggest that elevated glucose on admission may have a role in the attenuation of coronary collateral blood flow in acute myocardial infarction. Further studies are needed to validate our results.

  2. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Satija, Ambika; Dhillon, Preet K; Agrawal, Sutapa; Gupta, Ruby; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A V; Prabhakaran, D; Srinath Reddy, K; Ebrahim, Shah

    2018-02-08

    Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. We used cross-sectional data from the Indian Migration Study (2005-2007). Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents and their urban siblings from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore (n = 7067, mean age 40.8 yrs). Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered, 184-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, physical activity, medical history, as well as anthropometric measurements were collected. Fasting-blood samples were collected for estimation of blood lipids and glucose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify major DPs based on eigenvalue> 1 and component interpretability. Robust standard error multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the association of DPs (tertiles) with total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, fasting-blood glucose (FBG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) levels. Three major DPs were identified: 'cereal-savoury' (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), 'fruit-vegetable-sweets-snacks' (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and 'animal food' (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs) patterns. High intake of the 'animal food' pattern was positively associated with levels of TC (β = 0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17 mmol/L; p

  3. Body Fat Content, Distribution and Blood Glucose Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loss of opportunities for investment and hence lower levels of economic development (WHO,. 2006a). It has been ... Measurements. Measurements of weight, height and body fat content were done on each subject. Height and ... 3 days before the test as starvation or diet low in carbohydrate can lead to incorrect test result.

  4. Community pharmacy-based intervention to improve self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller U

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is clearly correlated with increased life expectancy and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective: The objective of our study was to record and assess the errors patients make in preparing, performing, and processing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG. Furthermore, the study aimed to determine to what extent a single standardized SMBG instruction session in a community pharmacy might reduce the number of patients making errors or the number of errors per patient. Methods: Between May and October 2005, SMBG of 462 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes was monitored in 32 pharmacies specialized in diabetes care. The patients performed blood glucose self-tests using their own blood glucose meters. Self-testing was monitored using a standardized documentation sheet on which any error made during the performance of the test was recorded. If necessary, patients were instructed in the accurate operation of their meter and the use of the necessary equipment. Additionally, patients obtained written instructions. Six weeks later, assessment of the quality of patient’s SMBG was repeated.Results: During the first observation, 383 patients (83% made at least one mistake performing SMBG. By the time of the second observation, this frequency had fallen to 189 (41% (p<0.001. The average number of mistakes fell from 3.1 to 0.8 per patient. Mistakes that may potentially have led to inaccurate readings were initially recorded for 283 (61% and at study end for 110 (24% patients (p<0.001. Conclusion: It is important to periodically instruct type 2 diabetic patients in the proper SMBG technique in order to ensure accurate measurements. In this study it was shown that community pharmacies specialized in diabetes care can provide this service effectively.

  5. Additional benefit of higher dose green tea in lowering postprandial blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Lahirin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea contains catechins that have inhibitory effects on amylase, sucrase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT which result in lowering of postprandial blood glucose (PBG. This beneficial effect has been widely demonstrated using the usual dose (UD of green tea preparation. Our study was aimed to explore futher lowering of PBG using high dose (HD of green tea in healthy adolescents.Methods: 24 subjects received 100 mL infusion of either 0.67 or 3.33 grams of green tea with test meal. Fasting, PBG at 30, 60, 120 minutes were measured. Subjects were cross-overed after wash out. PBG and its incremental area under the curve (IAUC difference between groups were analyzed with paired T-test. Cathecin contents of tea were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The PBG of HD group was lower compared to UD (at 60 minutes =113.70 ± 13.20 vs 124.16 ± 8.17 mg/dL, p = 0.005; at 120 minutes = 88.95 ± 6.13 vs 105.25 ± 13.85 mg/dL, p < 0.001. The IAUC of HD was also found to be lower compared to UD (2055.0 vs 3411.9 min.mg/dL, p < 0.001.Conclusion: Additional benefit of lowering PBG can be achieved by using higher dose of green tea. This study recommends preparing higher dose of green tea drinks for better control of PBG.

  6. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  7. Effects of intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure on microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure on microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes by comparing the therapeutic effects of intensive and standard treatment in patients with type II diabetes.METHODS: A total of 107 patients with type II diabetes were randomly assigned into intensive and standard treatment groups. Patients in the intensive treatment group received preterax (perindopril/ indapamide to control blood pressure, and gliclazide (diamicron MR to control blood glucose. Patients in the standard treatment group received routine medications or placebo. Urinary microalbumin (UMA, urinary creatinine (UCR, the UMA/UCR ratio, and visual acuity were monitored according to the study design of the ADVANCE trial. Direct ophthalmoscopy and seven-field stereoscopic retinal photography were used to examine the fundi at baseline, and repeated after 5 years of treatment.RESULTS: The characteristics of patients in both groups were well balanced at baseline. After 5 years of treatment, visual acuity was found to be decreased in the standard group (P=0.04, but remained stable in the intensive group. The severity of diabetic retinopathy had not progressed in patients in the intensive group, but had deteriorated in the standard group (P=0.0006. The UMA/UCR ratio was not obviously changed in patients in the intensive group, whereas it was significantly increased in the standard group (P=0.00.CONCLUSION: Intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure can decrease the incidence or slow the progression of microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes, and maintain stable vision.

