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Sample records for blood glucose measurement

  1. Self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements and glycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intensive diabetes management requires intensive insulin treatment and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurements to obtain immediate information on the status of the blood glucose level and to obtain data for pattern analysis on which meal planning, insulin and lifestyle adjustments can be ...

  2. Clinical assessment of the accuracy of blood glucose measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Mitri, Michael; Musholt, Petra B; Sachsenheimer, Daniela; Borchert, Marcus; Yap, Andrew; Forst, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Blood glucose meters for patient self-measurement need to comply with the accuracy standards of the ISO 15197 guideline. We investigated the accuracy of the two new blood glucose meters BG*Star and iBG*Star (Sanofi-Aventis) in comparison to four other competitive devices (Accu-Chek Aviva, Roche Diagnostics; FreeStyle Freedom Lite, Abbott Medisense; Contour, Bayer; OneTouch Ultra 2, Lifescan) at different blood glucose ranges in a clinical setting with healthy subjects and patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. BGStar and iBGStar are employ dynamic electrochemistry, which is supposed to result in highly accurate results. The study was performed on 106 participants (53 female, 53 male, age (mean ± SD): 46 ± 16 years, type 1: 32 patients, type 2: 34 patients, and 40 healthy subjects). Two devices from each type and strips from two different production lots were used for glucose assessment (∼200 readings/meter). Spontaneous glucose assessments and glucose or insulin interventions under medical supervision were applied to perform measurements in the different glucose ranges in accordance with the ISO 15197 requirements. Sample values 400 mg/dL were prepared by laboratory manipulations. The YSI glucose analyzer (glucose oxidase method) served as the standard reference method which may be considered to be a limitation in light of glucose hexokinase-based meters. For all devices, there was a very close correlation between the glucose results compared to the YSI reference method results. The correlation coefficients were r = 0.995 for BGStar and r = 0.992 for iBGStar (Aviva: 0.995, Freedom Lite: 0.990, Contour: 0.993, Ultra 2: 0.990). Error-grid analysis according to Parkes and Clarke revealed both 100% of the readings to be within the clinically acceptable areas (Clarke: A + B with BG*Star (100 + 0), Aviva (97 + 3), and Contour (97 + 3); and 99.5% with iBG*Star (97.5 + 2), Freedom Lite (98 + 1.5), and Ultra 2 (97.5 + 2

  3. Noninvasive measurement of blood glucose level using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kiriko; Kino, Saiko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    For non-invasive measurement of blood glucose level, attenuated total reflection (ATR) absorption spectroscopy system using a QCL as a light source was developed. The results of measurement of glucose solutions showed that the system had a sensitivity that was enough for blood glucose measurement. In-vivo measurement using the proposed system based on QCL showed that there was a correlation between absorptions measured with human lips and blood glucose level.

  4. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...

  5. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  6. A Model of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, Martina; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    A reliable model of the probability density function (PDF) of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurement error would be important for several applications in diabetes, like testing in silico insulin therapies. In the literature, the PDF of SMBG error is usually described by a Gaussian function, whose symmetry and simplicity are unable to properly describe the variability of experimental data. Here, we propose a new methodology to derive more realistic models of SMBG error PDF. The blood glucose range is divided into zones where error (absolute or relative) presents a constant standard deviation (SD). In each zone, a suitable PDF model is fitted by maximum-likelihood to experimental data. Model validation is performed by goodness-of-fit tests. The method is tested on two databases collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (OTU2; Lifescan Inc, Milpitas, CA) and the Bayer Contour Next USB (BCN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ). In both cases, skew-normal and exponential models are used to describe the distribution of errors and outliers, respectively. Two zones were identified: zone 1 with constant SD absolute error; zone 2 with constant SD relative error. Goodness-of-fit tests confirmed that identified PDF models are valid and superior to Gaussian models used so far in the literature. The proposed methodology allows to derive realistic models of SMBG error PDF. These models can be used in several investigations of present interest in the scientific community, for example, to perform in silico clinical trials to compare SMBG-based with nonadjunctive CGM-based insulin treatments.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  14. Influence of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on measurement performance in glucose-oxidase-based systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: oxygen sensitive. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your ... glucose is above 240 mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, do not ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Precision and accuracy of blood glucose measurements using three different instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, B; Nowotny, P J; Strassburger, K; Roden, M

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of insulin sensitivity by dynamic metabolic tests such as the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp critically relies on the reproducible and fast measurement of blood glucose concentrations. Although various instruments have been developed over the last decades, little is known as to the accuracy and comparability. We therefore compared the best new instrument with the former gold standard instruments to measure glucose concentrations in metabolic tests. Fasting blood samples of 15 diabetic and 10 healthy subjects were collected into sodium-fluoride tubes, spiked with glucose (0, 2.8, 6.9 and 11.1 mmol/l) and measured either as whole blood (range 3.3-26.3 mmol/l) or following centrifugation as plasma (range 3.9-32.0 mmol/l). Plasma samples were analyzed in the YSI-2300 STAT plus (YSI), EKF Biosen C-Line (EKF) and the reference method, Beckman Glucose analyzer-II (BMG), whole blood samples in EKF instruments with YSI as reference method. The average deviation of the EKF from the reference, BMG, was 3.0 ± 3.5% without any concentration-dependent variability. Glucose measurements by YSI were in good agreement with that by BMG (plasma) and EKF (plasma and whole blood) up to concentrations of 13.13 mmol/l (0.5 ± 3.7%), but deviation increased to -6.2 ± 3.8% at higher concentrations. Precision (n = 6) was ±2.2% (YSI), ±3.9% (EKF) and ±5.2% (BMG). The EKF instrument is comparable regarding accuracy and precision to the reference method BMG and can be used in metabolic tests, while the YSI showed a systematic shift at higher glucose concentrations. Based on these results we decided to replace BMG with EKF instrument in metabolic tests. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  2. Successful microsurgical lip replantation: Monitoring venous congestion by blood glucose measurements in the replanted lip

    OpenAIRE

    Kazufumi Tachi; Masanori Mori; Reiko Tsukuura; Rintaro Hirai

    2018-01-01

    Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Blood glucose measurement with multiple quantum cascade lasers using hollow-optical fiber-based ATR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, K.; Kino, S.; Matsuura, Y.

    2018-02-01

    For non-invasive blood glucose measurement, a measurement system based on mid-infrared ATR spectroscopy equipped with a combination of a QCL as a light source and a hollow-optical fiber as a beam delivery medium is developed. Firstly the measurement sensitivity of the system is evaluated by using glucose solutions and the result shows a significant correlation between optical absorbance and solution concentration. It is also confirmed that the system has a sensitivity that is enough for blood glucose measurement. Then optical absorption of human lips in the mid-infrared wavelength region is measured using a QCL with a wavenumber of 1080 cm-1 where human tissue exhibits strong absorption of glucose and its metabolites. As a result, the measured absorption follows the change of blood glucose well with a time delay of around 10 minutes and correlation factor between the absorbance and the blood glucose level is 0.42.

  17. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  18. Successful microsurgical lip replantation: Monitoring venous congestion by blood glucose measurements in the replanted lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Tachi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the replanted region. The patient presented to our hospital with an upper lip avulsion that was caused by a dog bite. The lip was replanted by the microvascular anastomoses of one artery and two veins using interposed vein grafts. The replanted lip showed signs of congestion on postoperative day one; exsanguination using medicinal leeches was attempted, while blood glucose levels were measured every three hours. Critical congestion, which did not occur in this patient, was defined as a blood glucose level lower than 40 mg/dL. Lip replantation was successful without any complications in this patient.

  19. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  13. Influence of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Blood Samples on Measurement Performance in Glucose-Oxidase-Based Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Methods Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: pO2 ~70 mmHg, which is considered to be similar to pO2 in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG result at pO2 pO2 pO2 ≥150 mmHg. For both pO2 levels, relative differences of all tested GOx systems were significant (p pO2 values pO2 variations lead to clinically relevant BG measurement deviations in GOx systems, even in GOx systems that are not labeled as being oxygen sensitive. PMID:24351177

  14. In vivo measurements of brain glucose transport using the reversible michaelis-menten model and simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow changes during hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, I.-Y.; Lee, S.-P.; Kim, S.-G.; Gruetter, R.

    2001-01-01

    Glucose is the major substrate that sustains normal brain function. When the brain glucose concentration approaches zero, glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier becomes rate limiting for metabolism during, for example, increased metabolic activity and hypoglycemia. Steady-state brain glucose concentrations in α-chloralose anesthetized rats were measured noninvasively as a function of plasma glucose. The relation between brain and plasma glucose was linear at 4.5 to 30 mmol/L plasma ...

  15. Evaluation of 12 blood glucose monitoring systems for self-testing: system accuracy and measurement reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2014-02-01

    Systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) have to provide accurate and reproducible blood glucose (BG) values in order to ensure adequate therapeutic decisions by people with diabetes. Twelve SMBG systems were compared in a standardized manner under controlled laboratory conditions: nine systems were available on the German market and were purchased from a local pharmacy, and three systems were obtained from the manufacturer (two systems were available on the U.S. market, and one system was not yet introduced to the German market). System accuracy was evaluated following DIN EN ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197:2003. In addition, measurement reproducibility was assessed following a modified TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research) procedure. Comparison measurements were performed with either the glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer; YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH) or the hexokinase method (cobas(®) c111; Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) according to the manufacturer's measurement procedure. The 12 evaluated systems showed between 71.5% and 100% of the measurement results within the required system accuracy limits. Ten systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum accuracy requirements specified by DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. In addition, accuracy limits of the recently published revision ISO 15197:2013 were applied and showed between 54.5% and 100% of the systems' measurement results within the required accuracy limits. Regarding measurement reproducibility, each of the 12 tested systems met the applied performance criteria. In summary, 83% of the systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum system accuracy requirements of DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. Each of the tested systems showed acceptable measurement reproducibility. In order to ensure sufficient measurement quality of each distributed test strip lot, regular evaluations are required.

  16. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type 2 Diabetes? - 2017-03-lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease ... than planned or exercised less than planned. You have stress from an illness, such as a cold or flu. You have ...

  1. Determination of NIR informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement using a Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Li, Yasheng; Bai, Xueqiong; Deng, Chengyang

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose measurement using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy relies on wavebands that provide reliable information about spectral absorption. In this study, we investigated wavebands which are informative for blood glucose in the NIR shortwave band (900˜1450 nm) and the first overtone band (1450˜1700 nm) through a specially designed NIR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), which featured a test fixture (where a sample or subject's finger could be placed) and all-reflective optics, except for a Michelson structure. Different concentrations of glucose solution and seven volunteers who had undergone oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were studied to acquire transmission spectra in the shortwave band and the first overtone band. Characteristic peaks of glucose absorption were identified from the spectra of glucose aqueous solution by second-order derivative processing. The wavebands linked to blood glucose were successfully estimated through spectra of the middle fingertip of OGTT participants by a simple linear regression and correlation coefficient. The light intensity difference showed that glucose absorption in the first overtone band was much more prominent than it was in the shortwave band. The results of the SLR model established from seven OGTTs in total on seven participants enabled a positive estimation of the glucose-linked wavelength. It is suggested that wavebands with prominent characteristic peaks, a high correlation coefficient between blood glucose and light intensity difference and a relatively low standard deviation of predicted values will be the most informative wavebands for transmission non-invasive blood glucose measurement methods. This work provides a guidance for waveband selection for the development of non-invasive NIR blood glucose measurement.

  2. Accuracy of Capillary and Arterial Whole Blood Glucose Measurements Using a Glucose Meter in Patients under General Anesthesia in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Donato, Leslie J; Larsen, Chelsie M; Siebenaler, Lindsay K; Wells, Amy E; Wood-Wentz, Christina M; Shirk-Marienau, Mary E; Curry, Timothy B

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a glucose meter with surgical patients under general anesthesia in the operating room. Glucose measurements were performed intraoperatively on 368 paired capillary and arterial whole blood samples using a Nova StatStrip (Nova Biomedical, USA) glucose meter and compared with 368 reference arterial whole blood glucose measurements by blood gas analyzer in 196 patients. Primary outcomes were median bias (meter minus reference), percentage of glucose meter samples meeting accuracy criteria for subcutaneous insulin dosing as defined by Parkes error grid analysis for type 1 diabetes mellitus, and accuracy criteria for intravenous insulin infusion as defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Time under anesthesia, patient position, diabetes status, and other variables were studied to determine whether any affected glucose meter bias. Median bias (interquartile range) was -4 mg/dl (-9 to 0 mg/dl), which did not differ from median arterial meter bias of -5 mg/dl (-9 to -1 mg/dl; P = 0.32). All of the capillary and arterial glucose meter values met acceptability criteria for subcutaneous insulin dosing, whereas only 89% (327 of 368) of capillary and 93% (344 of 368) arterial glucose meter values met accuracy criteria for intravenous insulin infusion. Time, patient position, and diabetes status were not associated with meter bias. Capillary and arterial blood glucose measured using the glucose meter are acceptable for intraoperative subcutaneous insulin dosing. Whole blood glucose on the meter did not meet accuracy guidelines established specifically for more intensive (e.g., intravenous insulin) glycemic control in the acute care environment.

  3. A Comparative Study of Blood Glucose Measurements Using Glucometer Readings and the Standard Method in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torkaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders, associated with severe complications. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and screening of hypoglycemia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine a cut-off value for blood glucose level in glucometer readings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 newborns at risk of hypoglycemia, admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran, Iran in 2012; the subjects were selected via simple sampling. After obtaining informed consents from the newborns’ parents, 1 cc blood samples were sent to the laboratory for measuring the blood glucose level. Moreover, venous blood samples, as well as heel-stick blood samples, were obtained for glucometer measurements. Blood glucose measurements were used to determine the cut-off value by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and make comparisons with the diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia in the literature. Results: A total of 238 infants with the mean weight of 2869±821.9 g were enrolled in this study. The mean (±SD blood glucose levels were 65.1±22.9, 82.9±24.7, and 84.4±24.8 mg/dl, based on the standard laboratory method, glucometer reading of venous blood samples, and glucometer reading of heel-stick capillary blood samples, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for hypoglycemia was determined as 65 mg/dl, using glucometer-based assessment of heel-stick blood samples. Conclusion: The significant difference in blood glucose levels measured by the laboratory method and outpatient glucometer readings highlights the importance of a cut-off value for rapid assessment and control of blood glucose and timely detection of hypoglycemia. In fact, the cut-off value introduced in the present study could facilitate such measurements.

  4. Measurement of glucose area under the curve using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of glucose monitoring concepts without blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maekawa, Yasunori; Isobe, Kazuki; Koike, Reona; Nakajima, Hiromu; Asano, Kaoru

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring postprandial hyperglycemia is crucial in treating diabetes, although its dynamics make accurate monitoring difficult. We developed a new technology for monitoring postprandial hyperglycemia using interstitial fluid (ISF) extraction technology without blood sampling. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) using this system was measured as accumulated ISF glucose (IG) with simultaneous calibration with sodium ions. The objective of this study was to evaluate this technological concept in healthy individuals. Minimally invasive ISF extraction technology (MIET) comprises two steps: pretreatment with microneedles and ISF accumulation over a specific time by contact with a solvent. The correlation between glucose and sodium ion levels using MIET was evaluated in 12 subjects with stable blood glucose (BG) levels during fasting. BG and IG time courses were evaluated in three subjects to confirm their relationship while BG was fluctuating. Furthermore, the accuracy of glucose AUC measurements by MIET was evaluated several hours after a meal in 30 subjects. A high correlation was observed between glucose and sodium ion levels when BG levels were stable (R=0.87), indicating that sodium ion is a good internal standard for calibration. The variation in IG and BG with MIET was similar, indicating that IG is an adequate substitute for BG. Finally, we showed a strong correlation (R=0.92) between IG-AUC and BG-AUC after a meal. These findings validate the adequacy of glucose AUC measurements using MIET. Monitoring glucose using MIET without blood sampling may be beneficial to patients with diabetes.

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  7. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

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    ... 24 hours after the activity. Drinking too much alcohol without enough food Alcohol makes it harder for your body to keep ... t eaten in a while. The effects of alcohol can also keep you from feeling the ... able to eat as much or keep food down, which can cause low blood glucose. Learn ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are below 100 mg/dL before meals and fasting and are less than 140 mg/dL two hours after meals. People with diabetes should consult their doctor or health care provider to set appropriate blood glucose goals. ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term ... body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose ... down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

  14. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  15. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  16. 'I try not to bother the residents too much' - the use of capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Lillan Mo; Granas, Anne Gerd; Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Kjome, Reidun Lisbet Skeide

    2016-01-01

    Capillary blood glucose measurements are regularly used for nursing home residents with diabetes. The usefulness of these measurements relies on clear indications for use, correct measurement techniques, proper documentation and clinical use of the resulting blood glucose values. The use of a regular, invasive procedure may also entail additional challenges in a population of older, multimorbid patients who often suffer from cognitive impairment or dementia. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of physicians, registered nurses and auxiliary nurses on the use, usefulness and potential challenges of using capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes, and the procedures for doing so. This was a qualitative study that used three profession-specific focus group interviews. Interviews were transcribed in modified verbatim form and analysed in accordance with Malterud's principles of systematic text condensation. Five physicians, four registered nurses and three auxiliary nurses participated in the focus groups. All professional groups regarded capillary blood glucose measurements as a necessity in the management of diabetes, the physicians to ensure that the treatment is appropriate, and the nurses to be certain and assured about their caring decisions. Strict glycaemic control and excessive measurements were avoided in order to promote the well-being and safety of the residents. Sufficient knowledge of diabetes symptoms, equivalent practices for glucose measurement, and unambiguous documentation and communication of results were determined to be most helpful. However, all professional groups seldom involved the residents in managing their own measurements and stated that guidelines and training had been inconsistent or lacking. Inadequate procedures and training in diabetes care may compromise the rationale for capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes, and hence the residents' safety. These concerns should be addressed together

  17. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Brouwer, René

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the

  18. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  19. Development of a scale to measure adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose with latent variable measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J A; Schnoll, R A; Gipson, M T

    1998-07-01

    Adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is problematic for many people with diabetes. Self-reports of adherence have been found to be unreliable, and existing paper-and-pencil measures have limitations. This study developed a brief measure of SMBG adherence with good psychometric properties and a useful factor structure that can be used in research and in practice. A total of 216 adults with diabetes responded to 30 items rated on a 9-point Likert scale that asked about blood monitoring habits. In part I of the study, items were evaluated and retained based on their psychometric properties. The sample was divided into exploratory and confirmatory halves. Using the exploratory half, items with acceptable psychometric properties were subjected to a principal components analysis. In part II of the study, structural equation modeling was used to confirm the component solution with the entire sample. Structural modeling was also used to test the relationship between these components. It was hypothesized that the scale would produce four correlated factors. Principal components analysis suggested a two-component solution, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this solution. The first factor measures the degree to which patients rely on others to help them test and thus was named "social influence." The second component measures the degree to which patients use physical symptoms of blood glucose levels to help them test and thus was named "physical influence." Results of the structural model show that the components are correlated and make up the higher-order latent variable adherence. The resulting 15-item scale provides a short, reliable way to assess patient adherence to SMBG. Despite the existence of several aspects of adherence, this study indicates that the construct consists of only two components. This scale is an improvement on previous measures of adherence because of its good psychometric properties, its interpretable factor structure, and its

  20. A preliminary verification of the floating reference measurement method for non-invasive blood glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiaolin; Liu, Rong; Fu, Bo; Xu, Kexin

    2017-06-01

    In the non-invasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the spectrum is highly susceptible to the unstable and complicated background variations from the human body and the environment. In in vitro analyses, background variations are usually corrected by the spectrum of a standard reference sample that has similar optical properties to the analyte of interest. However, it is hard to find a standard sample for the in vivo measurement. Therefore, the floating reference measurement method is proposed to enable relative measurements in vivo, where the spectra under some special source-detector distance, defined as the floating reference position, are insensitive to the changes in glucose concentration due to the absorption effect and scattering effect. Because the diffuse reflectance signals at the floating reference positions only reflect the information on background variations during the measurement, they can be used as the internal reference. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the floating reference positions in a semi-infinite turbid medium was discussed based on the steady-state diffusion equation and its analytical solutions in a semi-infinite turbid medium (under the extrapolated boundary conditions). Then, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations and in vitro experiments based on a custom-built continuous-moving spatially resolving double-fiber NIR measurement system, configured with two types of light source, a super luminescent diode (SLD) and a super-continuum laser, were carried out to verify the existence of the floating reference position in 5%, 10% and 20% Intralipid solutions. The results showed that the simulation values of the floating reference positions are close to the theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.3 mm in 1100-1320 nm. Great differences can be observed in 1340-1400 nm because the optical properties of Intralipid in this region don not satisfy the conditions of the steady

  1. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills. In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose is ... glucose. Always carry carbohydrate foods for treatment. Check blood glucose levels again in 15 minutes, and repeat treatment if ...

  2. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US .... Arterial blood pressure from nonvascular access arm was measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. The patients did not .... to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts. P < 0.05 ...

  3. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  4. Blood glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate measurements in man using a centrifugal analyser with a fluorimetric attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J; Hodson, A W; Skillen, A W; Stappenbeck, R; Agius, L; Alberti, K G

    1988-03-01

    Methods are described for the analysis of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood, using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser fitted with a fluorimetric attachment. Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 1.9 to 7.9% and from 1.0 to 7.2% respectively. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.96 to 0.99 against established continuous-flow and manual spectrophotometric methods. All seven metabolites can be measured using a single perchloric acid extract of 20 microliter of blood. The versatility of the assays is such that as little as 100 pmol pyruvate, 3-hydroxybutyrate or as much as 15 nmol glucose can be measured in the same 20 microliter extract.

  5. Evaluation of three glucometers for whole blood glucose measurements at the point of care in preterm or low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joon Ho; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Seung Yeon

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated three blood glucose self-monitoring for measuring whole blood glucose levels in preterm and low-birth-weight infants. Between December 1, 2012 and March 31, 2013, 230 blood samples were collected from 50 newborns, who weighed, ≤2,300 g or were ≤36 weeks old, in the the neonatal intensive care unit of Eulji University Hospital. Three blood glucose self-monitoring (A: Precision Pcx, Abbott; B: One-Touch Verio, Johnson & Johnson; C: LifeScan SureStep Flexx, Johnson & Johnson) were used for the blood glucose measurements. The results were compared to those obtained using laboratory equipment (D: Advia chemical analyzer, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc.). The correlation coefficients between laboratory equipment and the three blood glucose self-monitoring (A, B, and C) were found to be 0.888, 0.884, and 0.900, respectively. For glucose levels≤60 mg/dL, the correlation coefficients were 0.674, 0.687, and 0.679, respectively. For glucose levels>60 mg/dL, the correlation coefficients were 0.822, 0.819, and 0.839, respectively. All correlation coefficients were statistically significant. And the values from the blood glucose self-monitoring were not significantly different from the value of the laboratory equipment , after correcting for each device's average value (P>0.05). When using laboratory equipment (blood glucose ≤60 mg/dL), each device had a sensitivity of 0.458, 0.604, and 0.688 and a specificity of 0.995, 0.989, and 0.989, respectively. Significant difference is not found between three blood glucose self-monitoring and laboratory equipment. But correlation between the measured values from blood glucose self-monitoring and laboratory equipment is lower in preterm or low-birth-weight infants than adults.

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... for energy. When your body breaks down fats, waste products called ketones are produced. Your body cannot ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers ... updated, this is the "take-you-by-the-hand" guide that will become a trusted friend and ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ... glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. When your body breaks ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Your best bet is to practice good diabetes management and learn to detect hyperglycemia so you can ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  10. Measurement of Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Level Based Sensor Color TCS3200 and Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi Wardana, Humaidillah; Indahwati, Elly; Arifah Fitriyah, Lina

    2018-04-01

    Design and measurement of Arduino-based urinary (non-invasive) urine glucose using RGB tcs3200 sensor. This research was conducted by making use of the urine in diabetes patients detected by sensor colours then measured levels of colour based on the RGB colour of the urine of diabetics. The detection is done on 4 urine samples with each consisting of 3 diabetics and 1 non-diabetics. Equipment used in this research, among others, Arduino Uno, colour sensor tcs3200, LCD 16x4. The results showed that the detection of RGB values in diabetics 230 with blue and not diabetics 200 with red.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  12. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J; Weerwind, P W; Teerenstra, S; Brouwer, M H J

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the GEM Premier 3000 was compared with the Ciba Corning 865 analyser for blood gas/electrolytes/metabolites, and for hematocrit with the Sysmex XE 2100 instrument. During a 6-month period, 127 blood samples were analysed on both the GEM Premier 3000 analyser and our laboratory analysers (Ciba Corning 865/Sysmex 2100 instrument), and compared using the agreement analysis for quantitative data. With the exception of K+, the other parameters (pCO2, pO2, Na+, Ca2+, hematocrit, glucose, and lactate) can be described in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the differences. For K+ measurement, a clear linear trend (r=0.79, panalyser seems to be suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes, metabolites, and blood gases during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, its downward bias in hematocrit values below 30% suggests that using the GEM Premier 3000 as a transfusion trigger leads to overtreatment with packed red cells.

  13. Evaluation of three glucometers for whole blood glucose measurements at the point of care in preterm or low-birth-weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Joon Ho; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Seung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated three blood glucose self-monitoring for measuring whole blood glucose levels in preterm and low-birth-weight infants. Methods Between December 1, 2012 and March 31, 2013, 230 blood samples were collected from 50 newborns, who weighed, ≤2,300 g or were ≤36 weeks old, in the the neonatal intensive care unit of Eulji University Hospital. Three blood glucose self-monitoring (A: Precision Pcx, Abbott; B: One-Touch Verio, Johnson & Johnson; C: LifeScan SureStep Flexx, Johnson &...

  14. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native arteriovenous fistula in chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Y C; Selcuk, N Y; Altıntepe, L; Güney, I; Yavuz, S

    2018-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies. Doppler ultrasonography (US) was suggested for surveillance of AV fistulas by the last vascular access guideline of National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI). The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of the infusion by glucometer. Doppler US was done by an expert radiologist. Used statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Median values of blood flow rates measured by GPT (707 mL/min) and by Doppler US (700 mL/min) were not different (Z = 0.414, P = 0.678). Results of GPT and Doppler US measurements were positive correlate by regression analysis. The mean GPT value of diabetic patients (n = 39; 908 mL/min) was similar to that of nondiabetic patients (n = 54; 751 mL/min; Z = 1.31, P = 0.188). GPT values measured at three different dialysis session did not differ from each other that by Friedman test (F = 0.92, P = 0.39). This showed that GPT was stable and reliable. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native AV fistula. GPT is an accurate and reliable test.

  15. Development of a high-sensitivity and portable cell using Helmholtz resonance for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, K; Okada, K; Kobayashi, R; Ishihara, Y

    2016-08-01

    We describe the possibility of high-sensitivity noninvasive blood glucose measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The demand for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement has increased due to the explosive increase in diabetic patients. We have developed a noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on PAS. The conventional method uses a straight-type resonant cell. However, the cell volume is large, which results in a low detection sensitivity and difficult portability. In this paper, a small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell is proposed to improve detection sensitivity and portability by reducing the cell dead volume. First, the acoustic property of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was evaluated by performing an experiment using a silicone rubber. As a result, the detection sensitivity of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was approximately two times larger than that of the conventional straight-type resonant cell. In addition, the inside volume was approximately 30 times smaller. Second, the detection limits of glucose concentration were estimated by performing an experiment using glucose solutions. The experimental results showed that a glucose concentration of approximately 1% was detected by the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell. Although these results on the sensitivity of blood glucose-level measurement are currently insufficient, they suggest that miniaturization of a resonance cell is effective in the application of noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement.

  16. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on t...

  17. Evaluation of an Electrochemical Point-of-Care Meter for Measuring Glucose Concentration in Blood from Periparturient Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Townsend, J R; Messick, J B; Constable, P D

    2015-01-01

    The Precision Xtra(®) meter is a promising low cost electrochemical point-of-care unit for measuring blood glucose concentration ([gluc]) in cattle blood. The meter uses an algorithm that assumes the intra-erythrocyte [gluc] equals the plasma [gluc] on a molal basis, and that the hematocrit is similar in humans and cattle. The primary objective was to determine the accuracy of the meter for measuring plasma [gluc] in dairy cattle. Secondary objectives were to characterize the influence of hematocrit and sample temperature on the measured value for [gluc]. A total of 106 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cattle. Blood and plasma samples (1,109) were obtained and Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against the reference method (plasma hexokinase assay). Multivariable regression and linear regression were used to determine the effect of hematocrit and sample temperature on the plasma [gluc] measured by the meter. Intra-erythrocyte [gluc] was 18% of plasma [gluc] on a molar basis. Sample temperature had a significant linear effect on plasma [gluc] as measured by the meter for 3/5 plasma samples when measured [gluc] > 160 mg/dL. The meter utilizes an algorithm that is optimized for human blood and is inaccurate when applied to bovine blood. Until a cattle-specific algorithm is developed, we recommend using plasma as the analyte instead of blood and calculating plasma [gluc] using the equation: [gluc] = 0.66 × [gluc]p-meter + 15, where [gluc]p-meter is the value reported by the meter. If blood is measured, then we recommend using the equation: [gluc] = 0.90 × [gluc]b-meter + 15. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood ... have a medical ID with them at all times. In the event of a severe hypoglycemic episode, ...

  1. A Negative Correlation Between Blood Glucose and Acetone Measured in Healthy and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydosz, Artur

    2015-07-01

    Exhaled acetone analysis has long been recognized as a supplementary tool for diagnosis and monitoring diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes. It is essential, therefore to determine the relationship between exhaled acetone concentration and glucose in blood. Usually, a direct linear correlation between this both compounds has been expected. However, in some cases we can observe a reverse correlation. When blood glucose was increasing, breath acetone declined. The breath analysis as a supplementary tool for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes makes sense only in case of utilization of portable analyzers. This need has created a market for gas sensors. However, commercially available acetone gas sensors are developed for measuring samples at several tens part per million. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using commercial acetone gas sensor (TGS 822, 823 Figaro, Arlington Heights, IL, USA Inc) with micropreconcentrator in low temperature cofired ceramics. The reference analyzer-mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) was used. Twenty-two healthy volunteers with no history of any respiratory disease participated in the research, as did 31 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Respectively, 3 healthy volunteer and 5 type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects with reverse trend were selected. The linear fitting coefficient various from 0.1139 to 0.9573. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the correlation between blood glucose concentrations and under different conditions, for example, insulin levels, as well as correlate the results with clinical tests, for example, Hb1Ac. It is well known that the concentration of acetone is strongly influenced by diet, insulin treatment, and so on. Therefore, much more complex analysis with long-term measurements are required. Thus, presented results should be regarded as tentative, and validation studies with the analysis of clinical test and in a large number of patients, including control groups

  2. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  3. Glucose metabolism in diabetic blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.; Crass, M.F. III

    1986-01-01

    Since glycolysis appears to be coupled to active ion transport in vascular smooth muscle, alterations in glucose metabolism may contribute to cellular dysfunction and angiopathy in diabetes. Uptake and utilization of glucose were studied in perfused blood vessels in which pulsatile flow and perfusion pressure were similar to those measured directly in vivo. Thoracic aortae isolated from 8-wk alloxan diabetic (D) and nondiabetic control rabbits were cannulated, tethered, and perfused with oxygenated buffer containing 7 or 25 mM glucose and tracer amounts of glucose-U -14 C. Norepinephrine (NE) (10 -6 M) and/or insulin (I) (150 μU/ml) and albumin (0.2%) were added. NE-induced tension development increased glucose uptake 39% and 14 CO 2 and lactate production 2.3-fold. With 7 mM glucose, marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14 CO 2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%), and tissue phospholipids (70%) were observed in D. Addition of I or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. Thus, in D, there was a marked depression of vascular glucose metabolism that was partially reversed by addition of low concentrations of insulin or D levels of glucose

  4. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Blood glucose level reconstruction as a function of transcapillary glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    A diabetic patient occasionally undergoes a detailed monitoring of their glucose levels. Over the course of a few days, a monitoring system provides a detailed track of their interstitial fluid glucose levels measured in their subcutaneous tissue. A discrepancy in the blood and interstitial fluid glucose levels is unimportant because the blood glucose levels are not measured continuously. Approximately five blood glucose level samples are taken per day, and the interstitial fluid glucose level is usually measured every 5min. An increased frequency of blood glucose level sampling would cause discomfort for the patient; thus, there is a need for methods to estimate blood glucose levels from the glucose levels measured in subcutaneous tissue. The Steil-Rebrin model is widely used to describe the relationship between blood and interstitial fluid glucose dynamics. However, we measured glucose level patterns for which the Steil-Rebrin model does not hold. Therefore, we based our research on a different model that relates present blood and interstitial fluid glucose levels to future interstitial fluid glucose levels. Using this model, we derived an improved model for calculating blood glucose levels. In the experiments conducted, this model outperformed the Steil-Rebrin model while introducing no additional requirements for glucose sample collection. In subcutaneous tissue, 26.71% of the calculated blood glucose levels had absolute values of relative differences from smoothed measured blood glucose levels less than or equal to 5% using the Steil-Rebrin model. However, the same difference interval was encountered in 63.01% of the calculated blood glucose levels using the proposed model. In addition, 79.45% of the levels calculated with the Steil-Rebrin model compared with 95.21% of the levels calculated with the proposed model had 20% difference intervals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Roelsgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    -input functions were very similar. CONCLUSION: Compartmental analysis of MG and FDG kinetics using dynamic PET data requires measurements of dual-input activity concentrations. Using the dual-input function, physiologically reasonable parameter estimates of K1, k2, and Vp were obtained, whereas the use......Metabolic processes studied by PET are quantified traditionally using compartmental models, which relate the time course of the tracer concentration in tissue to that in arterial blood. For liver studies, the use of arterial input may, however, cause systematic errors to the estimated kinetic...... parameters, because of ignorance of the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver. METHODS: Six pigs underwent PET after [15O]carbon monoxide inhalation, 3-O-[11C]methylglucose (MG) injection, and [18F]FDG injection. For the glucose scans, PET data were acquired for 90 min...

  8. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-12-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24910827

  10. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Shreesh Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  11. In-vivo measurements of regional acetylcholine esterase activity in degenerative dementia: comparison with blood flow and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, K; Bauer, B; Wienhard, K; Kracht, L; Mielke, R; Lenz, M O; Strotmann, T; Heiss, W D

    2000-01-01

    Memory and attention are cognitive functions that depend heavily on the cholinergic system. Local activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) is an indicator of its integrity. Using a recently developed tracer for positron emission tomography (PET), C-11-labeled N-methyl-4-piperidyl-acetate (C11-MP4A), we measured regional AChE activity in 4 non-demented subjects, 4 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and 1 patient with senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT), and compared the findings with measurements of blood flow (CBF) and glucose metabolism (CMRGlc). Initial tracer extraction was closely related to CBF. AChE activity was reduced significantly in all brain regions in demented subjects, whereas reduction of CMRGlc and CBF was more limited to temporo-parietal association areas. AChE activity in SDLT was in the lower range of values in DAT. Our results indicate that, compared to non-demented controls, there is a global reduction of cortical AChE activity in dementia. Dementia, cholinergic system, acetylcholine esterase, positron emission tomography, cerebral blood flow, cerebral glucose metabolism.

  12. [The research of near-infrared blood glucose measurement using particle swarm optimization and artificial neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Ji, Zhong; Du, Yubao

    2017-08-01

    Existing near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose detection modelings mostly detect multi-spectral signals with different wavelength, which is not conducive to the popularization of non-invasive glucose meter at home and does not consider the physiological glucose dynamics of individuals. In order to solve these problems, this study presented a non-invasive blood glucose detection model combining particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial neural network (ANN) by using the 1 550 nm near-infrared absorbance as the independent variable and the concentration of blood glucose as the dependent variable, named as PSO-2ANN. The PSO-2ANN model was based on two sub-modules of neural networks with certain structures and arguments, and was built up after optimizing the weight coefficients of the two networks by particle swarm optimization. The results of 10 volunteers were predicted by PSO-2ANN. It was indicated that the relative error of 9 volunteers was less than 20%; 98.28% of the predictions of blood glucose by PSO-2ANN were distributed in the regions A and B of Clarke error grid, which confirmed that PSO-2ANN could offer higher prediction accuracy and better robustness by comparison with ANN. Additionally, even the physiological glucose dynamics of individuals may be different due to the influence of environment, temper, mental state and so on, PSO-2ANN can correct this difference only by adjusting one argument. The PSO-2ANN model provided us a new prospect to overcome individual differences in blood glucose prediction.

  13. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  14. No relationship between cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular reserve capacity and contemporaneously measured glucose and insulin concentrations in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fülesdi, B.; Limburg, M.; Bereczki, D.; Molnár, C.; Michels, R. P.; Leányvári, Z.; Csiba, L.

    1999-01-01

    Blood glucose and insulin concentrations have been reported to influence cerebral hemodynamics. We studied the relationship between actual blood glucose and insulin concentrations and resting cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery and cerebrovascular reserve capacity after

  15. Blood glucose measurement in patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis: a comparison of Abbott MediSense PCx point-of-care meter values to reference laboratory values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Fidela S J; Miller, Moses; Nichols, James; Smithline, Howard; Crabb, Gillian; Pekow, Penelope

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare blood glucose levels measured by a point of care (POC) device to laboratory measurement using the same sample venous blood from patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A descriptive correlational design was used for this IRB-approved quality assurance project. The study site was the 50-bed BMC emergency department (ED) which has an annual census of over 100,000 patient visits. The convenience sample consisted of 54 blood samples from suspected DKA patients with orders for hourly blood draws for glucose measurement. Spearman correlations of the glucose POC values, reference lab values, and differences between the two, were evaluated. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between the acidosis status and FDA acceptability of POC values. Patient age range was 10-86 years; 63% were females; 46% had a final diagnosis of DKA. POC values underestimated glucose levels 93% of the time. There was a high correlation between the lab value and the magnitude of the difference, (lab minus POC value) indicating that the higher the true glucose value, the greater the difference between the lab and the POC value. A chi-square test showed no overall association between acidosis and FDA-acceptability. The POC values underestimated lab reported glucose levels in 50 of 54 cases even with the use of same venous sample sent to the lab, which make it highly unreliable for use in monitoring suspected DKA patients.

  16. Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood using a centrifugal analyser with a fluorimetric attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, R.; Hodson, A. W.; Skillen, A. W.; Agius, L.; Alberti, K. G. M. M.

    1990-01-01

    Optimized methods are described for the analysis of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. Glucose and lactate are measured using the photometric mode and other metabolites using the fluorimetric mode. The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate where the coefficients of variation were ...

  17. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “Recent Results on Glucose–Insulin Predictions by Means of a State Observer for Time-Delay Systems” by Pasquale Palumbo et al. introduces a prediction model which in real time predicts the insulin concentration in blood which in turn is used in a control system. The method is tested in simulation...... EEG signals to predict upcoming hypoglycemic situations in real-time by employing artificial neural networks. The results of a 30-day long clinical study with the implanted device and the developed algorithm are presented. The chapter “Meta-Learning Based Blood Glucose Predictor for Diabetic......, but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...

  18. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  19. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  20. Development of a photon-cell interactive monte carlo simulation for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose level by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Turbidity variation is one of the major limitations in Raman spectroscopy for quantifying blood components, such as glucose, non-invasively. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a Raman scattering simulation using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model that tracks photon migration in both the extra- and intracellular spaces without relying on the macroscopic scattering phase function and anisotropy factor. The interaction of photons at the plasma-cell boundary of randomly oriented three-dimensionally biconcave red blood cells (RBCs) is modeled using geometric optics. The validity of the developed pciMCRaman was investigated by comparing simulation and experimental results of Raman spectroscopy of glucose level in a bovine blood sample. The scattering of the excitation laser at a wavelength of 785 nm was simulated considering the changes in the refractive index of the extracellular solution. Based on the excitation laser photon distribution within the blood, the Raman photon derived from the hemoglobin and glucose molecule at the Raman shift of 1140 cm(-1) = 862 nm was generated, and the photons reaching the detection area were counted. The simulation and experimental results showed good correlation. It is speculated that pciMCRaman can provide information about the ability and limitations of the measurement of blood glucose level.

  1. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  2. Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood using a centrifugal analyser with a fluorimetric attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, R; Hodson, A W; Skillen, A W; Agius, L; Alberti, K G

    1990-01-01

    Optimized methods are described for the analysis of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. Glucose and lactate are measured using the photometric mode and other metabolites using the fluorimetric mode. The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate where the coefficients of variation were 7.1 and 12% respectively. All seven metabolites can be measured in a perchloric acid extract of 20 mul of blood. The methods have been optimized with regard to variation in the perchloric acid content of the samples. These variations arise from the method of sample preparation used to minimize changes occurring in metabolite concentration after venepuncture.

  3. Blood spot-based measures of glucose homeostasis and diabetes prevalence in a nationally representative population of young US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Whitsel, Eric A; Tabor, Joyce W; Cuthbertson, Carmen C; Wener, Mark H; Potter, Alan J; Halpern, Carolyn T; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Hussey, Jon M; Suchindran, Chirayath; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2014-12-01

    We investigated understudied biomarker-based diabetes among young US adults, traditionally characterized by low cardiovascular disease risk. We examined 15,701 participants aged 24 to 32 years at Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, 2008). The study used innovative and relatively noninvasive methods to collect capillary whole blood via finger prick at in-home examinations in all 50 states. Assays of dried blood spots produced reliable and accurate values of HbA1c. Reliability was lower for fasting glucose and lowest for random glucose. Mean (SD) HbA1c was 5.6% (0.8%). More than a quarter (27.4%) had HbA1c-defined prediabetes. HbA1c was highest in the black, non-Hispanic race/ethnic group, inversely associated with education, and more common among the overweight/obese and physically inactive. The prevalence of diabetes defined by previous diagnosis or use of antidiabetic medication was 2.9%. Further incorporating HbA1c and glucose values, the prevalence increased to 6.8%, and among these participants, 38.9% had a previous diagnosis of diabetes (i.e., aware). Among those aware, 37.6% were treated and 64.0% were controlled (i.e., HbA1c young adults faces a historically high risk of diabetes but there is ample opportunity for early detection and intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Thresholds of whole-blood β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose concentrations measured with an electronic hand-held device to identify ovine hyperketonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, M; Damberger, A; Schwendenwein, I; Gasteiner, J; Drillich, M; Iwersen, M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic disorders, especially hyperketonemia, are very common in dairy sheep. The whole-blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose can be determined by commercially available electronic hand-held devices, which are used in human medicine and for the detection of ketosis in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the hand-held device Precision Xceed (PX; Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Abbott Park, IL) to detect hyperketonemia in ewes. An additional objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement between samples obtained by minimal invasive venipuncture of an ear vein and measurements of whole-blood samples from the jugular vein (vena jugularis, v. jug.). Blood samples taken from the v. jug. were collected from 358 ewes on 4 different farms. These samples and a blood drop obtained from an ear vein were analyzed simultaneously on farm with the PX. For method comparison, the samples obtained from the v. jug. were also analyzed by standard methods, which served as the gold standard at the Central Laboratory of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria. The correlation coefficients between the serum BHBA concentration and the concentrations measured with the hand-held meter in the whole blood from an ear vein and the v. jug. were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The correlation coefficients of plasma and whole-blood glucose concentration were 0.68 for the v. jug. and 0.47 for the ear vein. The mean glucose concentration was significantly lower in animals classified as hyperketonemic (BHBA ≥ 1.6 mmol/L) compared with healthy ewes. Whole-blood concentrations of BHBA and glucose measured with the PX from v. jug. showed a constant negative bias of 0.15 mmol/L and 8.4 mg/dL, respectively. Hence, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine thresholds for the PX to detect hyperketonemia in ewes. This resulted in thresholds for moderate ketosis of BHBA concentrations of 0.7 mmol/L in blood

  5. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Onl...

  7. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  8. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  9. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...

  10. Fasting capillary blood glucose: an appropriate measurement in screening for diabetes and pre-diabetes in low-resource rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Zhao, W; Zhang, H; Li, J; Shu, Y; Li, S; Cai, L; Zhou, J; Li, Y; Hu, R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of fasting capillary blood glucose (FCG) measurement as compared with fasting venous plasma glucose (FPG) measurement in screening diabetes and pre-diabetes in low-resource rural settings. In 2010, 993 participants were randomly selected from 9 villages in Yunnan province using cluster sampling method. Samples for FCG and FPG test were obtained after demographics and physical examination. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in parallel as gold standard for diagnosis. Diagnostic capacities of the FCG measurement in predicting undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes were assessed. The performance of FCG and FPG tests was compared. Fifty-seven individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and 145 subjects with pre-diabetes were detected. The concordance between FCG and FPG levels was high (r = 0.75, p curve (AUC) for FCG test in predicting diabetes was 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.93] with the optimal cutoff value of 5.65 mmol/l, sensitivity of 84.2%, and specificity of 79.3%. The corresponding values in FPG tests were 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) (AUC), 6.51 mmol/l (optimal cutoff point), 82.5% (sensitivity) and 98.3% (specificity), respectively. No significant difference was found in the AUC for the two screening strategies. FCG measurement is considered to be a convenient, practicable screening method in low-resource rural communities with acceptable test properties.

  11. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. The impact of a low glycaemic index (GI) diet on simultaneous measurements of blood glucose and fat oxidation: A whole body calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Quek Yu Chin, Rina; Camps, Stefan; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) foods are known to minimize large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and have been suggested to increase fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to simultaneously investigate glucose excursion and substrate oxidation in a whole body calorimetre when Chinese male subjects were provided a low or high GI meal. In a randomized, controlled crossover non blind design, 12 healthy Chinese male adults (BMI 21.8 ± 1.3 kgm -2 ) attended two sessions consisting of either four low or high glycaemic meals (LGI vs HGI). Breakfast, lunch and snack were consumed in a whole body calorimetre while dinner was consumed at home. Daily changes in glycaemic response (GR) and postprandial GR responses were measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system. The GR was further calculated to obtain the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose concentrations. Glycaemic variability was calculated as mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE). Substrate oxidation was calculated by measuring respiratory quotient and urine nitrogen excretion. After LGI meals in the whole body calorimetre, iAUC for glucose (P = 0.008) was lower compared to the HGI session. The HGI treatment produced a significantly greater MAGE than the LGI treatment over the 24 hour period (P fat oxidation and lower carbohydrate oxidation were observed following breakfast and lunch when comparing LGI to HGI (P fat oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation when compared to HGI mixed meals. The consumption of low GI meals may be a strategic approach in improving overall glycaemia and increasing fat oxidation in Asians consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  13. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihao; Lu, Siyuan; Zhang, Shasha; Li, Yan; Qu, Zhe; Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Wang, Xinyan; Feng, Xue

    2017-12-01

    Currently, noninvasive glucose monitoring is not widely appreciated because of its uncertain measurement accuracy, weak blood glucose correlation, and inability to detect hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia during sleep. We present a strategy to design and fabricate a skin-like biosensor system for noninvasive, in situ, and highly accurate intravascular blood glucose monitoring. The system integrates an ultrathin skin-like biosensor with paper battery-powered electrochemical twin channels (ETCs). The designed subcutaneous ETCs drive intravascular blood glucose out of the vessel and transport it to the skin surface. The ultrathin (~3 μm) nanostructured biosensor, with high sensitivity (130.4 μA/mM), fully absorbs and measures the glucose, owing to its extreme conformability. We conducted in vivo human clinical trials. The noninvasive measurement results for intravascular blood glucose showed a high correlation (>0.9) with clinically measured blood glucose levels. The system opens up new prospects for clinical-grade noninvasive continuous glucose monitoring.

  14. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  15. Noninvasive Monitoring of Blood Glucose with Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rishikesh; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Valdez, Tulio A; Zhang, Chi; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan

    2017-02-21

    The successful development of a noninvasive blood glucose sensor that can operate reliably over sustained periods of time has been a much sought after but elusive goal in diabetes management. Since diabetes has no well-established cure, control of elevated glucose levels is critical for avoiding severe secondary health complications in multiple organs including the retina, kidney and vasculature. While fingerstick testing continues to be the mainstay of blood glucose detection, advances in electrochemical sensing-based minimally invasive approaches have opened the door for alternate methods that would considerably improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. In the quest for better sensing approaches, optical technologies have surfaced as attractive candidates as researchers have sought to exploit the endogenous contrast of glucose, notably its absorption, scattering, and polarization properties. Vibrational spectroscopy, especially spontaneous Raman scattering, has exhibited substantial promise due to its exquisite molecular specificity and minimal interference of water in the spectral profiles acquired from the blood-tissue matrix. Yet, it has hitherto been challenging to leverage the Raman scattering signatures of glucose for prediction in all but the most basic studies and under the least demanding conditions. In this Account, we discuss the newly developed array of methodologies that address the key challenges in measuring blood glucose accurately using Raman spectroscopy and unlock new prospects for translation to sustained noninvasive measurements in people with diabetes. Owing to the weak intensity of spontaneous Raman scattering, recent research has focused on enhancement of signals from the blood constituents by designing novel excitation-collection geometries and tissue modulation methods while our attempts have led to the incorporation of nonimaging optical elements. Additionally, invoking mass transfer modeling into chemometric algorithms has

  16. Screening of gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary finger blood glucose in the diagnosis of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka S Waghmare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at obtaining glucose readings using gingival crevicular blood (GCB to screen for undiagnosed diabetes during routine dental visits. Materials and Methods: The present study included 50 patients who were divided into two groups, i.e. Group A and Group B, based on bleeding on probing at the site of collection of GCB. Group A participants had blood collected from sites having adequate bleeding on probing, whereas Group B participants had blood collected from sites with little bleeding on probing. GCB and capillary finger-stick blood (CFB] glucose readings were obtained using a self-monitoring glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between both the samples were done using Pearson′s correlation. Results: Group A patients′ correlations between GCB and CFB glucose readings were high, whereas in Group B patients, correlations between glucose readings were low. Conclusion: GCB can be an excellent source for screening diabetes during routine dental visits.

  17. Effects of simulated altitude on blood glucose meter performance: implications for in-flight blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olateju, Tolu; Begley, Joseph; Flanagan, Daniel; Kerr, David

    2012-07-01

    Most manufacturers of blood glucose monitoring equipment do not give advice regarding the use of their meters and strips onboard aircraft, and some airlines have blood glucose testing equipment in the aircraft cabin medical bag. Previous studies using older blood glucose meters (BGMs) have shown conflicting results on the performance of both glucose oxidase (GOX)- and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-based meters at high altitude. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of four new-generation BGMs at sea level and at a simulated altitude equivalent to that used in the cabin of commercial aircrafts. Blood glucose measurements obtained by two GDH and two GOX BGMs at sea level and simulated altitude of 8000 feet in a hypobaric chamber were compared with measurements obtained using a YSI 2300 blood glucose analyzer as a reference method. Spiked venous blood samples of three different glucose levels were used. The accuracy of each meter was determined by calculating percentage error of each meter compared with the YSI reference and was also assessed against standard International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Clinical accuracy was evaluated using the consensus error grid method. The percentage (standard deviation) error for GDH meters at sea level and altitude was 13.36% (8.83%; for meter 1) and 12.97% (8.03%; for meter 2) with p = .784, and for GOX meters was 5.88% (7.35%; for meter 3) and 7.38% (6.20%; for meter 4) with p = .187. There was variation in the number of time individual meters met the standard ISO criteria ranging from 72-100%. Results from all four meters at both sea level and simulated altitude fell within zones A and B of the consensus error grid, using YSI as the reference. Overall, at simulated altitude, no differences were observed between the performance of GDH and GOX meters. Overestimation of blood glucose concentration was seen among individual meters evaluated, but none of the results obtained would have resulted in

  18. Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in rural South African ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... left handgrip and fasting blood glucose after adjusting for age, gender and family history of ...

  19. The impact of a low glycaemic index (GI diet on simultaneous measurements of blood glucose and fat oxidation: A whole body calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Consumption of LGI meals was capable of attenuating 24-hour blood glucose profiles and decreasing postprandial glucose excursions in healthy Asian males. Additionally, LGI mixed meals were able to promote fat oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation when compared to HGI mixed meals. The consumption of low GI meals may be a strategic approach in improving overall glycaemia and increasing fat oxidation in Asians consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  20. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  1. Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Acipayam

    2014-02-01

    Aim: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an important factor in etiology of pathologic neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to indicate the significance of screening glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the cord blood of neonates and the frequency of this deficiency in the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material and Method: The study was performed consecutive 1015 neonates were included. Five hundred fifty six (54.8% of them were male and 459 (45.2% were female. The following parameters were recorded: Gender, birth weight, birth height, head circumference and gestational age. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level of neonates were measured with quantitative method in cord blood. Also, hemoglobine, hematocrite, red blood cell count and blood group were measured. The following parameters were recorded in cases with jaundice: exchange transfusion, phototherapy, physiologic and pathologic jaundice, peak bilirubin day, maximum bilirubin level, total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, beginning time of jaundice. Results: Enzyme deficiency was detected in 133 (13.1% of neonates and 76 (57% of them were male, 57 (43% were female. Significant difference was detected in low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level with jaundice group for total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, maximum total bilirubin level and pathologic jaundice (p<0.05. Discussion: The ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found in Edirne in this study and this ratio was higher than other studies conducted in our country. For this reason, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level in cord blood of neonates should be measured routinely and high risk neonates should be followed up for hyperbilirubinemia and parents should be informed in our region.

  2. Blood glucose control and monitoring in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with blood glucose control and blood glucose monitoring in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: two important aspects of care for and monitoring of critically ill patients. While the precise targets of blood glucose control in ICU patients remain a matter of debate, currently many,

  3. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  4. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Acute effect of glucose on cerebral blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pascual, Juan M; Xiao, Guanghua; Huang, Hao; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-02-01

    While it is known that specific nuclei of the brain, for example hypothalamus, contain glucose-sensing neurons thus their activity is affected by blood glucose level, the effect of glucose modulation on whole-brain metabolism is not completely understood. Several recent reports have elucidated the long-term impact of caloric restriction on the brain, showing that animals under caloric restriction had enhanced rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle flux accompanied by extended life span. However, acute effect of postprandial blood glucose increase has not been addressed in detail, partly due to a scarcity and complexity of measurement techniques. In this study, using a recently developed noninvasive MR technique, we measured dynamic changes in global cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2 ) following a 50 g glucose ingestion (N = 10). A time dependent decrease in CMRO2 was observed, which was accompanied by a reduction in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with unaltered cerebral blood flow (CBF). At 40 min post-ingestion, the amount of CMRO2 reduction was 7.8 ± 1.6%. A control study without glucose ingestion was performed (N = 10), which revealed no changes in CMRO2 , CBF, or OEF, suggesting that the observations in the glucose study was not due to subject drowsiness or fatigue after staying inside the scanner. These findings suggest that ingestion of glucose may alter the rate of cerebral metabolism of oxygen in an acute setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The optimal blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoning; Ross, Paul; Tori, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Glycaemic control is recognized as one of the important aspects in managing critically ill patients. Both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia independently increase the risk of patient mortality. Hence, the identification of optimal glycaemic control is of paramount importance in the management of critically ill patients. The aim of this literature review is to examine the current status of glycaemic control in critically ill adult patients. This literature review will focus on randomized controlled trials comparing intensive insulin therapy to conventional insulin therapy, with an objective to identify optimal blood glucose level targets for critically ill adult patients. A literature review was conducted to identify large randomized controlled trials for the optimal targeted blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients published since 2000. A total of eight studies fulfilled the selection criteria of this review. With current human and technology resources, the results of the studies support commencing glycaemic control once the blood glucose level of critically ill patients reaches 10 mmol/L and maintaining this level between 8 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. This literature review provides a recommendation for targeting the optimal blood glucose level for critically ill patients within moderate blood glucose level target range (8-10 mmol/L). The need for uniformed glucometrics for unbiased reporting and further research for optimal blood glucose target is required, especially in light of new technological advancements in closed-loop insulin delivery and monitoring devices. This literature review has revealed a need to call for consensus in the measurement and reporting of glycaemic control using standardized glucometrics. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  7. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  8. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  9. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M.; Arango, C.; Ricaurte, G.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  10. Discussion on the establishment of blood glucose fluctuation animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Liu Gai; Jing-Ru Zhao; Xiao-Long Chen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To provide the experimental basis for the in vivo study of blood glucose fluctuation injury mechanism, through intraperitoneal injection of glucose to establish blood glucose fluctuation animal models and to simulate blood glucose fluctuation of patients with diabetes.METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group(NC), normal fluctuation group(NF), diabetes mellitus group(DM)and diabetes fluctuation group(DF). Diabetic models were induced through intraperitone...

  11. Can gingival crevicular blood be relied upon for assessment of blood glucose level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shivani; Verma, Sharmila J; Shah, Monali; Jain, Kapil

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is undiagnosed in approximately half of the patients actually suffering from the disease. In addition, the prevalence of DM is more than twice as high as in patients with periodontitis when compared to periodontally healthy subjects. Thus, a high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed DM. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether blood oozing from a gingival crevice during routine periodontal examination can be used for determining glucose levels. Observational cross-sectional studies were carried out in 75 patients (43 males and 32 females) with chronic periodontitis who were divided into two groups: Group I and Group II, respectively. Blood oozing from the gingival crevices of anterior teeth following periodontal probing was collected with the stick of glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, finger-prick blood was taken for glucometric analysis and subsequent readings were recorded. The patient's blood glucose values ranged from 74 to 256 mg/dl. The comparison between gingival crevicular blood and finger-prick blood showed a very strong correlation, with a t value of 3.97 (at P value = 0.001). The data from this study has shown that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source of blood for glucometric analysis.

  12. Discrete Blood Glucose Control in Diabetic Göttingen Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuous research effort, patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D experience difficulties in daily adjustments of their blood glucose concentrations. New technological developments in the form of implanted intravenous infusion pumps and continuous blood glucose sensors might alleviate obstacles for the automatic adjustment of blood glucose concentration. These obstacles consist, for example, of large time-delays and insulin storage effects for the subcutaneous/interstitial route. Towards the goal of an artificial pancreas, we present a novel feedback controller approach that combines classical loop-shaping techniques with gain-scheduling and modern H ∞ -robust control approaches. A disturbance rejection design is proposed in discrete frequency domain based on the detailed model of the diabetic Göttingen minipig. The model is trimmed and linearised over a large operating range of blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity values. Controller parameters are determined for each of these operating points. A discrete H ∞ loop-shaping compensator is designed to increase robustness of the artificial pancreas against general coprime factor uncertainty. The gain scheduled controller uses subcutaneous insulin injection as a control input and determines the controller input error from intravenous blood glucose concentration measurements, where parameter scheduling is achieved by an estimator of the insulin sensitivity parameter. Thus, only one controller stabilises a family of animal models. The controller is validated in silico with a total number of five Göttingen Minipig models, which were previously obtained by experimental identification procedures. Its performance is compared with an experimentally tested switching PI-controller.

  13. Variations of blood glucose in cancer patients during chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose (BG) variations in cancer patients .... cancer, brain tumor, cervical cancer, and leukemia were the ... excess glucose supply for these glucose‑hungry cells and it.

  14. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (Pblood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-01-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000...

  16. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  17. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -day workshop on the design, use and evaluation of prediction methods for blood glucose concentration was held at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria. One intention of the workshop was to bring together experts working in various fields on the same topic, in order to shed light from different angles...... discussions which allowed to receive direct feedback from the point of view of different disciplines. This book is based on the contributions of that workshop and is intended to convey an overview of the different aspects involved in the prediction. The individual chapters are based on the presentations given...... in the process of writing this book: All authors for their individual contributions, all reviewers of the book chapters, Daniela Hummer for the entire organization of the workshop, Boris Tasevski for helping with the typesetting, Florian Reiterer for his help editing the book, as well as Oliver Jackson and Karin...

  18. Recommending blood glucose monitors, a pharmacy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alan

    2007-03-01

    Selection of what blood glucose monitoring system to utilize has become an issue for physicians, diabetes educators, pharmacists, and patients. The field of competing makes and models of blood glucose monitoring systems has become crowded, with manufacturers touting improvements in accuracy, ease of use/alternate site options, stored results capacity, software evaluation tools, and/or price point. Personal interviews of 12 pharmacists from community and academic practice settings about monitor preference, as well as results from a national survey of pharmacist recommendations, were compared to actual wholesale sales data to estimate the impact of such recommendations on final monitor selection by the patient. Accu-Chek monitors were recommended 34.65% of the time and represented 28.58% of sales, with a success rate of 82.48% of being the monitor selected. OneTouch monitors had 27.72% of recommendations but represented 31.43% of sales, indicating possible patient brand loyalty or formulary preference for that product. FreeStyle(R) monitors came in third for pharmacist recommendations and were selected by the patient 61.68% of the time when recommended. The category of "other monitor" choices was selected 60.89% of the time by patients given those suggestions. Included in the "other monitor" category was the new disposable monitor marketed as the Sidekick. Based on sales data provided, the Sidekick made up 2.87% of "other monitor" category sales, representing 68% of the "other monitor" segment. While patients frequently follow pharmacist monitoring system suggestions, the ultimate deciding factor is most often the final out-of-pocket cost to the patient. As a result, cost of supplies often becomes the most important determining factor in final monitor selection at the patient level. If the patient cannot afford to perform the recommended daily testing intervals, all other determining factors and suggestions become moot.

  19. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  20. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p blood glucose level very fast.

  1. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yihao; Lu, Siyuan; Zhang, Shasha; Li, Yan; Qu, Zhe; Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Wang, Xinyan; Feng, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Currently, noninvasive glucose monitoring is not widely appreciated because of its uncertain measurement accuracy, weak blood glucose correlation, and inability to detect hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia during sleep. We present a strategy to design and fabricate a skin-like biosensor system for noninvasive, in situ, and highly accurate intravascular blood glucose monitoring. The system integrates an ultrathin skin-like biosensor with paper battery–powered electrochemical twin channels (ETCs). The ...

  2. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  3. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many patients were referred to Kololo polyclinic laboratory to have their blood glucose checked because the values obtained on the patients' glucose meter systems did not tally with familiar clinical signs and symptoms. This prompted an experimental set up to check glucose meter systems using a larger number of patients.

  4. Non-invasive Blood Glucose Quantification Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan JAYAPAL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels which result from defects in insulin secretion. It is very important for the diabetics and normal people to have a correct blood glucose level. The HbA1c test is the most preferred test by renowned doctors for glucose quantification. But this test is an invasive one. At present, there are many available techniques for this purpose but these are mostly invasive or minimally non-invasive and most of these are under research. Among the different methods available, the photo acoustic (PA methods provide a reliable solution since the acoustical energy loss is much less compared to the optical or other techniques. Here a novel framework is presented for blood glucose level measurement using a combination of the HbA1c test and a PA method to get an absolutely consistent and precise, non-invasive technique. The setup uses a pulsed laser diode with pulse duration of 5-15 ns and at a repetition rate of 10 Hz as the source. The detector setup is based on the piezoelectric detection. It consists of a ring detector that includes two double ring sensors that are attached to the ring shaped module that can be worn around the finger. The major aim is to detect the photo acoustic signals from the glycated hemoglobin with the least possible error. The proposed monitoring system is designed with extreme consideration to precision and compatibility with the other computing devices. The results obtained in this research have been studied and analyzed by comparing these with those of in-vitro techniques like the HPLC. The comparison has been plotted and it shows a least error. The results also show a positive drive for using this concept as a basis for future extension in quantifying the other blood components.

  5. Evaluation of Blood Glucose Meter Efficacy in an Antenatal Diabetes Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rachel T; Donnelly, Vanessa C; Glastras, Sarah J; Preda, Veronica A; Sheriff, Nisa; Ward, Peter; Hocking, Samantha L; Fulcher, Gregory R

    2016-02-01

    The optimal treatment of diabetes in pregnancy requires accurate measurement of blood glucose levels, in order to minimize adverse outcomes for both mother and neonate. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is routinely used to measure glycemic control and to assess whether treatment targets are being met; however, the accuracy of blood glucose meters in pregnancy is unclear. Pregnant women with gestational, type 1, or type 2 diabetes mellitus were eligible to participate. Nonfasting capillary blood glucose levels were measured in duplicate using the BGStar(®) (Sanofi, Sydney, Australia) and FreeStyle Lite(®) (Abbott, Sydney) blood glucose meters. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma glucose, hematocrit, and glycated hemoglobin. Capillary blood glucose was compared with plasma glucose and further assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 standards. One hundred ten women were recruited, providing 96 samples suitable for analysis. The mean ± SD laboratory plasma glucose level was 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol/L; the BGStar and FreeStyle Lite capillary blood glucose values were 5.3 ± 1.4 mmol/L and 5.0 ± 1.3 mmol/L, respectively. Both meters showed a positive bias (0.42 mmol/L for the FreeStyle Lite and 0.65 mmol/L for the BGStar). Furthermore, neither meter fulfilled the ISO 15197:2013 standards, and there was a nonsignificant improvement in meter performance at blood glucose levels of ≤4.2 mmol/L. Hematocrit did not affect the results of either blood glucose meter. Clarke Error Grid analysis demonstrated that approximately 70% of the results of both meters would lead to appropriate clinical action. The BGStar and FreeStyle Lite blood glucose meters did not meet ISO 15197:2013 recommendations for blood glucose monitoring systems when assessed in a population of women with diabetes in pregnancy. Clinicians should consider this difference in blood glucose readings when making diabetes

  6. Quantify Glucose Level in Freshly Diabetic's Blood by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the capability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to quantify glucose level in ex vivo freshly diabetic's blood. By investigating the THz spectra of different human blood, we find out THz absorption coefficients reflect a high sensitivity to the glucose level in blood. With a quantitative analysis of 70 patients, we demonstrate that the THz absorption coefficients and the blood glucose levels perform a linear relationship. A comparative experiment between THz measurement and glucometers is also conducted with another 20 blood samples, and the results confirm that the relative error is as less as 15%. Our ex vivo human blood study indicates that THz technique has great potential application to diagnose blood glucose level in clinical practice.

  7. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  8. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  9. Tumor blood flow and pH changes after glucose administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thistlethwaite, A.J.; Tupchong, L.; Leeper, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a laser doppler technique to correlate blood flow changes with pH changes in human tumors after glucose ingestion. Three PTs with large superficial tumors ingested 100 gm glucose. A 21g needle pH electrode (Micro-electrodes, Inc.) and a 21g ''Laserflo'' fiberoptic laser doppler blood flow probe (TSI, Minneapolis, MN) were used at the same location. Blood glucose was measured by finger stick every 7.5 min. One PT with a squamous cell CA with extensive necrosis had only a small increase in blood glucose and an increase in tumor pH. Blood flow readings were within 6.4-18.4ml/100g/min. Another PT with a squamous CA had a drop in tumor pH (7.46 to 7.05) as blood glucose increased from 85 to 137 mg/dl by 55 min. Blood flow remained in a range of 7.7-13.8 ml/100g/min with a mean of 11.4. The third PT with a sarcoma had tumor pH and blood glucose measurements on two occasions, with similar results. Blood glucose rose from approx. 100 to 150 mg/dl by 52.5 min with a drop in tumor pH from approx. 7.4 to 7.25. On the second trial, tumor blood flow was measured and, while erratic (6.4-24.9ml/100g/min), decreased by approx. 50%. These preliminary data show that the laser doppler blood flow technique is quite sensitive to movement artifact and interference by free hemoglobin. Currently, it is inconclusive whether blood flow is altered with blood glucose and tumor pH changes. Further studies may prove this to be a valuable tool in predicting tumor response to hyperthermia

  10. Photoacoustic determination of glucose concentration in whole blood by a near-infrared laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllylae, Risto A.

    2001-06-01

    The near-infrared photoacoustic technique is recognized as a potential method for the non-invasive determination of human glucose, because near-infrared light can incident a few millimeters into human tissue, where it produces an acoustic wave capable of carrying information about the composition of the tissue. This paper demonstrates a photoacoustic glucose measurement in a blood sample as a step toward a non-invasive measurement. The experimental apparatus consists of a near-infrared laser diode operating with 4 micro joules pulse energy at 905 nm, a roller pump connected to a silicon plastic tube and a cuvette for circulating the blood sample. In addition, the apparatus comprises a PZT piezoelectric transducer integrated with a battery-powered preamplifier to receive the photoacoustic signal. During the experiment, a glucose solution is mixed into a human blood sample to change its concentration. Although the absorption coefficient of glucose is much smaller than that of blood in the near-infrared region, the osmotic and hydrophilic properties of glucose decrease the reduced scattering coefficient of blood caused by the dissolved glucose surrounding the blood cells. This changes the distribution of the absorbed optical energy in blood, which, in turn, produces a change in the photoacoustic signal. Our experiment demonstrates that signal amplitudes in fresh and stored blood samples in crease about 7% and 10%, respectively, when the glucose concentration reaches the upper limit of the physiological region (500 mg/dl).

  11. Fasting Blood Glucose Levels in Different Haemoglobin Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the different Hb genotypes (HBAA, HBAS, HBSC and HBSS) the following mean fasting blood glucose levels were obtained respectively: 71.9±8.Omg/dl 73.4±7.4mgldl, 94.7±6.Imgldl and 94.6±5.9mgldl. There was a significant difference between the mean fasting blood glucose concentrations of blood groups O,A,B and ...

  12. Using LSTMs to learn physiological models of blood glucose behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekarian, Sadegh; Bunescu, Razvan; Marling, Cindy; Schwartz, Frank

    2017-07-01

    For people with type 1 diabetes, good blood glucose control is essential to keeping serious disease complications at bay. This entails carefully monitoring blood glucose levels and taking corrective steps whenever they are too high or too low. If blood glucose levels could be accurately predicted, patients could take proactive steps to prevent blood glucose excursions from occurring. However, accurate predictions require complex physiological models of blood glucose behavior. Factors such as insulin boluses, carbohydrate intake, and exercise influence blood glucose in ways that are difficult to capture through manually engineered equations. In this paper, we describe a recursive neural network (RNN) approach that uses long short-term memory (LSTM) units to learn a physiological model of blood glucose. When trained on raw data from real patients, the LSTM networks (LSTMs) obtain results that are competitive with a previous state-of-the-art model based on manually engineered physiological equations. The RNN approach can incorporate arbitrary physiological parameters without the need for sophisticated manual engineering, thus holding the promise of further improvements in prediction accuracy.

  13. Institutional blood glucose monitoring system for hospitalized patients: an integral component of the inpatient glucose control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Landau, Zohar; Matas, Zipora; Wainstein, Julio

    2009-09-01

    The ability to measure patient blood glucose levels at bedside in hospitalized patients and to transmit those values to a central database enables and facilitates glucose control and follow-up and is an integral component in the care of the hospitalized diabetic patient. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of an institutional glucometer employed in the framework of the Program for the Treatment of the Hospitalized Diabetic Patient (PTHDP) at E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel. As part of the program to facilitate glucose control in hospitalized diabetic patients, an institutional glucometer was employed that permits uploading of data from stands located in each inpatient department and downloading of that data to a central hospital-wide database. Blood glucose values from hospitalized diabetic patients were collected from August 2007 to October 2008. The inpatient glucose control program was introduced gradually beginning January 2008. During the follow-up period, more than 150,000 blood glucose measures were taken. Mean glucose was 195.7 +/- 99.12 mg/dl during the follow-up period. Blood glucose values declined from 206 +/- 105 prior to PTHDP (August 2007-December 2007) to 186 +/- 92 after its inception (January 2008-October 2008). The decline was associated significantly with time (r = 0.11, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of blood glucose values lower than 60 mg/dl was 1.48% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36%] prior to vs 1.55% (95% CI 0.37%) following implementation of the PTHDP. Concomitantly, a significant increase in the proportion of blood glucose values between 80 and 200 mg/dl was observed, from 55.5% prior to program initiation vs 61.6% after program initiation (p < 0.0001). The present study was designed to observe changes in institution-wide glucose values following implementation of the PTHDP. Information was extracted from the glucometer system itself. Because the aforementioned study was not a clinical trial, we cannot rule out

  14. Association Between Exercise and Blood Glucose Levels In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryna Laili Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a chronic disease with high prevalence, associated with various debilitating complications and can decreases the quality of life in people with it. It is important for people with DM to doing exercise to control the stability of their blood glucose levels. The purpose of this study was to finding out the association between frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise with average blood glucose levels in people with DM. This was an observational study that used case control design. Data obtained from interview with 20 samples from case group and 20 samples from control group, that had been chosen with systematic random sampling technique. Dependent variable of this study was the average blood glucose levels and independents variables were frequency, duration, intensity, and the kind of exercise. This study used Chi Square test 3 × 2 contingency tables to finding out the association and risk of dependent variable with independent variables,. The results showed that exercise factors that associated to average blood glucose levels were duration of exercise (p = 0.022 and intensity of exercise (p = 0.021. The frequency of exercise does not associated to average blood glucose levels (p = 0.340. Diabetic patients who did not do any exercise have the risk of having uncontrolled blood glucose levels. The conclusion was duration and intensity of exercise related significantly to blood glucose levels. By doing exercise three times a week for 30 minutes or more can decreases the risk of uncontrolled blood glucose levels in people with DM. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, exercise, average blood glucose levels

  15. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  16. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    using a biosensitive electrode (Exp. 1) or a standard colourimetric method (Exp. 2). In general, glucose measured in whole blood was 7-11% lower than in plasma at low glucose levels (3.5-5 mM), whereas the methods agreed well at high glucose levels (10-14 mM). Evaluation of the regression lines between......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...... three different diets with similar contents of starch (470-506 g/kg DM). The diets in both studies differed regarding amount and solubility of fibre. Blood samples were collected repeatedly 0-10 h after morning feeding. Glucose was measured in whole blood using a glucometer (Accu-Chek®) and in plasma...

  17. The modulatory role of spinally located histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-02-01

    The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (α-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model.

  18. The Correlation of Hemoglobin A1c to Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Sikaris, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The understanding that hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) represents the average blood glucose level of patients over the previous 120 days underlies the current management of diabetes. Even in making such a statement, we speak of “average blood glucose” as though “blood glucose” were itself a simple idea. When we consider all the blood glucose forms—arterial versus venous versus capillary, whole blood versus serum versus fluoride-preserved plasma, fasting versus nonfasting—we can start to see that this ...

  19. Application of optical coherence tomography for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring during hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2003-10-01

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from Diabetes Mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for chemical analysis. Recently we proposed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) for continuous noninvasive blood glucose sensing through skin. In this paper we tested the OCT technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in lip tissue of New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs during glucose clamping experiments. Obtained results show good agreement with results obtained in skin studies, good correlation of changes in the OCT signal slope measured at the depth of 250 to 500 μm with changes in blood glucose concentration, and higher stability of the OCT data points than that obtained from skin.

  20. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic ...

  1. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Johannes B; Lehmann Monika; Hofer Stefan; Hüsing Johannes; Alles Catharina; Werner Jens; Stiller Jürgen; Künnecke Wolfgang; Luntz Steffen; Motsch Johann; Weigand Markus A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (C...

  2. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  3. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  4. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Mathuradas Mohota College of Sciences, Nagpur-440009 (India); Dahikar, P. B., E-mail: pbdahikar@rediffmail.com [Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  5. Non-invasive blood glucose monitor based on spectroscopy using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantu, Vishnu; Vempati, Jagannadh; Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Development of a novel method for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration using smartphone is discussed. Our research work has three major contributions to society and science. First, we modified and extended the Beer-Lambert's law in physics to accommodate for multiple wavelengths. This extension can aid researchers who wish to perform optical spectroscopy. Second, we successfully developed a creative and non-invasive way for diabetic patients to measure glucose levels via a smartphone. Researchers and chemists can now use their smartphones to determine the absorbance and, therefore, concentration of a chemical. Third, we created an inexpensive way to perform optical spectroscopy by using a smartphone. Monitoring blood glucose using a smartphone application that simply uses equipment already available on smartphones will improve the lives of diabetic patients who can continuously check their blood glucose levels while avoiding the current inconvenient, unhygienic, and costly invasive glucose meters.

  6. [Predictors of mean blood glucose control and its variability in diabetic hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Abad, Daniel; Gimeno-Orna, José Antonio; Sierra-Bergua, Beatriz; Pérez-Calvo, Juan Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    This study was intended to assess the effectiveness and predictors factors of inpatient blood glucose control in diabetic patients admitted to medical departments. A retrospective, analytical cohort study was conducted on patients discharged from internal medicine with a diagnosis related to diabetes. Variables collected included demographic characteristics, clinical data and laboratory parameters related to blood glucose control (HbA1c, basal plasma glucose, point-of-care capillary glucose). The cumulative probability of receiving scheduled insulin regimens was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariate regression models were used to select predictors of mean inpatient glucose (MHG) and glucose variability (standard deviation [GV]). The study sample consisted of 228 patients (mean age 78.4 (SD 10.1) years, 51% women). Of these, 96 patients (42.1%) were treated with sliding-scale regular insulin only. Median time to start of scheduled insulin therapy was 4 (95% CI, 2-6) days. Blood glucose control measures were: MIG 181.4 (SD 41.7) mg/dL, GV 56.3 (SD 22.6). The best model to predict MIG (R(2): .376; P<.0001) included HbA1c (b=4.96; P=.011), baseline plasma glucose (b=.056; P=.084), mean capillary blood glucose in the first 24hours (b=.154; P<.0001), home treatment (versus oral agents) with basal insulin only (b=13.1; P=.016) or more complex (pre-mixed insulin or basal-bolus) regimens (b=19.1; P=.004), corticoid therapy (b=14.9; P=.002), and fasting on admission (b=10.4; P=.098). Predictors of inpatient blood glucose control which should be considered in the design of DM management protocols include home treatment, HbA1c, basal plasma glucose, mean blood glucose in the first 24hours, fasting, and corticoid therapy. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Olfactory stimulation modulates the blood glucose level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve. Exposure to grapefruit odor and its main component, limonene, both of which activate the sympathetic nerves, before glucose loading also greatly depressed the BG curve. Pre-loading exposure to lavender odor, a parasympathetic activator, stabilized the BG level. These results suggest that olfactory function is important for proper glucose kinetics after glucose intake and that certain fragrances could be utilized as tools for controlling BG levels.

  8. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose and lipid profile of ..... stressor, neurons with cell bodies in the paraventricular nuclei of the ... metabolic changes that contribute to heart disease and other health problems21.

  9. Association between Blood Levels of Glucose and Urea and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osman

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Normal blood glucose and urea levels in dairy cows vary within breeds, ..... prolapse, and postpartum uterine haemorrhage, the effect of metabolic stress, ... and the effect of efficiency of heat detection on the average days to.

  10. Changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Cunha, Raphael; Raiana Bentes, Mariana; Araújo, Victor H; DA Costa Souza, Mayara C; Vasconcelos Noleto, Marcelo; Azevedo Soares, Ademar; Machado Lehnen, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Blood glucose changes response during and after exercise are modulated by the postabsorptive state, intensity and duration of exercise, and the level of physical fitness as well. This study focused on the idea that high-intensity interval exercise, as mini-trampoline class, can reduce blood glucose. Thus, we examined acute changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session. Twenty-four normoglycemic adult subjects were enrolled in the study. After physical assessment they were randomly assigned to either the experimental (N.=12) or the control group (N.=12). The experimental group performed a 50-minute session of moderate-to-high intensity (70 to 85% HRmax) exercise on a mini-trampoline commonly used in fitness classes. The control group did not perform any exercise, and all procedures were otherwise similar to the experimental group. Capillary blood glucose was measured before and every 15 minutes during the exercise session. The effects of exercise on blood glucose levels (group; time; and group interaction) were estimated using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc Test (Ptrampoline can be used for reducing blood glucose levels and thus can potentially control blood glucose.

  11. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Ashley; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-11-01

    In healthy normal-weight adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, is commonly observed in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare declines in postprandial glycemic response in normal-weight and obese subjects with ingestion of 6 g ground cinnamon. In a crossover study, subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate in instant farina cereal, served plain or with 6 g ground cinnamon. Blood glucose concentration, the main outcome measure, was assessed at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) group, dietary condition, and time on blood glucose. Paired t-test assessed blood glucose at individual time points and glucose area under the curve (AUC) between dietary conditions. Thirty subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, 15 with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 and 15 with BMIs of 30.0 or more, completed the study. There was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two BMI groups at any time point. However, in a combined analysis of all subjects, the addition of cinnamon to the cereal significantly reduced 120-minute glucose AUC (P=0.008) and blood glucose at 15 (P=0.001), 30 (Pblood glucose was significantly higher with cinnamon consumption (Pglucose response in normal weight and obese adults. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-04

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  14. Resonator graphene microfluidic antenna (RGMA) for blood glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizat, Noorlindawaty Md.; Mohamad, Su Natasha; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is capable of highly sensitive analyte detection due to its nanoscale nature. Here we show a resonator graphene microfluidic antenna (RGMA) is used to detect the dielectric properties of aqueous glucose solution which represent the glucose level in blood. Simulation verified the high sensitivity of proposed RGMA made with aqueous glucose solutions at different concentrations. The RGMA yielded a sensor sensitivity of 0.1882GHz/mgml-1 as plotted from the slope of the linear fit from the result averages in S11 and S21 parameter, respectively. This results indicate that the proposed resonator antenna achieves high sensitivity and linear to the changes of glucose concentration.

  15. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...... metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in AD, and GLP-1 may serve to raise transporter numbers. We hypothesized that the GLP-1 analog liraglutide would prevent the decline of CMRglc in AD by raising blood-brain glucose transfer, depending on the duration of disease. We randomized 38 patients with AD...

  16. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work

  17. A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Holt, Tim A; Khovanova, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  19. Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shreya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Sunitha, J D; Dawar, Geetanshu; Sinha, Nidhi; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis of diabetes through blood is difficult in children, older adults, debilitated and chronically ill patients, so diagnosis by analysis of saliva can be potentially valuable as collection of saliva is noninvasive, easier and technically insensitive, unlike blood. The aim of the study was to correlate blood glucose level (BGL) and salivary glucose level (SGL) in DM patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 patients, who were categorized as 40 controlled diabetics, 40 uncontrolled diabetics and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals constituted the controls. The blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from the patients at the different intervals for fasting, random and postprandial levels. These samples were then subjected for analysis of glucose in blood and saliva using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent in HITACHI 902 (R) Automatic analyzer, and the results were recorded. The mean SGLs were higher in uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups than in nondiabetic group. A highly statistically significant correlation was found between fasting saliva glucose and fasting blood glucose in all the groups. With increase in BGL, increase in SGL was observed in patients with diabetes suggesting that SGL can be used for monitoring glycemic level in DM.

  20. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality assessment of patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose in community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjome RL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate diabetes patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose using a community pharmacy-based quality assurance procedure, to investigate whether the procedure improved the quality of the patient performance of self monitoring of blood glucose, and to examine the opinions of the patients taking part in the study. Methods: The results of patient blood glucose measurements were compared to the results obtained with HemoCue Glucose 201+ by pharmacy employees in 16 Norwegian community pharmacies. Patient performance was monitored using an eight item checklist. Patients whose blood glucose measurements differed from pharmacy measurements by more than 20% were instructed in the correct use of their glucometer. The patients then re-measured their blood glucose. If the results were still outside the set limits, the control procedure was repeated with a new lot of glucometer strips, and then with a new glucometer. The patients returned for a follow-up visit after three months. Results: During the first visit, 5% of the 338 patients had measurements that deviated from pharmacy blood glucose values by more than 20% and user errors were observed for 50% of the patients. At the second visit, there was no significant change in the analytical quality of patient measurements, but the percentage of patients who made user errors had decreased to 29% (p < 0.001. Eighty-five percent of the patients reported that they used their blood glucose results to adjust medication, exercise or meals. Fifty-one percent of the patients reported a greater trust in their measurements after the second visit. Eighty percent of patients wished to have their measurements assessed yearly. Of these patients, 83% preferred to have the assessment done at the community pharmacy. Conclusion: A community pharmacy-based quality assessment procedure of patients’ self monitoring of blood glucose significantly reduced the number of user errors. The analytical quality of the

  2. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent...... of the 92 measurements obtained with the hypocount B were within +/- 20% of the laboratory glucose values. Using haemo-glucotest 1-44 strips, 74% of the readings were within +/- 20% of the reference laboratory values. For values below 5.5 mmol/l, there was a tendency for results to be too low, with 77......% of the readings below laboratory values -20%. All situations with severe hypoglycaemia were detected with both strips. The study also demonstrates the ineffectiveness of s.c. insulin regimens during surgery. Only 47% of the measured blood glucose values were within the range of 5.5-10 mmol/l and two of ten...

  3. Institutional point-of-care glucometer identifies population trends in blood glucose associated with war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Matas, Zipora; Chaimy, Tova; Landau, Zohar; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Berlovitz, Yitzhak; Wainstein, Julio

    2013-11-01

    Acute physiological stress has been shown to impair glucose homeostasis. War is a period of acute psychological stress, and its effect on glucose control is unknown. In this study random point-of-care (POC) glucose levels were measured using an automated, institutional glucometer in hospitalized adult patients prior to versus during the Israeli Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012). Random POC glucose values measured with the institutional blood glucose monitoring system were obtained 1 week prior to the Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012) and compared with values to those obtained during the first 4 days of the war (November 14-17, 2012). In total, 3,573 POC glucose measures were included: 1,865 during the pre-war period and 1,708 during the campaign. POC glucose measures were significantly higher during the war compared with the week preceding the war: 9.7±4.7 versus 9.3±4.2 mmol/L (P=0.02). In a general linear model, period (pre-war vs. during war) persisted as a significant predictor of POC glucose even after controlling for age, sex, and department type (internal medicine vs. surgical). Acute stress, such as a wartime situation, is associated with a significant increase in random blood glucose values in a population of hospitalized adults. Long-term follow-up of the individuals hospitalized during these two periods can reveal differences in morbidity and mortality trends.

  4. Examination of liver and muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... changes in fish affect the conversion of liver glycogen into blood ... province, altitude 1248 m and surface area of 86 km2, 20 km in length 4.5 km in width ... alcohol (95% pure) were added, followed by boiling for a further 15 min. ..... water temperature on the blood glucose level of chub (Leuciscus cephalus ...

  5. Fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin concentrations of healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation is associated with loss of blood monthly in women of reproductive age. In some women this physiological phenomenon is also associated with some complaints such as menstrual pain, vomiting, and tiredness. We investigated the fasting blood glucose concentration and hemoglobin concentration before and ...

  6. A Computer-Based Glucose Management System Reduces the Incidence of Forgotten Glucose Measurements: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Tsuyoshi; Teramoto, Kei; Koshitani, Rie; Fujioka, Yohei; Endo, Yusuke; Ueki, Masaru; Kato, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2018-04-17

    Frequent glucose measurements are needed for good blood glucose control in hospitals; however, this requirement means that measurements can be forgotten. We developed a novel glucose management system using an iPod ® and electronic health records. A time schedule system for glucose measurement was developed using point-of-care testing, an iPod ® , and electronic health records. The system contains the glucose measurement schedule and an alarm sounds if a measurement is forgotten. The number of times measurements were forgotten was analyzed. Approximately 7000 glucose measurements were recorded per month. Before implementation of the system, the average number of times measurements were forgotten was 4.8 times per month. This significantly decreased to 2.6 times per month after the system started. We also analyzed the incidence of forgotten glucose measurements as a proportion of the total number of measurements for each period and found a significant difference between the two 9-month periods (43/64,049-24/65,870, P = 0.014, chi-squared test). This computer-based blood glucose monitoring system is useful for the management of glucose monitoring in hospitals. Johnson & Johnson Japan.

  7. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

  8. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  9. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMJ Mortazavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students, blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2 while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students, two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (ΔC in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  10. Blood glucose control for patients with acute coronary syndromes in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Kyle John; Elmekaty, Eman; Abdallah, Ibtihal; Habra, Masa; Al-Siyabi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Blood glucose is known to be elevated in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. However a gap in knowledge exists regarding effective management strategies once admitted to acute care units. It is also unknown what factors (if any) predict elevated glucose values during initial presentation. OBJECTIVES of the study were to characterize blood glucose control in patients admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU) in Qatar and to determine predictive factors associated with high glucose levels (>10 mmol/l) on admission to the CCU. All data for this study were obtained from the CCU at Heart Hospital in Doha, Qatar. A retrospective chart review was completed for patients admitted to the CCU in Qatar from October 1st, 2012 to March 31st, 2013, of which 283 were included. Baseline characteristics (age, gender, nationality, medical history, smoking status, type of acute coronary syndrome), capillary and lab blood glucose measurements, and use of insulin were extracted. Time spent in glucose ranges of 10 mmol/1 was calculated manually. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess factors associated with high glucose on admission. The primary analysis was completed with capillary data and a sensitivity analysis was completed using laboratory data. Blood glucose values measured on admission and throughout length of stay in the CCU. Capillary blood glucose data showed majority of time was spent in the range of >10 mmol/l (41.95%), followed by 4-8 mmol/l (35.44%), then 8-10 mmol/l (21.45%), and finally 10 mmol/l on admission (p < 0.05) in a univariate analysis but only diabetes remained significant in a multivariate model (OR 23.3; 95% CI, 11.5-47.3). Diabetes predicts high glucose values on hospital admission for patients with ACS and patients are not being adequately controlled throughout CCU stay.

  11. Continuous tissue glucose monitoring correlates with measurement of intermittent capillary glucose in patients with distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, D; Martínez, Ó; Blancas Gómez-Casero, R; Martín Parra, C; López Matamala, B; Estébanez, B; Chana, M

    2015-10-01

    Intermittent glycemic measurements in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) can result in episodes of severe hypoglycemia or in a poor control of glycemia range. We designed a study to assess accuracy and reliability of continuous monitoring of tissue glucose for patients with distributive shock. Consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of distributive shock and the need of insulin infusion for glycemic control were included in the study. These patients were implanted a Continuous Glucose Control Monitoring System (CGMS) with the sensor inserted subcutaneously into the abdominal wall. CGMS values were recorded every 5min. Capillary glucose (CG) was monitored for adjusting insulin perfusion according to the ICU protocol. Correlation between both methods was assessed. A total of 11,673 CGMS and 348 CG values were recorded. In five patients, CGMS failed to detect tissue glucose. A glucose value <3.33mmol/l (<60mg/dl) was observed in 3.6% of CGMS and in 0.29% CG values. 295 pairs of measurements were included in the statistical analysis for correlation assessment. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.706. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.71 (p<0.0001, 95% CI 0.65-0.76). The mean of differences between both measurement methods was 0.22mmol/l (3.98mg/dl) (95% CI 0.66-7.31). When the Continuous Glucose Control Monitoring System (CGMS) is able to obtain data (75% of the patients), there is correlation between the values obtained by this method and capillary blood glucose in patients with distributive shock. CGMS can detect more episodes of glycemic excursions outside the normal range than intermittent capillary glucose monitoring. Variables that may impair glucose metabolism and peripheral soft tissues perfusion could impair CGMS measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  13. Comparison of blood electrolytes and glucose during cardiopulmonary bypass in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golamreza Maasoumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting is thought to contribute significantly to increased blood glucose level and altered blood electrolytes balance during the operation. In this (CABG study, blood electrolytes and glucose during CPB in insulin-dependent diabetic and non-diabetic patients were assessed with special emphasis on the trend of the changes. Materials and Methods: Blood glucose and electrolytes were assessed in 30 insulin-dependent diabetic and 30 non-diabetic patients, classified as class II and III American Society of Anesthesiologist, before, during, and after CPB. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the trend of the changes during CPB for the two groups. Results: The trend in blood glucose level did not show any significant difference between two groups ( P = 0.59. For other blood factors, no significant between-group difference was detected except for PaCO 2 ( P = 0.002. Conclusion: The study suggested that the changes in blood electrolytes and the increase in blood glucose level do not differ between insulin dependent diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  14. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  15. Using meta-differential evolution to enhance a calculation of a continuous blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new model of glucose dynamics. The model calculates blood glucose level as a function of transcapillary glucose transport. In previous studies, we validated the model with animal experiments. We used analytical method to determine model parameters. In this study, we validate the model with subjects with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we combine the analytic method with meta-differential evolution. To validate the model with human patients, we obtained a data set of type 1 diabetes study that was coordinated by Jaeb Center for Health Research. We calculated a continuous blood glucose level from continuously measured interstitial fluid glucose level. We used 6 different scenarios to ensure robust validation of the calculation. Over 96% of calculated blood glucose levels fit A+B zones of the Clarke Error Grid. No data set required any correction of model parameters during the time course of measuring. We successfully verified the possibility of calculating a continuous blood glucose level of subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study signals a successful transition of our research from an animal experiment to a human patient. Researchers can test our model with their data on-line at https://diabetes.zcu.cz. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Twenty-four-hour variations in blood glucose level in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients based on continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajime, Maiko; Okada, Yosuke; Mori, Hiroko; Otsuka, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mayuko; Miyazaki, Megumi; Kuno, Fumi; Sugai, Kei; Sonoda, Satomi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kurozumi, Akira; Narisawa, Manabu; Torimoto, Keiichi; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-01-01

    High fluctuations in blood glucose are associated with various complications. The correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and fluctuations in blood glucose level has not been studied in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, blood glucose profile stratified by HbA1c level was evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. Our retrospective study included 294 patients with type 2 diabetes who were divided by HbA1c level into five groups (≥6.0 to level and CGM data was analyzed. The primary end-point was the difference in blood glucose fluctuations among the HbA1c groups. The mean blood glucose level increased significantly with increasing HbA1c (P trend  levels of maximum blood glucose, minimum blood glucose, each preprandial blood glucose, each postprandial maximum blood glucose, range of increase in postprandial glucose from pre-meal to after breakfast, the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL and percentage of the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL were higher with higher HbA1c. Mean glucose level and pre-breakfast blood glucose level were significant and independent determinants of HbA1c. In Japanese patients treated for type 2 diabetes, the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions did not correlate with HbA1c, making it difficult to assess blood glucose fluctuations using HbA1c. Parameters other than HbA1c are required to evaluate fluctuations in blood glucose level in patients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid ionic regulation, cerebral blood flow, and glucose use during chronic metabolic alkalosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeck, H.K.; Kuschinsky, W.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic metabolic alkalosis was induced in rats by combining a low K+ diet with a 0.2 M NaHCO3 solution as drinking fluid for either 15 or 27 days. Local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization were measured in 31 different structures of the brain in conscious animals by means of the iodo-[14C]antipyrine and 2-[14C]deoxy-D-glucose method. The treatment induced moderate [15 days, base excess (BE) 16 mM] to severe (27 days, BE 25 mM) hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and K+ depletion. During moderate metabolic alkalosis no change in cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow was detectable in most brain structures when compared with controls. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K+ and H+ concentrations were significantly decreased. During severe hypochloremic alkalosis, cerebral blood flow was decreased by 19% and cerebral glucose utilization by 24% when compared with the control values. The decrease in cerebral blood flow during severe metabolic alkalosis is attributed mainly to the decreased cerebral metabolism and to a lesser extent to a further decrease of the CSF H+ concentration. CSF K+ concentration was not further decreased. The results show an unaltered cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a decrease in CSF H+ and K+ concentrations at moderate metabolic alkalosis and a decrease in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a further decreased CSF H+ concentration at severe metabolic alkalosis

  18. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  19. [A blood glucose slide chart for improving diabetes patient education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteau, Marie-Hélène

    2015-03-01

    A blood glucose slide chart has been developed in order to help patients with type 2 diabetes who do not speak French or who have comprehension difficulties. Combined with pictograms to help patients visualise the action they need to take depending on the recorded glucose level, it constitutes a therapeutic education tool which can be useful on a day-to-day basis both for patients as well as caregivers.

  20. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L Silverman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bernard L Silverman1, Christopher J Barnes2, Barbara N Campaigne3, Douglas B Muchmore31Alkermes, Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2i3 Statprobe, Ann Arbor, MI; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, inhaled insulin, cardiovascular disease, blood glucose

  1. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  2. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...... measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O(2)(-) from isolated human neutrophils....

  3. Robust blood-glucose control using Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Levente; Paláncz, Béla; Benyó, Balázs; Török, László; Benyó, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    A robust control design on frequency domain using Mathematica is presented for regularization of glucose level in type I diabetes persons under intensive care. The method originally proposed under Mathematica by Helton and Merino, --now with an improved disturbance rejection constraint inequality--is employed, using a three-state minimal patient model. The robustness of the resulted high-order linear controller is demonstrated by nonlinear closed loop simulation in state-space, in case of standard meal disturbances and is compared with H infinity design implemented with the mu-toolbox of Matlab. The controller designed with model parameters represented the most favorable plant dynamics from the point of view of control purposes, can operate properly even in case of parameter values of the worst-case scenario.

  4. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  5. Assessment of three frequently used blood glucose monitoring devices in clinical routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueger, Thomas; Schuler, Vanessa; Stettler, Christoph; Diem, Peter; Christ, Emanuel R

    2012-07-12

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an important role in the management of diabetes and has been shown to improve metabolic control. The use of blood glucose meters in clinical practice requires sufficient reliability to allow adequate treatment. Direct comparison of different blood glucose meters in clinical practice, independent of the manufactures is scarce. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate three frequently used blood glucose meters in daily clinical practice. Capillary blood glucose was measured simultaneous using the following glucose meters: Contour® (Bayer Diabetes Care, Zürich, Switzerland), Accu-Chek® aviva (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Free-Style® lite (Abbott Diabetes Care, Baar, Switzerland). The reference method consisted of the HemoCue® Glucose 201+ System (HemoCue® AB, Ängelholm, Sweden) with plasma conversion. The devices were assessed by comparison of the Mean Absolute Relative Differences (MARD), the Clarke Error Grid Analysis (EGA) and the compliance with the International Organization of Standardization criteria (ISO 15197:2003). Capillary blood samples were obtained from 150 patients. MARD was 10.1 ± 0.65%, 7.0 ± 0.62% and 7.8 ± 0.48% for Contour®, Accu-Chek® and Free-Style®, respectively. EGA showed 99.3% (Contour®), 98.7% (Accu-Chek®) and 100% (Free-Style®) of all measurements in zone A and B (clinically acceptable). The ISO criteria were fulfilled by Accu-Chek® (95.3%) and Free-Style® (96%), but not by Contour® (92%). In the present study the three glucose meters provided good agreement with the reference and reliable results in daily clinical routine. Overall, the Free-Style® and Accu-Chek® device slightly outperformed the Contour® device.

  6. Blood glucose control in the intensive care unit: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Jan; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal blood glucose levels are common during critical illness and are associated with outcomes that correspond to a J-shaped curve, the lowest risk associated with normoglycemia. Three proof-of-concept randomized-controlled-trials performed in the surgical, medical, and pediatric intensive care units of the Leuven University Hospital in Belgium demonstrated that maintaining strict age-adjusted normal fasting levels of glycemia (80-110 mg/dl in adults, 70-100 mg/dl in children, 50-80 mg/dl in infants) with intensive insulin therapy reduced morbidity and mortality as compared with tolerating stress hyperglycemia as a potentially beneficial response. Recently, concern has risen about the safety of this intervention, as a multicenter adult study reported an, as yet unexplained, increased mortality with targeting normoglycemia as compared with an intermediate blood glucose level of around 140 mg/dl. This apparent contradiction may be explained by several methodological differences among studies, comprising, among others, different glucose target ranges in the control groups, different feeding policies, and variable accuracy of tools used for glucose measurement and insulin infusion. Hence, efficacy and safety of intensive insulin therapy may be affected by patient-related and ICU setting-related variables. Therefore, no single optimal blood glucose target range for ICU patients can be advocated. It appears safe not to embark on targeting "age-normal" levels in intensive care units (ICUs) that are not equipped to accurately and frequently measure blood glucose, and have not acquired extensive experience with intravenous insulin administration using a customized guideline. A simple fallback position could be to control blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible without evoking unacceptable blood glucose fluctuations, hypoglycemia, and hypokalemia.

  7. Blood glucose level prediction based on support vector regression using mobile platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymann, Maximilian P; Dorschky, Eva; Groh, Benjamin H; Martindale, Christine; Blank, Peter; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2016-08-01

    The correct treatment of diabetes is vital to a patient's health: Staying within defined blood glucose levels prevents dangerous short- and long-term effects on the body. Mobile devices informing patients about their future blood glucose levels could enable them to take counter-measures to prevent hypo or hyper periods. Previous work addressed this challenge by predicting the blood glucose levels using regression models. However, these approaches required a physiological model, representing the human body's response to insulin and glucose intake, or are not directly applicable to mobile platforms (smart phones, tablets). In this paper, we propose an algorithm for mobile platforms to predict blood glucose levels without the need for a physiological model. Using an online software simulator program, we trained a Support Vector Regression (SVR) model and exported the parameter settings to our mobile platform. The prediction accuracy of our mobile platform was evaluated with pre-recorded data of a type 1 diabetes patient. The blood glucose level was predicted with an error of 19 % compared to the true value. Considering the permitted error of commercially used devices of 15 %, our algorithm is the basis for further development of mobile prediction algorithms.

  8. A review of metabolism of labeled glucoses for use in measuring glucose recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The fate of tritium from each carbon of D-glucose and the metabolism of L-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose are known. Differences in metabolism of labeled glucoses can be used to quantify physical and chemical recycling of glucose. Only physical recycling is measured by [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, whereas [U- 14 C]-D-glucose measures total recycling. The difference between [1- 3 H]-L-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose, therefore, is chemical recycling. Recycling from extracellular binding sites and hepatic glucose 6-phosphate can be measured by difference between [1,2- 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, and the difference in irreversible loss of the two will measure extrahepatic uptake of D-glucose. Recycling via Cori-alanine cycle plus CO 2 is the difference in irreversible loss measured by using [6- 3 H]-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose. Recycling via the hexose monophosphate pathway can be determined by difference in irreversible loss between [1- 3 H]-D-glucose and [6- 3 H]-D-glucose. Recycling via CO 2 and glycerol must be measured directly with [U- 14 C]glucose, bicarbonate, and glycerol. Recycling via hepatic glycogen can be estimated by subtracting all other measured chemical recycling from total chemical recycling. This review describes means to quantify glucose recycling in vivo, enabling studies of mechanisms for conservation and utilization of glucose. 54 references

  9. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 attenuates glucose absorption and reduces blood glucose concentration after small intestinal glucose delivery in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Asaf; Deane, Adam M; Plummer, Mark P; Cousins, Caroline E; Chapple, Lee-Anne S; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Marianne J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of exogenous glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) on small intestinal glucose absorption and blood glucose concentrations during critical illness. A prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomised trial in a mixed medical-surgical adult intensive care unit, with 12 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, who were suitable for receiving small intestinal nutrient. On consecutive days, in a randomised order, participants received intravenous GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/ kg/min) or placebo (0.9% saline) as a continuous infusion over 270 minutes. After 6 hours of fasting, intravenous infusions of GLP-1 or placebo began at T = -30 min (in which T = time), with the infusion maintained at a constant rate until study completion at T = 240 min. At T = 0 min, a 100 mL bolus of mixed liquid nutrient meal (1 kcal/mL) containing 3 g of 3-O-methyl-D-gluco-pyranose (3-OMG), a marker of glucose absorption, was administered directly into the small intestine, via a post-pyloric catheter, over 6 minutes. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals for the measurement of plasma glucose and 3-OMG concentrations. Intravenous GLP-1 attenuated initial small intestinal glucose absorption (mean area under the curve [AUC] 0-30 for 3-OMG: GLP-1 group, 4.4 mmol/L/min [SEM, 0.9 mmol/L/min] v placebo group, 6.5 mmol/L/min [SEM, 1.0 mmol/L/min]; P = 0.01), overall small intestinal glucose absorption (mean AUC 0-240 for 3-OMG: GLP-1, 68.2 mmol/L/ min [SEM, 4.7 mmol/L/min] v placebo, 77.7 mmol/L/min [SEM, 4.4 mmol/lLmin]; P = 0.02), small intestinal glucose absorption and overall blood glucose concentration (mean AUC 0-240 for blood glucose: GLP-1, 2062 mmol/L/min [SEM, 111 mmol/L/min] v placebo 2328 mmol/L/min [SEM, 145 mmol/L/min]; P = 0.005). Short-term administration of exogenous GLP-1 reduces small intestinal glucose absorption for up to 4 hours during critical illness. This is likely to be an additional mechanism for the glucose-lowering effect of this agent.

  10. Umbilical cord blood glucose levels in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to determine the umbilical cord venous blood level of glucose in full-term newborns and its relationship to the mode of delivery. The investigation included 102 full-term newborn infants, including 33 and 69 babies born via cesar-ean and vaginal delivery, respectively. Umbilical cord serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase test using a Sap-phire-400 biochemical analyzer. In healthy full-term newborns, the mean umbilical cord blood glucose levels were 4,29±0,88 mmol/1 (minimum, 2,9 mmol/1 and maximum, 5,9 mmol/1. In the babies born via cesarean delivery, the umbilical cord blood concentration of glucose was ascertained to be significantly lower than in those born vaginally (3,84+0,71 mmol/1 versus 4,51+0,87 mmol/1; /><0,0001. Abdominal delivery can be apparently considered to be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in neonatal infants.

  11. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  12. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  13. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  14. Effect of Cola acuminate on Blood Glucose and Glycosylated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (GHB) were studied in 42 Wistar rats divided into three groups; controls, group A and group B. Control rats consumed only feeds, group A consumed 0.04g of Cola acuminate, while group B consumed 0.08g of Cola acuminate mixed with their feeds daily for six ...

  15. Effects of Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Seed on Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, with its associated complications, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of citrullus lanatus seed extract on blood glucose concentration and electrolyte parameters. Citrullus lanatus is an antioxidant and has been shown to reduce oxidative stress (Khaki et al., 2013). Effects ...

  16. Impact of Diet Composition on Blood Glucose Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Björck, Inger; Delzenne, Nathalie; Gao, Dan; Griffiths, Helen R; Hadjilucas, Ellie; Juvonen, Kristiina; Lahtinen, Sampo; Lansink, Mirian; Loon, Luc Van; Mykkänen, Hannu; Östman, Elin; Riccardi, Gabriele; Vinoy, Sophie; Weickert, Martin O

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach, it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This comprehensive review summarizes the results from human dietary interventions exploring the impact of dietary components on blood glucose levels. Included are the major macronutrients; carbohydrate, protein and fat, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, nonnutrient phytochemicals and additional foods including low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar, and alcohol. Based on the evidence presented in this review, it is clear that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. An integrated approach that includes reducing excess body weight, increased physical activity along with a dietary regime to regulate blood glucose levels will not only be advantages in T2DM management, but will benefit the health of the population and limit the increasing worldwide incidence of T2DM.

  17. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  18. Blood glucose response of normoglycemic adults fed breakfast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gift

    Effect of high fibre leguminous products in breakfast porridges, made from Afzelia Africana (AA), ... Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were taken at 30 min interval for 2 .... ml to CSS and each was cooked (stirred continuously) for 10 min to ..... prevalence of diabetes, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in.

  19. Data-driven analysis of blood glucose management effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannings, B.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Bosman, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The blood-glucose-level (BGL) of Intensive Care (IC) patients requires close monitoring and control. In this paper we describe a general data-driven analytical method for studying the effectiveness of BGL management. The method is based on developing and studying a clinical outcome reflecting the

  20. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  1. Blood glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Graptophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 10 mg/kg body weight metformin, a well known hypoglycemic drug, while group 5 served as control and received the vehicle of administration (distilled water). The fasting blood glucose level (FBGL) of the rats was checked before commencement of treatment and weekly during the drug administration period using Roche ...

  2. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  3. Variations of blood glucose in cancer patients during chemotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose (BG) variations in cancer patients during chemotherapy according to tumor types and chemotherapeutic regimens. Materials and Methods: Patients were examined from the Department of Medical Oncology of Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy ...

  4. On the suitability of refractometry for the analysis of glucose in blood-derived fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirk, K; Poetzschke, H

    2004-07-01

    Refractometry is the determination of the optical refractive index of a substance or a mixture of substances. It is a very sensitive method for the detection and quantification of dissolved analytes, but it is incapable of distinguishing between different analytes. The aim of this investigation was to determine the principle suitability of refractometry for the quantification of glucose (blood sugar) in blood and various blood fluids which can readily be obtained for medical diagnosis, in particular blood plasma, blood serum, and their ultrafiltrates. After the oral intake of freshly dissolved alpha-glucose, the in vivo blood contents of the alpha and beta anomers of glucose were found to be in an at least approximate equilibrium at all times. This observation is a prerequisite for a refractometrical determination of glucose due to the fact that both molecule forms have different refractive index increments. An assessment of the glucose content in untreated blood fluids was not possible, since no suitable relationship to the refractive index was found, most probably due to the influence of the many other substances present in blood on this parameter. However, after removal of certain macromolecules by ultrafiltration, value pairs showed a high level of correlation, providing the nominal molecular weight limit (cut-off) of the ultrafilter used possessed a maximum of 300 kDa. Besides macromolecules, the osmolality of the fluids undergoing measurement also proved to be a considerable interfering factor, particularly when values were outside the normal physiological range between 285 and 293 mmol/L. If a clinical application of this method is to be contemplated it is imperative (1) that blood cells are separated and removed, (2) that macromolecules present in plasma or serum are removed, e.g. by ultrafiltration, and (3) that beyond the results presented the influence of all small molecules other than glucose on the overall refractive index be determined and included in

  5. Relative accuracy of the BD Logic and FreeStyle blood glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    The BD Logic((R)) (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ) and FreeStyle((R)) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) meters are used to transmit data directly to insulin pumps for calculation of insulin doses and to calibrate continuous glucose sensors as well as to monitor blood glucose levels. The accuracy of the two meters was evaluated in two inpatient studies conducted by the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet). In both studies, meter glucose measurements made with either venous or capillary blood were compared with reference glucose measurements made by the DirecNet Central Laboratory at the University of Minnesota using a hexokinase enzymatic method. The BD Logic tended to read lower than the laboratory reference regardless of whether venous (median difference = -9 mg/dL) or capillary blood (median difference = -7 mg/dL) was used. This resulted in lower accuracy of the BD Logic compared with the FreeStyle meter based on the median relative absolute difference (RAD) for both venous blood (median RAD, 9% vs. 5%, P blood (median RAD, 11% vs. 6%, P = 0.008). The greatest discrepancy in the performance of the two meters was at higher reference glucose values. Accuracy was not significantly different when the reference was < or = 70 mg/dL. The BD Logic meter is less accurate than the FreeStyle meter.

  6. Serial blood pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Koehler

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of a 60-s interval of venous congestion between two noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP on the fluctuation of ABP, assessed by the standard deviation of the differences between two readings. ABP was measured in 345 successive patients, at rest, four times each. For 269 participants, one pair of readings was obtained with a 60-s interval and the other pair without an interval. For 76 patients, the first pair was read at the same interval, and the second pair had venous congestion interposed and there was no waiting interval. There was no increased ABP oscillation, either when there was no interval between ABP readings, or when venous congestion was interposed compared to pairs of ABP measurements performed with a 60-s interval. There was no increase in ABP oscillations when successive ABP readings were taken without an interval or even with venous congestion interposed. Contrary to the present belief, there seems to be no loss of reliability when blood pressure recordings are taken immediately one after another, in the clinical setting.

  7. Evaluation of commercial glucometer test strips for potential measurement of glucose in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Ha; Jensen, Gary C; Balijepalli, Anant S; Cohan, Bruce E; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2014-02-04

    Tear glucose measurements have been suggested as a potential alternative to blood glucose monitoring for diabetic patients. While previous work has reported that there is a correlation between blood and tear glucose levels in humans, this link has not been thoroughly established and additional clinical studies are needed. Herein, we evaluate the potential of using commercial blood glucose test strips to measure glucose in tears. Of several blood glucose strips evaluated, only one brand exhibits the low detection limit required for quantitating glucose in tears. Calibration of these strips in the range of 0-100 μM glucose with an applied potential of 150 mV to the working electrode yields a sensitivity of 0.127 nA/μM and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 9 μM. The strips also exhibit ≤13% error (n = 3) for 25, 50, and 75 μM glucose in the presence of 10 μM acetaminophen, 100 μM ascorbic acid, and 100 μM uric acid. Measurements of glucose in tears from nine normal (nondiabetic) fasting human subjects using strips yielded glucose values within the range of 5-148 μM (mean = 47 μM, median = 43 μM), similar to those for human tears reported by others with more complex LC-MS methods. The glucometer strip method could facilitate more clinical studies to determine whether tear glucose and blood glucose levels sufficiently correlate for application to routine measurements in tears to supplement blood glucose testing. This would be especially helpful for children, adolescents, other Type 1 diabetics, and also for Type 2 diabetics who require treatment with insulin and cannot tolerate multiple finger sticks per day.

  8. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Daniel R

    2012-09-01

    Glucose meter performance is commonly measured in several different ways, including the relative bias and coefficient of variation (CV), the total error, the mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), and the size of the interval around the reference value that would be necessary to contain a meter measurement at a specified probability. This fourth measure is commonly expressed as a proportion of the reference value and will be referred to as the necessary relative deviation. A deeper understanding of the relationships between these measures may aid health care providers, patients, and regulators in comparing meter performances when different measures are used. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance were derived mathematically. Equations are presented for calculating the total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation using the reference value, relative bias, and CV when glucose meter measurements are normally distributed. When measurements are also unbiased, the CV, total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation are linearly related and are therefore equivalent measures of meter performance. The relative bias and CV provide more information about meter performance than the other measures considered but may be difficult for some audiences to interpret. Reporting meter performance in multiple ways may facilitate the informed selection of blood glucose meters. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, M V; Brahmbhatt, N A; Sahayata, V; Bhavsar, N V

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with increasing prevalence and serious complications. Periodontitis being one of its presentation and is its sixth recognized complication. This study compares blood glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood of patients with and without diabetes elicited during routine periodontal probing and venous blood sample. Seventy patients with moderate gingivitis and periodontitis positive for bleeding on probing were chosen. All the subjects were divided in two groups, group I consisted of 35 diabetic and group II of 35 non-diabetic subjects. Blood from the gingiva of the most inflamed site was collected with the test strip of a glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, intravenous blood was collected for measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Gingival index and probing pocket depth were evaluated for each subject at same time. The mean GCB levels and VB derived from all samples were 156.07 ± 49.23 mg dl(-1) and 156 ± 49.89 mg dl(-1) , respectively, for diabetic group and 90.80 ± 11.07 and 93.41 ± 9.30 for non-diabetic group. In both the groups, the difference between GCB and VB glucose levels was non-significant (P > 0.005). Highly significant correlation between GCB and VB (r = 0.972 for diabetic and r = 0.721 for non-diabetic) in both the groups was found. The data from this study show that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source for estimation of blood sugar or glucometric analysis. This technique is also suitable for routine screening of diabetic and early diagnosis of unknown diabetic cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clinical results from a noninvasive blood glucose monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas B.; Ruchti, Timothy L.; Lorenz, Alex D.; Monfre, Stephen L.; Makarewicz, M. R.; Mattu, Mutua; Hazen, Kevin

    2002-05-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has long been proposed as a means for advancing the management of diabetes through increased measurement and control. The use of a near-infrared, NIR, spectroscopy based methodology for noninvasive monitoring has been pursued by a number of groups. The accuracy of the NIR measurement technology is limited by challenges related to the instrumentation, the heterogeneity and time-variant nature of skin tissue, and the complexity of the calibration methodology. In this work, we discuss results from a clinical study that targeted the evaluation of individual calibrations for each subject based on a series of controlled calibration visits. While the customization of the calibrations to individuals was intended to reduce model complexity, the extensive requirements for each individual set of calibration data were difficult to achieve and required several days of measurement. Through the careful selection of a small subset of data from all samples collected on the 138 study participants in a previous study, we have developed a methodology for applying a single standard calibration to multiple persons. The standard calibrations have been applied to a plurality of individuals and shown to be persistent over periods greater than 24 weeks.

  11. Effect of emulin on blood glucose in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Milton Joseph; Thompson, Daryl L

    2013-03-01

    Emulin™ is a patented blend of chlorogenic acid, myricetin, and quercetin that has shown efficacy in reducing midday and post-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) area under the curve (AUC) glucose in streptozotocin-treated rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if similar effects would be evident in type 2 diabetic humans. Forty human subjects with confirmed type 2 diabetes (10 each in 4 groups: placebo/no medication, Emulin/no medication, placebo/metformin and Emulin/metformin) were evaluated. At the end of 1 week, fasting blood glucose, 2 h postprandial, actual peak glucose, and AUC (post-50 g OGTT) were determined. The placebo-only group had a large (5%-13%) increase in all parameters. The Emulin group and those on metformin performed similarly with reductions between 1% and 5%, with Emulin slightly outperforming the medication-alone group. The most significant reduction occurred in the Emulin/metformin group, with decreases in the parameters by up to 20%. These results suggest that Emulin, if consumed regularly, could not only have the acute effect of lowering the glycemic impact of foods, but chronically lower background blood glucose levels of type 2 diabetics.

  12. A portable measuring system for a competitive binding glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Lydia E.; Means, A. Kristen; Grunlan, Melissa A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2018-02-01

    Central to minimizing the long- and short-term complications associated with diabetes is careful monitoring and maintenance of blood glucose at normal levels. Towards replacing conventionally used finger-prick glucose testing, indwelling continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) based on amperometric electrodes have been introduced to the market. Envisioned to lead to a CGM with an increased lifetime, we report herein a fluorescently-labeled competitive binding assay contained within a hydrogel membrane whose glucose response is measured via a novel portable system. The optical system design included a laser source, bifurcated fiber, laser filter and simple fiber coupled spectrometer to obtain the change in FRET pair ratio of the assay. Glucose response of the assay in free solution was measured using this system across the physiologic range (0-200 mg/dL). The FRET pair ratio signal was seen to increase with glucose and the standard error of calibration was 22.42 mg/dL with a MARD value of 14.85%. When the assay was contained within the hydrogel membrane's central cavity and similarly analyzed, the standard error increased but the assay maintained its reversibility.

  13. The Relationship Between a Balanced Time Perspective and Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose Among People With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Harriet M; Webb, Thomas L; Martin, Jilly; Sirois, Fuschia M

    2018-05-10

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose helps people with type 1 diabetes to maintain glycemic control and reduce the risk of complications. However, adherence to blood glucose monitoring is often suboptimal. Like many health behaviors, self-monitoring of blood glucose involves exerting effort in the present to achieve future benefits. As such, the present research explored whether individual differences in time perspective-specifically, the extent to which people have a balanced time perspective-are associated with the frequency with which people with type 1 diabetes monitor their blood glucose and, thus, maintain glycemic control. Adults with type 1 diabetes completed measures of time perspective, feelings associated with monitoring, attitudes toward monitoring, and trait self-control. Objective data regarding the frequency with which participants monitored their blood glucose levels and their long-term glycemic control were extracted from their medical records. Hierarchical regression analyses and tests of indirect effects (N = 129) indicated that having a more balanced time perspective was associated with more frequent monitoring of blood glucose and, as a result, better glycemic control. Further analyses (N = 158) also indicated that there was an indirect relationship between balanced time perspective and monitoring of blood glucose via the feelings that participants associated with monitoring and their subsequent attitudes toward monitoring. These findings point to the importance and relevance of time perspective for understanding health-related behavior and may help to inform interventions designed to promote self-monitoring of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes.

  14. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  15. Relationship between fluctuations in glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring and vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torimoto Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in blood glucose level cause endothelial dysfunction and play a critical role in onset and/or progression of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that fluctuation in blood glucose levels correlate with vascular endothelial dysfunction and that this relationship can be assessed using common bedside medical devices. Methods Fluctuations in blood glucose levels were measured over 24 hours by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM on admission day 2 in 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI, an index of vascular endothelial function, was measured using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT on admission day 3. Results The natural logarithmic-scaled RHI (L_RHI correlated with SD (r=−0.504; PPP=0.001 and percentage of time ≥200 mg/dl (r=−0.292; P=0.028. In 12 patients with hypoglycemia, L_RHI also correlated with the percentage of time at hypoglycemia (r=−0.589; P=0.044. L_RHI did not correlate with HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, L_RHI did not correlate with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels or with systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Finally, multivariate analysis identified MAGE as the only significant determinant of L_RHI. Conclusions Fluctuations in blood glucose levels play a significant role in vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Trial registration UMIN000007581

  16. Long-term blood glucose monitoring with implanted telemetry device in conscious and stress-free cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Sun, G; Qiao, W; Liu, Y; Qiao, J; Ye, W; Wang, H; Wang, X; Lindquist, R; Wang, Y; Xiao, Y-F

    2017-09-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring, especially long-term and remote, in diabetic patients or research is very challenging. Nonhuman primate (NHP) is an excellent model for metabolic research, because NHPs can naturally develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) similarly to humans. This study was to investigate blood glucose changes in conscious, moving-free cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during circadian, meal, stress and drug exposure. Blood glucose, body temperature and physical activities were continuously and simultaneously recorded by implanted HD-XG telemetry device for up to 10 weeks. Blood glucose circadian changes in normoglycemic monkeys significantly differed from that in diabetic animals. Postprandial glucose increase was more obvious after afternoon feeding. Moving a monkey from its housing cage to monkey chair increased blood glucose by 30% in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys. Such increase in blood glucose declined to the pre-procedure level in 30 min in normoglycemic animals and >2 h in diabetic monkeys. Oral gavage procedure alone caused hyperglycemia in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys. Intravenous injection with the stress hormones, angiotensin II (2 μg/kg) or norepinephrine (0.4 μg/kg), also increased blood glucose level by 30%. The glucose levels measured by the telemetry system correlated significantly well with glucometer readings during glucose tolerance tests (ivGTT or oGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), graded glucose infusion (GGI) and clamp. Our data demonstrate that the real-time telemetry method is reliable for monitoring blood glucose remotely and continuously in conscious, stress-free, and moving-free NHPs with the advantages highly valuable to diabetes research and drug discovery.

  17. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author)

  18. Pseudohyperglycemia: Effects of Unwashed Hand after Fruit Peeling or Handling on Fingertips Blood Glucose Monitoring Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamoyegun, M A; Oloyede, T; Adewoye, O G; Abdulkarim, S O; Adeleke, A A

    2016-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of management for diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in T1DM and T2DM patients who are on insulin therapy. Adequate blood glucose monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to prevent blood glucose (BG) fluctuation and delay long-term diabetes complications. People with DM are advised to clean their hands before SMBG to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. The study tested the hypothesis that falsely elevated BG levels from fingertip occur after peeling or handling fruits in an unwashed hand. Fifty apparently healthy nondiabetes volunteers were enrolled. Capillary BG samples were collected from the fingertips after peeling or handling apple, orange, banana, watermelon, and pawpaw, followed by no hand washing for 1 h, cleaning the fingertip with alcohol swab once, five times, and washing hand thoroughly with tap water and drying. These samples were then analyzed with two different glucose meters. The mean BG values, measured from fingertip blood samples after peeling, and handling any of the fruits followed by no hand washing were significantly high, even after cleaning fingertip with a swab of alcohol once. However, there were no significant difference in BG levels measured after peeling and handling fruits followed by hand washing and the level of BG before peeling and handling fruits. Handling of peeled fruits with no hand washing with tap water is associated with overestimation of capillary BG (Pseudohyperglycemia) monitored with glucose meters.

  19. Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.

  20. High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 100 ... blood glucose? Be sure to drink plenty of water. It is recommended to drink a minimum of ...

  1. Facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in man and the effect of moderate hypoglycaemia on cerebral glucose utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, G.; Widen, L.; Hellstrand, E.; Gutniak, M.; Grill, V.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of steady-state moderate hypoglycaemia on human brain homeostasis has been studied with positron emission tomography using D-glucose 11 C(ul) as tracer. To rule out any effects of insulin, the plasma insulin concentration was maintained at the same level under normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. Reduction of blood glucose by 55% increased the glucose clearance through the blood-brain barrier by 50% and reduced brain glucose consumption by 40%. Blood flow was not affected. The results are consistent with facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in humans. The maximal transport rate of glucose from blood to brain was found to be 62±19 (mean±SEM) μmol hg -1 min -1 , and the half-saturation constant was found to be 4.1±3.2 mM. (orig.)

  2. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level.

  3. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  4. Community nurses and self-management of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, S; Burns, J; Gleadell, A; Gunnell, C

    2007-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is commonly recommended to patients with diabetes, although the rationale for this is unclear. This small research project was designed to explore the reasons why nurses working in the community recommend SMBG. Seven interviews were carried out with community nurses caring primarily for housebound patients. Those interviewed believed that a sound evidence-base supported the recommendation that patients test their blood, but not urine, for glucose levels. Though nurses believed in the importance of patient choice and empowerment, the scope for these was limited among housebound patients. There was no evidence that patients understood how to respond to test results, or that comprehensive care planning was normal practice. Although small, this study suggests that nurses working in community settings may need to update their knowledge. It also suggests that a national debate is necessary to disseminate better the evidence about SMBG, and its implications for nursing practice.

  5. Smart point-of-care systems for molecular diagnostics based on nanotechnology: whole blood glucose analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P.; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-07-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) film chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations of blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent was adsorbed onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the PET film chip. The AFSiO2 nanoparticles can immobilize the assay reagent with an electrostatic attraction and eased to develop the opaque platform which was technically suitable chip to analyze by the camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique. The photon number decreases with increasing glucose concentration. The simple sensing approach, utilizing enzyme immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticle chip and assay detection method was developed for quantitative glucose measurement.

  6. Application of chronic intravascular blood glucose sensor in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J C; Lucisano, J Y; McKean, B D; Gough, D A

    1990-12-01

    An intravenous glucose sensor was implanted in six dogs for 1-15 wk. The glucose sensor is a flexible cylinder, approximately 0.2 cm diam and 30 cm long, with a tip containing immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase coupled to a potentiostatic O2 sensor. The sensor and a similar O2 reference sensor were implanted in the superior vena cava near the entrance of the right atrium. The sensor response was conveyed externally either by a telemetry system implanted nearby, surgically accessed leads, or chronically maintained percutaneous leads. Summing over the six implants, there was a total implantation period of 333 days during which glucose sensors were functional on demand. The sensor response showed agreement with conventionally assayed blood samples after accounting for a response lag. Sensor response to glucose showed little change over the implant period. Biocompatibility, enzyme lifetime, O2 availability, O2 sensor stability, and biochemical interference were not limitations. Results demonstrated that this sensor can function effectively as an implant in dogs for a period of months and has the potential for long-term operation.

  7. The Period of Operation and Perioperative Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic data as well as duration of fast was obtained, blood glucose level was estimated by One touch glucometer (Life Scan Inc. USA) immediately after induction. The mean age of the children was 4.1±2.6 yr and the mean weight was 15.9±6.2 kg. The mean duration of preoperative fast was 13.1±4.2 h (5-23) h.

  8. The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on blood glucose in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were grouped into two: groups A (control) and B (Test B1 and Test B2). Group A received water and feed (grower's mash) with grass supplementation. Group B (Test B1 and B2) received 3.33mg/ml and 6.66mg/ml of MSG respectively at libitum. At the end of each week, fasting blood glucose levels were ...

  9. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that b...

  10. Blood plasma separation in ZnO nanoflowers-supported paper based microfluidic for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Luthviyah Choirotul; Roekmono, Hadi, Harsono; Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2018-04-01

    Blood plasma separation is essential to analyze and quantify the bio-substances in the human blood and hence, allows for diagnosing various diseases. This paper presents the two layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers (ZnO NF-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing. Plasma separation in ZnO NF-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose detection was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The glucose concentrations in the red blood samples investigated here vary in the range of 150 - 310 mg.dl-1. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 240 ± 93 s. The spectroscopic data reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose are increasing at higher glucose concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO NF and the paper, linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

  11. Tissue glycogen and blood glucose in irradiated rats. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Paulikova, E.; Praslicka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Fed and starved (overnight) male rats of the Wistar strain were exposed to whole-body irradiation with 14.35 Gy (1500 R) of X-rays. After irradiation and sham-irradiation all animals were starved until examination performed 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. The concentration of glucose in the blood and the concentration of glycogen in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle, brown and white adipose tissue were determined. The concentrations of blood glucose and liver glycogen were found to increase between 1 and 6 h after irradiation of the starved animals. The most pronounced increase in glycogen concentration in the liver and heart muscle was observed 24 and 48 h after irradiation. A similar increase in the concentration of blood glucose was found between 48 and 72 h after irradiation. The fed and starved irradiated rats reacted differently, particularly between 48 and 72 h; the liver glycogen concentration decreased in the fed animals and remained elevated in the starved ones. Very high values of terminal glycemia were observed in both groups. The accumulation of glycogen in the heart muscle indicates that this organ is sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author)

  12. Tissue glycogen and blood glucose in irradiated rats. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Male rats of the Wistar strain were continuously irradiated with 0.57 Gy (60 R) of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Irradiation lasted from 1 to 50 days in an experimental field where also control animals shielded from radiation were placed. After a 16 h starvation, the concentration of glucose in the blood and of glycogen in the liver and the heart was determined 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 25, 32, 39 and 50 days after the beginning of irradiation. The concentration of blood glucose in irradiated rats did not practically differ from that of control animals during the whole period of investigation. The concentration of liver glycogen in irradiated animals was higher than that in the controls during all time intervals, except for day 1. The values of glycogen in the heart muscle were approximately identical in the irradiated and control rats, except for day 21 when they sharply increased in the irradiated animals. In addition to the investigation of blood glucose and tissue glycogen during continuous irradiation, these parameters were studied immediately, and 1, 6 and 12 months after continuous irradiation with a daily exposure of 0.57 Gy (60 R) up to a total exposure of 14.35 Gy (1500 R) of gamma rays. Considerably higher values of liver glycogen were detected in the irradiated rats immediately, and 1 and 6 months after the end of irradiation. (author)

  13. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wróbel, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  15. Effect of vigorous physical activity on blood lipid and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyoung-Jeong; Lee, Han-Joon

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how the participation of vigorous physical activities in the health examination contributes to blood lipid and blood glucose. A total of 56,810 workers from the Ulsan University Hospital in Ulsan, Subjects were tested for health checkups from February to November in 2016. The subject is those who does not have medical history, current ailments, and medication histories, and selected those who conducted the study of subjects tested to research. And this study did not consider their drinking and smoking. The final selected population was 11,557 and categorized as a vigorous physical activity of the health survey items. In this study, the group participated by the vigorous physical activity activities, group 1 (n= 70) had more than 6 days of vigorous physical activity, group 2 (n= 2,960) is 3 to 5 days of vigorous physical activity, the group 3 (n= 7,389) is 1 to 2 days of vigorous physical activity. The group 4 (n= 1,138) were classified as those who did not perform vigorous physical activity. To achieve the purpose of the study, the questionnaire examined blood lipid and blood glucose, using questions related to physical activity related to health examination in the Ulsan University Hospital. We obtained the mean and standard deviation for each group and conducted the one-way analysis of variance as an independent variable. Post hoc is least significant difference test and significant level is 0.05. Vigorous physical activity more than 3 days of participation had a positive affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. But participation in vigorous physical activity did not affect blood glucose.

  16. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  17. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin-converti......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin......-converting enzyme (ACE) blockade] or without (control) administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril (10 mg iv). Splanchnic blood flow was estimated by indocyanine green, and splanchnic substrate exchange was determined by the arteriohepatic venous difference. Exercise led to an approximately 20-fold increase (P ...-blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE...

  18. Clinical assessment of blood glucose homeostasis in horses: comparison of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a combined intravenous glucose and insulin test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P J; Wiedmeyer, C E; LaCarrubba, A; Messer, N T; Dingfelder, H A; Cogswell, A M; Amorim, J R R; Ganjam, V K

    2011-01-01

    The combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) is helpful for evaluating insulin sensitivity. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) reports changes in interstitial glucose concentrations as they occur in the blood. Use of the CGMS minimizes animal contact and may be useful when performing a CGIT. Results obtained using a CGMS are useful for the evaluation of glucose responses during the evaluation of insulin sensitivity in equids. Seven mature, obese ponies. Ponies were equipped with CGMS for determination of interstitial glucose concentrations. Glucose (150 mg/kg, i.v.) and insulin (0.1 U/kg, i.v.) were administered and blood glucose concentrations determined at (minutes after time zero) 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 with a hand-held glucometer. Blood chemistry results were compared with simultaneously obtained results using CGMS. Concordance coefficients determined for comparison of blood glucose concentrations determined by a hand-held glucometer and those determined by CGMS after the zero time point were 0.623, 0.764, 0.834, 0.854, and 0.818 (for delays of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively). Interstitial glucose concentrations obtained by the CGMS compared favorably to blood glucose concentrations. CGMS may be useful for assessment of glucose dynamics in the CGIT. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Peripheral Blood Transcriptomic Signatures of Fasting Glucose and Insulin Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian H.; Hivert, Marie-France; Peters, Marjolein J.; Pilling, Luke C.; Hogan, John D.; Pham, Lisa M.; Harries, Lorna W.; Fox, Caroline S.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Dehghan, Abbas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hofman, Albert; Hong, Jaeyoung; Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Munson, Peter J.; Rybin, Denis V.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ying, Saixia; Melzer, David; Levy, Daniel; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josée

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci associated with glycemic traits. However, characterizing the functional significance of these loci has proven challenging. We sought to gain insights into the regulation of fasting insulin and fasting glucose through the use of gene expression microarray data from peripheral blood samples of participants without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 5,056), the Rotterdam Study (RS) (n = 723), and the InCHIANTI Study (Invecchiare in Chianti) (n = 595). Using a false discovery rate q fasting glucose and 433 transcripts associated with fasting insulin levels after adjusting for age, sex, technical covariates, and complete blood cell counts. Among the findings, circulating IGF2BP2 transcript levels were positively associated with fasting insulin in both the FHS and RS. Using 1000 Genomes–imputed genotype data, we identified 47,587 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and 6,695 trans-eQTL associated with the 433 significant insulin-associated transcripts. Of note, we identified a trans-eQTL (rs592423), where the A allele was associated with higher IGF2BP2 levels and with fasting insulin in an independent genetic meta-analysis comprised of 50,823 individuals. We conclude that integration of genomic and transcriptomic data implicate circulating IGF2BP2 mRNA levels associated with glucose and insulin homeostasis. PMID:27625022

  20. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated.

  1. Effects of blood glucose on delay discounting, food intake and counterregulation in lean and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Johanna; Kubera, Britta; Eggeling, Jonas; Rädel, Christin; Wagner, Christin; Park, Soyoung Q; Peters, Achim

    2018-03-01

    Delay discounting as a measure of impulsivity has been shown to be higher in obesity with an association of increased food intake. Moreover, obese humans showed a higher wanting for high-calorie food than lean men when blood glucose concentrations were low. First studies linking blood glucose levels to delay discounting yielded mixed results. We hypothesized that obese people - in comparison to lean men - have a relative lack of energy, especially when blood glucose levels are low, that results in higher levels of delay discounting, food intake and hormonal counterregulation. We investigated 20 lean and 20 obese healthy young men in a single-blind balanced cross-over design. With a standardized glucose clamp technique, subjects underwent a hypoglycemic state in one condition and a euglycemic state in the control condition. Regularly, blood was sampled for assessment of hormonal status, and questionnaires were filled out to assess delay discounting and symptom awareness. After normalizing blood glucose concentrations, subjects were free to eat from a standardized test buffet, followed by a snack test. Delay discounting was higher in obese than in lean men throughout experiments (p  0.1). Furthermore, the discounting performance did not correlate with food intake from the test buffet or snack test (p > 0.3). As a response to hypoglycemia, hormonal counterregulation was pronounced in both weight groups (p  0.5). Our data suggest that augmented delay discounting is a robust feature in obesity that is not linked to glucose levels or actual food intake. With our systematically controlled approach, combining performance in delay discounting with regard to distinct blood glucose levels, different weight groups, counterregulatory behavior and food intake, our results imply that delay discounting is not susceptible to fluctuations of blood glucose and do not support the assumption that a low body's energy content leads to increased impulsivity. Further

  2. Cook and Chill: Effect of Temperature on the Performance of Nonequilibrated Blood Glucose Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Sherine; Steele, Dominic; Clarke, Sarah; Gribben, Cathryn; Bexley, Anne-Marie; Laan, Remmert; Kerr, David

    2015-08-20

    Exposure to extreme temperature can affect the performance of blood glucose monitoring systems. The aim was to determine the non-equilibrated performance of these systems at extreme high and low temperatures that can occur in daily life. The performances of 5 test systems, (1) Abbott FreeStyle Freedom Lite, (2) Roche AccuChek Aviva, (3) Bayer Contour, (4) LifeScan OneTouch Verio, and (5) Sanofi BG Star, were compared after "cooking" (50°C for 1 hour) or "chilling" (-5°C for 1 hour) with room temperature controls (23°C) using whole blood with glucose concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/dl. The equilibration period (time from the end of incubation to when the test system is operational) was between 1 and 8 minutes, and each test system took between 15 and 30 minutes after incubation to obtain stable measurements at room temperature. Incubating the strips at -5°C or 50°C had little effect on the glucose measurement, whereas incubating the meters introduced bias in performance between 0 and 15 minutes but not subsequently, compared to room temperature controls and at all 3 glucose levels. Compensating technologies embedded within blood glucose monitoring systems studied here perform well at extreme temperatures. People with diabetes need to be alerted to this feature to avoid perceptions of malperformance of their devices and the possible inability to get blood glucose readings on short notice (eg, during time of suspected rapid change or before an unplanned meal). © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Mesenteric blood flow, glucose absorption and blood pressure responses to small intestinal glucose in critically ill patients older than 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jennifer A; Horowitz, M; Summers, M J; Trahair, L G; Goud, R S; Zaknic, A V; Hausken, T; Fraser, J D; Chapman, M J; Jones, K L; Deane, A M

    2013-02-01

    To compare nutrient-stimulated changes in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow, glucose absorption and glycaemia in individuals older than 65 years with, and without, critical illness. Following a 1-h 'observation' period (t (0)-t (60)), 0.9 % saline and glucose (1 kcal/ml) were infused directly into the small intestine at 2 ml/min between t (60)-t (120), and t (120)-t (180), respectively. SMA blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasonography at t (60) (fasting), t (90) and t (150) and is presented as raw values and nutrient-stimulated increment from baseline (Δ). Glucose absorption was evaluated using serum 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG) concentrations during, and for 1 h after, the glucose infusion (i.e. t (120)-t (180) and t (120)-t (240)). Mean arterial pressure was recorded between t (60)-t (240). Data are presented as median (25th, 75th percentile). Eleven mechanically ventilated critically ill patients [age 75 (69, 79) years] and nine healthy volunteers [70 (68, 77) years] were studied. The magnitude of the nutrient-stimulated increase in SMA flow was markedly less in the critically ill when compared with healthy subjects [Δt (150): patients 115 (-138, 367) versus health 836 (618, 1,054) ml/min; P = 0.001]. In patients, glucose absorption was reduced during, and for 1 h after, the glucose infusion when compared with health [AUC(120-180): 4.571 (2.591, 6.551) versus 11.307 (8.447, 14.167) mmol/l min; P AUC(120-240): 26.5 (17.7, 35.3) versus 40.6 (31.7, 49.4) mmol/l min; P = 0.031]. A close relationship between the nutrient-stimulated increment in SMA flow and glucose absorption was evident (3-OMG AUC(120-180) and ∆SMA flow at t (150): r (2) = 0.29; P 65 years, stimulation of SMA flow by small intestinal glucose infusion may be attenuated, which could account for the reduction in glucose absorption.

  4. Effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome after radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Hua, Qingli; Jin, Changming; Guo, Chunling; Song, Bing

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome (MS) after radical gastrectomy. A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer, who were treated in Daqing Longnan Hospital from November, 2015 to May, 2017, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into the MS group (80 cases) and non-MS group (70 cases). Patients in the MS group were given corresponding drugs to control blood pressure, blood lipids and blood glucose, while patients in the non-MS group were not treated with those drugs. Patients in the MS group were divided into the normal and abnormal groups according to the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure. Moreover, occurrences of complications were compared between the normal and abnormal groups. Before surgery, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure of the MS group decreased significantly compared to those before operation (pblood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total triglycerides (TGs), LDL, mean blood pressure and BMI (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in patients with gastric cancer complicated with MS after radical gastrectomy can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and promote postoperative recovery.

  5. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  6. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Wewer Albrechtsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61 appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after. Studies in hepatocytes and in β cells demonstrated that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in vivo. We conclude that glucagon variants, such as PG 1-61, may contribute to glucose regulation by stimulating hepatic glucose production and insulin secretion.

  7. Change of blood glucose level and its possible mechanism in patients with cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weizhen; Zhang Yong; Zhang Zikang; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the change of blood glucose levels in patients with cerebral stroke, the levels of blood glucose, cortisol, glucogen, insulin, growth hormone, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were dynamically measured in 90 patients with cerebral stroke. The circumstances of brain middle line movement, lateral ventricle oppression and entrance brain ventricle of burst hematoma of the patients were examines by CT scan. The total incidence of hyperglycemia in the patients was 42.22%. The blood glucose level was positively related to the cortisol and glucogen levels, and negatively related to the T 3 level. The changed level of blood glucose and its related hormones both returned to normal range in 10 days. Both the ACTH level and the rate of cerebral pathological change in hyperglycemia group were significantly higher than that in normoglycemia and control groups. The rate of cerebral pathological change in elevated ACTH level group was higher than that in normal ACTH level group. The mechanism of hyperglycemia in the patients with cerebral stroke might be related to the stimulation of the hypothalamus, which may induce the discharge of ACTH and glucagon releasing factor, and to that the level of cortisol and glucagon increased, the level of T 3 decreased

  8. Trend Estimation of Blood Glucose Level Fluctuations Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamaguchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated calorie-calculating software that calculates and records the total calorific food intake by choosing a meal menu selected using a computer mouse. The purpose of this software was to simplify data collection throughout a person's normal life, even if they were inexperienced computer operators. Three portable commercial devices have also been prepared a blood glucose monitor, a metabolic rate monitor and a mobile-computer, and linked into the calorie-calculating software. Time-course changes of the blood glucose level, metabolic rate and food intake were measured using these devices during a 3 month period. Based on the data collected in this study we could predict blood glucose levels of the next morning (FBG by modeling using data mining. Although a large error rate was found for predicting the absolute value, conditions could be found that improved the accuracy of the predicting trends in blood glucose level fluctuations by up to 90 %. However, in order to further improve the accuracy of estimation it was necessary to obtain further details about the patients' life style or to optimise the input variables that were dependent on each patient rather than collecting data over longer periods.

  9. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...

  10. Asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection of the blood glucose regulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Brandon; Liu, Weijiu

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance. For this, a mathematical model for the glucose disturbance is proposed on the basis of experimental data, and then incorporated into an existing blood glucose regulation model. Because all the eigenvalues of the disturbance model have zero real parts, the center manifold theory is used to establish blood glucose regulator equations. We then use their solutions to synthesize a required feedback and feedforward controller to reject the disturbance and asymptotically track a constant glucose reference of 90  mg/dl. Since the regulator equations are nonlinear partial differential equations and usually impossible to solve analytically, a linear approximation solution is obtained. Our numerical simulations show that, under the linear approximate feedback and feedforward controller, the blood glucose asymptotically tracks its desired level of 90 mg/dl approximately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Proportional Insulin Infusion in Closed-Loop Control of Blood Glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, Johan; Callender, Hannah L.; Mensink, Marco; Pietropaolo, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    A differential equation model is formulated that describes the dynamics of glucose concentration in blood circulation. The model accounts for the intake of food, expenditure of calories and the control of glucose levels by insulin and glucagon. These and other hormones affect the blood glucose level

  12. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Kuhre, Rune E.; Hornburg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in......Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia) contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among...... which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61) appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after. Studies in hepatocytes and in β cells demonstrated...

  13. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) or Blood Glucose Monitoring (BGM): Interactions and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2018-04-01

    At the 2017 10th annual International Conference on Advanced Technologies and Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) in Paris, France, four speakers presented their perspectives on the roles of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) in patient management within one symposium. These presentations included discussions of the differences in the accuracy of CGM and BGM, a clinical perspective on the physiological reasons behind differences in CGM and BGM values, and an overview of the impact of variations in device accuracy on patients with diabetes. Subsequently a short summary of these presentations is given, highlighting the value of good accuracy of BGM or CGM systems and the ongoing need for standardization. The important role of both BGM and CGM in patient management was a theme across all presentations.

  14. Elevated Hemoglobin A1C Levels Correlate with Blood Glucose Elevation in Diabetic Patients following Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Hand: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Schroeder, Jake; Hoffler, C Edward; Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic patients develop hand conditions that are managed with local corticosteroid injections. Injections can result in a transient elevation in serum glucose in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c is the accepted measure of long-term plasma glucose control in diabetics (levels ≥7 percent reflect poor blood glucose control). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels and increased blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injections. Twenty-five diabetic patients were evaluated prospectively. One milliliter containing 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was used. The most recent hemoglobin A1c level and normal average blood glucose levels were obtained. Glucose levels were obtained from patient recall of their daily blood glucose self- monitoring on the day of the injection. Postinjection blood glucose levels were recorded until levels returned to preinjection baseline. Twenty patients (80 percent) had elevation of their blood glucose level from baseline. No patient had elevated blood glucose levels after 5 days. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent had a higher blood glucose elevation and maintained this for longer than those who had a lower hemoglobin A1c level. Patients in the higher hemoglobin A1c group also had a higher number of hyperglycemic events. There was a strong or moderate correlation between hemoglobin A1c and elevated blood glucose levels during days 1 to 4. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent have elevations in blood glucose that are higher and last longer than patients with lower levels. Hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to roughly predict the degree of blood glucose elevation after corticosteroid injections into the hands of diabetic patients.

  15. Factors interfering with the accuracy of five blood glucose meters used in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hong; Zhang, Guo-jun; Kang, Xi-xiong; Yuan, Hui; Lv, Yan-wei; Wang, Wen-wen; Randall, Rollins

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in China. Glucose control is very important in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of five glucose meters used in Chinese hospitals with a reference method, in the absence and presence of various factors that may interfere with the meters. Within-run precision of the meters was evaluated include Roche Accu-Chek Inform®, Abbott Precision PCx FreeStyle®, Bayer Contour®, J&J LifeScan SureStep Flexx®, and Nova Biomedical StatStrip®. The interference of hematocrit level, maltose, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, galactose, dopamine, and uric acid were tested in three levels of blood glucose, namely low, medium, and high concentrations. Accuracy (bias) of the meters and analytical interference by various factors were evaluated by comparing results obtained in whole blood specimens with those in plasma samples of the whole blood specimens run on the reference method. Impact of oxygen tension on above five blood glucose meters was detected. Precision was acceptable and slightly different between meters. There were no significant differences in the measurements between the meters and the reference method. The hematocrit level significantly interfered with all meters, except StatStrip. Measurements were affected to varying degrees by different substances at different glucose levels, e.g. acetaminophen and ascorbic acid (Freestyle), maltose and galactose (FreeStyle, Accu-Chek), uric acid (FreeStyle, Bayer Contour), and dopamine (Bayer Contour). The measurements with the five meters showed a good correlation with the plasma hexokinase reference method, but most were affected by the hematocrit level. Some meters also showed marked interference by other substances. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Intracerebroventricular Kainic Acid-Induced Damage Affects Blood Glucose Level in d-glucose-fed Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chea-Ha; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2015-03-01

    We have previously reported that the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of kainic acid (KA) results in significant neuronal damage on the hippocampal CA3 region. In this study, we examined possible changes in the blood glucose level after i.c.v. pretreatment with KA. The blood glucose level was elevated at 30 min, began to decrease at 60 min and returned to normal at 120 min after D-glucose-feeding. We found that the blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group was higher than in the saline-pretreated group. The up-regulation of the blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group was still present even after 1~4 weeks. The plasma corticosterone and insulin levels were slightly higher in the KA-treated group. Corticosterone levels decreased whereas insulin levels were elevated when mice were fed with D-glucose. The i.c.v. pretreatment with KA for 24 hr caused a significant reversal of D-glucose-induced down-regulation of corticosterone level. However, the insulin level was enhanced in the KA-pretreated group compared to the vehicle-treated group when mice were fed with D-glucose. These results suggest that KA-induced alterations of the blood glucose level are related to cell death in the CA3 region whereas the up-regulation of blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group appears to be due to a reversal of D-glucose feeding-induced down-regulation of corticosterone level.

  17. Prognostic value of low blood glucose at the presentation of E. coli bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Shamsuddin; Volkova, Natalia B; Peterson, Michael W

    2006-11-01

    Septicemia is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and Escherichia coli is the most common isolate in blood cultures. Low blood glucose is a known complication of sepsis. The prognostic role of low blood glucose in E. coli bacteremia is unknown. The study's objective was to identify the incidence of low blood glucose at the presentation of E. coli bacteremia and determine its influence on prognosis and outcome. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in university-affiliated community hospitals. Subjects were consecutive patients diagnosed with E. coli bacteremia between 1997 and 2003. We identified 1060 patients with documented E. coli bacteremia. We excluded 105 patients who were younger than 18 years old or pregnant. We recorded demographic characteristics, discharge diagnosis, and outcome. Among the 955 patients with E. coli bacteremia, the average age was 64+/-19.4 years. Overall, 4.6% had documented low blood glucose (blood glucose <70 mg/dL) at presentation. The incidence of low blood glucose was the same in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Patients with low blood glucose had a 4.7 times higher risk of death compared to patients with non-low blood glucose. Race, age, sex, and diabetes had no influence on survival. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary sources for E. coli bacteremia were more commonly associated with low blood glucose (P <.001). The study was limited to E. coli-positive blood cultures and to the one hospital system. Low blood glucose is present at the onset of E. coli bacteremia in 4.6% of patients. This represents a potentially large number of patients because E. coli is the most common blood culture isolate. Low blood glucose predicts poor outcome, especially in patients with abnormal hepatic and renal function. Low blood glucose should be considered an early clinical sign of E. coli bacteremia and aggressive therapy should be instituted to potentially save lives.

  18. Data Based Prediction of Blood Glucose Concentrations Using Evolutionary Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J Ignacio; Colmenar, J Manuel; Kronberger, Gabriel; Winkler, Stephan M; Garnica, Oscar; Lanchares, Juan

    2017-08-08

    Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections. In particular, we use the following four techniques: genetic programming, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, and grammatical evolution. We propose two new enhanced modeling algorithms for glucose prediction, namely (i) a variant of grammatical evolution which uses an optimized grammar, and (ii) a variant of tree-based genetic programming which uses a three-compartment model for carbohydrate and insulin dynamics. The predictors were trained and tested using data of ten patients from a public hospital in Spain. We analyze our experimental results using the Clarke error grid metric and see that 90% of the forecasts are correct (i.e., Clarke error categories A and B), but still even the best methods produce 5 to 10% of serious errors (category D) and approximately 0.5% of very serious errors (category E). We also propose an enhanced genetic programming algorithm that incorporates a three-compartment model into symbolic regression models to create smoothed time series of the original carbohydrate and insulin time series.

  19. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is associated with problem-solving skills in hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zgibor, Janice; Matthews, Judith T; Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Sereika, Susan M; Siminerio, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and problem-solving skills in response to detected hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were obtained from the American Association of Diabetes Educators Outcome System, implemented in 8 diabetes self-management education programs in western Pennsylvania. SMBG was measured by asking patients how often they checked, missed checking, or checked blood glucose later than planned. Problem-solving skill was measured by asking how often they modified their behaviors after detecting high or low blood glucose. Most patients checked their blood glucose at least once per day. However, when blood glucose was high or low, many of them reported doing nothing, and only some of them resolved the problem. There were significant associations between self-monitoring of blood glucose and problem-solving skills for hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, and time since diagnosis. Patients reported poor problem-solving skills when detecting hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia via SMBG. Patients need to learn problem-solving skills along with SMBG training to achieve glycemic control.

  20. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  1. Blood Glucose, Insulin and Inorganic Phosphorus in Healthy and Ketotic Dairy Cows after Intravenous Infusion of Glucose Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojica Djoković

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of blood glucose utilization by peripheral tissue on the basis of changes in blood concentrations of glucose, insulin and inorganic phosphorus in healthy (n = 10 and ketotic cows (n = 10 after intravenous infusion of glucose solution. Blood samples were taken in both groups of examined cows at the following time intervals: just before (time 0 and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after intravenous infusion of a total of 500 ml of 50% of glucose solution. Glucose and insulin blood serum values in both groups of cows increased significantly within 30 and 60 min of the experiment (p p p < 0.05 in the blood value of inorganic phosphorus in ketotic cows compared to the healthy ones. This is linked with the active entry of glucose into the glucolytic pathway of peripheral tissues. It can thus be concluded that there is a higher degree of blood glucose utilization by peripheral tissues in ketotic cows.

  2. Acute effects of feeding fructose, glucose and sucrose on blood lipid levels and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Faizan; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2014-12-16

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between fructose consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms by which dietary fructose mediates metabolic changes are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of fructose, glucose and sucrose consumption on post-postprandial lipemia and low grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP. This was a randomized, single blinded, cross-over trial involving healthy subjects (n=14). After an overnight fast, participants were given one of 3 different isocaloric drinks, containing 50 g of either fructose or glucose or sucrose dissolved in water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention for the analysis of blood lipids, glucose, insulin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Glucose and sucrose supplementation initially resulted in a significant increase in glucose and insulin levels compared to fructose supplementation and returned to near baseline values within 2 hours. Change in plasma cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol (measured as area under curve, AUC) was significantly higher when participants consumed fructose compared with glucose or sucrose (PAUC for plasma triglyceride levels however remained unchanged regardless of the dietary intervention. Change in AUC for hs-CRP was also significantly higher in subjects consuming fructose compared with those consuming glucose (P<0.05), but not sucrose (P=0.07). This study demonstrates that fructose as a sole source of energy modulates plasma lipids and hsCRP levels in healthy individuals. The significance of increase in HDL-cholesterol with a concurrent increase in LDL-cholesterol and elevated hs-CRP levels remains to be delineated when considering health effects of feeding fructose-rich diets. ACTRN12614000431628.

  3. The effect of aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure of diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mokhtari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with aging, unhealthy diets, obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinational effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan (BBG on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 24 women with the mean age of 49 years and a blood glucose level of 110-280 mg/dl were purposefully selected and randomly divided into three groups: a group of aerobic exercise with diet (n=8, b diet group (n=8 c control group (n=8. The diet group consumed one barley bread, containing 4 g of β glucan, each day for 12 weeks. The group of aerobic exercise, who was on diet, participated in a progressive walking program with the intensity of %60-70% of maximal heart rate in addition to diet program (barley bread. Blood glucose, weight, fat percentage, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were measured in pre-and post-training. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the experimental groups compared to the control group, while no major changes were observed in body composition and blood pressure. Conclusion: It seems that the combined program (aerobic training with diet or consumption of β-glucan alone can decrease blood glucose in patients with diabetes.

  4. Continuous glucose monitoring in newborn infants: how do errors in calibration measurements affect detected hypoglycemia?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Felicity Louise; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L.; Weston, Philip J.; Harding, Jane E.; Shaw, Geoffrey M.; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia me...

  5. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  6. A Study on the Correlation between Cord Blood Glucose Level and the Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kalyan; Saha, Ashis Ranjan

    2013-02-01

    The study of the biochemical parameters of cord blood acts as a mirror, which usually reflects the neonatal status. The widely used system for the evaluation of a neonate is the Apgar score. There is no comprehensive published data which has established the association between the cord blood glucose level and the Apgar score. Similarly, there is also no well accepted reference range of the cord blood glucose level. The main objectives of the present study was to ascertain any adverse effects of an abnormal cord blood glucose level on the neonatal status and to find out a standard reference level of glucose in cord blood. The cord blood glucose estimation was done by using the glucose oxidase peroxidase method and the statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS, version 16 software. In the present study, the cord blood glucose level was found to have no correlation with the Apgar scores which were calculated at both one minute and five minutes after birth. It was also found that for the foetus to be free from any obvious complication, the cord blood glucose level had to be around 87 mg/dl. The fluctuations in the maternal glucose levels are weakly associated with the glucose level in the cord blood.

  7. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masataka; Oda, Shigeto; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Watanabe, Eizo; Abe, Ryuzo; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Morita, Yasumasa; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-12

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P glucose control (blood glucose level blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control.

  8. Detection of hypoglycemia with continuous interstitial and traditional blood glucose monitoring using the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarraugh, Geoffrey; Bergenstal, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the analysis was to compare detection of hypoglycemic episodes (glucose 15 min) with the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (FSN-CGM) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) alarms to detection with traditional finger stick testing at an average frequency of eight tests per day. The performance of FSN-CGM alarms was evaluated in a clinic setting using 58 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) monitoring interstitial glucose concentration over a 5-day period compared to reference YSI measurements (instrument manufactured by YSI, Yellow Springs, OH) at 15-min intervals. Finger stick glucose testing was evaluated in the home environment with 91 subjects with TIDM monitoring with the blood glucose meter integrated into the FreeStyle Navigator (FSN-BG) over a 20-day period. The reference was FSN-CGM with results masked from the subjects. Blood glucose values glucose was <= 85 mg/dL 77.2% of the time. In the home environment, the average FSN-BG testing frequency was 7.9 tests per day. Hypoglycemia was verified within +/- 30 min by FSN-BG measurements <= 85 mg/dL at a rate of 27.5%. Even with a high rate of FSN-BG testing, hypoglycemia detected by FSN-CGM was verified by patients with T1DM very infrequently. A high rate of hypoglycemia detection with a moderate rate of unnecessary alarms can be attained using FSN-CGM.

  9. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-11-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to lower blood glucose levels and elicit cognitive improvements in healthy, overnight-fasted volunteers. The specific mechanisms responsible for these effects are not known. However, cognitive improvements may be related to the glycaemic properties of Panax ginseng. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-crossover design, 27 healthy young adults completed a 10 minute "cognitive demand" test battery at baseline. They then consumed capsules containing either ginseng (extract G115) or a placebo and 30 minutes later a drink containing glucose or placebo. A further 30 minutes later (i.e. 60 minutes post-baseline/capsules) they completed the "cognitive demand" battery six times in immediate succession. Depending on the condition to which the participant was allocated on that particular day, the combination of capsules/drink treatments corresponded to a dose of: 0mg G115/0 mg glucose (placebo); 200mg G115/0 mg glucose (ginseng); 0 mg G115/25 g glucose (glucose) or 200 mg G115/25 g glucose (ginseng/glucose combination). The 10 minute "cognitive demand" battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens subtraction task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); and a "mental fatigue" visual analogue scale. Blood glucose levels were measured prior to the day's treatment, and before and after the post-dose completions of the battery. The results showed that both Panax ginseng and glucose enhanced performance of a mental arithmetic task and ameliorated the increase in subjective feelings of mental fatigue experienced by participants during the later stages of the sustained, cognitively demanding task performance. Accuracy of performing the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) was also improved following the glucose load. There was no evidence of a synergistic relationship between Panax ginseng and exogenous glucose ingestion

  10. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Involvement of α(2)-adrenergic receptor in the regulation of the blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu-Jung; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-01-01

    The blood glucose profiles were characterized after mice were forced into immobilization stress with various exposure durations. The blood glucose level was significantly enhanced by immobilization stress for 30 min or 1 h, respectively. On the other hand, the blood glucose level was not affected in the groups which were forced into immobilization stress for 2 or 4 h. We further examined the effect of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) administered systemically or centrally in the immobilization stress model. Mice were pretreated intraperitoneally (i.p.; from 0.5 to 5 mg/kg), intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.; from 1 to 10 µg/5 µl), or intrathecally (i.t.; from 1 to 10 µg/5 µl) with yohimbine for 10 min and then, forced into immobilization stress for 30 min. The blood glucose level was measured right after immobilization stress. We found that up-regulation of the blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress was abolished by i.p. pretreatment with yohimbine. And the immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level was not inhibited by i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine at a lower dose (1 µg/5 µl). However, immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level was significantly inhibited by i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine at higher doses (5 and 10 µg/5 µl). In addition, the i.p. (5 mg/kg), i.c.v. (10 µg/5 µl), or i.t. (10 µg/5 µl) pretreatment with yohimbine reduced hypothalamic glucose transporter 4 expression. The involvement of α2-adrenergic receptor in regulation of immobilization stress- induced blood glucose level was further confirmed by the i.p, i.c.v, or i.t pretreatment with idazoxan, another specific α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Finally, i.p., i.c.v., or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine attenuated the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. We suggest that α2-adrenergic receptors located at the peripheral, the brain and the spinal cord play important roles in the up

  12. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  13. Overweight, High Blood Pressure and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Uyghur, Han and Kazakh Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Huang, Y. D.; Zhang, W. G.; Zhai, X. H.; Wang, C.C.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether levels of blood pressure and fasting glucose differ among Chinese children of three different ethnicities (i.e., Uyghurs, Kazakhs and Hans) and whether the differences are explained by childhood obesity. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a large three ethnic pediatric population (n=6,633), whose ages ranged from 7–18 years. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured using standard protocols. Fasting glucose was measured in a subset of children (n=2,295) who were randomly selected based on ethnicity and age. The age-sex stratified Chinese national cutoffs were used to define obesity and high blood pressure (HBP). The prevalence of HBP, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), mean levels of blood pressure and glucose were compared among three ethnic groups. Results 2,142 Uyghurs, 2,078 Han and 1,997 Kazakhs were analyzed. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the mean blood pressure for Uyghurs was on average, 2–4 mmHg lower than those for Hans and Kazakhs. Kazakhs had the lowest mean fasting glucose compared with Hans and Uyghurs (4.5 vs 5.0 vs. 4.8mmol/L, respectively). The differences in blood pressure and fasting glucose persisted even after adjusting for age and BMI, and the differences among ethnic groups in blood pressure levels and fasting glucose levels were observed as early as 7 to 9 years of age. Conclusions The prevalence of HBP and IFG differed significantly among Uyghurs, Hans and Kazakhs, and the ethnic differences observed in childhood were consistent with those observed in adults from the same region. While childhood obesity is a significant risk factor for hypertension and elevated glucose, the differences among ethnic groups were not explained by obesity alone. PMID:24904957

  14. Blood glucose lowering effect of ophiopogonis tuber extract and mechanism of anti-insulin-resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng NING

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the hypoglycemic effect and insulin sensitization mechanism of ophiopogonis tuber extracts on the 3T3-L1-induced adipocytes, and also in rats with reproduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods  3T3-L1 cells were induced and differentiated into adipocytes. After the intervention with ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPSR and ophiopogonin (OPG, glucose consuming rate was detected for screening the extracts which may have effective hypoglycemic effects. The insulin resistance (IR adipocyte model was established by dexamethasone induction, and then it was treated with OPSR. The protein expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were detected by Western blotting. The T2DM rat model was reproduced and then treated with OPSR for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW, triglyeride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINs of the rats were measured respectively. Results  OPSR in dosage of 0.5-50mg/L promoted glucose consumption of adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, the glucose consumption ratios were 32.27%, 75.14% and 90.47% respectively. OPG of 50mg/L showed very weak activity with glucose consumption ratio of only 8.49%. OPSR could significantly promote the protein expression of leptin and adiponectin, and showed an inhibitory effect on the protein expression of resistin (P<0.05. After treatment with OPSR for 4 weeks, the BW of rats increased obviously, while TG, FBG and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions  OPSR may promote glucose transport and utilization of adipocytes, decrease the level of FBG and TG, and improve the condition of IR in T2DM rats. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering effect may be attributed to secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin by IR adipocytes.

  15. String Bean Juice Decreases Blood Glucose Level Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Harmayetty, Harmayetty; Krisnana, Ilya; Anisa, Faida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-po...

  16. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed JW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James W Reed Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose

  17. The influence of blood glucose level on distribution of 18F-FDG in mice with tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhanli; Lin Jinghui; Wang Rongfu; Zhu Shaoli; Zhang Chunli; Pan Zhongyun

    2003-01-01

    To explore the influence of blood glucose level on 18 F-FDG uptake in tumor and normal tissues of mice, thirty five mice carrying Ehrlich ascitic cancer (EAC) are fasted 20 h and divided into four groups. The glucose loading group (n=12) and the control group (n=11) is given a solution of 50% glucose and distilled water orally just one hour before the 18 F FDG injection. Another two groups (n=5, n=7) is given a solution of 10%, 30% glucose respectively. Before 18 F-FDG intravenous injection, blood glucose levels are measured. The mice are killed one hour after the 18 F FDG injection. The tumor and normal tissues are excised, weighed, and counted by a γ well counter. The quantity of 18 F-FDG uptake is expressed as standardized uptake value (SUV). Blood glucose levels of the mice with EAC in the glucose loading group are significantly elevated than the control group (11.98 ± 3.01 mmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 1. 11 mmol/L, P 18 F-FDG uptake ratios of tumor and muscle in the glucose-loading group (1.34, 0.86, 0.48, 0.09, 1.38 respectively) are significantly lower than those in the control group (3.02, 2.62, 0.80, 0.16, 5.38 respectively) (P 18 F-FDG uptake ratios of tumor and brain, heart and blood in the glucose loading group (8.31. 1.05, 1.58, 103.00 respectively) are significantly higher than those in the control group (1.57, 0.64, 1.20, 9.73 respectively) (P 18 F-FDG distribution in mice. suggesting the blood glucose level should be controlled during clinically 18 F-FDG imaging

  18. Accuracy evaluation of contour next compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems across a wide range of blood glucose concentrations occurring in a clinical research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaff, Leslie J; Brazg, Ronald; Hughes, Kristen; Tideman, Ann M; Schachner, Holly C; Stenger, Patricia; Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of Contour(®) Next (CN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ) compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) across a wide range of clinically occurring blood glucose levels. Subjects (n=146) were ≥ 18 years and had type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Subjects' glucose levels were safely lowered or raised to provide a wide range of glucose values. Capillary blood samples were tested on six BGMSs and a YSI glucose analyzer (YSI Life Sciences, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) as the reference. Extreme glucose values were achieved by glucose modification of the blood sample. System accuracy was assessed by mean absolute difference (MAD) and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) across several glucose ranges, with glucose range (Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc., Alameda, CA), 2.77 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Ultra(®) 2 (LifeScan, Inc., Milpitas, CA), 10.20 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Verio(®) Pro (LifeScan, Inc.), 4.53 mg/dL; and Truetrack(®) (Nipro Diagnostics, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, FL), 11.08 mg/dL. The lowest MAD in the low glucose range, from CN, was statistically significantly lower than those of the other BGMSs with the exception of the FSL. CN also had a statistically significantly lower MARD than all other BGMSs in the low glucose range. In the overall glucose range (21-496 mg/dL), CN yielded the lowest MAD and MARD values, which were statistically significantly lower in comparison with the other BGMSs. When compared with other BGMSs, CN demonstrated the lowest mean deviation from the reference value (by MAD and MARD) across multiple glucose ranges.

  19. Effect of cholera toxin administered supraspinally or spinally on the blood glucose level in pain and d-glucose fed animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration with cholera toxin (CTX) on the blood glucose level was examined in ICR mice. The i.t. treatment with CTX alone for 24 h dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level. However, i.c.v. treatment with CTX for 24 h did not affect the blood glucose level. When mice were orally fed with D-glucose (2 g/kg), the blood glucose level reached to a maximum level at 30 min and almost returned to the control level at 120 min after D-glucose feeding. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner, whereas i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in a D-glucose fed group. In addition, the blood glucose level was increased in formalin-induced pain animal model. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX enhanced the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. On the other hand, i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. Our results suggest that CTX administered supraspinally or spinally differentially modulates the regulation of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model as well as in formalin-induced pain model.

  20. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Johannes B; Lehmann, Monika; Hofer, Stefan; Hüsing, Johannes; Alles, Catharina; Werner, Jens; Stiller, Jürgen; Künnecke, Wolfgang; Luntz, Steffen; Motsch, Johann; Weigand, Markus A

    2012-09-22

    Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM) performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA). In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU) study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already available. However, none of these devices were successful in

  1. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Johannes B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA. Methods/design In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Discussion Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already

  2. Chronic fructose substitution for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages has little effect on fasting blood glucose, insulin, or triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rebecca A; Frese, Michael; Romero, Julio; Cunningham, Judy H; Mills, Kerry E

    2017-08-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the role of long-term fructose consumption on health. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of other sugars and its effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for a reduction in fasting glycemic and insulinemic markers after chronic, isoenergetic replacement of glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages by fructose. The target populations were persons without diabetes, those with impaired glucose tolerance, and those with type 2 diabetes. Design: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov The date of the last search was 26 April 2016. We included randomized controlled trials of isoenergetic replacement of glucose, sucrose, or both by fructose in adults or children with or without diabetes of ≥2 wk duration that measured fasting blood glucose. The main outcomes analyzed were fasting blood glucose and insulin as well as fasting triglycerides, blood lipoproteins, HbA1c, and body weight. Results: We included 14 comparison arms from 11 trials, including 277 patients. The studies varied in length from 2 to 10 wk (mean: 28 d) and included doses of fructose between 40 and 150 g/d (mean: 68 g/d). Fructose substitution in some subgroups resulted in significantly but only slightly lowered fasting blood glucose (-0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.036 mmol/L), HbA1c [-10 g/L (95% CI: -12.90, -7.10 g/L; impaired glucose tolerance) and -6 g/L (95% CI: -8.47, -3.53 g/L; normoglycemia)], triglycerides (-0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02 mmol/L), and body weight (-1.40 kg; 95% CI: -2.07, -0.74 kg). There was no effect on fasting blood insulin or blood lipids. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that the substitution of fructose for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages may be of benefit

  3. Glucose monitoring technologies - complementary or competitive? Role of continuous glucose monitoring versus flash glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have numerous technologies that can help keep a close watch on an individual's glycaemic status and thereby assist in developing successful diabetes management strategies. For more than five decades, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG has remained as the gold standard tool to manage glycaemic status and has gained huge acceptance. Rigorous research further led to the development of more and more advanced technologies such as continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring. These novel technologies are more promising in terms of revealing the complete glycaemic picture and even more user-friendly than the already established blood glucosemetres. However, they are yet to achieve remarkable accuracy and performance. There will also be a subgroup of patients who will be using these technologies only occasionally and thus will definitely require SMBG at other times. Again, with regard to the retrospective ones, glucose data can be obtained only once they are downloaded to the system and hence, real-time values will still have to be procured with the help of an SMBG. In future when the accuracy and performance of these newer technologies become equal to that of glucometres, the glucometres might vanish. Until then, all these technologies will definitely go hand-in-hand and supplement each other than competing each other. All the related literature were retrieved from various databases including 'PubMed' and 'Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews' using specific search terms that were relevant to the topics discussed this manuscript.

  4. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  5. Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuntao; Yu, Junxing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Yun; Su, Jinmei; Wei, Guoqing; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gao, Jingsheng; Gao, Wenyuan; Wu, Shouling

    2017-01-01

    To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes. We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were measured during 2011 to 2016. Multivariate regression model was used to estimate the difference of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of arterial stiffness risk, according to the fasting blood glucose trajectories. We identified five distinct fasting blood glucose trajectories and each of the trajectories was labeled according to its range and change over 2006-2010 survey: elevated-stable pattern (5.0% of participants), elevated-decreasing pattern (6.6%), moderate-increasing pattern (10.9%), moderate-stable pattern (59.3%), and low-stable pattern (18.2%). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with elevated-stable pattern had a 42.6 cm/s (95%CI: 24.7 to 60.6 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 37% (OR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.66) higher arterial stiffness risk, and individuals with moderate-increasing pattern had a 19.6 cm/s (95%CI: 6.9 to 32.3 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 17% (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.33) higher arterial stiffness risk, related to individuals with moderate-stable pattern. We did not find significant associations of the elevated-decreasing or low-stable patterns with arterial stiffness. Consistently, the cumulative average, variability, and increased rate of fasting blood glucose during 2006-2010 survey were significantly associated with the arterial stiffness risk. Discrete fasting blood glucose trajectories were associated with the arterial stiffness risk in non-diabetic individuals.

  6. Overnight Control of Blood Glucose in People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and test a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for overnight stabilization of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The controller uses glucose measurements from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and its decisions are implemented by a continuous subcutaneous insulin...... infusion (CSII) pump. Based on a priori patient information, we propose a systematic method for computation of the model parameters in the MPC. Safety layers improve the controller robustness and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. The controller is evaluated in silico on a cohort of 100 randomly generated...... patients with a representative intersubject variability. This cohort is simulated overnight with realistic variations in the insulin sensitivities and needs. Finally, we provide results for the first tests of this controller in a real clinic....

  7. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  8. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  9. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting h...

  10. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Uemura; Yutaka Yano; Toshinari Suzuki; Taro Yasuma; Toshiyuki Sato; Aya Morimoto; Samiko Hosoya; Chihiro Suminaka; Hiromu Nakajima; Esteban C. Gabazza; Yoshiyuki Takei

    2017-01-01

    Background Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hy...

  11. Simultaneous measurement of glucose transport and utilization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestov, Alexander A.; Emir, Uzay E.; Kumar, Anjali; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is the primary fuel for brain function, and determining the kinetics of cerebral glucose transport and utilization is critical for quantifying cerebral energy metabolism. The kinetic parameters of cerebral glucose transport, KMt and Vmaxt, in humans have so far been obtained by measuring steady-state brain glucose levels by proton (1H) NMR as a function of plasma glucose levels and fitting steady-state models to these data. Extraction of the kinetic parameters for cerebral glucose transport necessitated assuming a constant cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) obtained from other tracer studies, such as 13C NMR. Here we present new methodology to simultaneously obtain kinetic parameters for glucose transport and utilization in the human brain by fitting both dynamic and steady-state 1H NMR data with a reversible, non-steady-state Michaelis-Menten model. Dynamic data were obtained by measuring brain and plasma glucose time courses during glucose infusions to raise and maintain plasma concentration at ∼17 mmol/l for ∼2 h in five healthy volunteers. Steady-state brain vs. plasma glucose concentrations were taken from literature and the steady-state portions of data from the five volunteers. In addition to providing simultaneous measurements of glucose transport and utilization and obviating assumptions for constant CMRglc, this methodology does not necessitate infusions of expensive or radioactive tracers. Using this new methodology, we found that the maximum transport capacity for glucose through the blood-brain barrier was nearly twofold higher than maximum cerebral glucose utilization. The glucose transport and utilization parameters were consistent with previously published values for human brain. PMID:21791622

  12. [Influence of an infusion of 5- or 20% glucose solution on blood glucose and inorganic phosphate concentrations in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaek, T A A; Failing, K; Wehrend, A; Klymiuk, M C

    2011-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the influence of an intravenous infusion of 5% and 20% dextrose solution on the plasma concentration of glucose and inorganic phosphate in healthy, dairy cows. Ten healthy, lactating, nonpregnant 3 to 6 year-old Holstein-Friesian cows were included in this investigation. The daily milk yield was 20.3±2.7 liters. Blood plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate and glucose were determined before, during, immediately and 60 minutes after infusion of 0.9% physiological saline, 5% or 20% dextrose solution. A statistically significant influence of dextrose infusion on blood glucose concentration was observed. After 20% dextrose infusion (200 g dextrose) the blood glucose concentration increased by approximately 13.26 mmol/l. The administration of 5% dextrose solution (50 g dextrose) yielded an increase of blood glucose concentration by 3.31 mmol/l. There was no significant correlation between plasma inorganic phosphate concentrations and infusion of 0.9% saline, 5% or 20% dextrose solution. Intravenous administration of 1000 ml of 5% or 20% dextrose solution does not induce a lasting plasma phosphate reduction and is suitable for elevating the blood glucose concentration.

  13. Remote Blood Glucose Monitoring in mHealth Scenarios: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Lanzola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient’s significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her. In all of these cases, a remote monitoring system, in charge of delivering the relevant information to the right player, becomes an important part of the sensing architecture. In this paper, we review how the remote monitoring architectures have evolved over time, paralleling the progress in the Information and Communication Technologies, and describe our experiences with the design of telemedicine systems for blood glucose monitoring in three medical applications. The paper ends summarizing the lessons learned through the experiences of the authors and discussing the challenges arising from a large-scale integration of sensors and actuators.

  14. Blood Glucose Levels Following Intra-Articular Steroid Injections in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, M N; Malik, R A; Charalambous, Charalambos Panayiotou

    2016-03-22

    Parenterally administered steroids have been shown to affect the metabolism of glucose and to cause abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. These abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients raise concerns that intra-articular steroid injections also may affect blood glucose levels. We performed a systematic review of studies examining the effect of intra-articular steroid injections on blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL databases using all relevant keywords and phrases revealed 532 manuscripts. After the application of inclusion criteria, seven studies with a total of seventy-two patients were analyzed. All studies showed a rise in blood glucose levels following intra-articular steroid injection. Four of the seven studies showed a substantial increase in blood glucose. Peak values reached as high as 500 mg/dL. The peak increase in blood glucose did not occur immediately following intra-articular steroid injection, and in some cases it took several days to occur. In many patients, post-injection hyperglycemia occurred within twenty-four to seventy-two hours. Intra-articular steroid injections may cause hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients should be warned of this complication. Diabetic patients should be advised to regularly monitor their blood glucose levels for up to a week after injection and should seek medical advice if safe thresholds are breached. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  16. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits blood-brain glucose transfer in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Susanne; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has many effects on glucose homeostasis, and GLP-1 receptors are broadly represented in many tissues including the brain. Recent research in rodents suggests a protective effect of GLP-1 on brain tissue. The mechanism is unknown. We therefore tested......-independent effect of GLP-1 on unidirectional glucose transport into the brain during a pituitary-pancreatic normoglycemic (plasma glucose approximately 4.5 mmol/l) clamp with 18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose as tracer. RESULTS: On average, GLP-1 reduced cerebral glucose transport by 27% in total cerebral gray matter (P = 0...... that a hormone involved in postprandial glucose regulation also limits glucose delivery to brain tissue and hence provides a possible regulatory mechanism for the link between plasma glucose and brain glucose. Because GLP-1 reduces glucose uptake across the intact blood-brain barrier at normal glycemia, GLP-1...

  17. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  18. Vitamin K2 Improves Anxiety and Depression but not Cognition in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome: a Role of Blood Glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Silvia M; Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 was given by gavage. At the end of the study (after 10 weeks) behavioral tests were performed and fasting blood glucose was measured. Anxiety was determined using the social interaction test and depression was assessed by the Porsolt test. Memory effects were estimated by the object recognition test. Correlations between fasting blood glucose and behavioral performance were analyzed. The rats from the MS group had elevated blood glucose. They had anxiety, depression and memory deficit. Vitamin K2 normalized blood glucose, reduced anxiety and depression, but did not improve memory. Time of social interaction (inverse index of anxiety) and memory recognition were negatively correlated with blood glucose in the untreated rats but the immobility time (measure of depression) was not. When vitamin K2-treated rats were added, the correlation of blood glucose with the time of social interaction was kept, but the one with the recognition memory was lost. It might be that the anxiolytic effect of vitamin K2 in this setting is at least partly due to its effects on blood glucose, while the anti-depressant effect is glucose-independent. The present study demonstrated that vitamin K2 prevented the development of anxiety and depression, but did not improve the memory deficit caused by the dietary manipulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. It might be that

  19. Analysis of blood glucose distribution characteristics in a health examination population in Chengdu (2007-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenxia; Xu, Wangdong; Zhu, Ping; Yang, Hanwei; Su, Linchong; Tang, Huairong; Liu, Yi

    2017-12-01

    With socioeconomic growth and cultural changes in China, the level of blood glucose may have changed in recent years. This study aims to detect the blood glucose distribution characteristics with a large size of health examination population.A total of 641,311 cases (360,259 males and 281,052 females) more than 18 years old during 2007 to 2015 were recruited from the Health Examination Center at West China hospital, Sichuan University.The percentage of cases with abnormal glucose level and the mean level of glucose were significantly increased since 2007 to 2015 overall. The percentage of cases with abnormal glucose level in males was significantly higher than that in females every year, and the percentage of cases with abnormal glucose level in aged population was higher than the young population. In addition, the mean level of glucose was higher in aged population with normal level of glucose than the young population with normal level of glucose, and the mean level of glucose was higher in males with normal level of glucose than the females with normal level of glucose.The population showed an increased level of blood glucose. Some preventive action may be adopted early and more attention can be paid to them.

  20. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  1. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  2. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  3. The Effect of Curry Leaves (Murayya Koenigii L. on Blood Glucose Levels In Alloxan Diabetic Mice (Mus Musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Fauziah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. on blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic mice (Mus musculus. The diabetic conditions were made by giving alloxan 75 mg/kg body weight (BW and the hypoglycemic effects of extract of curry leaves given with various doses.   This study used 24 male mice strain Balb/c in four groups of treatment with six replications, namely the negative control group, the ethanol extract of curry leaf tree 50% mL/10g body weight group, 70% mL/10g body weight group and 90% mL/10g body weight group. The treatment was given orally by using a gastric sonde for 14 days. Blood samples were taken through the sinus caudalis using a scissors. Blood glucose level was measured at 1st , the 8th and the 24th of treatment using blood glucose test strips and Nesco® Multicheck apparatus. Blood glucose data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variants and followed by Tuckey test at significance level of 5%. The result showed that treatment of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii at various doses significantly affected the decrease on blood glucose levels of mice (Mus musculus alloxan diabetic.

  4. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  5. A Lab-on-a-Chip-Based Non-Invasive Optical Sensor for Measuring Glucose in Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Geon Jung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A lab-on-a-chip (LOC-based non-invasive optical sensor for measuring glucose in saliva was fabricated. Existing glucose sensors utilizing blood require acquisition of a blood sample by pricking the finger, which is painful and inconvenient. To overcome these limitations, we propose a non-invasive glucose sensor with LOC, micro-electro-mechanical system and optical measurement technology. The proposed sensor for measuring glucose in saliva involves pretreatment, mixing, and measurement on a single tiny chip. Saliva containing glucose and glucose oxidase for glucose oxidation are injected through Inlets 1 and 2, respectively. Next, H2O2 is produced by the reaction between glucose and glucose oxidase in the pretreatment part. The saliva and generated H2O2 are mixed with a colorizing agent injected through Inlet 3 during the mixing part and the absorbance of the colorized mixture is measured in the measurement part. The absorbance of light increases as a function of glucose concentration at a wavelength of 630 nm. To measure the absorbance of the colorized saliva, a light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 630 nm and a photodiode were used during the measurement part. As a result, the measured output current of the photodiode decreased as glucose concentration in the saliva increased.

  6. Blood Glucose Monitoring Before and After Type 1 Diabetes Clinic Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Wang, Yuxia; Wright, Nancy; Deeb, Larry C

    2017-12-23

    To determine patterns of blood glucose monitoring in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after routine T1D clinic visits. Blood glucose monitoring data were downloaded at four consecutive routine clinic visits from children and adolescents aged 5-18 years. Linear mixed models were used to analyze patterns of blood glucose monitoring in patients who had at least 28 days of data stored in their blood glucose monitors. In general, the frequency of blood glucose monitoring decreased across visits, and younger children engaged in more frequent blood glucose monitoring. Blood glucose monitoring increased before the T1D clinic visits in younger children, but not in adolescents. It declined after the visit regardless of age. Members of the T1D care team need to consider that a T1D clinic visit may prompt an increase in blood glucose monitoring when making treatment changes and recommendations. Tailored interventions are needed to maintain that higher level of adherence across time. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  8. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperglycemic mice and improved oral glucose tolerance. The serum and ... Inhibition of α-glucosidase and stimulation of glucose consumption by muscles may account for ..... induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and fibrinolysis ...

  9. Intragastric administration of leucine or isoleucine lowers the blood glucose response to a mixed-nutrient drink by different mechanisms in healthy, lean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sina S; Fitzgerald, Penelope Ce; Schober, Gudrun; Steinert, Robert E; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-11-01

    The branched-chain amino acids leucine and isoleucine lower blood glucose after oral glucose ingestion, and the intraduodenal infusion of leucine decreases energy intake in healthy, lean men. We investigated the effects of the intragastric administration of leucine and isoleucine on the gastric emptying of, and blood glucose responses to, a physiologic mixed-macronutrient drink and subsequent energy intake. In 2 separate studies, 12 healthy, lean subjects received on 3 separate occasions an intragastric infusion of 5 g leucine (leucine-5g) or an intragastric infusion of 10 g leucine (leucine-10g), an intragastric infusion of 5 g isoleucine (isoleucine-5g) or an intragastric infusion of 10 g isoleucine (isoleucine-10g), or a control. Fifteen minutes later, subjects consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (400 kcal, 56 g carbohydrates, 15 g protein, and 12 g fat), and gastric emptying ( 13 C-acetate breath test) and blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (leucine study only) were measured for 60 min. Immediately afterward, energy intake from a cold, buffet-style meal was assessed. Compared with the control, leucine-10g decreased the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) (P blood glucose (P = 0.07), whereas effects of leucine-5g were NS. Leucine-10g, but not leucine-5g, increased plasma insulin and C-peptide AUCs (P blood glucose AUC and peak blood glucose (P blood glucose AUC. Isoleucine did not affect energy intake. In healthy subjects, both leucine and isoleucine reduced blood glucose in response to a mixed-nutrient drink but did not affect subsequent energy intake. The mechanisms underlying glucose lowering appear to differ; leucine stimulated insulin, whereas isoleucine acted insulin independently. These trials were registered at www.anzctr.org.au as 12613000899741 and 12614000837628. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    identified 42 studies relating to 4 dimensions of decision making: willingness to pay, willingness to work, time discounting, and decision style. We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay...... and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money....... Low levels of blood glucose also increase the tendency to make more intuitive rather than deliberate decisions. However, this effect was only observed in situations unrelated to food. We conclude that blood glucose has domain-specific effects, influencing decision making differently depending...

  11. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of glucocorticoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-10-01

    The possible involvement of glucocorticoid system in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. In the first experiment, mice were treated intrathecally (i.t.) with IL-1β (100 pg). Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (hypothalamus) and c-Fos mRNA (pituitary gland, spinal cord, and the adrenal gland) levels were measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after IL-1β administration. We found that i.t. injection with IL-1β increased CRH mRNA level in the hypothalamus. The IL-1β administered i.t. elevated c-Fos mRNA levels in the spinal cord, pituitary and adrenal glands. Furthermore, i.t. administration of IL-1β significantly increased the plasma corticosterone level up to 60 min. In addition, the adrenalectomy caused the reductions of the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β injected i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with RU486 (100mg/kg) attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level and pain behavior via an activation of the glucocorticoid system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  13. Is the formula of Traub still up to date in antemortem blood glucose level estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiere, Cristian; Sporkert, Frank; Vaucher, Paul; Werner, Dominique; Bardy, Daniel; Rey, François; Lardi, Christelle; Brunel, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice

    2012-05-01

    According to the hypothesis of Traub, also known as the 'formula of Traub', postmortem values of glucose and lactate found in the cerebrospinal fluid or vitreous humor are considered indicators of antemortem blood glucose levels. However, because the lactate concentration increases in the vitreous and cerebrospinal fluid after death, some authors postulated that using the sum value to estimate antemortem blood glucose levels could lead to an overestimation of the cases of glucose metabolic disorders with fatal outcomes, such as diabetic ketoacidosis. The aim of our study, performed on 470 consecutive forensic cases, was to ascertain the advantages of the sum value to estimate antemortem blood glucose concentrations and, consequently, to rule out fatal diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death. Other biochemical parameters, such as blood 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, acetone, glycated haemoglobin and urine glucose levels, were also determined. In addition, postmortem native CT scan, autopsy, histology, neuropathology and toxicology were performed to confirm diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death. According to our results, the sum value does not add any further information for the estimation of antemortem blood glucose concentration. The vitreous glucose concentration appears to be the most reliable marker to estimate antemortem hyperglycaemia and, along with the determination of other biochemical markers (such as blood acetone and 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, urine glucose and glycated haemoglobin), to confirm diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death.

  14. Effect of feeding glucose, fructose, and inulin on blood glucose and insulin concentrations in normal ponies and those predisposed to laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, K E; Bailey, S R; Menzies-Gow, N J; Harris, P A; Elliott, J

    2012-09-01

    Identification of ponies (Equus caballus) at increased risk of pasture-associated laminitis would aid in the prevention of the disease. Insulin resistance has been associated with laminitis and could be used to identify susceptible individuals. Insulin resistance may be diagnosed by feeding supplementary water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and measuring blood glucose and insulin concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the glycemic and insulinemic responses of 7 normal (NP) and 5 previously laminitic (PLP), mixed breed, native UK ponies fed glucose, fructose, and inulin [1 g/(kg·d) for 3 d] or no supplementary WSC (control) in spring and fall after a 7-d adaptation to a pasture or hay diet. Blood samples were taken for 12 h after feeding on each day, and baseline and peak concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin were recorded. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. Differences between PLP and NP groups were most marked after glucose feeding with differences in peak glucose (P = 0.02) and peak insulin (P = 0.016) concentrations. Season and diet adaptation also affected results. Peak concentrations of glucose and insulin occurred 2 to 4 h after WSC feeding. Peak insulin concentration was greater and more variable in fall, particularly in PLP adapted to fall pasture. Baseline glucose and insulin concentrations varied between individuals and with season and diet adaptation but were not greater in PLP than NP. Insulin AUC was greater in PLP than NP after feeding both glucose and fructose (P = 0.017), but there were no differences between PLP and NP in glucose AUC. Glycemic and insulinemic changes were less (P ≤ 0.05) after feeding fructose than glucose, although differences between PLP and NP were still evident. Minimal changes in glucose and insulin concentrations occurred after inulin feeding. Measurement of peak insulin 2 h after feeding of a single dose of glucose (1 g/kg) may be a simple and practical way to

  15. Transcutaneous Measurement of Blood Analyte Concentration Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Singh, Gajendra P.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2008-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, affecting nearly 200 million people worldwide. Acute complications, such as hypoglycemia, cardiovascular disease and retinal damage, may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. As diabetes has no known cure, tight control of glucose levels is critical for the prevention of such complications. Given the necessity for regular monitoring of blood glucose, development of non-invasive glucose detection devices is essential to improve the quality of life in diabetic patients. The commercially available glucose sensors measure the interstitial fluid glucose by electrochemical detection. However, these sensors have severe limitations, primarily related to their invasive nature and lack of stability. This necessitates the development of a truly non-invasive glucose detection technique. NIR Raman Spectroscopy, which combines the substantial penetration depth of NIR light with the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, provides an excellent tool to meet the challenges involved. Additionally, it enables simultaneous determination of multiple blood analytes. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of Raman spectroscopy for blood analytes' detection in biological media. The preliminary success of our non-invasive glucose measurements both in vitro (such as in serum and blood) and in vivo has provided the foundation for the development of feasible clinical systems. However, successful application of this technology still faces a few hurdles, highlighted by the problems of tissue luminescence and selection of appropriate reference concentration. In this article we explore possible avenues to overcome these challenges so that prospective prediction accuracy of blood analytes can be brought to clinically acceptable levels.

  16. Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network to Predict Blood Glucose in Overweight Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wang, F; Liu, Y; Xu, J; Lin, H; Jia, B; Zuo, W; Jiang, Y; Hu, L; Lin, F

    2016-01-01

    Overweight individuals are at higher risk for developing type II diabetes than the general population. We conducted this study to analyze the correlation between blood glucose and biochemical parameters, and developed a blood glucose prediction model tailored to overweight patients. A total of 346 overweight Chinese people patients ages 18-81 years were involved in this study. Their levels of fasting glucose (fs-GLU), blood lipids, and hepatic and renal functions were measured and analyzed by multiple linear regression (MLR). Based the MLR results, we developed a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model by selecting tansig as the transfer function of the hidden layers nodes, and purelin for the output layer nodes, with training goal of 0.5×10(-5). There was significant correlation between fs-GLU with age, BMI, and blood biochemical indexes (P<0.05). The results of MLR analysis indicated that age, fasting alanine transaminase (fs-ALT), blood urea nitrogen (fs-BUN), total protein (fs-TP), uric acid (fs-BUN), and BMI are 6 independent variables related to fs-GLU. Based on these parameters, the BP-ANN model was performed well and reached high prediction accuracy when training 1 000 epoch (R=0.9987). The level of fs-GLU was predictable using the proposed BP-ANN model based on 6 related parameters (age, fs-ALT, fs-BUN, fs-TP, fs-UA and BMI) in overweight patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Glucose concentration in capillary blood of dairy cows obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique and determined with three different hand-held devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mair, B.; Drillich, M.; Klein-J?bstl, D.; Kanz, P.; Borchardt, S.; Meyer, L.; Schwendenwein, I.; Iwersen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal health and production. Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple blood sampling. In other species, new blood samp...

  18. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2–21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  19. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  20. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk; Michaely, Mark

    2004-01-01

    of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol x kg x min) and placebo over 8 hrs, each administered in randomized order in the fasting state. C-reactive protein concentrations of 4.9+/-4.2 mg/dL indicated a systemic inflammation. Blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, glucagon...... practicability and the risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore, the glucose-lowering effect of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes after major surgery. DESIGN: Randomised clinical study. SETTING: A surgical unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS......, and GLP-1 (specific immunoassays). Statistics were done with repeated-measures analysis of variance and Duncan's post hoc tests. MAIN RESULTS: During the intravenous infusion of GLP-1, plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lowered, reaching the normoglycemic fasting glucose range within 150...

  1. Positive sliding mode control for blood glucose regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menani, Karima; Mohammadridha, Taghreed; Magdelaine, Nicolas; Abdelaziz, Mourad; Moog, Claude H.

    2017-11-01

    Biological systems involving positive variables as concentrations are some examples of so-called positive systems. This is the case of the glycemia-insulinemia system considered in this paper. To cope with these physical constraints, it is shown that a positive sliding mode control (SMC) can be designed for glycemia regulation. The largest positive invariant set (PIS) is obtained for the insulinemia subsystem in open and closed loop. The existence of a positive SMC for glycemia regulation is shown here for the first time. Necessary conditions to design the sliding surface and the discontinuity gain are derived to guarantee a positive SMC for the insulin dynamics. SMC is designed to be positive everywhere in the largest closed-loop PIS of plasma insulin system. Two-stage SMC is employed; the last stage SMC2 block uses the glycemia error to design the desired insulin trajectory. Then the plasma insulin state is forced to track the reference via SMC1. The resulting desired insulin trajectory is the required virtual control input of the glycemia system to eliminate blood glucose (BG) error. The positive control is tested in silico on type-1 diabetic patients model derived from real-life clinical data.

  2. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K

    2017-07-01

    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P glucose and insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Effect of Cholera Toxin Administered Supraspinally or Spinally on the Blood Glucose Level in Pain and D-Glucose Fed Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration with cholera toxin (CTX) on the blood glucose level was examined in ICR mice. The i.t. treatment with CTX alone for 24 h dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level. However, i.c.v. treatment with CTX for 24 h did not affect the blood glucose level. When mice were orally fed with D-glucose (2 g/kg), the blood glucose level reached to a maximum level at 30 min and almost returned to...

  4. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  5. [A non-invasive glucose measurement method based on orthogonal twin-polarized light and its pilot experimental investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Baoming; Liu, Ding

    2010-04-01

    In order to overcome the existing shortcomings of the non-invasive blood glucose polarized light measurement methods of optical heterodyne detection and direct detection, we present in this paper a new orthogonal twin-polarized light (OTPL) non-invasive blood glucose measurement method, which converts the micro-angle rotated by an optical active substance such as glucose to the energy difference of OTPL, amplifies the signals by the high-sensitivity lock-in amplifier made of relevant principle, controls Faraday coil current to compensate the changes in deflection angle caused by blood glucose, and makes use of the linear relationship between blood glucose concentration and Faraday coil current to calculate blood glucose concentration. In our comparative experiment using the data measured by LX-20 automatic biochemical analyzer as a standard, a 0.9777 correlation coefficient is obtained in glucose concentration experiment, and a 0.952 in serum experiment. The result shows that this method has higher detection sensitivity and accuracy and lays a foundation for the development of practical new type of non-invasive blood glucose tester for diabetic patients.

  6. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James W

    2016-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose control. PMID:27822054

  7. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  8. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  9. Analysis of the Nova Stat Strip® Glucose Meter for Real-Time Blood Glucose Determinations During Glucose Clamp Studies: “Don't Swap Horses in Midstream”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Proper performance of glucose clamps is critically dependent on reliable blood glucose (BG) measurements. A number of requirements have to be fulfilled by a system that aims to replace the laboratory devices that are currently in use. Many more aspects need to be taken into account besides the accuracy of BG measurement. It might very well be that the BG meter studied by Rabiee and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology fulfills most or all of such requirements; however, these aspects have to be tested more thoroughly before one switches from an established measurement method to the Nova Stat Strip® glucometer. PMID:20920441

  10. Effects of an exopolysaccharide (kefiran) on lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Zhu, Xia; Omura, Kazunobu; Suzuki, Shiho; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was reported to produce an exopolysaccharide named kefiran. In the present study, we developed a new medium, rice hydrolyzate (RH) medium, for the culture of L. kefiranofaciens. Structural analyses revealed that the exopolysaccharide produced by L. kefiranofaciens from RH medium was composed of a hexasaccharide repeating unit, and essentially identical to the kefiran reported in previous studies. A study on the effects of kefiran in animals demonstrated that kefiran significantly suppressed increase of blood pressure and reduced the serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP/Hos rats when subjects consumed excessive dietary cholesterol. Kefiran supplementation demonstrated the ability to significantly lower blood glucose in KKAy mice. In addition, the administration of kefiran in constipated SD rats caused an obvious improvement in the levels of fecal moisture and wet weights of feces. These results suggest that kefiran could be used as a functional food to prevent some commonly occurring diseases.

  11. Control of Blood Glucose for People with Type 1 Diabetes: an in Vivo Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Schmidt, Signe; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Since continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology and insulin pumps have improved recent years, a strong interest in a closed-loop articial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes has arisen. Presently, a fully automated controller of blood glucose must face many challenges, such as daily...... variations of patient's physiology and lack of accuracy of glucose sensors. In this paper we design and discuss an algorithm for overnight closed-loop control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The algorithm is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). We use an oset-free autoregressive model...

  12. Is reducing variability of blood glucose the real but hidden target of intensive insulin therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Moritoki; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Reade, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Since the first report that intensive insulin therapy reduced mortality in selected surgical critically ill patients, lowering of blood glucose levels has been recommended as a means of improving patient outcomes. In this initial Leuven trial, blood glucose control by protocol using insulin was applied to 98.7% of patients in the intensive group but to only 39.2% (P dimension of glucose management, a possible mechanism by which an intensive insulin protocol exerts its putative beneficial effects, and an important goal of glucose management in the intensive care unit. Clinicians need to be aware of this controversy when considering the application of intensive insulin therapy and interpreting future trials.

  13. New, small, fast acting blood glucose meters--an analytical laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Hofmann, Manuela; Gappmayer, Brigitta; Garstenauer, Christa

    2007-09-22

    Patients and medical personnel are eager to use blood glucose meters that are easy to handle and fast acting. We questioned whether accuracy and precision of these new, small and light weight devices would meet analytical laboratory standards and tested four meters with the above mentioned conditions. Approximately 300 capillary blood samples were collected and tested using two devices of each brand and two different types of glucose test strips. Blood from the same samples was used for comparison. Results were evaluated using maximum deviation of 5% and 10% from the comparative method, the error grid analysis, the overall deviation of the devices, the linear regression analysis as well as the CVs for measurement in series. Of all 1196 measurements a deviation of less than 5% resp. 10% from the reference method was found for the FreeStyle (FS) meter in 69.5% and 96%, the Glucocard X Meter (GX) in 44% and 75%, the One Touch Ultra (OT) in 29% and 60%, the Wellion True Track (WT) in 28.5% and 58%. The error grid analysis gave 99.7% for FS, 99% for GX, 98% for OT and 97% for WT in zone A. The remainder of the values lay within zone B. Linear regression analysis resembled these results. CVs for measurement in series showed higher deviations for OT and WT compared to FS and GX. The four new, small and fast acting glucose meters fulfil clinically relevant analytical laboratory requirements making them appropriate for use by medical personnel. However, with regard to the tight and restrictive limits of the ADA recommendations, the devices are still in need of improvement. This should be taken into account when the devices are used by primarily inexperienced persons and is relevant for further industrial development of such devices.

  14. Blood Glucose Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Glucose Monitoring; 317 p. National Cancer ...

  15. The experiences of diabetics on self-monitoring of blood glucose: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Chang Yeh, Mei

    2015-03-01

    To interpret, describe and analyse the results of various qualitative studies and comprehensively elucidate the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients, and to make recommendations based on these findings for clinical practices. Patients exhibited both positive and negative perceptions towards the self-monitoring of blood glucose. Numerous recent qualitative studies have explored the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients; however, no integrated results have been provided. Qualitative metasynthesis. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between January 2004 and April 2014. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Airiti library and PsycInfo. Seven studies were assessed in the final analysis; the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to evaluate these studies. The self-monitoring experiences of patients with diabetes were divided into five themes: perceived disease severity, effects on daily life, lifestyle adjustments after becoming aware of blood glucose levels, determining the meaning of self-monitoring, and the differences between diabetic patients who use and do not use insulin. Individual differences in blood glucose self-monitoring vary widely among diabetic patients. These differences result from personal cognition and feelings concerning blood glucose monitoring. Insights into and discussions regarding the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients enable health care professionals to understand the factors that influence the intentions of patients to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose and facilitate establishing customised self-monitoring of blood glucose treatment plans. Health care professionals must adopt flexible and individualised criteria to determine patient cognitive misconceptions, understand negative emotional reactions and

  16. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN

  17. Requirements for Successful Adoption of a Glucose Measurement System Into a Hospital POC Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füzéry, Anna K; Cembrowski, George S

    2016-07-01

    Widespread and successful implementation of any glucose measurement system in a hospital point-of-care (POC) program requires a number of features in addition to accurate and reliable analytical performance. Such features include, but are not limited to, a system's glucose-hematocrit dependence, durability, information technology capabilities, and battery capacity and battery life. While the study of Ottiger et al in this issue supports the analytical accuracy and reliability of Bayer's CONTOUR XT® blood glucose monitoring system, the suitability of other features of this system for a hospital POC program remains to be established. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients Following Corticosteroid Injections into the Subacromial Space of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Alexander W; Syed, Usman Ali M; Nicholson, Thema; Getz, Charles L; Namdari, Surena; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A

    2017-09-01

    Corticosteroid injections are used to treat a variety of orthopedic conditions with the goal of decreasing pain and inflammation. Administration of systemic or local corticosteroids risks temporarily increasing blood glucose levels, especially diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of corticosteroid injections on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with shoulder pathology. Diabetic patients who regularly monitored their blood glucose levels and were indicated for a subacromial corticosteroid injection were included in this prospective investigation. The typical normal morning fasting glucose and most recent hemoglobin A1c level was recorded for each patient. After injection, patients were contacted daily to confirm their fasting morning glucose level for 10 days post-injection. Seventeen consecutive patients were enrolled. Patients with hemoglobin A1c of patients' glucose levels returned to near baseline levels around post-injection day 8, while poorly controlled patients levels remained elevated. Similarly, insulin-dependent diabetic patients had an average increase in fasting glucose level of 99 mg/dL versus 50 mg/dL in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients ( P patients with well-controlled diabetes experience smaller elevations and faster return to baseline glucose levels than patients with poor control. Insulin dependent diabetics experienced similar findings as patients with poor control. Future studies are needed to evaluate dosing to optimize the risks of blood glucose elevation while maintaining therapeutic benefit.

  19. Glucose Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier: Function, Regulation and Gateways for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, Simon G

    2017-03-01

    Glucose transporters (GLUTs) at the blood-brain barrier maintain the continuous high glucose and energy demands of the brain. They also act as therapeutic targets and provide routes of entry for drug delivery to the brain and central nervous system for treatment of neurological and neurovascular conditions and brain tumours. This article first describes the distribution, function and regulation of glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier, the major ones being the sodium-independent facilitative transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. Other GLUTs and sodium-dependent transporters (SGLTs) have also been identified at lower levels and under various physiological conditions. It then considers the effects on glucose transporter expression and distribution of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia associated with diabetes and oxygen/glucose deprivation associated with cerebral ischemia. A reduction in glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier that occurs before the onset of the main pathophysiological changes and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is a potential causative effect in the vascular hypothesis of the disease. Mutations in glucose transporters, notably those identified in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and some recreational drug compounds also alter the expression and/or activity of glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier. Approaches for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier include the pro-drug strategy whereby drug molecules are conjugated to glucose transporter substrates or encapsulated in nano-enabled delivery systems (e.g. liposomes, micelles, nanoparticles) that are functionalised to target glucose transporters. Finally, the continuous development of blood-brain barrier in vitro models is important for studying glucose transporter function, effects of disease conditions and interactions with drugs and xenobiotics.

  20. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  1. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  2. Barriers to blood glucose monitoring in a multiethnic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgibor, Janice C; Simmons, David

    2002-10-01

    We studied a multiethnic community to determine factors associated with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and to determine the independent association between barriers to diabetes care and BGM. A total of 323 participants (35.6% European, 32.2% Maori, and 32.2% Pacific Islander) from the South Auckland Diabetes Project (free of major complications by self-report) completed a qualitative survey to determine barriers to diabetes care. Five barriers to diabetes care categories were generated including internal psychological (self efficacy/health beliefs), external psychological (psychosocial environment), internal physical (comorbidities/side effects of treatment), external physical (finance/access to care), and educational (knowledge of diabetes/services) barriers. Characteristics associated with BGM greater than or equal to twice weekly were female sex, HbA(1c) >8%, higher diabetes knowledge scores, and insulin use. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that those reporting external physical barriers (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.84), external psychological barriers (0.55, 0.30-1.0), and internal psychological barriers (0.56, 0.32-1.0) were less likely to perform BGM independent of ethnicity, insulin use, age, sex, diabetes knowledge, and glycemic control. Further multivariate analyses demonstrated that those reporting external physical barriers, particularly related to personal finance, were less likely to perform BGM. These data demonstrate that patient-reported barriers to diabetes care are associated with BGM, particularly in relation to financial, psychosocial, and self-efficacy issues. Understanding these barriers and overcoming them within the context of the patient's ethnic environment may lead to increased participation in self-care.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We...... and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money...

  4. Effect of buspirone: An anxiolytic drug on blood glucose in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, S. K.; Nandave, M.; Sharma, C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of an antianxiety drug, buspirone on blood glucose and plasma insulin level concerning the role of 5-HT1A receptors in blood glucose regulation in healthy humans. Twelve healthy male volunteers were administered single oral doses of buspirone (10 mg) or placebo, in a randomized, crossover way, followed by oral glucose load (75 gm in 200 ml) at reported Tmax i.e. the time of peak plasma concentration of the respective administered drug. The blood sampl...

  5. Effect of blood glucose level on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Stress has a considerable impact on welfare and productivity of fish, and blood glucose level of fish may be a factor modulating stress response. This study evaluated the effect of blood glucose level and handling on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg g -1 body mass (BM) and then were exposed to handling for 5 min. Glucose injection resulted in increase of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content and decrease of plasma lactate level. Handling resulted in increase of plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate and plasma lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and decrease of liver glycogen content. At 1 h post-stress, the plasma cortisol level was lower in the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0.5 mg g -1 BM than the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, and 1.0 mg g -1 BM. No significant differences were found in the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver between the stressed and unstressed fish, regardless of the dose of glucose injection. At 1 h post-stress, the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was higher in the fish without glucose injection than in the fish injected with glucose. This study reveals that blood glucose level can affect stress response of grass carp by modulating cortisol release and glucose homeostasis through glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  6. Early maternal separation induces preference for sucrose and aspartame associated with increased blood glucose and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aya-Ramos, L; Contreras-Vargas, C; Rico, J L; Dueñas, Z

    2017-07-19

    Early life stress and exposure to sweeteners lead to physiological and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Nevertheless, many genetic and environmental factors as well as the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of these disorders are not fully understood. Similarly, evidence about the long-term metabolic effects of exposure to sweeteners in early life is limited and inconsistent. This study used an animal model of maternal separation during breastfeeding (MS) to analyze the effects of early life stress on consumption of sweeteners, weight gain, blood glucose and locomotion. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7:00 h) with ad libitum access to water and food. In the MS protocol, MS pups were separated from the dam for 6 h per day in two periods of 180 minutes (7:00-10:00 and 13:00-16:00 h) during the dark phase of postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 21. Non-separated (NS) pups served as controls. On PND 22 rats were grouped by sex and treatment. From PND 26 to PND 50 sucrose and aspartame were provided to rats, and sweetener intake, body weight and blood glucose-related measures were scored. On PND 50, both male and female rats were exposed to the open field test to obtain locomotion and anxiety-related measures. Results showed that both early maternal separation and sweetener intake during adolescence resulted in increased blood glucose and hyperactivity in male rats but not in female rats. Data suggest that the combination of early stress and exposure to sucrose and aspartame could be a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, as well as for behavioral alterations.

  7. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGES OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH THORACOABDOMINAL INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, E P; Ponomarev, S V; Shilyaeva, Ye V; Bel'skih, Ye A; Gritsan, A I

    2016-07-01

    Background Currently, one of the causes of high morbidity and mortality is injuries. Predict the outcome of injuries - it is an important task of the treating physician. Trauma is a stress factor so to predict the outcome, you can use markers of stress, the most accessible ofwhich is blood glucose. to reveal the dynamics of the relationship between blood glucose levels and the outlook for the life ofpatients with thoracoabdominal injuries. A retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized patients were divided into two groups, depending on the outlook for the life of (favorable or unfavorable), and each of the groups - into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of signs of intoxication at admission. The subgroups were calculated and compared the mean blood glucose levels at different hours of hospital treatment. It was found that the average blood glucose levels at various hours of hospital stay were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome. The most noticeable was the difference in the first days of hospital treatment. Signs of intoxication was associated with lower values of glucose and a tendency to hypoglycaemia. In addition, among patients with high blood glucose ( 8 mg / dL) was observed over deaths in the first day of hospital stay. High blood glucose levels ( 8,0 mmol / L) in the first day of hospital treatment is a predictor ofpoor outcome in patients with thoracoabdominal injuries.

  8. The modulatory role of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone administered spinally in the regulation of blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of α-MSH located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in d-glucose-fed and immobilization stress (IMO) mouse models. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with α-MSH alone did not affect the blood glucose level. However, i.t. administration with α-MSH reduced the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. The plasma insulin level was increased in d-glucose-fed model and was further increased by α-MSH, whereas α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in d-glucose-fed model. In addition, i.t. administration with glucagon alone enhanced blood glucose level and, i.t. injection with glucagon also increased the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. In contrasted to results observed in d-glucose-fed model, i.t. treatment with α-MSH caused enhancement of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The plasma insulin level was increased in IMO model. The increased plasma insulin level by IMO was reduced by i.t. treatment with α-MSH, whereas i.t. pretreatment with α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in IMO model. Taken together, although spinally located α-MSH itself does not alter the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of α-MSH system located in the spinal cord play important modulatory roles for the reduction of the blood glucose level in d-glucose fed model whereas α-MSH is responsible for the up-regulation of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The enhancement of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in down-regulation of the blood glucose in d-glucose fed model whereas reduction of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in up-regulation of the blood glucose in IMO model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atypical blood glucose response to continuous and interval exercise in a person with type 1 diabetes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Othmar; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mueller, Alexander; Groeschl, Werner; Pieber, Thomas R; Koehler, Gerd; Eckstein, Max L; Bracken, Richard M; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-30

    Therapy must be adapted for people with type 1 diabetes to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia caused by increased exercise-related glucose uptake into muscles. Therefore, to avoid hypoglycemia, the preexercise short-acting insulin dose must be reduced for safety reasons. We report a case of a man with long-lasting type 1 diabetes in whom no blood glucose decrease during different types of exercise with varying exercise intensities and modes was found, despite physiological hormone responses. A Caucasian man diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for 24 years performed three different continuous high-intensity interval cycle ergometer exercises as part of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02075567). Intensities for both modes of exercises were set at 5% below and 5% above the first lactate turn point and 5% below the second lactate turn point. Short-acting insulin doses were reduced by 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively. Measurements taken included blood glucose, blood lactate, gas exchange, heart rate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin-like growth factor-1. Unexpectedly, no significant blood glucose decreases were observed during all exercise sessions (start versus end, 12.97 ± 2.12 versus 12.61 ± 2.66 mmol L -1 , p = 0.259). All hormones showed the expected response, dependent on the different intensities and modes of exercises. People with type 1 diabetes typically experience a decrease in blood glucose levels, particularly during low- and moderate-intensity exercises. In our patient, we clearly found no decline in blood glucose, despite a normal hormone response and no history of any insulin insensitivity. This report indicates that there might be patients for whom the recommended preexercise therapy adaptation to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia needs to be questioned because this could increase the risk of severe hyperglycemia and ketosis.

  10. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaeva, Galina V; Sidorenko, Evgenyj I; Iosifovna, Amkhanitskaya Lyubov

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g), and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g). Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g). The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05). Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05). The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns' somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  11. Cerebral blood flow, glucose use, and CSF ionic regulation in potassium-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroek, H.; Kuschinsky, W.

    1988-01-01

    Rats were kept on a low-K + diet for 25 or 70 days. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) were measured in 31 different structures of the brain by means of the [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine and [ 14 C]2-deoxy-D-glucose method. After 25 and 70 days of K + depletion LCBF was decreased significantly in 27 and 30 structures, respectively, the average decrease being 19 and 25%. In contrast, average LCGU was not changed. Cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K + concentration decreased significantly from 2.65 ± 0.02 mM in controls to 2.55 ± 0.02 mM and 2.47 ± 0.02 mM in the two treated groups. CSF [HCO 3 - ], pH, and Pco 2 were increased in K + -depleted animals. These data show that K + depletion induces an increase in CSF pH and a decrease in CSF K + concentration, both of which cause a reduction in cerebral blood flow. The increased CSF Pco 2 is secondary to the reduction of blood flow, since brain metabolism and arterial Pco 2 remained constant

  12. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  13. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  15. Perspectives of patients with type 1 or insulintreated type 2 diabetes on self-monitoring of blood glucose : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; Kars, Marijke C.; Wierenga, Willem S.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J. G.; van der Bijl, Jaap J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), including self-regulation, is an important tool to achieve good glycemic control. However, many patients measure their glucose concentrations less often than is recommended. This study investigates patients' perspectives of SMBG and all relevant

  16. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  17. Dimethylarginines, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Gudjoncik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that in patients with acute MI, SDMA, and only weakly ADMA, are associated with admission blood glucose, beyond traditional dimethylarginine determinants and may therefore have biological activity beyond renal function.

  18. Effect of blood glucose level on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Haibo; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Zuo Chuantao; Hua Fengchun; Tang Wenying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood glucose level on the image quality of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging. Methods: Eighty patients referred to the authors' department for routine whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT check up were recruited into this study. The patients were classified into 9 groups according to their blood glucose level: normal group avg and SUV max ) of liver on different slices. SPSS 12.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: (1) There were significant differences among the 9 groups in image quality scores and image noises (all P avg and SUV max : 0.60 and 0.33, P<0.05). Conclusions: The higher the blood glucose level, the worse the image quality. When the blood glucose level is more than or equal to 12.0 mmol/L, the image quality will significantly degrade. (authors)

  19. Lowering blood glucose during hip surgery does not influence coagulation activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein K. Sechterberger

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide moderately reduced post-operative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and prediabetic obese patients undergoing elective hip surgery, no changes were observed with respect to coagulation activation.

  20. Effects of self-monitoring of blood glucose on diabetes control in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods:This study assessed the effect on diabetes control in patients who received glucometers and education ... Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) helps patients make ..... unhealthy eating habits could possibly be related to the low.

  1. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI for combined imaging of blood-brain barrier break down and increased blood volume in brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Chan, Kannie W Y; Knutsson, Linda; Artemov, Dmitri; Xu, Jiadi; Liu, Guanshu; Kato, Yoshinori; Lal, Bachchu; Laterra, John; McMahon, Michael T; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2015-12-01

    Recently, natural d-glucose was suggested as a potential biodegradable contrast agent. The feasibility of using d-glucose for dynamic perfusion imaging was explored to detect malignant brain tumors based on blood brain barrier breakdown. Mice were inoculated orthotopically with human U87-EGFRvIII glioma cells. Time-resolved glucose signal changes were detected using chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) MRI. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI was used to measure tissue response to an intravenous bolus of d-glucose. DGE images of mouse brains bearing human glioma showed two times higher and persistent changes in tumor compared with contralateral brain. Area-under-curve (AUC) analysis of DGE delineated blood vessels and tumor and had contrast comparable to the AUC determined using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI with GdDTPA, both showing a significantly higher AUC in tumor than in brain (P blood volume and permeability with respect to normal brain. We expect DGE will provide a low-risk and less expensive alternative to DCE MRI for imaging cancer in vulnerable populations, such as children and patients with renal impairment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  3. Glucose Monitoring System Based on Osmotic Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra LEAL

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a prototype sensor unit for implementation in a long-term glucose monitoring system suitable for estimating glucose levels in people suffering from diabetes mellitus. The system utilizes osmotic pressure as the sensing mechanism and consists of a sensor prototype that is integrated together with a pre-amplifier and data acquisition unit for both data recording and processing. The sensor prototype is based on an embedded silicon absolute pressure transducer and a semipermeable nanoporous membrane that is enclosed in the sensor housing. The glucose monitoring system facilitates the integration of a low power microcontroller that is combined with a wireless inductive powered communication link. Experimental verification have proven that the system is capable of tracking osmotic pressure changes using albumin as a model compound, and thereby show a proof of concept for novel long term tracking of blood glucose from remote sensor nodes.

  4. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors enhance object memory independent of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Van Donkelaar, Eva L; Ferrington, Linda; Blokland, Arjan; Bollen, Eva; Steinbusch, Harry Wm; Kelly, Paul At; Prickaerts, Jos Hhj

    2009-07-01

    Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors prevent the breakdown of the second messengers, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), and are currently studied as possible targets for cognitive enhancement. Earlier studies indicated beneficial effects of PDE inhibitors in object recognition. In this study we tested the effects of three PDE inhibitors on spatial memory as assessed in a place and object recognition task. Furthermore, as both cAMP and cGMP are known vasodilators, the effects of PDE inhibition on cognitive functions could be explained by enhancement of cerebrovascular function. We examined this possibility by measuring the effects of PDE5 and PDE4 inhibitor treatment on local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in rats using [14C]-iodoantipyrine and [14C]-2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, respectively. In the spatial location task, PDE5 inhibition (cGMP) with vardenafil enhanced only early phase consolidation, PDE4 inhibition (cAMP) with rolipram enhanced only late phase consolidation, and PDE2 inhibition (cAMP and cGMP) with Bay 60-7550 enhanced both consolidation processes. Furthermore, PDE5 inhibition had no cerebrovascular effects in hippocampal or rhinal areas. PDE4 inhibition increased rhinal, but not hippocampal blood flow, whereas it decreased glucose utilization in both areas. In general, PDE5 inhibition decreased the ratio between blood flow and glucose utilization, indicative of general oligaemia; whereas PDE4 inhibition increased this ratio, indicative of general hyperemia. Both oligaemic and hyperemic conditions are detrimental for brain function and do not explain memory enhancement. These results underscore the specific effects of cAMP and cGMP on memory consolidation (object and spatial memory) and provide evidence that the underlying mechanisms of PDE inhibition on cognition are independent of cerebrovascular effects.

  5. Studies on glucose metabolism and blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure by positron emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michihiro, Narumi

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the glucose metabolism and blood perfusion of the interictal epileptic focus, 15 positron emission tomography (PET) measurements were performed in 14 children with partial seizures (2 with simple partial seizures, 2 with complex partial seizures, and 10 with partial seizures evolving to secondary generalized seizures), comprising 7 males and 7 females aged 1 to 12 years old at the onset of the epileptic seizures. The intervals between the seizure onset and PET examinations were 1 month to 7 years (mean 3 1/4 years). Radiopharmaceuticals such as 11 C-glucose, 11 CO 2 and 11 CO were used as indicators of local cerebral glucose metabolism, blood perfusion and blood flow, respectively. Apart from 2 cases, none of the patients showed abnormal x-ray computed tomographic scans (X-CT). The abnormal X-CT findings included cortical atrophy of the cerebrum apart from the epiletic focus in one case and cavum vergae in the other. Hypometabolism and hypoperfusion at the epileptic focus were observed in 10 patients undergoing single examinations who had suffered from epileptic seizures for more than 1 year. Out of 4 patients who had suffered from epileptic seizures for 1 year or less, one revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the epileptic focus and expanded region larger than that of the epileptic focus on the electroencephalogram. Two other patients revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in an area contralateral to the epileptic focus. In the remaining one patient, PET examinations were performed twice. The initial PET pictures one year after seizure onset revealed a zone of hypermetabolism and hyperperfusion in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the epileptic focus, and the second PET at 6 months after the initial examination revealed hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the focus, similarly to the 10 cases mentioned above. (J.P.N.)

  6. MicroRNA Expression Varies according to Glucose Tolerance, Measurement Platform, and Biological Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA expression is observed during type 2 diabetes (T2D, although the consistency of miRNA expression across measurement platform and biological source is uncertain. Here we report miRNA profiling in the whole blood and serum of South African women with different levels of glucose tolerance, using next generation sequencing (NGS and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. Whole blood-derived miRNAs from women with newly diagnosed T2D (n=4, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (n=4, and normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=4 were subjected to NGS, whereafter transcript levels of selected miRNAs were quantified in the whole blood and serum of these women using qRT-PCR. Of the five significantly differentially expressed miRNAs identified by NGS, only the directional increase of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT was confirmed in whole blood and serum, using qRT-PCR. Functional enrichment of miR-27b gene targets identified biological pathways associated with glucose transport and insulin regulation. In conclusion, this study showed poor correlation in miRNA expression profiled using NGS and qRT-PCR and in whole blood and serum. The consistent increased expression of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT across measurement platform and biological source holds potential as a biomarker for risk stratification in our population.

  7. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabet...

  8. Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin G

    2018-04-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) recorded in routine clinical practice is relatively inaccurate and associated with higher readings compared to BP measured in research studies in accordance with standardized measurement guidelines. The increase in routine office BP is the result of several factors, especially the presence of office staff, which tends to make patients nervous and also allows for conversation to occur. With the disappearance of the mercury sphygmomanometer because of environmental concerns, there is greater use of oscillometric BP recorders, both in the office setting and elsewhere. Although oscillometric devices may reduce some aspects of observer BP measurement error in the clinical setting, they are still associated with higher BP readings, known as white coat hypertension (for diagnosis) or white coat effect (with treated hypertension). Now that fully automated sphygmomanometers are available which are capable of recording several readings with the patient resting quietly, there is no longer any need to have office staff present when BP is being recorded. Such readings are called automated office blood pressure (AOBP) and they are both more accurate than conventional manual office BP and not associated with the white coat phenomena. AOBP readings are also similar to the awake ambulatory BP and home BP, both of which are relatively good predictors of cardiovascular risk. The available evidence suggests that AOBP should now replace manual or electronic office BP readings when screening patients for hypertension and also after antihypertensive drug therapy is initiated. Copyright © 2018. The Korean Society of Cardiology.

  9. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwok-Wai; Chen, Chao-Long; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Tseng, Chia-Chih; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Yaw-Sen; Wang, Chih-Chi; Huang, Tung-Liang; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chiu, King-Wah; Wang, Shih-Hor; Lin, Chih-Che; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Jawan, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group I (GI), those not transfused in Group II (GII). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group III (GIII); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group IV (GIV). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in blood glucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels in this study. PMID:15884124

  10. Alanine aminotransferase is associated with an adverse nocturnal blood glucose profile in individuals with normal glucose regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00-20∶00 and nocturnal (20∶00-06∶00 mean blood glucose (MBG levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT 0.05. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation.

  11. Low blood glucose precipitates spike-and-wave activity in genetically predisposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Analysis of blood glucose distribution characteristics in a health examination population in Chengdu (2007–2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenxia; Xu, Wangdong; Zhu, Ping; Yang, Hanwei; Su, Linchong; Tang, Huairong; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract With socioeconomic growth and cultural changes in China, the level of blood glucose may have changed in recent years. This study aims to detect the blood glucose distribution characteristics with a large size of health examination population. A total of 641,311 cases (360,259 males and 281,052 females) more than 18 years old during 2007 to 2015 were recruited from the Health Examination Center at West China hospital, Sichuan University. The percentage of cases with abnormal glucose l...

  13. Value of self-monitoring blood glucose pattern analysis in improving diabetes outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Davidson, Jaime A

    2009-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important adjunct to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. This action can distinguish between fasting, preprandial, and postprandial hyperglycemia; detect glycemic excursions; identify and monitor resolution of hypoglycemia; and provide immediate feedback to patients about the effect of food choices, activity, and medication on glycemic control. Pattern analysis is a systematic approach to identifying glycemic patterns within SMBG data and then taking appropriate action based upon those results. The use of pattern analysis involves: (1) establishing pre- and postprandial glucose targets; (2) obtaining data on glucose levels, carbohydrate intake, medication administration (type, dosages, timing), activity levels and physical/emotional stress; (3) analyzing data to identify patterns of glycemic excursions, assessing any influential factors, and implementing appropriate action(s); and (4) performing ongoing SMBG to assess the impact of any therapeutic changes made. Computer-based and paper-based data collection and management tools can be developed to perform pattern analysis for identifying patterns in SMBG data. This approach to interpreting SMBG data facilitates rational therapeutic adjustments in response to this information. Pattern analysis of SMBG data can be of equal or greater value than measurement of HbA1c levels. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Glucose transporter of the human brain and blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaria, R.N.; Gravina, S.A.; Schmidley, J.W.; Perry, G.; Harik, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    We identified and characterized the glucose transporter in the human cerebral cortex, cerebral microvessels, and choroid plexus by specific D-glucose-displaceable [3H]cytochalasin B binding. The binding was saturable, with a dissociation constant less than 1 microM. Maximal binding capacity was approximately 7 pmol/mg protein in the cerebral cortex, approximately 42 pmol/mg protein in brain microvessels, and approximately 27 pmol/mg protein in the choroid plexus. Several hexoses displaced specific [3H]cytochalasin B binding to microvessels in a rank-order that correlated well with their known ability to cross the blood-brain barrier; the only exception was 2-deoxy-D-glucose, which had much higher affinity for the glucose transporter than the natural substrate, D-glucose. Irreversible photoaffinity labeling of the glucose transporter of microvessels with [3H]cytochalasin B, followed by solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, labeled a protein band with an average molecular weight of approximately 55,000. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific to the human erythrocyte glucose transporter immunocytochemically stained brain blood vessels and the few trapped erythrocytes in situ, with minimal staining of the neuropil. In the choroid plexus, blood vessels did not stain, but the epithelium reacted positively. We conclude that human brain microvessels are richly endowed with a glucose transport moiety similar in molecular weight and antigenic characteristics to that of human erythrocytes and brain microvessels of other mammalian species

  15. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation......, and especially temporal relationships must be taken into account. What triggers the flow increase during functional brain activation is not entirely elucidated. The demand for excess glucose uptake may be important and a possible oxygen deficit in tissue distant from the capillaries is probably of minor...

  16. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  17. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods . Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results . Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention ( p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT ( p = 0.042). Conclusion . Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  18. Effect of levulose containing sweets on blood and salivary glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; K L, Girish Babu; Gona, Harsha

    2015-06-01

    It is common that many diabetic patients crave for sweets which are normally prohibited. To satisfy their desire to have sweets, alternative sweeteners have been introduced to provide sweetness to some items of their diabetic diet. To (1) assess the effect of sweets containing levulose on glucose levels in blood and saliva, and (2) compare it with effect of sweets containing sucrose on blood and saliva levels of glucose. The study consisted of 20 healthy participants, aged 17-20 years. Two sweet preparations of 36 g each were selected for the study. One preparation was sweetened with levulose (diabetic sweet; Group I) and the other with sucrose (regular sweet; Group II). Blood sugar and salivary glucose levels were estimated before and after the consumption of diabetic and regular sweets. The mean increase in salivary glucose level was lower in Group I than in Group II. Similarly, increase in blood glucose levels in Group I was lower and highly significant. In comparison with regular sweets, consumption of levulose containing sweet resulted in significantly lower blood and salivary glucose levels.

  19. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  20. Biochemical relationships between bone turnover markers and blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rasha M

    2017-11-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop many complications including osteopenia, which is associated with high fracture risk. Osteocalcin is a non collagenous protein derived from the osteoblasts. Recently, it was found that osteocalcin enhances the pancreatic beta cell proliferation, insulin secretion and protection against type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the association of serum osteocalcin and other bone turnover markers with blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus duration in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients together with 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium concentrations were measured by commercial ELISA kits. The results showed that type 2 diabetic patients exhibited a significantly lower serum osteocalcin and calcium (p=0.0001 and 0.002 respectively) and a higher alkaline phosphatase (p=0.008) compared to the controls. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum osteocalcin was inversely associated with fasting blood glucose and Diabetes Mellitus duration (β=- 0.018; p=0.007 and β=- 0.085; p=0.014 respectively) in Type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, alkaline phosphatase was positively associated (β=0.828; p=0.015) while serum calcium was negatively associated (β=- 0.046; p=0.048) with Diabetes Mellitus duration. These results refer to the strong association between diabetes and bone turnover markers and call for monitoring of diabetes-associated osteopenia in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on the performance of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Tesar, Martina; Freckmann, Guido

    2014-03-01

    The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect glucose measurements with oxygen-sensitive systems. In this study, we assessed the influence of different pO2 levels on blood glucose (BG) measurements with five glucose oxidase (GOD) systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. All selected GOD systems were indicated by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased oxygen content of the blood sample. Venous blood samples of 16 subjects (eight women, eight men; mean age, 52 years; three with type 1 diabetes, four with type 2 diabetes, and nine without diabetes) were collected. Aliquots of each sample were adjusted to the following pO2 values: ≤45 mm Hg, approximately 70 mm Hg, and ≥150 mm Hg. For each system, five consecutive measurements on each sample were performed using the same test strip lot. Relative differences between the mean BG value at a pO2 level of approximately 70 mm Hg, which was considered to be similar to pO2 values in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG value at pO2 levels ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg were calculated. The GOD systems showed mean relative differences between 11.8% and 44.5% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and between -14.6% and -21.2% at pO2 values ≥150 mm Hg. For the GDH system, the mean relative differences were -0.3% and -0.2% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg, respectively. The magnitude of the pO2 impact on BG measurements seems to vary among the tested oxygen-sensitive GOD systems. The pO2 range in which oxygen-sensitive systems operate well should be provided in the product information.

  2. Cardiac damage associated with stress hyperglycaemia and acute coronary syndrome changes according to level of presenting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jumaily, Talib; Rose'Meyer, Roselyn B; Sweeny, Amy; Jayasinghe, Rohan

    2015-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress hyperglycaemia in people presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the relationships between admission glucose and cardiac damage, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In a prospective observational study people presenting with ACS at the Gold Coast Hospital had their admission glucose (AG) level tested to determine stress hyperglycaemia. A range of measurements supplemented this data including troponin levels, category of ACS and major adverse coronary events (MACEs) were obtained through hospital records and patient follow-up post-discharge. One hundred eighty-eight participants were recruited. The prevalence of stress hyperglycaemia in ACS was 44% with 31% having a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and 7.7% had undiagnosed diabetes. The stress hyperglycaemic group had a significantly higher median troponin levels compared to participants with normal blood glucose levels on admission (pglucose group (>15 mmol/L) had troponin levels similar to people presenting with normal blood glucose levels and ACS (p>0.05). Cardiac necrosis as measured by troponin levels is significantly increased in people with ACS and stress hyperglycaemia. This study found that one in four participants presenting with ACS and an admission glucose of >7.0 had no previous diagnosis for diabetes. Consistently ordering HbA1C testing on patients with high AG can enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Negahdarizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medicine. The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa on blood glucose and serum lipids in streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, five groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of five were administered with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to become diabetic. Group I were fed normal diet. Group II of animals received 20 mg/kg/day Capparis spinosa extract. Group III received no treatment (diabetic control and animals of groups IV and V were treated with capparis spinosa fruit extract 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for three weeks. Blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and body weight were measured in all animals. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the 30 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa fruit extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL level. In addition, administration of 20 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa extract decreased blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the oral administration of capparis spinosa extract at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body weight has glucose and lipids lowering activity in diabetic rats.

  4. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  5. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days.

  6. Effects of computerized decision support systems on blood glucose regulation in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Sandy L; Baker, Christopher C

    2013-04-01

    The use of computerized decision support systems (CDSS) in glucose control for critically ill surgical patients has been reported in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Prospective studies evaluating its effect on glucose control are, however, lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate patient-specific computerized IV insulin dosing on blood glucose levels (BGLs) by comparing patients treated pre-CDSS with those treated post-CDSS. A prospective study was performed in 4 surgical ICUs and 1 progressive care unit comparing patient data pre- and post-implementation of CDSS. The primary outcomes measures were the impact of the CDSS on glycemic control in this population and on reducing the incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Data on 1,682 patient admissions were evaluated, which corresponded to 73,290 BGLs post-CDSS compared with 44,972 BGLs pre-CDSS. The percentage of hyperglycemic events improved, with BGLs of >150 mg/dL decreasing by 50% compared with 6-month historical controls during the 18-month study period from July 2010 through December 2011. This was true for all 5 units individually (p < 0.0001, by one sample sign test). In addition, severe hypoglycemia (defined as BGL <40 mg/dL) decreased from 1% to 0.05% after implementing CDSS (p < 0.0001 by 2-sided binomial test). Patients whose BGLs were managed using CDSS were statistically significantly more likely to have a glucose reading under control (<150 mg/dL) than in the 6-month historical controls and to avoid serious hypoglycemia (p < 0.0001). Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain metabolism is significantly impaired at blood glucose below 6 mM and brain glucose below 1 mM in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Meierhans, Roman; B?chir, Markus; Ludwig, Silke; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Brandi, Giovanna; Haberth?r, Christoph; Stocker, Reto; Stover, John F

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The optimal blood glucose target following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be defined. Cerebral microdialysis was used to investigate the influence of arterial blood and brain glucose on cerebral glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and calculated indices of downstream metabolism. Methods In twenty TBI patients, microdialysis catheters inserted in the edematous frontal lobe were dialyzed at 1 ?l/min, collecting samples at 60 minute intervals. Occult metabolic alteratio...

  8. Brain metabolism is significantly impaired at blood glucose below 6 mM and brain glucose beneath 1 mM in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Meierhans, R; Bechir, M; Ludwig, S; Sommerfeld, J; Brandi, G; Haberthur, C; Stocker, R; Stover, J F

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The optimal blood glucose target following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be defined. Cerebral microdialysis was used to investigate the influence of arterial blood and brain glucose on cerebral glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and calculated indices of downstream metabolism. METHODS: In twenty TBI patients, microdialysis catheters inserted in the edematous frontal lobe were dialyzed at 1 mul/ min, collecting samples at 60 minute intervals. Occult metab...

  9. Blood glucose meters employing dynamic electrochemistry are stable against hematocrit interference in a laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B; Schipper, Christina; Demircik, Filiz; Hengesbach, Carina; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Hematocrit (HCT) is known to be a confounding factor that interferes with many blood glucose (BG) measurement technologies, resulting in wrong readings. Dynamic electrochemistry has been identified as one possible way to correct for these potential deviations. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the HCT stability of four BG meters known to employ dynamic electrochemistry (BGStar and iBGStar, Sanofi; Wavesense Jazz, AgaMatrix; Wellion Linus, MedTrust) in comparison with three other devices (GlucoDock, Medisana; OneTouch Verio Pro, LifeScan; FreeStyle Freedom InsuLinx, Abbott-Medisense). Venous heparinized blood was immediately aliquoted after draw and manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (60-90, 130-160, and 280-320 mg/dl) and five different HCT levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured six times with three devices and three strip lots of each meter. The YSI Stat 2300 served as laboratory reference method. Stability to HCT influence was assumed when less than 10% difference occurred between the highest and lowest mean glucose deviations in relation to HCT concentrations [hematocrit interference factor (HIF)]. Five of the investigated self-test meters showed a stable performance with the different HCT levels tested in this investigation: BGStar (HIF 4.6%), iBGStar (6.6%), Wavesense Jazz (4.1%), Wellion Linus (8.5%), and OneTouch Verio Pro (6.2%). The two other meters were influenced by HCT (FreeStyle InsuLinx 17.8%; GlucoDock 46.5%). In this study, meters employing dynamic electrochemistry, as used in the BGStar and iBGStar devices, were shown to correct for potential HCT influence on the meter results. Dynamic electrochemistry appears to be an effective way to handle this interfering condition. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Blood Glucose Meters Employing Dynamic Electrochemistry Are Stable against Hematocrit Interference in a Laboratory Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B.; Schipper, Christina; Demircik, Filiz; Hengesbach, Carina; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematocrit (HCT) is known to be a confounding factor that interferes with many blood glucose (BG) measurement technologies, resulting in wrong readings. Dynamic electrochemistry has been identified as one possible way to correct for these potential deviations. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the HCT stability of four BG meters known to employ dynamic electrochemistry (BGStar and iBGStar, Sanofi; Wavesense Jazz, AgaMatrix; Wellion Linus, MedTrust) in comparison with three other devices (GlucoDock, Medisana; OneTouch Verio Pro, LifeScan; FreeStyle Freedom InsuLinx, Abbott-Medisense). Methods Venous heparinized blood was immediately aliquoted after draw and manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (60–90, 130–160, and 280–320 mg/dl) and five different HCT levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured six times with three devices and three strip lots of each meter. The YSI Stat 2300 served as laboratory reference method. Stability to HCT influence was assumed when less than 10% difference occurred between the highest and lowest mean glucose deviations in relation to HCT concentrations [hematocrit interference factor (HIF)]. Results Five of the investigated self-test meters showed a stable performance with the different HCT levels tested in this investigation: BGStar (HIF 4.6%), iBGStar (6.6%), Wavesense Jazz (4.1%), Wellion Linus (8.5%), and OneTouch Verio Pro (6.2%). The two other meters were influenced by HCT (FreeStyle InsuLinx 17.8%; GlucoDock 46.5%). Conclusions In this study, meters employing dynamic electrochemistry, as used in the BGStar and iBGStar devices, were shown to correct for potential HCT influence on the meter results. Dynamic electrochemistry appears to be an effective way to handle this interfering condition. PMID:24351179

  11. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy.

  13. Dynamic Glucose Enhanced (DGE) MRI for Combined Imaging of Blood Brain Barrier Break Down and Increased Blood Volume in Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Chan, Kannie WY; Knutsson, Linda; Artemov, Dmitri; Xu, Jiadi; Liu, Guanshu; Kato, Yoshinori; Lal, Bachchu; Laterra, John; McMahon, Michael T.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recently, natural d-glucose was suggested as a potential biodegradable contrast agent. The feasibility of using d-glucose for dynamic perfusion imaging was explored to detect malignant brain tumors based on blood brain barrier breakdown. Methods Mice were inoculated orthotopically with human U87-EGFRvIII glioma cells. Time-resolved glucose signal changes were detected using chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) MRI. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI was used to measure tissue response to an intravenous bolus of d-glucose. Results DGE images of mouse brains bearing human glioma showed two times higher and persistent changes in tumor compared to contralateral brain. Area-under-curve (AUC) analysis of DGE delineated blood vessels and tumor and had contrast comparable to the AUC determined using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI with GdDTPA, both showing a significantly higher AUC in tumor than in brain (pblood volume and permeability with respect to normal brain. We expect DGE will provide a low-risk and less expensive alternative to DCE MRI for imaging cancer in vulnerable populations, such as children and patients with renal impairment. PMID:26404120

  14. Age-related memory impairments due to reduced blood glucose responses to epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ken A; Chang, Qing; Mohler, Eric G; Gold, Paul E

    2010-12-01

    Increases in blood glucose levels are an important component of the mechanisms by which epinephrine enhances memory formation. The present experiments addressed the hypothesis that a dysfunction in the blood glucose response to circulating epinephrine contributes to age-related memory impairments. Doses of epinephrine and glucagon that significantly increased blood glucose levels in young adult rats were far less effective at doing so in 2-year-old rats. In young rats, epinephrine and glucose were about equally effective in enhancing memory and in prolonging post-training release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. However, glucose was more effective than epinephrine in enhancing both memory and acetylcholine release in aged rats. These results suggest that an uncoupling between circulating epinephrine and glucose levels in old rats may lead to an age-related reduction in the provision of glucose to the brain during training. This in turn may contribute to age-related changes in memory and neural plasticity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Salleh, Nurhazwani; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Forde, Ciaran G

    2018-01-31

    Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet ("Cheng Teng") or a savoury (broth) preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal) or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal) in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m²). There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments ( p = 0.012), with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214). Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality ( p < 0.001). Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  16. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng” or a savoury (broth preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2. There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012, with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214. Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001. Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  17. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul; Björck, Inger M E

    2005-07-01

    Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under the curve (AUC)] after whey ingestion. Postprandial GIP responses were higher after whey ingestion, whereas no differences were found in GLP-1 between the reference and test meals. It can be concluded that the addition of whey to meals with rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates stimulates insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  18. Use of a Connected Glucose Meter and Certified Diabetes Educator Coaching to Decrease the Likelihood of Abnormal Blood Glucose Excursions: The Livongo for Diabetes Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Janelle; Bollyky, Jenna; Schneider, Jennifer

    2017-07-11

    The Livongo for Diabetes Program offers members (1) a cellular technology-enabled, two-way messaging device that measures blood glucose (BG), centrally stores the glucose data, and delivers messages back to the individual in real time; (2) unlimited BG test strips; and (3) access to a diabetes coaching team for questions, goal setting, and automated support for abnormal glucose excursions. The program is sponsored by at-risk self-insured employers, health plans and provider organizations where it is free to members with diabetes or it is available directly to the person with diabetes where they cover the cost. The objective of our study was to evaluate BG data from 4544 individuals with diabetes who were enrolled in the Livongo program from October 2014 through December 2015. Members used the Livongo glucose meter to measure their BG levels an average of 1.8 times per day. We estimated the probability of having a day with a BG reading outside of the normal range (70-180 mg/dL, or 3.9-10.0 mmol/L) in months 2 to 12 compared with month 1 of the program, using individual fixed effects to control for individual characteristics. Livongo members experienced an average 18.4% decrease in the likelihood of having a day with hypoglycemia (BG 180 mg/dL) in months 2-12 compared with month 1 as the baseline. The biggest impact was seen on hyperglycemia for nonusers of insulin. We do not know all of the contributing factors such as medication or other treatment changes during the study period. These findings suggest that access to a connected glucose meter and certified diabetes educator coaching is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of abnormal glucose excursions, which can lead to diabetes-related health care savings. ©Janelle Downing, Jenna Bollyky, Jennifer Schneider. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.

  19. Reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide in the blood of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhen-Hua; Tian, Guo-Li; Huang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Min; Xu, Hong-Ping

    2017-07-20

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly detected during mass screening for neonatal disease. We developed a method to measure reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for detecting G6PD deficiency. The concentration of GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio in newborn dry-blood-spot (DBS) screening and in blood plus sodium citrate for test confirmation were examined by MS/MS using labeled glycine as an internal standard. G6PD-deficient newborns had a lower GSH content (242.9 ± 15.9 μmol/L)and GSH/GSSG ratio (14.9 ± 7.2) than neonatal controls (370.0 ± 53.2 μmol/L and 46.7 ± 19.6, respectively). Although the results showed a significance of P blood measured using MS/MS on the first day of sample preparation are consistent with G6PD activity and are helpful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency.

  20. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...... intake of marine food. The observation that blood glucose is positively associated with marine diet in a population survey is new and should be repeated. There was good agreement between the results for the reported consumption of seal and those for the biomarkers. SPONSORSHIP: The study was financially...

  1. The Effect of Acute Consumption of Energy Drinks on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Blood Glucose in the Group of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are very popular among young people, who consume them for various reasons. A standard ED typically contains 80 mg of caffeine, as well as glucose, taurine, vitamins and other ingredients. Excessive consumption of EDs and accumulation of the above ingredients, as well as their mutual interactions, can be hazardous to the health of young adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute consumption of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose. Methods: The study involved 68 volunteers, healthy young adults (mean age 25 years, who were divided into two groups: the first consumed three EDs at one-hour intervals, and the second drank the same amount of water. All participants had their blood pressure (BP—systolic and diastolic (SBP and DBP—as well as heart rate (HR and blood glucose (BG measured. In addition, participants could report any health problems before and after consuming each portion of ED. Results: In the above experiment, having consumed three portions of ED (240 mg of caffeine, the participants presented a significant increase in DBP (p = 0.003, by over 8%, which coincided with a lack of any significant impact on SBP (p = 0.809. No significant changes were noted in HR (p = 0.750. Consumption of EDs caused a significant increase (p < 0.001 in BG, by ca. 21%, on average. Some participants reported various discomforts, which escalated after 2 and 3 EDs. Conclusions: Acute consumption of EDs contributed to increased diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and level of discomfort in healthy young people. Our results reinforce the need for further studies on a larger population to provide sufficient evidence.

  2. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the changes in blood glucose level during sedation with midazolam and propofol in implant surgery: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Nasser; Koosha, Farzad; Shahtusi, Mina

    2014-09-01

    Reducing the patients' stress can prevent, or at least, limit the increase in blood glucose level. The study compares the effect of propofol and midazolam on blood glucose level in the patients undergoing dental implant surgery. The effect of pre-operational stress on blood glucose level during the surgery is also evaluated. This prospective randomized clinical trial recruited 33 patients undergoing dental implant surgery and divided into two groups. Conscious sedation was performed by midazolam in one group and with propofol in another group. The pre-operational stress was scored and the blood glucose level was measured in 4 different stages; before the operation, two minutes after the local anesthetic injection; thirty minutes after the onset of operation and at the end of the operation. The results were analyzed by employing ANOVA and Pearson test. The p Value was adopted 0.05 and the confidence coefficient was assumed 95%. The average levels of the blood glucose in midazolam and propofol group were 93.82 mg/dl and 94 mg/dl before the operation which displayed a meaningful increase of blood glucose level in both groups as the operation went on. The values were 103.76 mg/dl for midazolam and 108.56 mg/dl for the propofol group (pblood glucose level between two groups in the different stages of the operation (p= 0.466). The Pearson correlation coefficient test revealed a higher increase in the blood glucose level in the patients with a higher pre-operational stress score (r= 0.756, pblood glucose level while undergoing an operation. No statistically significant difference was detected between midazolam and propofol.

  4. Evaluation of blood glucose and thyroid function in Sudanese diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarib, M.O.A.

    2008-03-01

    This study composes of two parts. The first one is a survey of thyroid abnormalities, and the second one is experiment to estimate the level of thyroid hormones (T 4 , T 3 , TSH) among diabetic population and the relationship between the level of glucose, thyroid hormones and lipid profile (TC, LDL, TG, HDL) and comparison of the results with non diabetic group. The survey part of the study to determine the thyroid abnormalities, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism clinical or subclinical. Also the study group was divided in to two groups according to insulin requirement. Type I is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and type II is non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The study subjects selected for this study consist of one hundred Sudanese diabetic patients, they had mean age of 46.51±10.672 years, a mean height of 162.06±10.77 cm and a mean weight of 73.47±14.91 kg. Fifty healthy non-diabetic people without endocrine disease were chosen as controls. Glucose, and thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (total T 4 and T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. In addition hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were also measured in both groups. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated for each sample. Physical examinations such as height, weight, and history of diabetes, family history, treatment were recorded in both groups. Determination of serum hormones concentration was carried out using highly sensitive RIA technique. While determination of blood glucose, hemoglobin, and lipid profile was carried out using enzymatic colorimetric method. The results of this study showed that: 13 patients of the population screened had thyroid disease. The commonest diagnosis was sub clinical hyperthyroidism (6%), followed by sub clinical hypothyroidism (5%) and hyperthyroidism (2%). Female patients with diabetes had the highest annual risk of developing thyroid disease but all patient

  5. Evaluation of blood glucose and thyroid function in Sudanese diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarib, M O.A. [Department of Biochemistry, Atomic Energy Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-03-15

    This study composes of two parts. The first one is a survey of thyroid abnormalities, and the second one is experiment to estimate the level of thyroid hormones (T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, TSH) among diabetic population and the relationship between the level of glucose, thyroid hormones and lipid profile (TC, LDL, TG, HDL) and comparison of the results with non diabetic group. The survey part of the study to determine the thyroid abnormalities, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism clinical or subclinical. Also the study group was divided in to two groups according to insulin requirement. Type I is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and type II is non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The study subjects selected for this study consist of one hundred Sudanese diabetic patients, they had mean age of 46.51{+-}10.672 years, a mean height of 162.06{+-}10.77 cm and a mean weight of 73.47{+-}14.91 kg. Fifty healthy non-diabetic people without endocrine disease were chosen as controls. Glucose, and thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (total T{sub 4} and T{sub 3}) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. In addition hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were also measured in both groups. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated for each sample. Physical examinations such as height, weight, and history of diabetes, family history, treatment were recorded in both groups. Determination of serum hormones concentration was carried out using highly sensitive RIA technique. While determination of blood glucose, hemoglobin, and lipid profile was carried out using enzymatic colorimetric method. The results of this study showed that: 13 patients of the population screened had thyroid disease. The commonest diagnosis was sub clinical hyperthyroidism (6%), followed by sub clinical hypothyroidism (5%) and hyperthyroidism (2%). Female patients with diabetes had the highest annual risk of developing thyroid

  6. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  7. Tale of two sites: capillary versus arterial blood glucose testing in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Felix; Segal, Scott; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Stopfkuchen-Evans, Matthias; Mills, Jonathan; Rogers, Selwyn O

    2012-04-01

    Pre- and intraoperative glycemic control has been identified as a putative target to improve outcomes of surgical patients. Glycemic control requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels with appropriate adjustments. However, monitoring standards have been called into question, especially in cases in which capillary samples are used. Point-of-care testing (POCT) using capillary samples and glucometers has been noted to give relatively accurate results for critically ill patients. However, the package inserts of most glucometers warn that they should not be used for patients in shock. This has led clinicians to doubt their accuracy in the operating room. The accuracy of capillary samples when tested in patients undergoing surgical procedures has not been proven. This study aims to determine the accuracy of intraoperative blood glucose values using capillary samples relative to arterial samples. A prospective study was conducted by collecting paired capillary and arterial samples of patients undergoing major operations at a tertiary medical center from August 2009 to May 2011. Subjects were a convenience sample of patients who had arterial lines and needed glucose testing while undergoing the procedure. Precision Xceed Pro (Abbott) handheld glucometers were used to obtain the blood glucose values. Our primary outcome of interest was the degree of correlation between capillary and arterial blood glucose values or the degree to which arterial glucose levels can be predicted by capillary glucose samples. We used linear regression and the Student t tests for statistical analyses. Seventy-two-paired samples were collected. Of the cases, 54% were major abdominal operations, whereas 24% were vascular operations. The mean values ± standard deviation for glucose levels were 146 ± 35 mg/dL (capillary) and 147 ± 36 mg/dL (arterial). The mean time ± standard deviation between the collection of both samples was 3.5 ± 1.3 minutes. The regression coefficient showed a

  8. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  9. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (blood glucose level between the ASDN group and ISDN group in both boys and girls. However, gender difference exists in the body composition and blood glucose level. The current study indicates that inadequate sleep duration at night (blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  10. Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism during seizure in spontaneously epileptic El mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Chisa; Ochi, Hironobu; Yamagami, Sakae; Kawabe, Joji; Kobashi, Toshiko; Okamura, Terue; Yamada, Ryusaku

    1995-01-01

    Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism were examined in spontaneously epileptic El mice using autoradiography with 125 I-IMP and 14 C-DG in the interictal phase and during seizure. El (+) mice that developed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and El (-) mice that received no stimulation and had no history of epileptic seizures were examined. The seizure non-susceptible, maternal strain ddY mice were used as control. Uptake ratios for IMP and DG in mouse brain were calculated using the autoradiographic density. In the interictal phase, the pattern of local cerebral blood flow of El (+) mice was similar to that of ddY and El (-) mice, and glucose metabolism in the hippocampus was higher in El (+) mice than in El (-) and ddY mice, but flow and metabolism were nearly matched. During seizure, no significant changed blood flow and increased glucose metabolism in the hippocampus, the epileptic focus, and no markedly changed blood flow and depressed glucose metabolism in other brain regions were observed and considered to be flow-metabolism uncoupling. These observations have never been reported in clinical or experimental studies of epilepsy. Seizures did not cause large regional differences in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, only glucose metabolism is useful for detection of the focus of secondary generalized seizures in El mice, and appeared possibly to be related to the pathophysiology of secondary generalized epilepsy in El mice. (author)

  11. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow following graded forebrain ischemia in the rat: correlation with neuropathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Graham, D.I.; Busto, R.

    1985-01-01

    Regional patterns of cerebral glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and blood flow (rCBF) were examined in the early recovery period following transient forebrain ischemia in order to correlate early postischemic physiological events with regionally selective patterns of ischemic neuropathology. Wistar rats were subjected to 30 or 60 minutes of graded forebrain ischemia by a method combining unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery with moderate elevation of intracranial pressure and mild hypotension; this procedure results in a high-grade ischemic deficit affecting chiefly the lateral neocortex, striatum, and hippocampus ipsilateral to the carotid occlusion. Simultaneous measurements of rCMRglc and rCBF made in regional tissue samples after 2 and 4 hours of postischemic recirculation using a double-tracer radioisotopic strategy revealed a disproportionately high level of glucose metabolism relative to blood flow in the early postischemic striatum, owing to the resumption of nearly normal rCMRglc in the face of depressed flow. In contrast, the neocortex, which had been equally ischemic, showed parallel depressions of both metabolism and blood flow during early recovery. Light microscopy at 4 and 8 hours after recovery revealed the striatum to be the predominant locus of ischemic neuronal alterations, whereas neocortical lesions were much less prominent in extent and severity at this time. The resumption of normal levels of metabolism in the setting of a disproportionate depression of rCBF in the early postischemic period may accentuate the process of neuronal injury initiated by ischemia and may contribute to the genesis of neuronal necrosis in selectively vulnerable areas of the forebrain

  12. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. We measured the blood pressures of 650 healthy, randomly ... In addition, blood pressure measurement should be a part of the routine clinical examination of children. ... familial risk factors.2 ... common cause of elevated blood pressure in children.4 They ... sphygmomanometer (Accoson, hospital model BS 274,.

  13. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  14. Invasiveness as a barrier to self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Malchoff, Carl; Abbott, Gina

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the invasive characteristic of glucose monitoring is a barrier to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). A paper-and-pencil Measure of Invasiveness as a reason for Skipping SMBG (MISS) was created and administered to 339 people with diabetes. The correlations between MISS scores and actual SMBG frequency, percent adherence to SMBG recommendations, SMBG anxiety, SMBG burden, and knowledge of the importance of glycemic control for avoiding diabetes complications were each explored. On a scale of 0-28, the average MISS score was M = 4.3 (SD = 5.4, range 0-28). Fully 63% (nearly two-thirds) of respondents reported skipping SMBG because of the invasiveness of the procedure. MISS scores were negatively related to percent adherence to healthcare provider SMBG recommendations as measured by memory function of automated meters (Spearman's r= -0.47, P diabetes vascular complications. Invasiveness is a common and serious barrier to SMBG. These findings suggest that people with diabetes would perform SMBG more frequently and have improved quality of life with non-invasive SMBG.

  15. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet : blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood

  16. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  17. Comparison of optical coherence tomography, the pulsed photoacoustic technique, and the time-of-flight technique in glucose measurements in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, M. (Matti)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The development of a non-invasive glucose monitoring technique is very important because it would tremendously diminish the need to puncture the skin when taking blood samples and help diabetic patients in controlling their blood glucose levels and in treating Diabetes Mellitus. The focus of this thesis is on measuring the effect of glucose on the light scattering properties of a tissue-simulating phantom and biological tissues in vitro. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), the pul...

  18. Disposable glucose test strip for whole blood with integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhencheng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fang Cheng, E-mail: fangpingchuan@163.co [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang Hongyan; He Jishan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-12-30

    A disposable glucose test strip with an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer was developed. A formulation containing filler, glucose oxidase and electronic mediator was screen-printed over two carbon electrodes to form an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer. On rehydration, the integrated layer does not break up, but swells to form a gelled and three-dimensional meshy reaction zone on the surface of the underlying conductive elements in which reactants and mediator move freely, but interfering species such as red blood cells containing oxygenated hemoglobin are excluded. On the same time, the integrated layer maintains a rate of permeation of the analyte through it with a variation of less than 10% at temperatures ranging from 15 deg. C to 42 deg. C. This biosensor is substantially insensitive to interferents and essentially independent to relevant temperature, which provides a more reliable reading of actual blood glucose value in human whole blood.

  19. Self-care among patients enrolled in a self-monitoring blood glucose program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Saraiva Veras

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study checks specific self-care activities of patients with diabetes mellitus enrolled in a self-monitoring blood glucose program from August to December 2012 in two Primary Health Care units in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample was composed of 74 female and male individuals, aged 18 years old or older. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire was used. It contains six dimensions: general diet, specific diet, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, foot care, medication usage, plus three items about smoking. Eight out of the 15 self-care activities were within desirable levels, namely: healthy diet, not eating sweets, blood glucose testing and as frequently as recommended, drying between toes after washing feet, and taking medications (three items. The results enabled the identification of gaps in specific self-care activities among patients with diabetes mellitus.

  20. [Effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Sun, Qiuhong; Yang, Hua

    2015-05-19

    To explore the effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 72 ICU patients with severe acute pancreatitis were recruited and divided randomly into observation and control groups (n = 36 each). Both groups were treated conventionally. And the observation group achieved stable blood glucose at 6.1-8.3 mmol/L with intensive glucose control. The length of ICU and hospital stays, ICU mortality rate, transit operative rate, concurrent infection rate, admission blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, mean insulin dose, mean blood glucose, blood glucose value standard deviation (GLUSD), glycemic liability index (GLUGLI) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (GLUMAGE) of two groups were compared. At the same time, the relationship between blood glucose variability, ICU mortality rate and its predictive value were analyzed by correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The lengths of ICU and hospital stays of observation group were all significantly less than those of the control group [(11.7 ± 9.9) vs (15.9 ± 8.02) days, (21.8 ± 10.8) vs (28.2 ± 12.7) days, P blood glucose value and GLUSD of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group [(7.4 ± 1.1) vs (9.6 ± 1.2), (1.8 ± 1.0) vs (2.5 ± 1.3) mmol/L]. The differences were statistically significant (P curve analysis showed that, AUC of GLUGLI was 0.748 and 95% CI 0.551-0.965 (P glucose control in patients with severe acute pancreatitis helps reduce the blood sugar fluctuations, lower the risks of infectious complications and promote the patient rehabilitation. And GLUGLI is positively correlated with ICU mortality rate. It has good predictive values.

  1. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  2. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  3. Effect of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists injected spinally on the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-05-01

    The possible roles of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors located in the spinal cord for the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. The hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen was more pronounced than that induced by bicuculline. However, muscimol (a GABAA receptor agonist; 1-5 μg/5 μl) or phaclofen (a GABAB receptor antagonist; 5-10 μg/5 μl) administered i.t. did not affect the blood glucose level. Baclofen-induced elevation of the blood glucose was dose-dependently attenuated by phaclofen. Furthermore, i.t. pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.05 or 0.1 μg/5 μl) for 6 days dose-dependently reduced the hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Our results suggest that GABAB receptors located in the spinal cord play important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Spinally located PTX-sensitive G-proteins appear to be involved in hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Furthermore, inactivation of GABAA receptors located in the spinal cord appears to be responsible for tonic up-regulation of the blood glucose level.

  4. Carbohydrate ingestion before and during soccer match play and blood glucose and lactate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise when CHO-electrolyte beverages were consumed regularly. Therefore, the metabolic effects of CHO beverage consumption throughout soccer match play remain unclear. To investigate the blood glucose and blood lactate responses to CHOs ingested before and during soccer match play. Crossover study. Applied research study. Ten male outfield academy soccer players (age = 15.6 ± 0.2 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.02 m, mass = 65.3 ± 1.9 kg, estimated maximal oxygen consumption = 58.4 ± 0.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Players received a 6% CHO-electrolyte solution or an electrolyte (placebo) solution 2 hours before kickoff, before each half (within 10 minutes), and every 15 minutes throughout exercise. Blood samples were obtained at rest, every 15 minutes during the match (first half: 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 minutes; second half: 45-60, 60-75, and 75-90 minutes) and 10 minutes into the halftime break. Metabolic responses (blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations) and markers of exercise intensity (heart rate) were recorded. Supplementation influenced the blood glucose response to exercise (time × treatment interaction effect: P ≤ .05), such that glucose concentrations were higher at 30 to 45 minutes in the CHO than in the placebo condition. However, in the second half, blood glucose concentrations were similar between conditions because of transient reductions from peak values occurring in both trials at halftime. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above those at rest in the first 15 minutes of exercise (time-of-sample effect: P interaction effect: P = .49). Ingestion of a 6% CHO-electrolyte beverage before and during soccer match

  5. [Blood-sugar self control. A means for the diabetic of controlling his metabolic management. Quality control of a battery-run pocket size reflectometer (glucose-meter)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, F; Jörgens, V; Chantelau, E; Berchtold, P; Berger, M

    1980-07-26

    Home blood glucose monitoring by diabetic patients has recently been advocated as an effective means to improve metabolic control. The Glucocheck apparatus, a pocket-size battery-driven reflectance-meter (in Germany commercially available under the name Glucose-meter), has been evaluated for accuracy and practicability. In 450 blood glucose measurements, the variance between the values obtained using the Glucocheck apparatus and routine clinical laboratory procedures was +/- 11.7%. Especially in the low range of blood glucose concentrations, the Glucocheck method was very reliable. The quantitative precision of the Glucocheck method depends, however, quite considerably on the ability of the patient to use the apparatus correctly. In order to profit from Glucocheck in clinical practice, particular efforts to educate the patients in its use are necessary.

  6. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  7. Perceptions of Caribbean type 2 diabetes patients on self-monitoring of blood glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwaka, C. E.; Olukoga, A.; Onuoha, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The views of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients have not been considered in the debate on the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of T2DM. Objective: To assess the views of T2DM patients on SMBG. Methods: Two previously trained research assistants used a struct......Context: The views of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients have not been considered in the debate on the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of T2DM. Objective: To assess the views of T2DM patients on SMBG. Methods: Two previously trained research assistants used...

  8. Evaluation of the Blood-Glucose Reducing Effects of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: All the aqueous extracts of (Caraway) CA, (Coriander) CO, (Cumin) CU, (Dill) DI and (Fennel) FE were administered at dose levels of 300 mg/kg body weight orally to different groups each containing 5 animals. A control group was also maintained simultaneously and received distilled water orally.Blood samples ...

  9. Comparison of the clinical information provided by the FreeStyle Navigator continuous interstitial glucose monitor versus traditional blood glucose readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarraugh, Geoffrey V; Clarke, William L; Kovatchev, Boris P

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the analysis was to compare the clinical utility of data from traditional self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to that of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). A clinical study of the clinical accuracy of the FreeStyle Navigator CGM System (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA), which includes SMBG capabilities, was conducted by comparison to the YSI blood glucose analyzer (YSI Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) using 58 subjects with type 1 diabetes. The Continuous Glucose-Error Grid Analysis (CG-EGA) was used as the analytical tool. Using CG-EGA, the "clinically accurate," "benign errors," and "clinical errors" were 86.8%, 8.7%, and 4.5% for SMBG and 92.7%, 3.7%, and 3.6% for CGM, respectively. If blood glucose is viewed as a process in time, SMBG would provide accurate information about this process 86.8% of the time, whereas CGM would provide accurate information about this process 92.7% of the time (P glucose values than CGM, control of blood glucose involves a system in flux, and CGM provides more detailed insight into the dynamics of that system. In the normal and elevated glucose ranges, the additional information about the direction and rate of glucose change provided by the FreeStyle Navigator CGM System increases the ability to make correct clinical decisions when compared to episodic SMBG tests.

  10. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus: arguments for an individualized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Michael A; El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Vardarli, Irfan

    2009-09-01

    The utility of glucose self-monitoring in different types and stages of diabetes is controversial, as there is only sparse relevant evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials. In this analysis, the authors aim to develop individualized recommendations based on clinical needs and the available literature. The PubMed database was searched for articles that appeared up to 30 September 2008 containing the terms "measurement," "control","monitoring," and "hypoglycemia"; the retrieved articles were supplemented by other articles that were cited in them. A directed search was also made for the recommendations of the German, European, American, and international diabetological societies. Conclusions were then drawn about the useful modalities and extent of glucose self-monitoring on the basis of the clinical features of the major types of diabetes and the main treatment strategies for them. With the exception of intensified treatment strategies (which rely on blood-sugar regulation with insulin), only a few evidence-based recommendations can be derived from randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses. Nonetheless, a strategy for self-monitoring according to the patient's individual needs can be derived from the characteristics of therapeutic regimens: depending on the type of diabetes from which the patient suffers, the predicted number of glucometer strips required for self-monitoring will vary from almost none to roughly 400 per month. The decision to use glucose self-monitoring, as well as the type and extent of self-monitoring that will be used, should be based on the individual patient's type of diabetes, treatment regimen, and clinical characteristics. Like any other type of therapeutic intervention, self-monitoring should have a well-documented, rational justification.

  11. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  12. Performance of a new meter designed for assisted monitoring of blood glucose and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J

    2013-03-01

    Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9-59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Electrocatalytic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, U; Luft, G; Mund, K; Preidel, W; Richter, G J

    1983-01-01

    An artificial pancreas consists of an insulin depot, a dosage unit and a glucose sensor. The measurement of the actual glucose concentration in blood is still an unsolved problem. Two methods are described for an electrocatalytic glucose sensor. Under the interfering action of amino acids and urea in-vitro measurements show an error of between 10% and 20%.

  14. Effects of administration route, dietary condition, and blood glucose level on kinetics and uptake of 18F-FDG in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2011-05-01

    The effects of dietary condition and blood glucose level on the kinetics and uptake of (18)F-FDG in mice were systematically investigated using intraperitoneal and tail-vein injection. Dynamic PET was performed for 60 min on 23 isoflurane-anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice after intravenous (n = 11) or intraperitoneal (n = 12) injection of (18)F-FDG. Five and 6 mice in the intravenous and intraperitoneal groups, respectively, were kept fasting overnight (18 ± 2 h), and the others were fed ad libitum. Serial blood samples were collected from the femoral artery to