  8. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries....... DESIGN: Information was obtained from a population survey in Greenland: interview data, clinical data and fasting blood samples were obtained from a random sample of Inuit from three towns and four villages. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and fifty-nine adult Inuit (74% of the sample). RESULTS: Marine diet...

  9. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  10. 2-Hour Postload Serum Glucose Levels and Maternal Blood Pressure as Independent Predictors of Birth Weight in “Appropriate for Gestational Age” Neonates in Healthy Nondiabetic Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumana Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased neonatal birth weight (NBW, often associated with diabetic pregnancies, is a recognized indicator of childhood obesity and future metabolic risk. Predictors of NBW in healthy non-diabetic pregnancies are not yet established. Here, we investigated the association of maternal parameters of healthy non-diabetic mothers with NBW of their “appropriate-for-gestational age” neonates. Methods. The study involved 36 healthy mother/infant pairs. Examined parameters included NBW, maternal age, first and last trimester (BMI, weight gain, fasting serum lipids and glucose, 2-hour postload glucose levels and blood pressure. Results. Postload-glucose levels were significantly higher in mothers of heavier neonates. ANOVA results indicated that 15% increase in postload-glucose levels corresponded to more than 0.5 Kg increase in NBW in the third tertile. NBW correlated positively with postload glucose levels, and negatively with systolic blood pressure. Regression analysis showed that the main predictors of NBW were postload-glucose levels (B=0.455, P=0.003, followed by systolic blood pressure (B=−0.447, P=0.004, together predicting 31.7% NBW variation. Conclusion. This study highlights that increased maternal postload sugar levels and blood pressure, within the normal range, highly predicts NBW of healthy mothers. These findings may provide focus for early dietary intervention measures to avoid future risks to the mother and baby.

  11. Human adipose tissue blood flow during prolonged exercise, III. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade, nicotinic acid and glucose infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J

    1981-01-01

    of work. No increase in lipolysis and no increase in ATBF were found when lipolysis was blocked by nicotinic acid (0.3 g/h). Propranolol treatment (0.15 mg/kg) reduced lipolysis and nearly abolished the increase in ATBF during exercise. Intravenous administration of glucose (about 0.25 g/min) did......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured in six male subjects by the 133Xe-washout technique during 3-4 h of exercise at a work load corresponding to an oxygen uptake of about 1.71/min. The measurements were done during control conditions, during blockade of lipolysis by nicotinic...

  12. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring May Detect Carotid Occlusion Intolerance during Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Furuse, Motomasa; Yagi, Ryokichi; Ohmura, Tomohisa; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Naokado; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Kawabata, Shinji; Miyachi, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2018-02-05

    The frequency of the occurrence of adverse events associated with carotid artery stenting (CAS) is usually low, but serious adverse events such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) may occur. Real-time monitoring is ideal for the early detection of adverse events during the surgical procedure. This study aimed to evaluate continuous blood glucose (BG) monitoring for the detection of adverse events during CAS. Forty patients undergoing scheduled CAS were prospectively enrolled. An artificial pancreas was used for continuous BG monitoring (once per minute), using venous blood extracted at a rate of 2 mL/hr during CAS. The primary endpoint was a correlation between BG change and adverse events. CAS was discontinued in 1 patient, and BG was not measured in 5 patients (12.5%) because of the inability to extract blood. Among 34 evaluable patients, no patient developed CHS, but 3 patients (9%) experienced carotid occlusion intolerance. During CAS, BG was significantly higher in patients with carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 5 mg/dL) than in patients without carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 0 mg/dL) (P = 0.0221). A cutoff BG value ≥4 mg/dL during CAS showed 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of carotid occlusion intolerance. There was no significant correlation between BG change and other adverse events. BG elevation may help detect carotid occlusion intolerance although it is still unknown whether BG monitoring can detect CHS. Further studies should validate that a cutoff BG elevation value of ≥4 mg/dL during CAS indicates carotid occlusion intolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shridhar, K; Satija, A; Dhillon, PK; Agrawal, S; Gupta, R; Bowen, L; Kinra, S; Bharathi, AV; Prabhakaran, D; Srinath Reddy, K; Ebrahim, S; Indian Migration Study group,

    2018-01-01

    Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. We used cross-se...

  14. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study

    OpenAIRE

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Satija, Ambika; Dhillon, Preet K.; Agrawal, Sutapa; Gupta, Ruby; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A. V.; Prabhakaran, D.; Srinath Reddy, K.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2018-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. Metho...

  15. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-07-01

    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited n