WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood fluke exploitation

  1. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajtová, P.; Štefanić, S.; Hradilek, M.; Dvořák, Jan; Vondrášek, J.; Jílková, A.; Ulrychová, L.; McKerrow, J.H.; Caffrey, C.R.; Mareš, M.; Horn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2015), e0003827 ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * schistosomiasis * prolyl oligopeptidase * blood fluke Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2015

  2. Proteomic analysis of skin invasion by blood fluke larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hansell

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During invasion of human skin by schistosome blood fluke larvae (cercariae, a multicellular organism breaches the epidermis, basement membrane, and dermal barriers of skin. To better understand the pathobiology of this initial event in schistosome infection, a proteome analysis of human skin was carried out following invasion by cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni.Human skin samples were exposed to cercariae for one-half hour to two hours. Controls were exposed to water used to collect cercariae in an identical manner, and punctured to simulate cercarial tunnels. Fluid from both control and experimental samples was analyzed by LC/MS/MS using a linear ion trap in "triple play" mode. The coexistence of proteins released by cercariae and host skin proteins from epidermis and basement membrane confirmed that cercarial tunnels in skin were sampled. Among the abundant proteins secreted by cercariae was the cercarial protease that has been implicated in degradation of host proteins, secreted proteins proposed to mediate immune invasion by larvae, and proteins implicated in protection of parasites against oxidative stress. Components of the schistosome surface tegument, previously identified with immune serum, were also released. Both lysis and apoptosis of epidermal cells took place during cercarial invasion of the epidermis. Components of lysed epidermal cells, including desmosome proteins which link cells in the stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum, were identified. While macrophage-derived proteins were present, no mast cell or lymphocyte cytokines were identified. There were, however, abundant immunoglobulins, complement factors, and serine protease inhibitors in skin. Control skin samples incubated with water for the same period as experimental samples ensured that invasion-related proteins and host protein fragments were not due to nonspecific degeneration of the skin samples.This analysis identified secreted proteins from invasive larvae that

  3. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  4. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajtová, Pavla; Štefanic, S.; Hradilek, Martin; Dvořák, Jan; Vondrášek, Jiří; Jílková, Adéla; Ulrychová, Lenka; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael; Horn, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2015), e0003827/1-e0003827/24 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1481; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * schistosomiasis * prolyl oligopeptidase * blood fluke Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2015 http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0003827

  5. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Fajtová

    Full Text Available Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that infects over 240 million people worldwide, and for which there is a need to identify new targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. Our research is focused on Schistosoma mansoni prolyl oligopeptidase (SmPOP from the serine peptidase family S9, which has not been investigated in detail in trematodes.We demonstrate that SmPOP is expressed in adult worms and schistosomula in an enzymatically active form. By immunofluorescence microscopy, SmPOP is localized in the tegument and parenchyma of both developmental stages. Recombinant SmPOP was produced in Escherichia coli and its active site specificity investigated using synthetic substrate and inhibitor libraries, and by homology modeling. SmPOP is a true oligopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide (but not protein substrates with a strict specificity for Pro at P1. The inhibition profile is analogous to those for mammalian POPs. Both the recombinant enzyme and live worms cleave host vasoregulatory, proline-containing hormones such as angiotensin I and bradykinin. Finally, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of SmPOP that induce deleterious phenotypes in cultured schistosomes.We provide the first localization and functional analysis of SmPOP together with chemical tools for measuring its activity. We briefly discuss the notion that SmPOP, operating at the host-parasite interface to cleave host bioactive peptides, may contribute to the survival of the parasite. If substantiated, SmPOP could be a new target for the development of anti-schistosomal drugs.

  6. MOLECULAR APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF TREMATODE PARASITES : THE BLOOD FLUKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. LoVerde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One important aspect of reproductive development in trematode parasites is the formation of a hardened eggshell which allows the zygote to develop into a miracidium in a hostile environment. The miracidium then can transfer the germline from the vertebrate host to snail intermediate host. Schistosome parasites, unlike other trematodes, have separate sexes and female reproductive development is known to depend on the presence of a male parasite. These facts make the blood flukes ideal material to study the mechanisms that underlie female reproductive development and eggshell formatian. We reasoned that the morphological and biochemical differences between the male and female must be reflected at the molecular level in the differential expression of sexually regulated genes. Radioactive single stranded cDNA was first transcribed from female RNA; and then sequences common to both male and female were removed by hybridization to an excess of male RNA. This probe was used to screen a cDNA library made from mRNA of adult worm paris. One hybridizing clone, pSMf 61-46, was shown to correspond to a 0.9 kilobase mRNA that is present only in mature female worms and is not detectable in female schistosomes from single-sex infections, in male worms or in eggs. Thus expression of the gene was female-specific. During normal bisexual infection this mRNA is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing and increases to a high level at 35 days postinfection, coinciding with egg production. Thus the temporal expression of the gene was dependent on paining with male worm. The nucleotide sequence of the gene shows an open reading frame that encodes a 16 kDA polypeptide that shows strong homology with eggshell proteins on insects. A second female-specific cDNA clone, F-4, represents a 1.6 kilobase mRNA whose expression is also correlated with worm pairing and subsequent egg production, encodes a different putative eggshell component of 44 kDA. The

  7. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Larval stages of the bluefin tuna blood fluke Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) found from Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Akio; Yamanishi, Ryohei; Kanai, Kinya

    2014-04-01

    We found aporocotylid larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) from five individuals of terebellid polychaete Terebella sp., which were collected from seabed substrate and ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in a tuna farm on the coast of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the regions of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA from these larval stages were 100% identical to those of Cardicola opisthorchis registered in GenBank. C. opisthorchis is a pathogen causing blood fluke infection of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, which is considered to have a significant impact on the Japanese Pacific bluefin tuna aquaculture industry. This is the first description of the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis. This indicates that the life cycle of C. opisthorchis is completed within tuna farms in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood Fluke Exploitation of Innate-Adaptive Immune Interactions to Facilitate Parasite Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    also produce eggs by facultative parthenogenesis , we also analyzed the number of eggs produced per female worm, but again no differences in egg...summarized in (96)). The short pre- patent period of S. douthitti and its ability to produce viable eggs by facultative parthenogenesis may therefore be

  10. Proteomic analysis of human skin treated with larval schistosome peptidases reveals distinct invasion strategies among species of blood flukes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin invasion is the initial step in infection of the human host by schistosome blood flukes. Schistosome larvae have the remarkable ability to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers present in skin in the absence of any mechanical trauma. While a serine peptidase with activity against insoluble elastin appears to be essential for this process in one species of schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, it is unknown whether other schistosome species use the same peptidase to facilitate entry into their hosts.Recent genome sequencing projects, together with a number of biochemical studies, identified alternative peptidases that Schistosoma japonicum or Trichobilharzia regenti could use to facilitate migration through skin. In this study, we used comparative proteomic analysis of human skin treated with purified cercarial elastase, the known invasive peptidase of S. mansoni, or S. mansoni cathespin B2, a close homolog of the putative invasive peptidase of S. japonicum, to identify substrates of either peptidase. Select skin proteins were then confirmed as substrates by in vitro digestion assays.This study demonstrates that an S. mansoni ortholog of the candidate invasive peptidase of S. japonicum and T. regenti, cathepsin B2, is capable of efficiently cleaving many of the same host skin substrates as the invasive serine peptidase of S. mansoni, cercarial elastase. At the same time, identification of unique substrates and the broader species specificity of cathepsin B2 suggest that the cercarial elastase gene family amplified as an adaptation of schistosomes to human hosts.

  11. Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) enables informed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Crespo-Picazo, Jose L; Cutmore, Scott C; Stacy, Brian A; Chapman, Phoebe A; García-Párraga, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain. Specimens of a vermetid gastropod, Thylaeodus cf. rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), collected from the aquarium filtration system housing diseased C. caretta, were infected with sporocysts and cercariae consistent with the family Spirorchiidae. We generated rDNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial 28S rDNA] from infections from the vermetid which were identical to sequences generated from eggs from the serosa of the intestine of neonate C. caretta, and an adult spirorchiid from the liver of a C. caretta from Florida, USA. Given the reliability of these markers in the delineation of trematode species, we consider all three stages to represent the same species and tentatively identify it as a species of Amphiorchis Price, 1934. The source of infection at the Oceanogràfic Foundation Rehabilitation Centre, Valencia, Spain, is inferred to be an adult C. caretta from the western Mediterranean being rehabilitated in the same facility. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this Amphiorchis sp. is closely related to other spirorchiids of marine turtles (species of Carettacola Manter & Larson, 1950, Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Learedius Price, 1934). We discuss implications of the present findings for the control of spirorchiidiasis in captivity, for the better understanding of epidemiology in wild individuals, and the elucidation of further life cycles. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by

  12. Characterization of microRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a neglected blood fluke of human and animal health significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ren Wang

    Full Text Available The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a "directed mutation" pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

  13. Biodiversity of flukes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyfuss G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As many others parasites, speciation of flukes depends on the genetic characteristics and on ploidia. Ploidia of flukes can be different in a same species. In Asia, diploid, triploid and hybrid (2n/3n populations are encountered. The comparison of morphological parameters between diploid and triploid flukes showed that they were morphologically different. Nevertheless, a genetic relationship between parthenogenetic organisms would exist regardless of their ploidia. In the Fasciola genus, the main consequence of the high level of diversity is the frequent probability of development of resistance to anthelmintics and fast adaptation to climatic changes. In the Paragonimus genus, diversity can enhance different forms of pathogenicity, can also be related to the species of intermediate hosts, and to the definitive host. The strain of flukes plays a part in the visceral localization of P. westermani adults.

  14. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new genus and species of turtle blood fluke (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from the Mekong snail-eating turtle, Malayemys subtrijuga (Schlegel & Müller) (Testudines: Geoemydidae) in Vietnam, with a reassessment of related Asiatic turtle blood flukes and molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jackson R; Arias, Cova R; Halanych, Kenneth M; Dang, Binh T; Bullard, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    Platt sinuosus Roberts & Bullard n. g., n. sp. (type-species) infects the kidney and mesenteric blood vessels of Mekong snail-eating turtles, Malayemys subtrijuga (Schlegel & Müller), in the Mekong River Basin. Species of Platt Roberts & Bullard n. g. are unique by the combination of having a papillate ventral sucker, vasa efferentia that are dorsal to the gonads, a massive cirrus-sac that is directed anteriad or laterad, and a vitellarium that surrounds the intestinal caeca. The new species resembles Platt ocadiae (Takeuti, 1942) Roberts & Bullard n. comb. but differs from it by having an external seminal vesicle that overlaps with or is immediately posterior to the level of the ventral sucker. Seven species previously of Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922 are reassigned herein to Platt: P. odhnerensis (Mehra, 1933) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; P. yoshidai (Ozaki, 1939) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; P. ocadiae; P. oschmarini (Belous, 1963) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; P. sutlejensis (Mehrotra, 1973) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; P. synderi (Platt & Sharma, 2012) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; and P. tkachi (Platt & Sharma, 2012) Roberts & Bullard n. comb. A dichotomous key to Platt spp. is provided. Hapalorhynchus sheilae (Mehrotra, 1973) Bourgat, 1990 and Hapalorhynchus mica (Oshmarin, 1971) Bourgat, 1990 are considered as species inquirendae, and Hapalorhynchus indicus (Thapar, 1933) Price, 1934 and Hapalorhynchus macrotesticularis (Rohde, Lee, & Lim, 1968) Brooks & Sullivan, 1981 are considered as species incertae sedis. Phylogenetic analysis of the large subunit rDNA (28S) showed P. sinuosus and P. snyderi to be sister taxa distinct from a monophyletic Hapalorhynchus and Coeuritrema platti Roberts & Bullard, 2016.

  16. Immune reactivity in early life stages of sea-cage cultured Pacific bluefin tuna naturally infected with blood flukes from genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchi, Ylenia; Shirakashi, Sho; Nowak, Barbara F; Bridle, Andrew R

    2016-11-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, due to its high average price on the market is an economically valuable fish species. Infections by blood flukes from the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) represent a growing concern for the cage culture of bluefin tuna in Japan, Australia and Southern Europe. The accumulation of numerous Cardicola eggs in the fish gills causes severe pathology that has been linked to mortality in PBT juveniles up to one year old. The only effective treatment used to mitigate the infection is the oral administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to the affected fish. However, with the need to minimise therapeutic drug use in aquaculture it is hoped that immunoprophylaxis can provide a future alternative to protect the PBT juveniles against Cardicola infection. Currently, little is known of the host immune response to these parasites and of their infection dynamics. In this study, using real-time qPCR we aimed to quantitatively detect C. orientalis and C. opisthorchis DNA within the gills and heart of cultured PBT juveniles and to investigate the host immune response at the transcriptional level in the gills. The research focused mainly during early stages of infection soon after young PBT were transferred to culture cages (from 14 to 77 days post-transfer). An increase (up to 11-fold) of immune-related genes, namely IgM, MHC-I, TCR-β and IL-1β was observed in the PBT gills infected with Cardicola spp. (28-77 days post-transfer). Furthermore, IgM (19-fold increase) and MHC-I (11.5-fold increase) transcription was strongly up-regulated in gill samples of PBT infected with C. orientalis relative to uninfected fish but not in fish infected with C. opisthorchis. Cardicola-specific DNA was first detected in the host 14 days post-transfer (DPT) to sea-cages which was 55 days earlier than the first detection of parasite eggs and adults by microscopy. Oral administration of PZQ did not have an immediate effect

  17. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  18. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  19. reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    standard drug treatment of those infected with liver flukes has, by itself, been ineffective in breaking the cycle of trans- mission in highly affected communities. The organism infects not only people, but animals such as cats and dogs that also eat raw fish. Many of those who carry the fluke have no symptoms, and continue to ...

  20. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  1. Paragonimus kellicotti flukes in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael A; Marcos, Luis A; Onen, Nur F; Demertzis, Lee M; Hayes, Ericka V; Davila, Samuel Z; Nurutdinova, Diana R; Bailey, Thomas C; Weil, Gary J

    2012-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968-2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University-affiliated health centers in 2009-2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission.

  2. Molecular characterization of a tetraspanin from the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Piratae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, is designated as a group 1 carcinogen, and is the major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in endemic countries throughout Southeast Asia. Proteins in the excretory-secretory products and tegumental surface membranes of the fluke have been proposed to play pivotal roles in parasite survival in the host, and subsequent pathogenesis. These macromolecules are therefore valid targets for the development of vaccines and new drugs to control the infection. Tetraspanins (TSP are prominent components of the tegument of blood flukes where they are essential for tegument formation, are directly exposed to the immune system, and are major targets for a schistosomiasis vaccine. We propose that similar molecules in the surface membranes of O. viverrini are integral to tegument biogenesis and will be efficacious vaccine antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cDNA sequence encoding O. viverrini tetraspanin-1 (Ov-TSP-1 was identified and cloned. The Ov-tsp-1gene was isolated from a cDNA library. Ov-tsp-1 mRNA was expressed most highly in metacercariae and eggs, and to a lesser extent in juvenile and adult worms. Immunolocalization with adult flukes confirmed that Ov-TSP-1 was expressed in the tegument and eggs in utero. Western blot analysis of rOv-TSP-1 probed with sera from O. viverrini-infected humans and hamsters indicated that both hosts raise antibody responses against the native TSP. Using RNA interference we silenced the expression level of Ov-tsp-1 mRNA in adult flukes by up to 72% by 10 days after delivery of dsRNA. Ultrastructural morphology of adult worms treated with Ov-tsp-1 dsRNA displayed a distinctly vacuolated and thinner tegument compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a tetraspanin from the tegument of a liver fluke. Our data imply that tetraspanins play important structural roles in the development of the tegument in the adult fluke

  3. RNAi dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver flukes reveals the persistence of gene silencing in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McVeigh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (dsRNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain, validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL and B (FheCatB cysteine proteases, and a σ-class glutathione transferase (FheσGST.Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200-320 nt dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (siRNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent and in all cases silencing persisted for ≥25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; FheσGST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively.In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control

  4. Granulin Secreted by the Food-Borne Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini Promotes Angiogenesis in Human Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Haugen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile duct cancer, cholangiocarcinoma. An ES protein, the secreted granulin-like growth factor termed Ov-GRN-1, accelerates wound resolution in mice and in vitro. To investigate angiogenesis (blood vessel development that may contribute to wound healing promoted by liver fluke granulin and, by implication, to carcinogenesis during chronic opisthorchiasis, we employed an in vitro tubule formation assay (TFA where human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown on gelled basement matrix. Ten and 40 nM Ov-GRN-1 significantly stimulated angiogenesis as monitored by cellular proliferation and by TFA in real time. This demonstration of potent angiogenic property of Ov-GRN-1 bolsters earlier reports on the therapeutic potential for chronic non-healing wounds of diabetics, tobacco users, and the elderly and, in addition, showcases another of the hallmark of cancer characteristic of this carcinogenic liver fluke.

  5. Human infection with the pancreas fluke, Eurytrema pancreaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Y; Koga, M; Fujino, T; Higo, H; Ishibashi, J; Oka, K; Saito, S

    1983-09-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese woman with gastric cancer in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, was found at autopsy to have about 15 adult flukes, Eurytrema pancreaticum, in the dilated pancreatic ducts. The number of eosinophils in the blood was within normal limits. The two worms which were least damaged when removed from the gland were used for stained specimens, and another two were macerated to collect the eggs. The parasites (10 X 5, 11 X 7 mm in size) were broad, flattened, oval to fusiform. The suckers were large, the oral (2.1 X 2.0, 2.0 X 1.9 mm) being larger than the ventral (1.6 X 1.6, 1.4 X 1.5 mm). The eggs (47.06 +/- 3.88 X 30.35 +/- 2.74 microns) were embryonated in the uterus. These findings led to the identification of E. pancreaticum. This is the second documented case of eurytremiasis in man.

  6. Two new species of Elopicola (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Hawaiian ladyfish, Elops hawaiensis (Eastern Sea) and Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus (Gulf of Mexico) with a comment on monophyly of elopomorph blood flukes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Halanych, Kenneth M; Dang, Binh T; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Arias, Cova R; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-06-01

    Elopicola bristowi sp. n. infects the blood vascular system of Hawaiian ladyfish, Elops hawaiensis, in the Eastern Sea. It differs from the only nominal congener Elopicola nolancribbi by the combination of having rows of ventrolateral tegumental spines, a proportionally long oesophagus, anterior caeca, vasa efferentia coalescing ventral to the posterodextral margin of the testis, a post-testicular metraterm, a dextral common genital pore lateral to the oötype, and genitalia that are enantiomorphic relative to those of E. nolancribbi. Elopicola franksi sp. n. infects the heart and blood vascular system of Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus, in the Gulf of Mexico. It differs from its congeners by the combination of lacking ventrolateral tegumental spines and having an elongate body (6× longer than wide), a proportionally long oesophagus, a compact testis at level of the distal ends of the posterior caeca, and a post-testicular common genital pore at level of the oötype. Phylogenetic analyses based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S), large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S), and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) genes revealed considerable genetic differences between these taxa. The 18S+28S tree showed a monophyletic Elopicola sister to all aporocotylids infecting fishes of Euteleosteomorpha. The ITS2 tree showed Paracardicoloides yamagutii as the sister taxon to Elopicola spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The eye fluke Tylodelphys clavata affects prey detection and intraspecific competition of European perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas Muñoz, Jenny Carolina; Staaks, Georg; Knopf, Klaus

    2017-07-27

    Parasites that occupy the eyes of fish have the potential to affect visual perception and consequently alter the host's behaviour, as these organs provide information about their surroundings. In an experimental study, the feeding behaviour of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) infested with the eye fluke Tylodelphys clavata was examined. The results showed that an individual's ability to identify and approach food items was negatively affected by the infestation intensity of T. clavata. Additionally, the foraging success of an individual was reduced in competition with another, less heavily infested conspecific, when the same food resource was exploited. These alterations in the ability to locate food may have important consequences on the feeding strategy of the fish. Furthermore, the impaired feeding capability caused by T. clavata may also increase the predation risk as heavily infested fish need to spend more time foraging to attain a rate of food intake equivalent to less infested conspecifics.

  8. The eggs of some blood-flukes (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bear a spine, (ii) that the eggs should not possess an operculum, (iii) that the eggs should be embryonated (i.e. they should contain a fully-developed miracidium) and (iv) ... no knowledge of the rest of the life-cycle. The Giganlobilharzia eggs found in the faeces of Larus dominiconus and Aforus capensis during the present ...

  9. STUDIES ON THE LIVER FLUKE FASCIOLA IN EGYPT: III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STUDIES ON THE LIVER FLUKE FASCIOLA IN EGYPT: III. SPERMATOGENESIS. Ameen A. Ashour, Firyal M. Stietieh, Abeer A. Khalil. Abstract. (Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: 2001: 10(1): 72-92). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Effect of the Gill Fluke Gyrodactylus on Haematology of Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This observational study was made on the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus to determine the effect of the gill fluke Gyrodactylus species on the Catfish haematological parameters in a culture environment. A total number of 120 fish samples were collected from small scale fish farms in Ibadan Metropolis. Fish were screened ...

  11. Vectors of Paragonimus Uterobilateralis a Causative Fluke for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into suggested vectors of Paragonimus uterobilateralis a causative agent of Paragonimiasis was carried out. The investigation was informed by the need to ascertain vectors of the lung fluke-paragonimus to enhance health education of the inhabitant of the affected village for control purpose. Dissected ...

  12. Performance Assessment of Substation Site Earthing Using Fluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilizes the automatic frequency control (AFC) feature in Fluke 1625 ground tester to analyze earth impedance in ve power substations. Other conventional methods like the use of megger for impedance test runs short of responding to variation in supply frequency and not trustworthy. Earthing is the fundamental ...

  13. Cardiovascular flukes (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) in Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758 from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Erica; Negrisolo, Enrico; Cassini, Rudi; Garofalo, Luisa; Poppi, Lisa; Tessarin, Cinzia; Marcer, Federica

    2017-10-10

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents one of the most important neritic foraging grounds for the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta L. in the Mediterranean Sea. Four genera of blood flukes with variable prevalence and pathogenic impact have been reported worldwide in this species. Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Amphiorchis Price, 1934 are the only two genera reported in Mediterranean waters; however, updated data describing spirorchiidiasis in the central and eastern Mediterranean and infection prevalence are still lacking. This work aimed to investigate the presence and pathology of spirorchiidiasis in C. caretta in the Mediterranean Sea. One hundred sixty-eight animals stranded along the northwestern Adriatic coast between 2009 and 2015 were submitted to necropsy and subsequent analyses for the detection of adult flukes, detection of eggs in the faeces and spleen and histopathology. Molecular analyses were carried out on hosts (mitochondrial D-loop) and parasites (28S gene and ITS2 spacer) to trace the turtle origins and identify the fluke phylogenetic relationships. Spirorchiidiasis was detected in 16.7% of the animals. Hapalotrema mistroides (Monticelli, 1899) and Neospirorchis sp. were found in twenty-six and ten cases, respectively. Adult flukes were found in six cases, while eggs were detectable through copromicroscopic examination for all infected turtles, and the results for the detection of eggs in the spleen agreed with the copromicroscopic analysis. Only mild lesions were observed. Eggs of types 1 and 3 were grossly visible in the gastrointestinal mucosa, vasculitis was rarely observed in the heart and great vessels, and multifocal granulomas were widespread in the tissues. Molecular identification unambiguously assigned the spirorchiid samples to H. mistroides and Neospirorchis sp. Genetic characterization of loggerhead mtDNA pointed to a Mediterranean origin of the turtle hosts. This survey provides new data on the spread of spirorchiidiasis in the

  14. Effect of rainfall and temperature on liver and rumen fluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fecal fluke egg output of bovines from three selected farms at Ma Eliya (site A), Ma Eliya (site B) and Delathure (site C) in Ja-Ela area of Gampaha district in Sri Lanka was examined for six months period from July to December 2006. The mean egg output of the animals of site A, B and C were 255, 84 and 95 eggs/g of feces ...

  15. Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Robin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. Results Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O. viverrini were characterized and accounted for 1,932 contigs, representing ~14% of the entire transcriptome, and, presently, the largest sequence dataset for any species of liver fluke. Twenty percent of contigs were assigned GO classifications. Abundantly represented protein families included those involved in physiological functions that are essential to parasitism, such as anaerobic respiration, reproduction, detoxification, surface maintenance and feeding. GO assignments were well conserved in relation to other parasitic flukes, however, some categories were over-represented in O. viverrini, such as structural and motor proteins. An assessment of evolutionary relationships showed that O. viverrini was more similar to other parasitic (Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum than to free-living (Schmidtea mediterranea flatworms, and 105 sequences had close homologues in both parasitic species but not in S. mediterranea. A total of 164 O. viverrini contigs contained ORFs with signal sequences, many of which were platyhelminth-specific. Examples of convergent evolution between host and parasite secreted/membrane proteins were identified as were homologues of vaccine antigens from other helminths. Finally, ORFs representing secreted proteins with known roles in tumorigenesis were identified, and these might play roles in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini-induced CCA. Conclusion This gene discovery effort for O. viverrini should expedite molecular studies of cholangiocarcinogenesis and accelerate research focused on developing new interventions

  16. Redefining Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwala, Rina

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how self-employed workers are organizing in the garments and waste collection industries in India. Although the question of who is profiting from self-employed workers’ labor is complex, the cases outlined in this paper highlight telling instances of how some self......-employed workers are organizing as workers. They are fighting labor exploitation by redefining the concept to include additional exploitation axes (from the state and middle class) and forms (including sexual). In doing so, they are redefining potential solutions, including identities and material benefits, to fit...

  17. ABC transporters in the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Ershov, Nikita I; Pirozhkova, Darya S; Pakharukov, Yuri V; Pakharukova, Maria Y

    2017-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are essential components of normal cellular physiological machinery in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, including parasites. Some ABC transporters, e.g., P-glycoproteins, are involved in the efflux of toxins and xenobiotics from the cell. At present, nothing is known about ABC transporter genes in epidemiologically important liver flukes from the Opisthorchiidae family, including European liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus. Opisthorchiasis caused by O. felineus is a serious public health problem on the territory of Russia and other Eastern European countries. ABC drug transporters are attractive objects of research on molecular markers of resistance and on ways to potentiate sensitivity to anthelmintics through suppression of the transporters themselves with specific inhibitors. Here we aimed at the identification of ABC transporters in the O. felineus transcriptome and identification of P-glycoproteins. In addition, our aim was to assess ABC transcript abundance in the RNA-seq data, to study the mRNA expression of P-glycoprotein genes by Droplet Digital PCR throughout the life cycle of O. felineus, and to test the gene induction in response to xenobiotics or anthelminthic agents. We found 23 nucleotide sequences encoding ABC transporters belonging to different subfamilies, including four sequences of P-glycoproteins. According to the transcript abundance in the RNA-seq data, one of P-glycoproteins (P4) has the highest expression among all ABC genes in the adult worm. P-glycoproteins showed substantially differential mRNA expression throughout the fluke life cycle, with high expression in the adult worms. Putative activity of P-glycoproteins as xenobiotic efflux pumps was found to be linked to the excretory system of O. felineus and to be inhibited by verapamil or tariquidar. Thus, ABC drug transporters in the liver fluke O. felineus are functionally active, indicating that ABC drug transporters are likely

  18. Species determination of eggs of opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, O; Giboda, M; Stĕrba, J

    1990-02-01

    Eggs of opisthorchiid flukes have very characteristic muskmelon-like surface structure of their shells and can be differentiated using this mark from eggs of heterophyid flukes. Surface structure and morphological details in operculum and abopercular end can be observed using scanning electron microscopy. Eggs recorded very often in stool of Laotians belong mostly to Opisthorchis viverrini and sporadically to Metagonimus yokogawai.

  19. The occurrence of liver flukes in cattle and sheep slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs of Dicrocoelium spp. were found to be highest in female cattle (18.75%) and female sheep (5.88%). It was concluded that liver flukes are present in the study area; therefore regular monitoring of ruminants for liver flukes and a comprehensive study encompassing the epidemiology of the intermediate hosts for effective ...

  20. Gene diversity and genetic variation in lung flukes (genus Paragonimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi; Mitreva, Makedonka; Doanh, Pham Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis caused by lung flukes (genus Paragonimus) is a neglected disease occurring in Asia, Africa and the Americas. The genus is species-rich, ancient and widespread. Genetic diversity is likely to be considerable, but investigation of this remains confined to a few populations of a few species. In recent years, studies of genetic diversity have moved from isoenzyme analysis to molecular phylogenetic analysis based on selected DNA sequences. The former offered better resolution of questions relating to allelic diversity and gene flow, whereas the latter is more suitable for questions relating to molecular taxonomy and phylogeny. A picture is emerging of a highly diverse taxon of parasites, with the greatest diversity found in eastern and southern Asia where ongoing speciation might be indicated by the presence of several species complexes. Diversity of lung flukes in Africa and the Americas is very poorly sampled. Functional molecules that might be of value for immunodiagnosis, or as targets for medical intervention, are of great interest. Characterisation of these from Paragonimus species has been ongoing for a number of years. However, the imminent release of genomic and transcriptomic data for several species of Paragonimus will dramatically increase the rate of discovery of such molecules, and illuminate their diversity within and between species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Random and systematic sampling error when hooking fish to monitor skin fluke (Benedenia seriolae) and gill fluke (Zeuxapta seriolae) burden in Australian farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, J R; Bubner, E; D'Antignana, T; Landos, M; Caraguel, C G B

    2018-05-01

    The Australian farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi, YTK) industry monitor skin fluke (Benedenia seriolae) and gill fluke (Zeuxapta seriolae) burden by pooling the fluke count of 10 hooked YTK. The random and systematic error of this sampling strategy was evaluated to assess potential impact on treatment decisions. Fluke abundance (fluke count per fish) in a study cage (estimated 30,502 fish) was assessed five times using the current sampling protocol and its repeatability was estimated the repeatability coefficient (CR) and the coefficient of variation (CV). Individual body weight, fork length, fluke abundance, prevalence, intensity (fluke count per infested fish) and density (fluke count per Kg of fish) were compared between 100 hooked and 100 seined YTK (assumed representative of the entire population) to estimate potential selection bias. Depending on the fluke species and age category, CR (expected difference in parasite count between 2 sampling iterations) ranged from 0.78 to 114 flukes per fish. Capturing YTK by hooking increased the selection of fish of a weight and length in the lowest 5th percentile of the cage (RR = 5.75, 95% CI: 2.06-16.03, P-value = 0.0001). These lower end YTK had on average an extra 31 juveniles and 6 adults Z. seriolae per Kg of fish and an extra 3 juvenile and 0.4 adult B. seriolae per Kg of fish, compared to the rest of the cage population (P-value sampling towards the smallest and most heavily infested fish in the population, resulting in poor repeatability (more variability amongst sampled fish) and an overestimation of parasite burden in the population. In this particular commercial situation these finding supported that health management program, where the finding of an underestimation of parasite burden could provide a production impact on the study population. In instances where fish populations and parasite burdens are more homogenous, sampling error may be less severe. Sampling error when capturing fish

  2. Invasion of Flukes of the Echinostomatidae Family in Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia var. domestica) Lofts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case.

  3. Taxonomic and Ecological Studies on the Lung Fluke, ’Paragonimus’ in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Tingo Maria, Peru, 25 crabs, Pseudothelphusa chilensis were examined for Paragonimus metacercariae with negative results. Five lung flukes were...minimus. These flukes belonged to the same species characterized by their extremely elongated body, and were named Paragonimus amazonicus sp. n. by...harbored 44 Paragonimus metacercariae in all. These larvae were divided into two species, five of them being identified as Paragonimus peruvianus and

  4. Ostertagia spp., rumen fluke and liver fluke single- and poly-infections in cattle: An abattoir study of prevalence and production impacts in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellet, C; Green, M J; Vickers, M; Forbes, A; Berry, E; Kaler, J

    2016-09-15

    This study aims at investigating the occurrence, risk factors and production impacts on beef carcass parameters of three of the most important cattle helminth infections in England and Wales. Abomasa, reticulorumens and livers from healthy cattle were collected and examined post-mortem quarterly over a one year period in an abattoir in South-West England. Specific viscera from 974 cattle were collected, examined and scored for Ostertagia spp., adult rumen fluke and liver fluke lesions/presence. A total of 89%, 25% and 29% of the carcasses had lesions/presence of Ostertagia spp., rumen fluke and liver fluke, respectively, and 39% had presence of helminth co-infection. Animal demographic and carcass parameters associated with helminth infections were investigated using multilevel multinomial and multilevel linear mixed models respectively. After adjusting for other factors, significant differences in the distribution of helminth infections were observed among cattle by type of breed, animal category (cow, heifer, steer and young bull), age, season and concurrent helminth infections. Compared to carcasses free of helminths, carcasses presenting solely Ostertagia Spp. lesions or adult rumen fluke had significantly lower cold carcass weight (coef.: -30.58 [-50.92;-10.24] and -50.34 [-88.50;-12.18]) and fat coverage (coef.: -3.28 [-5.56;-1.00] and -5.49 [-10.28;-0.69]) and carcasses presenting solely liver fluke lesions had significantly lower conformation grade (coef.: -3.65 [-6.98;-0.32]). Presence of helminth poly-infections was negatively associated with cold carcass weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulating the Risk of Liver Fluke Infection using a Mechanistic Hydro-epidemiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Ludovica; Dunne, Toby; Rose, Hannah; Walker, Josephine; Morgan, Eric; Vickerman, Peter; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite found in livestock and responsible for considerable economic losses throughout the world. Risk of infection is strongly influenced by climatic and hydrological conditions, which characterise the host environment for parasite development and transmission. Despite on-going control efforts, increases in fluke outbreaks have been reported in recent years in the UK, and have been often attributed to climate change. Currently used fluke risk models are based on empirical relationships derived between historical climate and incidence data. However, hydro-climate conditions are becoming increasingly non-stationary due to climate change and direct anthropogenic impacts such as land use change, making empirical models unsuitable for simulating future risk. In this study we introduce a mechanistic hydro-epidemiological model for Liver Fluke, which explicitly simulates habitat suitability for disease development in space and time, representing the parasite life cycle in connection with key environmental conditions. The model is used to assess patterns of Liver Fluke risk for two catchments in the UK under current and potential future climate conditions. Comparisons are made with a widely used empirical model employing different datasets, including data from regional veterinary laboratories. Results suggest that mechanistic models can achieve adequate predictive ability and support adaptive fluke control strategies under climate change scenarios.

  7. Karyological studies of bovine pancreatic flukes (Eurytrema sp.) and their phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, N

    1982-10-01

    Chromosomes of gonadal tissues from pancreatic flukes of bovines were examined using air-drying techniques. Detailed karyological analyses on somatic cells with 26 chromosomes demonstrated the existence of two different karyotypes in these flukes. In conventional Giemsa preparations, two (Nos. 5 and 7) of 13 pairs of homologs showed a significant variance of morphology between flukes designated Types I and II by size. Additional differences were demonstrated by the C-banding method. The C-banded pattern in Nos. 3 and 8 of each karyotype was different, thereby indicating a different distribution of constitutive heterochromatin on these chromosomes. Among flukes recovered from seven cattle, 76.7% of the flukes were Type I (smaller) and 23.3% were Type II (larger). Obvious phenotypic variance between Types I and II was seen in the taxonomic characteristics such as body size, comparative size of the ventral to the oral sucker, and the egg size. Considering the variance of both types, as based on the statistical data of these characteristics and on comparable published data, at least two species of flukes can be found in the Japanese bovine pancreas. These were Eurytrema coelomaticum for Type I and E. pancreaticum for Type II, respectively.

  8. Hybrid origin of Asian aspermic Fasciola flukes is confirmed by analyzing two single-copy genes, pepck and pold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2018-01-27

    Nuclear gene markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold), have been developed for precise discrimination of Fasciola flukes instead of internal transcribed spacer 1. In this study, these two genes of 730 Fasciola flukes from eight Asian countries were analyzed. The results were compared with their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) lineages for obtaining a definitive evidence of the hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. All the flukes categorized into the aspermic nad1 lineages possessed both the fragment patterns of F. hepatica and F. gigantica (mixed types) in pepck and/or pold. These findings provide clear evidence for the hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola lineages and suggest that "aspermic Fasciola flukes" should hereafter be called "hybrid Fasciola flukes".

  9. Occurrence of the lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T Shantikumar

    2003-03-01

    To determine the natural crustacean host, the Paragonimus species, and to investigate the potential host-parasite relationship between Manipur Paragonimus and some of the laboratory animals. The laboratory animals such as puppies, albino rats and Swiss mice were infected orally with metacercariae isolated from the fresh water crabs, Potamiscus manipurensis. The fecal specimens of the experimentally infected animals were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs at regular intervals. The animals were autopsied on days 35 to approximately 328 after infection and the isolated worms were flattened between glass slides and fixed in 70% alcohol. The worms were stained with carmine and mounted with Canada balsam for morphological studies. The eggs were collected in 5% formol saline solution for microscopy. The flukes were classified into 4 developmental stages. A total of 11 worms, 5 mature, 5 immature and 1 pre-adult were recovered. The morphological features of the metacercariae, worms and eggs were similar to those of Paragonimus heterotremus. Manipur is one of the rare areas in the world where Paragonimus heterotremus is prevalent and the puppies are ideal experimental animal host. This species may be one of the important causes of paragonimiasis in animals and humans in Manipur.

  10. Observations on autochtonous liver flukes in wild ruminants in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglódyová A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was monitoring of liver flukes in wild ruminants including red deer (Cervus elaphus, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon in selected regions of Slovak Republic. Between 2014 – 2016 we examined 782 faecal samples from selected wild ruminants using coprological techniques and serological methods (ELISA detection of F. hepatica coproantigens. None of the samples was positive for the presence of Fasciola hepatica, 5.89 % of faecal samples were positive for Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Higher prevalence was recorded in mouflon (30.83 %, lower in red deer (1.49 %. D. dendriticum infection was not determined in fallow deer and roe deer. The seasonal distribution of dicrocoeliosis indicated a highest prevalence in autumn. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in fenced rearing when compared with open hunting grounds, suggesting that animal agglomeration, constant use of the same areas and possible stress are the main risk factors. Parasitological examination of livers of hunted wild ruminants revealed dicrocoeliosis in mouflon.

  11. Fasciola hepatica: a comparative survey of adult fluke resistance to triclabendazole, nitroxynil and closantel on selected upland and lowland sheep farms in Northern Ireland using faecal egg counting, coproantigen ELISA testing and fluke histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; McMahon, C; Ellison, S; Edgar, H W; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A; Irwin, D; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-01-15

    In order to investigate the incidence and distribution of adult fluke resistance to the fasciolicide tricalbendazole (TCBZ) amongst populations of Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in Northern Ireland (NI), individual rectal faeces samples were collected from 3 groups of 20 sheep, before (pre-dose), and 21 days after (post-dose) treatment of the animals with TCBZ, nitroxynil or closantel, on each of 13 well-managed sheep farms distributed across the province. The efficacy of each flukicide was determined for each farm, using faecal egg count reduction (FECRT) and F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA testing. In certain flocks, 2 sheep with high pre-dose faecal egg counts (FEC) were killed 3 days and 21 days respectively after TCBZ treatment, and the histology of the fluke reproductive organs was compared with that of flukes from untreated sheep, and from sheep treated with nitroxynil or closantel 2 days prior to death, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and an in situ hybridisation method (TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling [TUNEL]) to demonstrate apoptosis. Results from FECRT revealed that in all flocks with a high fluke burden, TCBZ was ineffective in treating chronic fasciolosis, and this finding was generally supported by the results of the coproantigen reduction test (CRT). The histology of reproductive organs of flukes from TCBZ-treated sheep in these flocks was normal, when compared with untreated flukes, and this, together with the FECRT and CRT findings, indicated a likely diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in all the flocks with a high fluke burden. In contrast, nitroxynil and closantel were found to be fully effective against TCBZ-resistant flukes in each of the flocks bearing a high chronic fluke burden. All of the flocks with a high fluke burden and TCBZ resistance were managed on lowland in the South and East of NI. Upland flocks, in the North and West, had low fluke burdens, or were clear of infection; and FECs were too low to allow valid resistance

  12. The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome. Results We combined de novo sequencing with computational techniques to provide new information about the biology of this liver fluke. The assembled genome has a total size of 516 Mb with a scaffold N50 length of 42 kb. Approximately 16,000 reliable protein-coding gene models were predicted. Genes for the complete pathways for glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and fatty acid metabolism were found, but key genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis are missing from the genome, reflecting the parasitic lifestyle of a liver fluke that receives lipids from the bile of its host. We also identified pathogenic molecules that may contribute to liver fluke-induced hepatobiliary diseases. Large proteins such as multifunctional secreted proteases and tegumental proteins were identified as potential targets for the development of drugs and vaccines. Conclusions This study provides valuable genomic information about the human liver fluke C. sinensis and adds to our knowledge on the biology of the parasite. The draft genome will serve as a platform to develop new strategies for parasite control. PMID:22023798

  13. Consequences of eye fluke infection on anti-predator behaviours in invasive round gobies in Kalmar Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flink, Henrik; Behrens, Jane W.; Svensson, P. Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Larvae of the eye fluke, Diplostomum, emerge from snails and infect fish by penetrating skin or gills, then move to the lens where they may impair the vision of the fish. For the fluke to reproduce, a bird must eat the infected fish, and it has been suggested that they therefore actively manipulate...

  14. Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos Batista, Bruno; Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Andrade Nunes, Juliana; Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina de; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 μL of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 μL) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 μg L -1 of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for 75 As, 114 Cd, 59 Co, 51 Cr, 63 Cu 55 Mn, 208 Pb, 82 Se, 205 Tl, 51 V, and 64 Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L -1 , respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec (Canada).

  15. Eurytrema pancreaticum: the in vitro effect of praziquantel and triclabendazole on the adult fluke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee; Sahaphong, Somphong; Tansatit, Tawewan; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Pipatshukiat, Siriporn

    2005-11-01

    The efficacy and tolerance of the 80 microg/ml praziquantel (PZQ) and 40 microg/ml triclabendazole (TCZ) against adult stage Eurytrema pancreaticum in vitro were investigated at 3, 12, and 15 h incubation. Motility of the flukes and histopathological changes were studied. Sudden paralysis and death were observed after exposed to PZQ as early as 3h incubation. In contrast, the TCZ treated flukes showed active mobility at all intervals. By light microscopic examination, severe damages in various organs such as tegument, muscle, and testes were observed early at 12h incubation of these drugs. PZQ caused more severe damage to flukes than TCZ. There were vigorous contraction of musculature, progressive shrinkage of circular and longitudinal muscles, vacuolization and disintegration of the tegument disrupting the worms' outer surface including detachment of spines in the PZQ treatment. The cells in testes were slightly increased in size and followed by degeneration leaving several hollow spaces. The uterus and vitelline glands remained unaffected. The direct observation of the fluke motility and light microscopic study highly suggested that PZQ was more effective than TCZ treatment for the eurytremiasis infection.

  16. Presence and species identity of rumen flukes in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, H W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074170244; Ankum, L; Moll, L.; van Doorn, D C K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311459854; Mitchell, Gillian; Skuce, P J; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Holzhauer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain knowledge about the prevalence and identity of rumen flukes (RF) in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands. Routine faecal examinations of diagnostic submissions between May 2009 and September 2014 showed a mean annual herd or flock RF prevalence of 15.8% for cattle

  17. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...

  18. Studies on the stomach flukes of buffalo in Egypt (Trematoda: Paramphistomata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sey, O

    1976-01-01

    Three amphistomous species, Paramphistomum gotio Fukui, 1922; Paramphistomum microbothrium Fischoeder, 1901 and Carmyerius gregarius (Looss, 1896) have been found as a result of the investigation of stomach flukes of buffalo in Egypt. Specific status of Paramphistomum gotoi, variability of Paramphistomum microbothrium collected in different Egyptian domestic ruminants and histological structure of the muscular organs of Carmyerius gregarius have been examined.

  19. The Ethics of Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McLaughlin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.

  20. Exploitability Assessment with TEASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    2.2 Crash Triaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.3 Automated Exploit Generation...Acronyms AEG Automated Exploit Generation: Technique for automating the construction of Proofs of Con- cepts, or exploits. ASan Address Sanitizer: Fine...Global Offset Table: Table of pointers from a dynamic symbol to its resolution in a shared library . IOT Internet of Things: Embedded hardware devices that

  1. Exploit Kit traffic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Καπίρης, Σταμάτης; Kapiris, Stamatis

    2017-01-01

    Exploit kits have become one of the most widespread and destructive threat that Internet users face on a daily basis. Since the first actor, which has been categorized as exploit kit, namely MPack, appeared in 2006, we have seen a new era on exploit kit variants compromising popular websites, infecting hosts and delivering destructive malware, following an exponentially evolvement to date. With the growing threat landscape, large enterprises to domestic networks, have starte...

  2. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...... awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data...... of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  3. Phyllodistomum kanae sp. nov. (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae), a bladder fluke from the Ezo salamander Hynobius retardatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru

    2015-10-01

    The Ezo salamander, Hynobius retardatus, is endemic only to Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Gravid flukes of the family Gorgoderidae were discovered from the urinary bladder of H. retardatus. The parasites were identified as a new species named Phyllodistomum kanae sp. nov. In the neighboring Honshu island another bladder fluke, Phyllodistomum patellare, has already been found from the Japanese newt. The new species clearly differs from P. patellare in having a spherical ovary and very weakly lobed testes. The discovery of species of Phyllodistomum from urodelan amphibians is very uncommon in Eurasia. A molecular phylogeny based on 28S ribosomal DNA suggests that sphaeriid bivalves may serve as the first intermediate host for the new species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  5. In vitro antihelmintic effect of fifteen tropical plant extracts on excysted flukes of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Mercado, José Manuel; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Vera-Montenegro, Yolanda; Avila-Acevedo, José Guillermo; García-Bores, Ana María

    2015-02-27

    Fasciolosis due to Fasciola hepatica is the most important hepatic disease in veterinary medicine. Its relevance is important because of the major economical losses to the cattle industry such as: reduction in milk, meat and wool production; miscarriages, anemia, liver condemnation and occasionally deaths, are estimated in billons of dollars. The emergence of fluke resistance due to over or under dosing of fasciolides as well as environmental damage produced by the chemicals eliminated in field have stimulated the need for alternative methods to control Fasciola hepatica. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effect of fifteen tropical plant extracts used in tradicional Mexican medicine, on newly excysted flukes of Fasciola hepatica. The flukes were exposed in triplicate at 500, 250 and 125 mg/L to each extract. The efficacy was assessed as the mortality rate based on the number of live and dead flukes after 24, 48 and 72 h post-exposure. The plants with anthelmintic effect were evaluated once again with a concentration of 375 mg/L in order to confirm the results and to calculate lethal concentrations at 50%, 90% and 99% (LC(50), LC(90), and LC(99)). Plant extracts of Lantana camara, Bocconia frutescens, Piper auritum, Artemisia mexicana and Cajanus cajan had an in vitro anthelmintic effect (P <0.05). The LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) to A. mexicana, C. cajan and B. frutescens were 92.85, 210.44 and 410.04 mg/L, 382.73, 570.09 and 788.9 mg/L and 369.96, 529.94 and 710.34 mg/L, respectively. It is concluded that five tropical plant extracts had promising anthelmintic effects against F. hepatica. Further studies on toxicity and in vivo biological evaluation in ruminant models might help to determine the anthelmintic potential of these plant extracts.

  6. Disruption of spermatogenesis in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica by two artemisinin derivatives, artemether and artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J F; Johnston, R C; Halferty, L; Hanna, R E B; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2017-01-01

    An in vivo study in the laboratory rat model has been carried out to monitor changes to the spermatogenic cells in the testis tubules of adult Fasciola hepatica following treatment with the artemisinins, artemether and artesunate. Rats infected with the triclabendazole (TCBZ)-resistant Sligo isolate were dosed orally with artemether at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and flukes recovered at 24, 48 and 72 h post treatment (pt). Rats infected with the TCBZ-resistant Oberon isolate were dosed orally with artesunate at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and flukes recovered 24, 48, 72 and 96 h pt. The flukes were processed for histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. Changes to the spermatogenic cells were evident at 24 h pt with artemether. The spermatogonial and spermatocyte cells contained abnormal mitochondria, there were fewer spermatids and spermatozoa in the tubules than normal, and a number of cells showed signs of apoptosis. There was a further decline in cell numbers at 48 h pt and the organization of the spermatocyte and spermatid rosettes was atypical. Sperm formation had become abnormal and those spermatozoa present possessed only a single axoneme. By 72 h pt, the testis tubules were vacuolated and filled with abnormal cells and cell debris. Only spermatogonial cells could be identified and there was widespread evidence of apoptosis in the cells. Distinct cellular changes following artesunate treatment did not become apparent until 48 h pt. The changes seen were similar to those described for artemether, but were generally less severe at matching time-periods. The fine structural changes occurring in the spermatogenic cells were compared to those observed in other cell types and fluke tissues and the overall information was collated to identify the cellular targets for artemisinin action and to establish the time-line for drug action.

  7. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infection in cattle in Northern Ireland: a large-scale epidemiological investigation utilising surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Andrew W; McBride, Stewart; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Guelbenzu, Maria; McNair, Jim; Skuce, Robin A; McDowell, Stanley W J

    2016-04-14

    Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a widespread parasite of ruminants which can have significant economic impact on cattle production. Fluke infection status at the animal-level is captured during meat inspection of all animals processed for human consumption within Northern Ireland. These national datasets have not been analysed to assess their utility in uncovering patterns in fluke infection at animal- and herd-levels in Northern Ireland. We utilised a dataset of 1.2 million animal records from ~18,000 herds across 3 years (2011-2013) to assess animal- and herd-level apparent prevalence and risk-factors associated with fluke infection. Animal-level apparent prevalence was measured as the proportion of animals exhibiting evidence of fluke infection at slaughter; between herd-level infection prevalence was measured by binary categorisation of herds (infected or not). "Within herd" infection prevalence was measured using the proportion of animals within a herd that showed evidence of fluke infection per year (ranging from 0-100%). "Within herd" infection prevalence at the herd level was investigated using multivariable modelling. At the animal level, the proportion of animals slaughtered that exhibited evidence of infection was 21-25% amongst years. Across herds, the proportion of herds with at least one infected animal, varied between 61 and 65%. However, there was a significant sampling effect at the herd-level; all herds where at least 105 animals slaughtered over the study period exhibited evidence of fluke infection (100%). There was significant variation in terms of within-herd infection prevalence. Risk factors included herd type, long-term weather variation, geographic location (region) and the abattoir. Liver fluke apparent prevalence was high at the herd-level across years. However, there was lower prevalence at the animal level, which may indicate significant variation in the exposure to fluke infection within herds. The proportion infected within

  8. Detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of liver fluke exposure risk in Ireland using spatial cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; de Waal, Theo

    2015-04-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) can cause significant economic and production losses in dairy cow farms. The aim of the current study was to identify important weather and environmental predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke by detecting clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland. During autumn 2012, bulk-tank milk samples from 4365 dairy farms were collected throughout Ireland. Using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA, the analysis of BTM samples showed that 83% (n=3602) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. The Getis-Ord Gi* statistic identified 74 high-risk and 130 low-risk significant (Pclimatic variables (monthly and seasonal mean rainfall and temperatures, total wet days and rain days) and environmental datasets (soil types, enhanced vegetation index and normalised difference vegetation index) were used to investigate dissimilarities in the exposure to liver fluke between clusters. Rainfall, total wet days and rain days, and soil type were the significant classes of climatic and environmental variables explaining the differences between significant clusters. A discriminant function analysis was used to predict the exposure risk to liver fluke using 80% of data for modelling and the remaining subset of 20% for post hoc model validation. The most significant predictors of the model risk function were total rainfall in August and September and total wet days. The risk model presented 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity and an accuracy of 95% correctly classified cases. A risk map of exposure to liver fluke was constructed with higher probability of exposure in western and north-western regions. The results of this study identified differences between clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland regarding climatic and environmental variables and detected significant predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A systematically improved high quality genome and transcriptome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Protasio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases, affecting millions of people in developing countries. Amongst the human-infective species, Schistosoma mansoni is also the most commonly used in the laboratory and here we present the systematic improvement of its draft genome. We used Sanger capillary and deep-coverage Illumina sequencing from clonal worms to upgrade the highly fragmented draft 380 Mb genome to one with only 885 scaffolds and more than 81% of the bases organised into chromosomes. We have also used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq from four time points in the parasite's life cycle to refine gene predictions and profile their expression. More than 45% of predicted genes have been extensively modified and the total number has been reduced from 11,807 to 10,852. Using the new version of the genome, we identified trans-splicing events occurring in at least 11% of genes and identified clear cases where it is used to resolve polycistronic transcripts. We have produced a high-resolution map of temporal changes in expression for 9,535 genes, covering an unprecedented dynamic range for this organism. All of these data have been consolidated into a searchable format within the GeneDB (www.genedb.org and SchistoDB (www.schistodb.net databases. With further transcriptional profiling and genome sequencing increasingly accessible, the upgraded genome will form a fundamental dataset to underpin further advances in schistosome research.

  10. Structural Basis for Inhibition of Cathepsin B Drug Target from the Human Blood Fluke, Schistosoma mansoni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Adéla; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Lepšík, Martin; Horn, Martin; Váchová, Jana; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Brynda, Jiří; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 41 (2011), s. 35770-35881 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1585; GA ČR GAP208/11/0295; GA MŠk OC09007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cathepsin B * schistosoma * crystal structure Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.773, year: 2011

  11. Exploiting VM/XA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeheim, C.

    1990-03-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has recently completed a conversion to IBM's VM/XA SP Release 2 operating system. The primary physics application had been constrained by the previous 16 megabyte memory limit. Work is underway to enable this application to exploit the new features of VM/XA. This paper presents a brief tutorial on how to convert an application to exploit VM/XA and discusses some of the SLAC experiences in doing so. 13 figs

  12. An expanding population of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) in elk (Cervus canadensis) and other ungulates in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pybus, Margo J; Butterworth, Eric W; Woods, John G

    2015-04-01

    Giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) populations readily expand under suitable conditions. Although extirpated from the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains in the early 1960s, the fluke reappeared following natural spread through mountain passes from British Columbia. Herein, we assessed epizootiology of the fluke population two decades later. Between 1984 and 1991, 534 ungulates, including 381 elk (Cervus canadensis), 68 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 54 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 31 moose (Alces alces) from adjacent areas of Alberta (AB) and British Columbia (BC), Canada, were examined for giant liver flukes. Prevalence in elk increased from 53% to 79% (1984-91) in Banff National Park (BNP) in AB and 77% to 100% (1985-89) in Kootenay National Park (KNP) in BC. Super-infections (>100 flukes) were more common in later years. Generally, prevalence increased over time and with increasing age of elk. Intensity was lowest in young-of-year (BNP 8±5, KNP 3), but similar in yearlings (BNP 36±11, KNP 23±8) and adults (BNP 33±5, KNP 32±6). Prevalence was similar in male and female elk. Intensity was higher in males (BNP 47±7, KNP 46±12) than in females (BNP 28±6, KNP 22±4), although the maximum number of flukes (545) occurred in a female elk. Prevalence and intensity differed among other species of ungulates but patterns were similar in each park. Prevalence was lower in mule deer (BNP 6%, KNP 4%) than in white-tailed deer (BNP 44%, KNP 28%) and moose (BNP 52%, KNP 63%). Intensity differed among these species but never exceeded 30 flukes. Gravid flukes occurred only in elk and white-tailed deer. Transmission occurred primarily in late summer-fall and in wet habitats. At least seven elk died as a direct result of fluke infection. In this region, elk and white-tailed deer maintain the F. magna population with spillover into moose and, rarely, mule deer.

  13. Cathepsin F cysteine protease of the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porntip Pinlaor

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities.Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships, immunolocalization, and functional characterization of the cathepsin F cysteine protease gene, here termed Ov-cf-1, from O. viverrini. The full length mRNA of 1020 nucleotides (nt encoded a 326 amino acid zymogen consisting of a predicted signal peptide (18 amino acids, aa, prosegment (95 aa, and mature protease (213 aa. BLAST analysis using the Ov-CF-1 protein as the query revealed that the protease shared identity with cathepsin F-like cysteine proteases of other trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis (81%, Paragonimus westermani (58%, Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum (52%, and with vertebrate cathepsin F (51%. Transcripts encoding the protease were detected in all developmental stages that parasitize the mammalian host. The Ov-cf-1 gene, of approximately 3 kb in length, included seven exons interrupted by six introns; the exons ranged from 69 to 267 bp in length, the introns from 43 to 1,060 bp. The six intron/exon boundaries of Ov-cf-1 were conserved with intron/exon boundaries in the human cathepsin F gene, although the gene structure of human cathepsin F is more complex. Unlike Ov-CF-1, human cathepsin F zymogen includes a cystatin domain in the prosegment region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fluke, human, and other cathepsin Fs branched together in a clade discrete from the cathepsin L cysteine proteases. A recombinant Ov-CF-1 zymogen that displayed low-level activity was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Although the recombinant protease did not autocatalytically process and

  14. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Y Pakharukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target.

  15. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): application to examine liver tissues during invasion of the Liver fluke in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wranicz, M.; Podbielski, T.; Grabiec, S.

    1989-01-01

    The T 1 and T 2 relaxation times of protons of hydrogen in the liver parenchyma and biliary ducts in normal and parazitized by the Liver fluke cows were determined. A method of the NMR in which a lenght or relaxation time is an index was applied. The value of this index is characteristic for determined physiological and pathological states of cells and it reveals changes which developed in body cells. It was found that tissues of cows parazitized by the Liver fluke (parenchyma and biliary ducts) and healthy ones differ significantly by the lenght of relaxation times. Parazitized tissues show a longer relaxation time than tissues of normal cows. (author)

  17. Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Secretes Extracellular Vesicles That Promote Cholangiocytes to Adopt a Tumorigenic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Sotillo, Javier; Smout, Michael; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Jones, Malcolm K; Johnson, Michael S; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Potriquet, Jeremy; Laohaviroj, Marut; Mulvenna, Jason; Brindley, Paul J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex

    2015-11-15

    Throughout Asia, there is an unprecedented link between cholangiocarcinoma and infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Multiple processes, including chronic inflammation and secretion of parasite proteins into the biliary epithelium, drive infection toward cancer. Until now, the mechanism and effects of parasite protein entry into cholangiocytes was unknown. Various microscopy techniques were used to identify O. viverrini extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their internalization by human cholangiocytes. Using mass spectrometry we characterized the EV proteome and associated changes in cholangiocytes after EV uptake, and we detected EV proteins in bile of infected hamsters and humans. Cholangiocyte proliferation and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion was measured to assess the impact of EV internalization. EVs were identified in fluke culture medium and bile specimens from infected hosts. EVs internalized by cholangiocytes drove cell proliferation and IL-6 secretion and induced changes in protein expression associated with endocytosis, wound repair, and cancer. Antibodies to an O. viverrini tetraspanin blocked EV uptake and IL-6 secretion by cholangiocytes. This is the first time that EVs from a multicellular pathogen have been identified in host tissues. Our findings imply a role for O. viverrini EVs in pathogenesis and highlight an approach to vaccine development for this infectious cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Clonorchis sinensis, an oriental liver fluke, as a human biological agent of cholangiocarcinoma: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Jong-Bo; Bahk, Young Yil

    2016-11-01

    Parasitic diseases remain an unarguable public health problem worldwide. Liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is a high risk pathogenic parasitic helminth which is endemic predominantly in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the far eastern parts of Russia, and is still actively transmitted. According to the earlier 8th National Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in 2012, C. sinensis was revealed as the parasite with highest prevalence of 1.86% in general population among all parasite species surveyed in Korea. This fluke is now classified under one of the definite Group 1 human biological agents (carcinogens) by International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC) along with two other parasites, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma haematobium. C. sinensis infestation is mainly linked to liver and biliary disorders, especially cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). For the purposes of this mini-review, we will only focus on C. sinensis and review pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of clonorchiasis, disease condition by C. sinensis infestation, and association between C. sinensis infestation and CCA. In this presentation, we briefly consider the current scientific status for progression of CCA by heavy C. sinensis infestation from the food-borne trematode and development of CCA. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(11): 590-597].

  19. cDNA cloning and gene characterization of the mitochondrial large subunit (LSU) rRNA from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Evidence of heterogeneity in the fluke mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, M; Bieber, D; Ringold, G; Mansour, T E

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone that encodes the large subunit of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) from the liver fluke F. hepatica was isolated and characterized. This RNA molecule is polyadenylated at the 3' end and represents 10% of the poly A+RNA in adult F. hepatica. Fluke LSU rRNA has significant sequence homology to mosquito mitochondria LSU rRNA and is more closely related to the mitochondrial rRNA of hermaphroditic than dioecious trematodes. Mitochondrial DNA constitutes approximately 10% of the total cellular DNA of adult flukes. This percentage is lower in non-embryonated eggs as are the levels of LSU rRNA indicating eggs have lower metabolic activity. Analysis of transcription and the number of mitochondrial genomes in S. mansoni shows that the LSU rRNA is more abundant in females than in males. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the fluke mitochondrial LSU rRNA genes suggests the presence of heterogeneous repeated copies in the mitochondrial genome or heterogeneity among individual genomes of mitochondria. Images PMID:3405756

  20. Bovine and ovine rumen fluke in Ireland-Prevalence, risk factors and species identity based on passive veterinary surveillance and abattoir findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolan, Dónal P; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Sheehan, Maresa; Skuce, Philip J; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of rumen fluke, the incidence of clinical paramphistomosis and the trematode's species identity were studied in cattle and sheep in the Republic of Ireland using passive veterinary surveillance (faecal examination and necropsy results; 2010-2013) and abattoir data. Based on faecal examination, the prevalence of rumen fluke was higher in cattle than in sheep. Rumen fluke prevalence in cattle and sheep fluctuated over the year and in most years (2011-2013), prevalence was higher in winter (December-February) than in summer (June-August). For 3 of 4 years studied, there was no correlation between monthly prevalence of rumen fluke and prevalence of liver fluke as estimated by faecal examination. At sample level, joint occurrence of rumen fluke and liver fluke was 1.1-2.0 times more common than would be expected under the assumption of independence. Based on necropsy data, a spike in deaths attributed to paramphistomosis was observed in 2012, when rainfall was unusually high. This spike in mortality was not accompanied by a spike in faecal prevalence, emphasizing that the incidence of disease, which is due to high burdens of juvenile rumen fluke in the gut, is not correlated with prevalence of infection, which is measured by faecal examination and reflects presence of adult fluke in the rumen. At slaughter, 52% of 518 cattle from 101 herds were positive for rumen fluke, compared to 14% of 158 sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher than reported in most studies from mainland Europe and varied by animal category, age, sex, abattoir visit and location (county) of farm from which the animal was submitted for slaughter, but in multivariate analysis, only sampling month and county were significantly associated with detection of rumen fluke. The identity of rumen fluke in cattle and sheep was confirmed as Calicophoron daubneyi. Although C. daubneyi is thought to share an intermediate host snail with Fasciola hepatica, the differences in prevalence between host

  1. [Child sexual exploitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, María F; Castaldi, Paula D; Cataldo, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Child Sexual Exploitation is a complex phenomenon in our country and the world; it dates back to an ancient past but it has a very recent conceptualization and specific approach. This article proposes a tour through this process as well as some inputs for its categorization, the attention to the affected subjects by the very design of public policies taken from a concrete institutional experience.

  2. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  3. Hacking the art of exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the techniques of exploitation and creative problem-solving methods commonly referred to as "hacking," Hacking: The Art of Exploitation is for both technical and non-technical people who are interested in computer security. It shows how hackers exploit programs and write exploits, instead of just how to run other people's exploits. Unlike many so-called hacking books, this book explains the technical aspects of hacking, including stack based overflows, heap based overflows, string exploits, return-into-libc, shellcode, and cryptographic attacks on 802.11b.

  4. Genetic and infective diversity of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Lounnas, M; Sánchez, J; Alba, A; Milesi, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2016-11-01

    In this study we present the first approach to exploration of the genetic diversity of Cuban Fasciola hepatica populations using microsatellite markers, coupled with observed prevalence in slaughterhouses. Nine populations of flukes recovered from cows and buffalos were studied in the central-western region of Cuba. The observed infection rates of definitive hosts (bovines) were 70-100% in most cases. An important amount of polymorphism was found in the four loci explored. However, no apparent genetic differences were found between populations from different provinces or bovine species. The absence of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests a high rate of cross-fertilization between F. hepatica individuals. This result was confirmed when all multilocus genotypes were tested for clonal reproduction and only four individuals differed statistically (P sexCuba. Our findings should be taken into consideration by veterinary authorities to help mitigate fasciolosis transmission.

  5. Clinical analysis of 22 patients with hepatobiliary disease caused by liver fluke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo clinically analyze the hepatobiliary disease caused by the liver fluke and to increase the knowledge of this disease and reduce misdiagnosis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 22 patients who had a confirmed diagnosis of clonorchiasis after being admitted to our hospital due to hepatobiliary disease over the past 20 years. ResultsOf the 22 patients, who had a mean age of 45.41 years, 19 were males, and 3 were females. When admitted to the hospital, 8 cases were diagnosed with cholecystitis or gallstones, 7 cases with clonorchiasis, and 7 cases with other diseases. Alanine aminotransferase elevation was found in 14 cases (6363%, aspartate aminotransferase elevation in 16 cases (72.72%, total bilirubin elevation in 11 cases (5000%, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase elevation in 17 cases (77.27%, and increased eosinophils in 14 cases (63.63%. Ten cases (45.45% were diagnosed by fecal examination, 7 cases (31.82% by bile smears, 2 cases (9.09% by liver fluke antibody detection, and 3 cases (1364% according to the history of clonorchiasis. Deworming and comprehensive treatment produced a good outcome in these patients. ConclusionClonorchiasis is endemic and clinically rare, without specific clinical features, and it is easily confused with other hepatobiliary diseases, resulting in a high rate of misdiagnosis. Therefore, for the patients with abdominal pain, jaundice, and liver damage of unknown causes, we should inquire whether they or their family have a special dietary history and need to perform relevant examinations to confirm the diagnosis, so as to provide timely treatment.

  6. Nanostructured Basaltfiberconcrete Exploitational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraykina, K. A.; Shamanov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article demonstrates that the mass use of basalt fiber concrete (BFC) is constrained by insufficient study of their durability and serviceability in a variety of environments. This research is aimed at the study of the basalt fiber corrosion processes in the cement stone of BFC, the control of the new products structure formation in order to protect the reinforcing fiber from alkaline destruction and thereby improve the exploitational characteristics of the composite. The research result revealed that the modification of basaltfiber concrete by the dispersion of MWNTs contributes to the directional formation of new products in the cement matrix. The HAM additive in basaltfiberconcrete provides for the binding of portlandite to low-basic calcium hydroaluminosilicates, thus reducing the aggressive effect of the cement environment on the reinforcing fibers properties. The complex modification of BFC with nanostructured additives provides for an increase in its durability and exploitational properties (strength, frost resistance and water resistance) due to basalt fiber protection from alkali corrosion on account of the compacting of the contact zone “basalt fiber - cement stone” and designing of the new products structure and morphology of cement matrix over the fiber surface.

  7. M-Commerce Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances

    2008-01-01

    SMEs venturing into business ventures utilizing mobile devices via wireless communication for commercial purposes, or Mobile commerce (M-commerce), need to be adept at both exploiting cutting edge technology and managing intense collaboration between a host of network participants. Successful entry...... into this emerging market may well depend on development of new business models that emphasize the socio-technical intricacies of these networks. The objective of this paper is to examine the development of these networks as a central part of new M-commerce business models in SME's and report on initial findings...... from the preliminary phase of the project that is aimed at exploring, describing, and facilitating the development of new business models for M-commerce in SME's in Denmark. Data have been collected through in-depth interviews. The paper contributes to theory relative to M-commerce business models...

  8. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry...

  9. Learning Metasploit exploitation and development

    CERN Document Server

    Balapure, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on tutorial with step-by-step instructions. The book will follow a smooth and easy-to-follow tutorial approach, covering the essentials and then showing the readers how to write more sophisticated exploits.This book targets exploit developers, vulnerability analysts and researchers, network administrators, and ethical hackers looking to gain advanced knowledge in exploitation development and identifying vulnerabilities. The primary goal is to take readers wishing to get into more advanced exploitation discovery and reaching the next level.Prior experience exploiting basic st

  10. Experimental studies on the blood loss and intake of 51Cr labelled red cells by Clonorchis sinensis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Kim, J.R.; Rim, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental study was carried out to observe the blood loss due to the ingestion of host blood by Colonorchis sinensis in the rabbits by using chromium radioisotope 51 Cr. On the other hand, in order to confirm the blood intake activity by the worms, the radioactivity was measured on blood, bile juice and flukes removed from the bile ducts of the rabbits experimentally infected with C. sinensis. (Author)

  11. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Loyd, Ryan J; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, for proper allocation of prevention and control measures. This study aimed to investigate the human behavior, and environmental factors influencing the distribution in Surin Province of Thailand, and to build a model using stepwise multiple regression analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) on environment and climate data. The relationship between the human behavior, attitudes (R Square=0.878, and, Adjust R Square=0.849. By GIS analysis, we found Si Narong, Sangkha, Phanom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri, and Rattanaburi to have the highest distributions in Surin province. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis can help simulate the spatial distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, and thus may be an important tool for future planning of prevention and control measures.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a female genital complex cDNA from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, M; Bieber, D; Ringold, G; Mansour, T E

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA clone whose RNA is abundant in the female genital complex of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has been isolated from a cDNA library in lambda gt10 by differential screening. The pattern of expression in different fluke tissues and at different stages of miracidium formation suggests that this gene is expressed in the F. hepatica vitelleria. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cDNA was determined and the primary structure of the putative protein was deduced. The proposed protein is rich in glycine, lysine, and tyrosine and its overall amino acid composition agrees with that reported for the F. hepatica egg shell. The clone has homology with DNA from other trematodes; this homology is higher in organisms in which egg development is similar to that of F. hepatica and suggests that the protein is conserved in organisms in which miracidium formation occurs in fresh water. Images PMID:3470798

  13. Fasciola hepatica: comparative effects of host resistance and parasite intra-specific interactions on size and reproductive histology in flukes from rats infected with isolates differing in triclabendazole sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; Gordon, A W; Moffett, D; Edgar, H W J; Oliver, L F; McConnell, S; Shaw, L; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2011-06-10

    The efficacies of putative fasciolicides and vaccines against Fasciola hepatica are frequently monitored in clinical and field trials by determination of fluke egg output in host faeces and by worm counts in the host liver at autopsy. Less often used are parameters based on fluke size and histology, yet these can provide important indications of specific effects on the development of particular germ-line or somatic tissues, especially in relation to the timing and profligacy of egg production. In this study, F. hepatica metacercariae of two distinct isolates, the triclabendazole (TCBZ)-sensitive Cullompton isolate and the TCBZ-resistant Oberon isolate, were administered to rats as single-isolate or mixed-isolate infections. At autopsy 16 weeks later individual adult flukes were counted, measured and the reproductive organs were examined histologically. The degree of development of the testis tubules in each fluke was represented by a numerical score, based on the proportion of the histological section profiles occupied by testis tissue. The level of anti-F. hepatica antibody in the serum of each rat was determined by ELISA. It was found that Cullompton flukes were significantly larger than Oberon flukes, and that significantly more Cullompton metacercariae developed to adults than Oberon metacercariae. The Cullompton flukes showed histological evidence of aspermy and spermatogenic arrest, which was reflected in quantitatively reduced testicular development, as compared with the Oberon isolate. In Cullompton flukes, parthenogenetic egg development is implied. The size of Cullompton and Oberon flukes was significantly related to the number of adult flukes recovered, to the number of metacercariae administered, and to the percentage success of infection. The testis development score in both isolates was significantly related to the number of adult flukes recovered but not to the number of metacercariae administered, or to the percentage success of infection. Fluke

  14. Biotechnological exploitation of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Doris; Zedler, Julie A Z; Rajakumar, Priscilla D; Martinez, Erick M Ramos; Riseley, Anthony; Włodarczyk, Artur; Purton, Saul; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Howe, Christopher J; Jensen, Poul Erik; Robinson, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae are a diverse group of single-cell photosynthetic organisms that include cyanobacteria and a wide range of eukaryotic algae. A number of microalgae contain high-value compounds such as oils, colorants, and polysaccharides, which are used by the food additive, oil, and cosmetic industries, among others. They offer the potential for rapid growth under photoautotrophic conditions, and they can grow in a wide range of habitats. More recently, the development of genetic tools means that a number of species can be transformed and hence used as cell factories for the production of high-value chemicals or recombinant proteins. In this article, we review exploitation use of microalgae with a special emphasis on genetic engineering approaches to develop cell factories, and the use of synthetic ecology approaches to maximize productivity. We discuss the success stories in these areas, the hurdles that need to be overcome, and the potential for expanding the industry in general. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies and learn......Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  16. Assessing the Role of Climate Variability on Liver Fluke Risk in the UK Through Mechanistic Hydro-Epidemiological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, L.; Dunne, T.; Rose, H.; Walker, J.; Morgan, E.; Vickerman, P.; Wagener, T.

    2016-12-01

    Liver fluke is a flatworm parasite infecting grazing animals worldwide. In the UK, it causes considerable production losses to cattle and sheep industries and costs farmers millions of pounds each year due to reduced growth rates and lower milk yields. Large part of the parasite life-cycle takes place outside of the host, with its survival and development strongly controlled by climatic and hydrologic conditions. Evidence of climate-driven changes in the distribution and seasonality of fluke disease already exists, as the infection is increasingly expanding to new areas and becoming a year-round problem. Therefore, it is crucial to assess current and potential future impacts of climate variability on the disease to guide interventions at the farm scale and mitigate risk. Climate-based fluke risk models have been available since the 1950s, however, they are based on empirical relationships derived between historical climate and incidence data, and thus are unlikely to be robust for simulating risk under changing conditions. Moreover, they are not dynamic, but estimate risk over large regions in the UK based on monthly average climate conditions, so they do not allow investigating the effects of climate variability for supporting farmers' decisions. In this study, we introduce a mechanistic model for fluke, which represents habitat suitability for disease development at 25m resolution with a daily time step, explicitly linking the parasite life-cycle to key hydro-climate conditions. The model is used on a case study in the UK and sensitivity analysis is performed to better understand the role of climate variability on the space-time dynamics of the disease, while explicitly accounting for uncertainties. Comparisons are presented with experts' knowledge and a widely used empirical model.

  17. A retrospective survey of liver flukes in livestock based on abattoir data in Kermanshah, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Safavi, Ehsan Allah Afshari

    2016-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried from 2008 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of liver flukes in ruminants slaughtered at the abattoir of Kermanshah province, west of Iran. A total of 663,633 animals slaughtered in the 5-year period and totally 1.95 % of livers were condemned due to liver flukes. Fasciolosis were responsible for 0.8, 0.7 and 1.5 % of liver condemnations, whereas 1, 0.8 and 1 % of liver were condemned because of Dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in the sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. A significant difference in the prevalence of liver flukes were observed among studied animals (p < 0.001) and the highest and lowest prevalence were detected in cattle and goats, respectively. Data showed significant seasonal pattern for distomatosis in sheep and goat (p < 0.001). Liver condemnations due to fasciolosis were prevalent in sheep and goats and cattle slaughtered during winter, summer and autumn, respectively, whereas dicrocoeliosis were common in autumn season for sheep and cattle and in winter for goats. This survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of these potentially important parasitic infections in the region.

  18. Profits and Exploitation: A Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihara, Naoki; Veneziani, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a mathematical analysis of the Marxian theory of the exploitation of labour in general equilibrium models. The two main definitions of Marxian exploitation in the literature, proposed by Morishima (1974) and Roemer (1982), respectively, are analysed in the context of general convex economies. It is shown that, contrary to the received view, in general these definitions do not preserve the so-called Fundamental Marxian Theorem (FMT), which states that the exploitation of la...

  19. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus) infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friant, Sagan; Brown, Kelsey; Saari, Mason T; Segel, Nicholas H; Slezak, Julia; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-12-01

    Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs.

  20. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagan Friant

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs.

  1. Recombinant adenylate kinase 3 from liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis for histochemical analysis and serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Bin; Kim, Paul; Woo, Hae Sun; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Ju Yeong; Lee, Hye Min; Jang, Yun Soo; Kim, Eun-Min; Yong, Tai-Soon; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-03-27

    Due to the lack of an effective prophylactic intervention and diagnosis, human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis continues to afflict a large human population, causing a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. With an aim to identify target antigens for sensitive serodiagnosis, adenylate kinase 3 of C. sinensis (CsAK3) was successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli by fusion to an RNA-interacting domain derived from human Lys-tRNA synthetase and purified by Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Anti-CsAK3 serum was raised by immunization of mice, and Western blotting confirmed that CsAK3 was expressed in adult-stage C. sinensis. Histochemical analysis showed that CsAK3 was localized to the subtegumental tissue of C. sinensis and was excreted into the bile duct of the host. When tested against sera from various parasite-infected patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant CsAK3 elicited a specific response to C. sinensis-infected sera. The results suggest that CsAK3, either alone or in combination with other antigens, could be used for improving the clinical diagnosis of clonorchiasis.

  2. Cubic crystal protein inclusions in the neodermis of the pancreatic fluke, Eurytrema pancreaticum, and Eurytrema coelomaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tsukasa; Oikawa, Tetsuo

    2007-10-01

    Light microscopy of Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum collected from cattle in Japan, China, Thailand, and Brazil showed many cubic crystal inclusions in the neodermis (tegument) of all flukes. The crystal inclusions were histochemically positive for protein. Scanning electron microscopy showed many cubic protrusions containing cubic crystal protein inclusions on the surface of the neodermis. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cubic crystal protein inclusions appeared in the perikarya of subtegumental parts, passed through the cytoplasmic bridge, moved into the syncytial neodermal cytoplasm, and then protruded from, and finally separated from, the neodermal cytoplasm. Cubic crystal protein inclusions were hexahedral with each side 2-18 microm long. High-resolution microscopy of ultrathin sections of crystal inclusions showed a lattice fringe at spacings of about 0.52 nm by using a filtering processing. Diffractograms were obtained by Fourier transform of the images. The lattice structure of the crystal protein inclusions was shown by inverse Fourier transform, indicating that the cubic crystal protein inclusions were single crystals. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis estimated the molecular weight of protein in the cubic crystal inclusion as 36.6 kDa. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that the cubic crystal protein inclusions were composed of protein and sulfur.

  3. Sequencing and characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome from the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Gao, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Duan, Hong; Yue, Dong-Mei; Fu, Xue; Su, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2016-01-15

    The trematode Eurytrema pancreaticum is a parasite of ruminant pancreatic and bile ducts, and also occasionally infects humans, causing eurytremiasis. In spite of it being a common fluke of cattle and sheep in endemic regions, little is known about the genomic resources of the parasite. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of E. pancreaticum. It is 15,031 bp in size, and encodes 36 genes: 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The E. pancreaticum mt gene order is the same as that of Dicrocoelium chinensis and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and all genes are transcribed in the same direction. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference shows that E. pancreaticum is closely related to D. chinensis and other members of the family Dicrocoeliidae with strong posterior probability support. The E. pancreaticum mt genome should prove to be a useful resource for comparative mt genomic studies of digenetic trematodes, and will provide a rich source of DNA markers for studies into the systematics, epidemiology, and population genetics of this parasite and other digenean trematodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa in the seminal receptacle of the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus (Rivolta, 1884).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Mariya V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Kiseleva, Elena

    2014-03-01

    The spermatozoon ultrastructure in the seminal receptacle of the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae), the agent of human opisthorchiasis endemic to Russia and Eastern Europe, was examined. The bean-shaped seminal receptacle of O. felineus has a wall consisting of epithelial and muscle layers. Mature spermatozoa are located in the interior of the seminal receptacle, whereas vacuoles containing degenerating spermatozoa are detectable at the periphery. The mature spermatozoon of O. felineus has two axonemes of a 9 + "1" pattern, a nucleus, two mitochondria, a lamellar body, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane in the anterior area of the sperm. The lamellar body is likely to be the third mitochondrion of a small size. The cytoplasm of the spermatozoon is filled with numerous electron-dense granules of storage polysaccharides. Additionally, the ultrastructural characteristics of the seminal receptacle and spermatozoa of O. felineus were compared to available published data on other trematode species. The functional roles of the observed structures of this spermatozoon are discussed.

  5. Transcriptomic responses of water buffalo liver to infection with the digenetic fluke Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Elsheikha, Hany M; He, Jun-Jun; Sheng, Zhao-An; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Ma, Jian-Gang; Huang, Wei-Yi; Guo, Ai-Jiang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola gigantica, the tropical liver fluke, infects buffaloes in Asian and African countries and causes significant economic losses and poses public health threat in these countries. However, little is known of the transcriptional response of buffaloes to infection with F. gigantica. The objective of the present study was to perform the first transcriptomic analysis of buffalo liver infected by F. gigantica. Understanding the mechanisms that underpin F. gigantica infection in buffaloes will contribute to our ability to control this parasite. We challenged buffaloes with 500 viable F. gigantica metacercariae and collected liver samples through a time course at 3, 42 and 70 days post-infection (dpi). Then, we performed gene expression analysis on liver samples using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) Illumina technology and confirmed the RNA-Seq data by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Totals of 496, 880 and 441 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the infected livers at 3, 42 and 70 dpi, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that transcriptional changes in the liver of infected buffaloes evolve over the course of infection. The predominant response of buffaloes to infection was mediated by certain pathways, such as MHC antigen processing and presentation, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and the cytochrome P450. Hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and bile secretion were also affected. Fasciola gigantica can induce statistically significant and biologically plausible differences in the hepatic gene expression of infected buffaloes. These findings provide new insights into the response of buffaloes to F. gigantica over the course of infection, which may be useful in determining pathways that can modulate host-parasite interaction and thus potentially important for clearance of the parasite.

  6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Amphimerus spp. liver fluke infection in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cevallos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Amphimerus spp. is a liver fluke that infects humans and domestic animals. It is highly prevalent in some Ecuadorian communities. Currently, diagnosis is based on the microscopic observation of eggs in faeces, but this has variable sensitivity. More sensitive methods are needed for diagnostic testing. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using crude antigens from Amphimerus spp. adult worms to detect anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera. METHODS Crude somatic antigens were obtained from adult Amphimerus spp. worms. Human sera from 119 patients were tested: 48 from individuals with a confirmed Amphimerus spp. infection, 78 from non-infected Ecuadorians living in the endemic region, 60 from persons living in non-endemic areas (20 Ecuadorians, 20 Europeans, and 20 Africans, and 33 who had other parasitic and non-parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Results were analysed using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis with an area under curve (AUC value of 0.967. The accuracy of the ELISA was high. The sensitivity was 85.0% [95% confidence interval (CI: 80.3-89.7%] and the specificity was 71.0% (95% CI: 65.2-76.8%. Some cross reactivity was detected against Paragonimus mexicanus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosomiasis, Taenia solium, Strongyloides stercoralis, Mansonella spp., and Vampirolepis nana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We have developed the first ELISA technique that detects anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera with good sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. However, more specific antigens are needed to further enhance performance of this assay. Regardless, this ELISA test could be useful for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of human Amphimerus spp. infections.

  7. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Huang, Si-Yang; Fu, Jing-Hua; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zheng, Xu; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-01-25

    Eurytrema pancreaticum is one of the most common flukes, which mainly infects ruminants globally and infects human beings accidentally; causing eurytremiasis that has high veterinary and economic importance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and are now considered as a key mechanism of gene regulation at the post-transcription level. We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of E. pancreaticum adults using next-generation sequencing technology combined with real-time quantitative PCR. By using the genome of the closely-related species Schistosoma japonicum as reference, we obtained 27 miRNA candidates out of 16.45 million raw sequencing reads, with 13 of them found as known miRNAs in S. japonicum and/or S. mansoni, and the remaining 14 miRNAs were considered as novel. Five out of the 13 known miRNAs coming from one family named as sja-miR-2, including family members from miR-2a to miR-2e. Targets of 19 miRNAs were successfully predicated out of the 17401 mRNA and EST non-redundant sequences of S. japonicum. It was found that a significant high number of targets were related to "chch domain-containing protein mitochondrial precursor" (n = 29), "small subunit ribosomal protein s30e" (n = 21), and "insulin-induced gene 1 protein" (n = 9). Besides, "egg protein cp3842" (n = 2), "fumarate hydratase" (n = 2), "ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme" (n = 2), and "sperm-associated antigen 6" (n = 1) were also found as targets of the miRNAs of E. pancreaticum. The present study represents the first global characterization of E. pancreaticum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for a better understanding of the parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

  8. A combination of liver fluke infection and traditional northeastern Thai foods associated with cholangiocarcinoma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraj, Pranee; Boonmars, Thidarut; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Songsri, Jiraporn; Sripan, Panupan; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Wongchalee, Nadchanan; Laummaunwai, Porntip

    2016-10-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection is one of the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in northeast Thailand, a region with one of the highest reported incidence rates of CCA. The traditional practice of eating raw fish, repeated exposure to liver flukes, and consumption of nitrosamine-contaminated food are major risk factors for CCA. So far, there have been no reports about which northeastern traditional dishes may be involved in CCA development. The present study, thus, investigated the effects of traditional foods. It focused specifically on the consumption of fermented foods in combination with O. viverrini infection in hamsters. Syrian hamsters were divided into six groups: (i) normal hamsters, (ii) O. viverrini infection only and (iii)-(vi) O. viverrini infection plus fermented foods (pla som-fish fermented for 1 day), som wua-fermented beef, som phag-fermented vegetables, and pla ra-fish fermented for 6 months. Syrian hamster livers were used for analysis of histopathological changes through hematoxylin and eosin; Sirius Red; and immunohistostaining for cytokeratin-19, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and CA19-9. Hamster sera were used for liver and kidney function tests. Results of all O. viverrini-infected groups and fermented food groups showed that histopathological changes consisted primarily of aggregations of inflammatory cells surrounding the hepatic bile duct, especially at the hilar region. However, there was a difference in virulence. Interestingly, aggregations of inflammatory cells, new bile duct formation, and fibrosis were observed in subcapsular hepatic tissue, which correlated to positive immunohistochemical staining and increased liver function test. The present study suggests that fermented food consumption can exacerbate cholangitis and cholangiofibrosis, which are risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma-associated opisthorchiasis.

  9. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    A 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern Ethiopia. During May 2003 to April 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and GI tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga in eastern Ethiopia. All animals were raised in the farming areas located within the community boundaries for each town. Collected materials were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University for immediate processing. Thirteen species belonging to 9 genera of GI nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, N. spathiger Oesopha-gostomum columbianum, O. venulosum, Strongyloides papillosus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichuris ovis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina), and 4 species belonging to 3 genera of trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Paramphistomum {Calicohoron} microbothrium and Dicrocoelium dendriticum) were recorded in both sheep and goats. All animals in this investigation were infected with multiple species to varying degrees. The mean burdens of adult nematodes were generally moderate in both sheep and goats and showed patterns of seasonal abundance that corresponded with the bi-modal annual rainfall pattern, with highest burdens around the middle of the rainy season. In both sheep and goats there were significant differences in the mean worm burdens and abundance of the different nematode species between the four geographic locations, with worm burdens in the Haramaya and Harar areas greater than those observed in the Dire Dawa and Jijiga locations. Similar seasonal variations were also observed in the prevalence of flukes. But there were no significant differences in the prevalence of each fluke species between the

  10. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites, liver flukes and lungworm in feces from dairy cattle in the high tropics of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny J. Chaparro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic infections in dairy cattle in the high tropics of Colombia. A total of 1003 rectal samples were collected from dairy cows at 29 farms between May and June 2014 to represent the number of farms, age groups, and size of the 65,000-cow population in the municipality of San Pedro de los Milagros. Coprological techniques were used to detect gastrointestinal nematodes, liver flukes, coccidian oocysts, and first larval stage counts of Dictyocaulus viviparus. In order of decreasing prevalence, the following parasites were detected: coccidial oocyst (36.7%; 95% CIs, 31.6–42.7, strongyle nematodes (31.6%, 27.8–35.4, liver flukes (30.9%, 21.5–37.5, cestodes (8.4%, 7.1–9.7, and D. viviparus (5.4%, 3.4–7.5. Co-infections by all possible combinations of the three most predominant groups occurred in 11 to 15% of the animals. There were significant differences in infection rates between age groups, with higher risk of liver fluke infection in animals older than 1 year of age (odds ratio (OR = 3.2, but lower presence for coccidia and strongyles (OR = 0.19 and 0.51, respectively. For Fasciola hepatica, within-herd prevalences of >25% in 16 farms and 94 of 281 (33.5% animals with >5 eggs per gram (epg indicate that significant production losses are likely occurring. The variation in the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes, together with the level of infection among age groups, could be used in integrated management programs to establish selective anthelmintic treatments and select for heritable traits of host resistance. These results serve as a baseline for future studies to determine the success of control measures and should increase awareness that subclinical parasitism is widespread in the livestock sector.

  11. The effect of lysergic acid diethylamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and related compounds on the liver fluke, fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, T. E.

    1957-01-01

    The rhythmical activity of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, was stimulated by 5-hydroxytryptamine and by lysergic acid diethylamide at very low concentrations. The effect was peripheral and was not mediated through the central ganglion. Other amines also stimulated rhythmical activity, the most potent being the indolamines. Bromolysergic acid diethylamide, and other analogues such as yohimbine, harmine, and dopamine depressed rhythmical movement and antagonized the stimulant action of 5-hydroxytryptamine and lysergic acid diethylamide. Evidence which suggests the presence of tryptamine receptors in the trematode is discussed. PMID:13489165

  12. Exploitation et obligation de travailler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Étienne Vandamme

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article défend une définition de l’exploitation, restreinte aux relations de travail, en tentant d’une part d’expliciter une certaine compréhension de sens commun du concept (rémunération inéquitable en fonction du travail presté, et d’autre part d’échapper aux difficultés qui ont affecté la définition marxiste traditionnelle de l’exploitation comme extorsion de la plus-value (dans ses diverses variantes. Il explore ainsi le lien entre l’exploitation et l’obligation matérielle de travailler pour subvenir à ses besoins fondamentaux. Après avoir mis en garde contre les politiques d’activation des chômeurs, il conclut que l’exploitation est un phénomène contre lequel on peut lutter à l’aide de mécanismes relativement simples, même dans les sociétés capitalistes. Il rappelle toutefois que cela ne suffit pas à réaliser la justice sociale, resituant l’exploitation parmi d’autres enjeux fondamentaux pour une philosophie politique égalitariste

  13. Secreted serine protease SmSP2 of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni: Biochemical characterization, localization and host protein processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leontovyč, Adrian; Ulrychová, Lenka; O'Donoghue, A.J.; Marešová, Lucie; Vondrášek, Jiří; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael; Horn, Martin; Dvořák, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 18 ISSN 2336-7202. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /17./. 30.05.2017-01.06.2017, Milovy] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15101; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * SmSP2 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  14. Structural basis for vinyl sulfone inhibition of the SmCB1 drug target from the human blood fluke

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Adéla; Marešová, Lucie; Rubešová, Petra; Fajtová, Pavla; Horn, Martin; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jiří; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, Suppl 1 (2017), s. 191 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /42./ From Molecules to Cells and Back. 10.09.2017-14.09.2017, Jerusalem] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : schistosomiasis * cathepsin B1 * inhibitor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  15. Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja I Brusentsov

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia, Northern Asia (Siberia and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan. Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3 and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

  16. Distribution and habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, snail intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and the habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, as reflected by the collection sites of its 4 552 samples currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC of South Africa. Although this species was represented in a variety of waterbodies, the majority of samples(±70%came from rivers, brooks and dams and in 70.8% of the cases the water was described as permanent and in 71.8% as slow flowing or standing. The results of life-table studies conducted by various authors indicated that temperature should be a relatively unimportant factor in determining its geographical distribution, but that the availability of permanent water should be decisive for its presence in a given habitat. These results are in agreement with the finding that only 7.5% of the samples of this species in the NFSC were collected in habitats which were described as seasonal. Furthermore, it gives a logical explanation for the sporadic occurrence, or total absence of this species in the more arid regions of South Africa. Water impoundments and irrigation networks contribute to a large extent towards creating perennial habitats which would be suitable for L. natalensis. As intermediate host for one of the liver fluke species which already is an economic factor in South Africa, this certainly is an aspect which ought to be reckoned within the planning and construction of new irrigation schemes.

  17. Petroleum Exploitation or Human Exploitation? An Overview of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    human exploitation under the disguise of any national development is frowned at. The Study Area ... Aghalino (2000) observed that the various stages of mineral oil business- geophysical/prospecting, drilling ... social and cultural life of the people in the oil producing communities. Farmers are forced to turn to other ...

  18. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-02-28

    Much of the literature on male-female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  19. Protecting children from sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lisa

    Child sexual exploitation has been a largely hidden but significant issue for many years. Nurses need to be aware of its effects on health so they can identify children and young people affected and work with colleagues from other disciplines and agencies to provide treatment and care.

  20. Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using multiple Ligation-depended Probe Amplification (MLPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with the opisthorchid liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus cause severe health problems globally, particularly in Southeast Asia. Early identification of the infection is essential to provide timely and appropriate chemotherapy to patients. Results In this study we evaluate a PCR-based molecular identification method, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, which allows rapid and specific detection of single nucleotide acid differences between Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and O. felineus. Three probe pairs were derived from the Internally Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 of three opisthorchid liver flukes using a systematic phylogenetic analysis. Specific loci were detected in all three species, yielding three amplicons with 198,172 and 152 bp, respectively, while no cross reactions were observed. A panel of 66 C. sinensis isolates was screened using MLPA. All species were positively identified, and no inhibition was observed. The detection limit was 103 copies of the ITS gene for the three liver flukes, or about 60 pg genomic DNA for Clonorchis sinensis. Amplification products can be detected by electrophoresis on agarose gel or in a capillary sequencer. In addition, genomic DNA of Clonorchis sinensis in fecal samples of infected rats was positively amplified by MLPA. Conclusion The flexibility and specificity make MLPA a potential tool for specific identification of infections by opisthorchid liver flukes in endemic areas.

  1. Potential risk of a liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infection brought by immigrants from prevalent areas: A case study in the lower Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumidonming, Wilawan; Katahira, Hirotaka; Igarashi, Makoto; Salman, Doaa; Abdelbaset, Abdelbaset E; Sangkaeo, Khamphon

    2018-02-01

    Considering the long lifespan of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, human mobility from prevalent regions to other neighboring areas has the possibility to disperse carriers and complicate the opisthorchiasis problem. To evaluate this, mass screening of the fluke infection was conducted in nine communities of lower Northern Thailand, combined with a questionnaire survey to distinguish the participant's origin. The liver fluke infection was found in 70 individuals (7.2%) of the examined 971 stool samples from seven communities, with light intensity providing small numbers of eggs in the examined stool. Prevalence in the positive communities varied from 2.1% to 28.7%. As a result of generalized linear mixed models fitting, regional origin and raw-fish eating habits were stably selected as variables affecting the parasite infection while occupation and educational background were secondary ones. Majority of the infected cases (64.3%) were found from the immigrants of northeastern Thailand (the fluke prevalent region), providing 2.28-2.42 times higher infectious risk on average against the local residents. Daily consumption of raw fish averaged a 3.12-3.60 times higher risk compared to those with no raw-fish eating habit. Our findings suggest that people's origin and moving history deserve further attentions in health promotion programs including education for safe eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular characterization of the North American lung fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its development in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2011-06-01

    Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3-8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15-49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis.

  3. Intestinal and liver flukes of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes) from Slovakia: uniform or diverse compound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorová, Petronela; Sitko, Jiljí; Špakulová, Marta; Hurníková, Zuzana

    2016-07-01

    During 2012-2014 up to 286 birds of the orders Falconiformes (5 species), Accipitriformes (11 species), and Strigiformes (7 species) were examined for trematodes and this represents the first detailed study in Slovakia. A total of 12 trematode species belonging to the families Diplostomidae, Cyathocotylidae, Strigeidae, and Opisthorchiidae were identified. Rare infections were found in falcons where only two species (40 %) and three of 85 examined birds (3.5 %) were infected with a low range of two to four worms of generalists Strigea falconis or Plagiorchis elegans. Contrary to that, ten accipitriformes species (90.9 %) and 63 of 156 bird individuals (40.4 %) were infected with nine flukes: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Conodiplostomum spathula, Neodiplostomum attenuatum, Neodiplostomum spathoides, Parastrigea flexilis, Strigea falconis, Strigea vandenbrokae, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, and Metorchis bilis. S. falconis and N. attenuatum were the most frequent, occurring in parallel in eight and four bird species, in numbers up to 575 and 224. The intensity of infection with other fluke species was low ranging from one to 13 worms. Three owl (Strigiformes) representatives (42.9 %) were exclusive hosts for Neodiplostomum canaliculatum and Strigea strigis, and the proportion of positive and dissected individual birds was 10:45 (22.2 %). Both trematodes occurred in two or three owl species. In conclusion, apparent dissimilarity of trematode load of three unrelated lines of falcons, eagles, and owls was revealed. The present study extends our knowledge on the composition of the trematode fauna in Slovakia as all species except S. falconis and P. elegans that represent new host and species records in Slovakia.

  4. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the world's most significant hazards in terms both of loss of life and damages. In the first decade of the 21st century, earthquakes accounted for 60 percent of fatalities from natural disasters, according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). To support mitigation activities designed to assess and reduce risks and improve response in emergency situations, satellite EO can be used to provide a broad range of geo-information services. This includes for instance crustal block boundary mapping to better characterize active faults, strain rate mapping to assess how rapidly faults are deforming, soil vulnerability mapping to help estimate how the soil is behaving in reaction to seismic phenomena, geo-information to assess the extent and intensity of the earthquake impact on man-made structures and formulate assumptions on the evolution of the seismic sequence, i.e. where local aftershocks or future main shocks (on nearby faults) are most likely to occur. In May 2012, the European Space Agency and the GEO Secretariat convened the International Forum on Satellite EO for Geohazards now known as the Santorini Conference. The event was the continuation of a series of international workshops such as those organized by the Geohazards Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. In Santorini the seismic community has set out a vision of the EO contribution to an operational global seismic risk program, which lead to the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative. The initial contribution of ESA to suuport the GSNL was the first Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) system in the framework of Grid Processing On Demand (GPOD), now followed by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). In this presentation, we will describe the contribution of the GEP for exploiting satellite EO for geohazard risk assessment. It is supporting the GEO Supersites and has been further

  5. Prospects of geothermal resource exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrelier, P.H.; Cornet, F.; Fouillac, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has only occurred during the past 50 years by drilling wells in aquifers close to magmas and producing either dry steam or hot water. The world's production of electricity from geothermal energy is over 6000 MWe and is still growing. The direct use of geothermal energy for major urban communities has been developed recently by exploitation of aquifers in sedimentary basins under large towns. Scaling up the extraction of heat implies the exploitation of larger and better located fields requiring an appropriate method of extraction; the objective of present attempts in USA, Japan and Europe is to create heat exchangers by the circulation of water between several deep wells. Two field categories are considered: the extension of classical geothermal fields beyond the aquifer areas, and areas favoured by both a high geothermal gradient, fractures inducing a natural permeability at large scale, and good commercial prospects (such as in the Rhenan Graben). Hot dry rocks concept has gained a large interest. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 11 refs

  6. Characterisation of a novel panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, using a next generation sequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; LaCourse, James; Williams, Diana J; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E

    2015-06-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of sheep and cattle and has been described by the WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Control is heavily reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole and as a result resistance has now emerged. The population structure of F. hepatica is not well known, yet it can impact on host-parasite interactions and parasite control with drugs, particularly regarding the spread of triclabendazole resistance. We have identified 2448 potential microsatellites from 83 Mb of F. hepatica genome sequence using msatfinder. Thirty-five loci were developed and optimised for microsatellite PCR, resulting in a panel of 15 polymorphic loci, with a range of three to 15 alleles. This panel was validated on genomic DNA from 46 adult F. hepatica; 38 liver flukes sourced from a Northwest abattoir, UK and 8 liver flukes from an established isolate (Shrewsbury; Ridgeway Research). Evidence for null alleles was found at four loci (Fh_1, Fh_8, Fh_13 and Fh_14), which showed markedly higher levels of homozygosity than the remaining 11 loci. Of the 38 liver flukes isolated from cattle livers (n=10) at the abattoir, 37 genotypes were identified. Using a multiplex approach all 15 loci could be amplified from several life cycle stages that typically yield low amounts of DNA, including metacercariae, the infective life cycle stage present on pasture, highlighting the utility of this multiplex microsatellite panel. This study reports the largest panel of microsatellite markers available to date for population studies of F. hepatica and the first multiplex panel of microsatellite markers that can be used for several life cycle stages. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploiting social evolution in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Kerry E; Heilmann, Silja; van Ditmarsch, Dave

    2013-01-01

    and thus, regrettably, select for resistance against their own action. A possible solution lies in targeting the mechanisms by which bacteria interact with each other within biofilms. The emerging field of microbial social evolution combines molecular microbiology with evolutionary theory to dissect...... the molecular mechanisms and the evolutionary pressures underpinning bacterial sociality. This exciting new research can ultimately lead to new therapies against biofilm infections that exploit evolutionary cheating or the trade-off between biofilm formation and dispersal.......Bacteria are highly social organisms that communicate via signaling molecules, move collectively over surfaces and make biofilm communities. Nonetheless, our main line of defense against pathogenic bacteria consists of antibiotics-drugs that target individual-level traits of bacterial cells...

  8. The Exploitation of Evolving Resources

    CERN Document Server

    McGlade, Jacqueline; Law, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The impact of man on the biosphere is profound. Quite apart from our capacity to destroy natural ecosystems and to drive species to extinction, we mould the evolution of the survivors by the selection pressures we apply to them. This has implications for the continued health of our natural biological resources and for the way in which we seek to optimise yield from those resources. Of these biological resources, fish stocks are particularly important to mankind as a source of protein. On a global basis, fish stocks provide the major source of protein for human consumption from natural ecosystems, amounting to some seventy million tonnes in 1970. Although fisheries management has been extensively developed over the last century, it has not hitherto considered the evolutionary consequences of fishing activity. While this omission may not have been serious in the past, the ever increasing intensity of exploitation and the deteriorating health of fish stocks has generated an urgent need for a better understanding...

  9. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  10. NOAA's NPOESS Data Exploitation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, G.; Silva, J.; Yoe, J.; Schott, T.; McHugh, M.; Roth, G.; Macharrie, P.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's NPOESS Data Exploitation (NDE) Project is building a near-real time processing and distribution system for data from the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and its forerunner, NASA's NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). The NDE Project has diverse user requirements for atmospheric, oceanographic, and land surface data products with strict operational timeliness. The NDE Project worked with stakeholders to promote and adopt widely used scientific data formats consistent with interoperability objectives for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The NDE system was designed to meet these user requirements in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) with product algorithms and product tailoring tools presented as internal service components. This approach provides scalability and high availability for mission critical operations, while maintaining flexibility for future products and satellite data processing and distribution requirements.

  11. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  12. Description of a new lung fluke species, Paragonimus vietnamensis sp. nov. (Trematoda, Paragonimidae), found in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi; Le, Nguyen Thi

    2007-11-01

    Based on morphology of metacercariae and adult worms together with molecular data from our previous study, we describe herein a new lung fluke species named Paragonimus vietnamensis sp. nov. Metacercariae of this new species is round and extremely large in size (nearly 800 mum in diameter) having a fragile outer cyst of variable thickness and a thin fragile inner cyst. There are little or no space between metacercaria and the inner cyst wall. These and other morphological features of metacercariae of P. vietnamensis sp. nov. are not completely identical with but have some similarities with those of P. microrchis, P. proliferus, or P. menglaensis. On the other hand, adult worms obtained by experimental infection of these large metacercariae are oval in shape, having a ventral sucker slightly larger than the oral one, and having singly arranged relatively short cuticular spines. These morphological features of adult worms are partly similar to but not identical with those of P. microrchis, P. skrjabini, P. yunnanenis, P. xiangshanensis, or P. harinasutai. Taken these morphological data and our previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adult worms together, P. vietnamensis sp. nov. is different from any other known Paragonimus spp.

  13. Distribution and habitats of the snail Lymnaea truncatula, intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. de Kock

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and habitats of Lymnaea truncatula, the intermediate, snail host of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, as reflected by the 723 samples in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection, Potchefstroom, South Africa. The 221 different loci (1/16-degree squares on record reflect an extensive but discontinuous distribution, except in Lesotho and in parts of the Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Although recorded from 12 different types of waterbody, it was mostly (42.0 % recovered from swamps. Most samples (45.8 % were collected in habitats with slow-flowing water. A muddy substratum was recorded for 62.5 % of the samples. Most samples (86.3 % were collected in habitats with a mean annual air temperature of 10-20 o C, and more than 69 % came from localities with a mean annual rainfall of 600-900mm. An integrated decision tree constructed from the data indicated that temperature and types of waterbody play a decisive role in determining the presence of L. truncatula in a given area. A temperature index calculated for all mollusc species ranked L. truncatula second in a total of 53 species according to its association with low temperatures. It remains to be established whether its distribution is indeed discontinuous, and whether its preference for a particular habitat, amphibious habits and ability to aestivate could have resulted in some populations having been overlooked during surveys.

  14. Exploiting Symmetry on Parallel Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Lewis Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes techniques for the design of parallel programs that solve well-structured problems with inherent symmetry. Part I demonstrates the reduction of such problems to generalized matrix multiplication by a group-equivariant matrix. Fast techniques for this multiplication are described, including factorization, orbit decomposition, and Fourier transforms over finite groups. Our algorithms entail interaction between two symmetry groups: one arising at the software level from the problem's symmetry and the other arising at the hardware level from the processors' communication network. Part II illustrates the applicability of our symmetry -exploitation techniques by presenting a series of case studies of the design and implementation of parallel programs. First, a parallel program that solves chess endgames by factorization of an associated dihedral group-equivariant matrix is described. This code runs faster than previous serial programs, and discovered it a number of results. Second, parallel algorithms for Fourier transforms for finite groups are developed, and preliminary parallel implementations for group transforms of dihedral and of symmetric groups are described. Applications in learning, vision, pattern recognition, and statistics are proposed. Third, parallel implementations solving several computational science problems are described, including the direct n-body problem, convolutions arising from molecular biology, and some communication primitives such as broadcast and reduce. Some of our implementations ran orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques, and were used in the investigation of various physical phenomena.

  15. Evidence for high genetic diversity of NAD1 and COX1 mitochondrial haplotypes among triclabendazole resistant and susceptible populations and field isolates of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T; Muller, A; Brockwell, Y; Murphy, N; Grillo, V; Toet, H M; Anderson, G; Sangster, N; Spithill, T W

    2014-02-24

    In recent years, the global incidence of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) infections exhibiting resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) has increased, resulting in increased economic losses for livestock producers and threatening future control. The development of TCBZ resistance and the worldwide discovery of F. hepatica population diversity has emphasized the need to further understand the genetic structure of drug susceptible and resistant Fasciola populations within Australia. In this study, the genetic diversity of liver flukes was estimated by sequencing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding the NAD1 (530 bp) and COX1 (420 bp) genes of 208 liver flukes (F. hepatica) collected from three populations: field isolates obtained from abattoirs from New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (Vic); three TCBZ-resistant fluke populations from NSW and Victoria; and the well-established TCBZ-susceptible Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Overall nucleotide diversity for all flukes analysed of 0.00516 and 0.00336 was estimated for the NAD1 and COX1 genes respectively. Eighteen distinct haplotypes were established for the NAD1 gene and six haplotypes for the COX1 gene, resulting in haplotype diversity levels of 0.832 and 0.482, respectively. One field isolate showed a similar low level of haplotype diversity as seen in the Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Analysis of TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from 3 individual cattle grazing one property revealed considerable sequence parasite diversity between cattle. Analysis of parasite TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from sheep and cattle revealed haplotypes unique to each host, but no significant difference between parasite populations. Fst analysis of fluke populations revealed little differentiation between the resistant and field populations. This study has revealed a high level of diversity in field and drug resistant flukes in South-Eastern Australia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Trainings & Resources Training Catalogue Additional Resources EDUCATION EDUCATION KidSmartz NetSmartz ... Report Child Sexual Exploitation Make a CYBERTIPLINE Report Number of reports ...

  17. Silviculture and Forestry Exploitation in Mongolia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dediu, Engr

    1960-01-01

    In line with the collaboration between the Rumanian People's Republic and the People's Republic of Mongolia regarding problems of cultivation, exploitation, and industrialization of timber, a group...

  18. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Anthony S

    2010-01-01

    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation.

  19. Interviewing Child Victims of Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, William

    The interviewing of the child victim of sexual exploitation is one of the first and most important steps in solving and prosecuting a case of child exploitation and is the topic of this document. The first chapter discusses the interviewer's role, focusing on improving communication, dealing with emotion, the interviewer's response, male or female…

  20. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  1. Exploration, Exploitation, and Organizational Coordination Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Popadiuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical relationship among exploration, exploitation, and organizational coordination mechanisms, classified as the centralization of decision-making, formalization, and connectedness. In order to analyze the findings of this survey, we used two techniques: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM. Our analysis was supported by 249 answers from managers of companies located in Brazil (convenience sampling. Contrary to expectations, centralization and exploitation were negatively associated. Our data supports the research hypothesis that formalization is positively associated with exploitation. Although the relationship between formalization and exploration were significant, the result is contrary to the research hypothesis that we made. The relationships among connectedness and exploitation, and connectedness and exploration were both positive and significant. This relationship means that the more connectedness increases, the higher the likelihood of exploitation and exploration.

  2. Designing Organizations for Exploration and Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N. Carroll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All organizations face the core challenge of deciding on investments in two very different types of activities: exploration and exploitation. Exploration activities are future-oriented, such as developing new capabilities, experimenting with new technologies, and pursuing new customers and markets. Exploitation activities, in contrast, focus on the refinement of existing competencies, processes, and products. Because an organization’s design should reflect its goals, it is difficult to accommodate exploration and exploitation activities within a single organization. This article discusses four major approaches used to tackle this problem, and notes the strengths and limitations of each approach.

  3. Life History Theory and Exploitative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploitative strategies involve depriving others of resources while enhancing one’s own. Life history theory suggests that there are individual differences (life history strategy and environmental characteristics (life history contingencies [LHCs] that influence the use of exploitative strategies. However, past work manipulating LHCs has found mixed evidence for the influence of this information on exploitative behavior. We present three studies that help clarify the effects of this type of information. Results indicated that younger individuals are most sensitive to LHC information. We also found, contrary to predictions, that communicating slow LHC information (i.e., high population density, intraspecific competition, and resource scarcity increased rather than decreased the temptation to engage in exploitative behavior. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  4. Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0303 TITLE: Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies PARTNERING INVESTIGATOR: Matthew Macauley, Ph.D...SUBTITLE Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael...Furthermore, two novel transgenic mouse models were generated, one expresses human CD22 on B cells and the other expresses human CD33 on mast cells

  5. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Home Types of Blood Donations Blood Types Blood Types Not all blood is alike. There are eight ... African descent. Learn More About Blood and Diversity Blood Types and Transfusion There are very specific ways in ...

  6. Managing the Innovators for Exploration and Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Annique UN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available I analyze how to manage employees to achieve a balance between exploration and exploitation in large established firms. Previous studies suggest that, although firms need to undertake both exploration and exploitation simultaneously, this is difficult either because of the scarcity of resources or because of the incompatibility of these two processes. Proposed solutions have been ambidexterity, punctuated equilibrium or specialization. I suggest another method: managing employees. Specifically, I argue that using the so-called “innovative” system of human resource management practices, consisting of team-based incentive system, team-based job design, and job rotation, enables the firm to undertake exploration and exploitation simultaneously because it provides the psychological safety for people to explore new knowledge to make novel products and develops employees to have the perspective-taking capability that enables the integration of knowledge cross-functionally for efficiency. Using the so-called “traditional” system of human resource management practices, consisting of individual-based incentive system, individual-based job design, and no job rotation, has limited impact on either exploration or exploitation because it does not create the psychological safety for people to explore new knowledge and does not develop the perspective-taking capability needed for exploitation. Moreover, mixing practices from both systems is better than only using the traditional system in achieving exploration or exploitation, but less effective than only using the innovative system as the mix of practices can create inconsistent expectations on employees.

  7. First report of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna infection in farmed fallow deer (Dama dama in Poland – pathomorphological changes and molecular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamon Jacek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old female fallow deer was subjected to the necropsy and virological testing, due to a suspected infectious disease in the herd of farmed deer in the Southeastern region of Poland. The animal was found negative for the presence of BVDV, BoHV-1, BTV, and EHDV antibodies and BVDV antigen. The toxicological examination did not reveal any coccidiostats, mycotoxins, rodenticides, carbamate pesticides, and organophosphorus pesticides. The flukes found during postmortem examination were first characterised microscopically as Fascioloides magna and later their identity was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The autopsy revealed lesions characteristic for F. magna infection, including different size cystic spaces in the liver, filled with brownish mucous fluid and flukes, and black pigment covering the surface of parietal and visceral peritoneum with the highest concentrations localised next to the liver. The changes observed in the liver tissue were typical of liver cirrhosis. The results demonstrated that in Poland, where the cervid farming is developing dynamically, the problem of fascioloidosis is present and may probably exert a significantly negative influence on the productivity of such farms if no antiparasitic treatment is performed.

  8. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    described as permanent, standing, fresh and clear. Although the highest percentage of samples of all three species was reported from loci that fell within the interval ranging from 16-20°C, a significant number of samples of L. truncatula came from loci falling with in the 11-15°C interval. In view of the fact that Lymnaea species are well known as intermediate hosts for liver fluke in South Africa and elsewhere in the world, the widespread occurrence of these snails could have considerable health and economic consequences. Lymnaea natalenis is the most important and probably the only intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica, the most common liver fluke in Africa but F. gigantica has been reliably reported only from Lesotho where its traditional intermediate host, L. truncatula is widespread. However, the epidemiology of fasciolosis in South Africa has been complicated by the invasion of many water-bodies by L. columella because this species has proved to be a successful host for F. hepatica where it had been introduced elsewhere in the world. To our knowledge its role in South Africa in this respect has not yet been evaluated. Due to the fact that no statistics are available in print, the results of positive serological tests on cattle herds all over South Africa were used to compile a map depicting the possible occurrence of Fasciola species in livestock in this country. Although human infections with Fasciola in Africa was considered as very rare in 1975 the situation has changed. It is considered an underrated and underreported disease in humans in Ethiopia and in Egypt an increase in cases of fasciolosis and prevalence’s as high as 12.8% in humans have also recently been reported. To our knowledge the only cases of human fasciolosis reported in literature for South Africa were from northern KwaZulu-Natal where F. hepatica infections were found in 22 out of 7 569 school children examined in 1981. Efforts to obtain recent statisticson human infections from various

  9. Exploitation of Labour and Exploitation of Commodities: a “New Interpretation”

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    In the standard Okishio-Morishima approach, the existence of profits is proved to be equivalent to the exploitation of labour. Yet, it can also be proved that the existence of profits is equivalent to the ‘exploitation’ of any good. Labour and commodity exploitation are just different numerical representations of the productiveness of the economy. This paper presents an alternative approach to exploitation theory which is related to the New Interpretation (Duménil 1980; Foley 1982). In this a...

  10. Exploiting sparsity to accelerate noncontrast MR angiography in the context of parallel imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Pippa; Otazo, Ricardo; Lim, Ruth P.; Kim, Sooah; Fleysher, Lazar; Oesingmann, Niels; Lee, Vivian S.; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Noncontrast techniques for peripheral MR angiography (MRA) are receiving renewed interest due to safety concerns about the use of gadoliniumin patients with renal insufficiency. One class of techniques involves subtraction of dark-blood images acquired during fast systolic flow from bright-blood images obtained during slow diastolic flow. The goal of this work was to determine whether the inherent sparsity of the difference images could be exploited to achieve greater acceleration without los...

  11. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts.

  12. Shale gas exploitation: Status, problems and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years, great progress has been made in shale gas exploitation, which has become the most driving force for global gas output growth. Hydrocarbon extraction from shale helps drive the USA on the road to energy independence. Besides, shale oil & gas production has been kept in a sustained growth by continuous improvement in drilling efficiency and well productivity in the case of tumbling oil prices and rig counts. Shale gas reserves and production have been in a rapid growth in China owing to the Lower Paleozoic Wufeng and Longmaxi shale gas exploitation in the Sichuan Basin, which has become an important sector for the future increment of gas reserves and output in China. However, substantial progress has been made neither in non-marine shale gas exploitation as previously expected nor in the broad complicated tectonic areas in South China for which a considerable investment was made. Analysis of the basic situation and issues in domestic shale gas development shows that shale gas exploitation prospects are constrained by many problems in terms of resources endowment, horizontal well fracturing technology, etc. especially in non-marine shale deposits and complicated tectonic areas in South China where hot shales are widely distributed but geological structures are found severely deformed and over matured. Discussion on the prospects shows that the sustained and steady growth in shale gas reserves and production capacity in the coming years lies in the discovery and supersession of new shale plays in addition to Wufeng and Longmaxi shale plays, and that a technological breakthrough in ultra-high-pressure and ultra-deep (over 3500 m buried in the Sichuan Basin marine shale gas exploitation is the key and hope. Keywords: Shale gas, Exploitation, Marine facies, Hot shale, Resource endowment, Sichuan Basin, South China, Complicated tectonic area, Gas play

  13. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  14. Mineral exploitation and development in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    using immigrant and migrant labourers that work intensively while living in temporary quarters. The historic experiences of Greenland tell that a different, slower exploitation of mineral resources may contribute to social improvements and competence building thereby providing long-term improvements...... for the Greenlandic society. This point to a need for plans and the organisation of mineral exploitations that operate based on coupling local settlements and resources with mining and other forms of activities. This demands new perspectives on the content of social impact assessments as well as new criteria...

  15. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878, the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K. Biswal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra K; Chatterjee, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  17. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra K.; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  18. Courseware Design: Exploiting the Colour Micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Marilyn E.; Holmes, Glyn

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the presentation of data on the educational effectiveness of computer assisted learning systems, describes some of the existing systems for controlling the display of instructional data on CRTs, and outlines a project undertaken at the University of Western Ontario to exploit the capabilities of microcomputer color…

  19. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J

    1993-01-01

    ...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...

  20. Exploiting a natural auxotrophy for genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Larry; Manoil, Colin

    2012-08-01

    We exploited the natural histidine auxotrophy of Francisella species to develop hisD (encodes histidinol dehydrogenase) as a positive selection marker. A shuttle plasmid (pBR103) carrying Escherichia coli hisD and designed for cloning of PCR fragments replicated in both attenuated and highly virulent Francisella strains. During this work, we formulated a simplified defined growth medium for Francisella novicida.

  1. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  2. Exploiting indigenous knowledge in the environmental conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of agriculture and reared livestock (especially goats). Over several years, they developed sustainable and effective exploitation mechanisms of the existing biodiversity resources to satisfy their individual needs and those of their societies in general. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol.

  3. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  4. High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirullo, Barbara; Pesciaroli, Michele; Drumo, Rosanna; Ruggeri, Jessica; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Martinelli, Nicola; Cucco, Lucilla; Moscati, Livia; Amadori, Massimo; Magistrali, Chiara F; Alborali, Giovanni L; Pasquali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028) is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection. Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 h post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S. Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets.

  6. Cloning the genes and DNA binding properties of high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) proteins from the human blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Oliveira, F.M.B.; Da Silva, I.C.dA.; Rumjanek, F.D.; Dias-Neto, E.; Guimaraes, P.E.M.; Verjovski-Almeida, S.; Štros, Michal; Fantappié, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 377, - (2006), s. 33-45 ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/2031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : HMGB1 * Schistosoma mansoni * Schistosoma japonicum Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2006

  7. In silico analysis of the fucosylation-associated genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni: cloning and characterization of the fucosyltransferase multigene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Nathan A; Anderson, Tavis K; Yoshino, Timothy P

    2013-01-01

    Fucosylated glycans of the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni play key roles in its development and immunobiology. In the present study we used a genome-wide homology-based bioinformatics approach to search for genes that contribute to fucosylated glycan expression in S. mansoni, specifically the α2-, α3-, and α6-fucosyltransferases (FucTs), which transfer L-fucose from a GDP-L-fucose donor to an oligosaccharide acceptor. We identified and in silico characterized several novel schistosome FucT homologs, including six α3-FucTs and six α6-FucTs, as well as two protein O-FucTs that catalyze the unrelated transfer of L-fucose to serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor- and thrombospondin-type repeats. No α2-FucTs were observed. Primary sequence analyses identified key conserved FucT motifs as well as characteristic transmembrane domains, consistent with their putative roles as fucosyltransferases. Most genes exhibit alternative splicing, with multiple transcript variants generated. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that schistosome α3- and α6-FucTs form monophyletic clades within their respective gene families, suggesting multiple gene duplications following the separation of the schistosome lineage from the main evolutionary tree. Quantitative decreases in steady-state transcript levels of some FucTs during early larval development suggest a possible mechanism for differential expression of fucosylated glycans in schistosomes. This study systematically identifies the complete repertoire of FucT homologs in S. mansoni and provides fundamental information regarding their genomic organization, genetic variation, developmental expression, and evolutionary history.

  8. The ghost of parasites past: eggs of the blood fluke Cardicola chaetodontis (Aporocotylidae) trapped in the heart and gills of butterflyfishes (Perciformes: Chaetodontidae) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Miller, T L; Adlard, R D; Cribb, T H

    2013-08-01

    We explored the distribution of Cardicola chaetodontis in chaetodontid fishes from the Great Barrier Reef. We found just four infections of adult worms in 238 individuals of 26 chaetodontid species. By contrast, eggs were present in hearts of 75 fishes (31·5%) and 19 of 26 chaetodontid species (all Chaetodon species). In 10 cases eggs contained moving miracidia; all the others were dead and degenerating. Eggs were sought in the gills of 51 individual fish. There were 17 cases of eggs being present in gills while present in the heart, but also 13 cases where eggs were absent from gills but present in the heart, suggesting that eggs remain longer in heart tissue than in gills. ITS2 rDNA sequences from two adult worms and eggs extracted from gills of five fishes (all different species) were identical to previously reported sequences of C. chaetodontis except for a single base-pair difference in two samples. We conclude that aporocotylid eggs trapped in fish heart tissues may inform understanding of the distributions and host ranges of aporocotylids, especially where adult prevalence is low. The low host-specificity of C. chaetodontis contrasts with higher specificity of trematodes of chaetodontids that have trophic transmission.

  9. Intelligence, mapping, and geospatial exploitation system (IMAGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moellman, Dennis E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper provides further detail to one facet of the battlespace visualization concept described in last year's paper Battlespace Situation Awareness for Force XXI. It focuses on the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) goal to 'provide customers seamless access to tailorable imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.' This paper describes Intelligence, Mapping, and Geospatial Exploitation System (IMAGES), an exploitation element capable of CONUS baseplant operations or field deployment to provide NIMA geospatial information collaboratively into a reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) environment through the United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS). In a baseplant CONUS setting IMAGES could be used to produce foundation data to support mission planning. In the field it could be directly associated with a tactical sensor receiver or ground station (e.g. UAV or UGV) to provide near real-time and mission specific RSTA to support mission execution. This paper provides IMAGES functional level design; describes the technologies, their interactions and interdependencies; and presents a notional operational scenario to illustrate the system flexibility. Using as a system backbone an intelligent software agent technology, called Open Agent ArchitectureTM (OAATM), IMAGES combines multimodal data entry, natural language understanding, and perceptual and evidential reasoning for system management. Configured to be DII COE compliant, it would utilize, to the extent possible, COTS applications software for data management, processing, fusion, exploitation, and reporting. It would also be modular, scaleable, and reconfigurable. This paper describes how the OAATM achieves data synchronization and enables the necessary level of information to be rapidly available to various command echelons for making informed decisions. The reasoning component will provide for the best information to be developed in the timeline

  10. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  11. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  12. Automatic exploitation system for photographic dosemeters; Systeme d`exploitation automatique des dosimetres photographiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, Y.; Devillard, D.; Godefroit, J.L.; Barillet, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry Exploitation (LED) has realized an equipment allowing to exploit automatically photographic film dosemeters. This system uses an identification of the films by code-bars and gives the doses measurement with a completely automatic reader. The principle consists in putting in ribbon the emulsions to be exploited and to develop them in a circulation machine. The measurement of the blackening film is realized on a reading plate having fourteen points of reading, in which are circulating the emulsions in ribbon. The exploitation is made with the usual dose calculation method, with special computers codes. A comparison on 2000 dosemeters has shown that the results are the same in manual and automatical methods. This system has been operating since July 1995 by the LED. (N.C.).

  13. Exploitation as the Unequal Exchange of Labour : An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihara, Naoki; Veneziani, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In subsistence economies with general convex technology and rational optimising agents, a new, axiomatic approach is developed, which allows an explicit analysis of the core positive and normative intuitions behind the concept of exploitation. Three main new axioms, called Labour Exploitation in Subsistence Economies , Relational Exploitation , and Feasibility of Non-Exploitation , are presented and it is proved that they uniquely characterise a definition of exploitation conceptually related...

  14. Database Translator (DATALATOR) for Integrated Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    SIGN _saHa.catego« y -l Custom facets c at cgoiy.na*r>e= Action T Figure 17: Situation class frame in OntoBase 23 Next Generation Software Contract...Effective Date of Contract: 02/23/2010 Contract Expiration Date: 10/31/2010 Next Generation Software 52 Strawtown Road, New City, NY 10956, 1(845...release; distribution is unlimited 20101104173 Next Generation Software Database Translator (DATALATOR) for Integrated Exploitation Contract: W31P4Q

  15. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  16. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  17. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Ha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  18. MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for Representation, Inference, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0127 MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution ( SEE ) on a Foundation for...distribution unlimited. See additional restrictions described on inside pages STINFO COPY AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY SENSORS DIRECTORATE WRIGHT...EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution ( SEE ) on a Foundation for Representation, Inference, and Learning 5a

  19. Gaze interaction in UAS video exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Brüstle, Stefan; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    A frequently occurring interaction task in UAS video exploitation is the marking or selection of objects of interest in the video. If an object of interest is visually detected by the image analyst, its selection/marking for further exploitation, documentation and communication with the team is a necessary task. Today object selection is usually performed by mouse interaction. As due to sensor motion all objects in the video move, object selection can be rather challenging, especially if strong and fast and ego-motions are present, e.g., with small airborne sensor platforms. In addition to that, objects of interest are sometimes too shortly visible to be selected by the analyst using mouse interaction. To address this issue we propose an eye tracker as input device for object selection. As the eye tracker continuously provides the gaze position of the analyst on the monitor, it is intuitive to use the gaze position for pointing at an object. The selection is then actuated by pressing a button. We integrated this gaze-based "gaze + key press" object selection into Fraunhofer IOSB's exploitation station ABUL using a Tobii X60 eye tracker and a standard keyboard for the button press. Representing the object selections in a spatial relational database, ABUL enables the image analyst to efficiently query the video data in a post processing step for selected objects of interest with respect to their geographical and other properties. An experimental evaluation is presented, comparing gaze-based interaction with mouse interaction in the context of object selection in UAS videos.

  20. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  1. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aphid Heritable Symbiont Exploits Defensive Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doremus, Matthew R; Oliver, Kerry M

    2017-04-15

    Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS), and each of its seven common HFS species has been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa , another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps. Using experimental aphid lines comprised of all possible infection combinations in a uniform aphid genotype, we investigated whether the most common strain of X-type provides any of the established benefits associated with aphid HFS as a single infection or superinfection with H. defensa We found that X-type does not confer protection to any tested threats, including parasitoid wasps, fungal pathogens, or thermal stress. Instead, component fitness assays identified large costs associated with X-type infection, costs which were ameliorated in superinfected aphids. Together these findings suggest that X-type exploits the aphid/ H. defensa mutualism and is maintained primarily as a superinfection by "hitchhiking" via the mutualistic benefits provided by another HFS. Exploitative symbionts potentially restrict the functions and distributions of mutualistic symbioses with effects that extend to other community members. IMPORTANCE Maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts are widespread and can have major impacts on the biology of arthropods, including insects of medical and agricultural importance. Given that host fitness and symbiont fitness are tightly linked, inherited symbionts can spread within host populations by providing beneficial services. Many insects, however, are frequently infected with multiple heritable symbiont species, providing potential

  3. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Heisenberg's heirs exploit loopholes in his law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes research into Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Loopholes in the principle have led to a series of experiments using sophisticated optical techniques to extract information from a quantum system without disturbing the variable being measured. The experiments are based on a technique called back-action evasion, which exploits the possibility of channeling all the uncertainty generated by measuring one quantum variable (e.g. laser beam intensity) onto a related variable known as the conjugate observable (beam phase). These experiments and others are described

  5. Algorithms exploiting ultrasonic sensors for subject classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachi; Quoraishee, Shafik

    2009-09-01

    Proposed here is a series of techniques exploiting micro-Doppler ultrasonic sensors capable of characterizing various detected mammalian targets based on their physiological movements captured a series of robust features. Employed is a combination of unique and conventional digital signal processing techniques arranged in such a manner they become capable of classifying a series of walkers. These processes for feature extraction develops a robust feature space capable of providing discrimination of various movements generated from bipeds and quadrupeds and further subdivided into large or small. These movements can be exploited to provide specific information of a given signature dividing it in a series of subset signatures exploiting wavelets to generate start/stop times. After viewing a series spectrograms of the signature we are able to see distinct differences and utilizing kurtosis, we generate an envelope detector capable of isolating each of the corresponding step cycles generated during a walk. The walk cycle is defined as one complete sequence of walking/running from the foot pushing off the ground and concluding when returning to the ground. This time information segments the events that are readily seen in the spectrogram but obstructed in the temporal domain into individual walk sequences. This walking sequence is then subsequently translated into a three dimensional waterfall plot defining the expected energy value associated with the motion at particular instance of time and frequency. The value is capable of being repeatable for each particular class and employable to discriminate the events. Highly reliable classification is realized exploiting a classifier trained on a candidate sample space derived from the associated gyrations created by motion from actors of interest. The classifier developed herein provides a capability to classify events as an adult humans, children humans, horses, and dogs at potentially high rates based on the tested sample

  6. Geothermal resources: exploration and exploitation. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    This comprehensive bibliography contains 5476 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books concerned with the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources. The coverage dates back as far as useful references could be obtained and extends through June 1976. References are arranged in broad subject categories and are made up of complete bibliographic citations. These are followed by a listing of subject descriptors used to describe the subject content of each reference. Four indexes are included: Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. Also included is a list of journals from which articles were selected. (LBS)

  7. Exploiting citation contexts for physics retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowska, Anna; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The text surrounding citations within scientific papers may contain terms that usefully describe cited documents and can benefit retrieval. We present a preliminary study that investigates appending ci- tation contexts from citing documents to cited documents in the iSearch test collection. We...... examine the effect on information retrieval perfor- mance of a range of citation context sizes and their variable weighting. We find that relatively short citation contexts with moderate weights can improve retrieval performance, and demonstrate the feasibility of identi- fying citation contexts...... in a large collection of physics papers, paving the way for future research that exploits citation contexts for retrieval....

  8. Electromagnetic Optimization Exploiting Aggressive Space Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, J. W.; Biernacki, R.; Chen, S.

    1995-01-01

    emerges after only six EM simulations with sparse frequency sweeps. Furthermore, less CPU effort is required to optimize the filter than is required by one single detailed frequency sweep. We also extend the SM concept to the parameter extraction phase, overcoming severely misaligned responses induced......We propose a significantly improved space mapping (SM) strategy for electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Instead of waiting for upfront EM analyses at several base points, our new approach aggressively exploits every available EM analysis, producing dramatic results right from the first step. We...

  9. Cloud Based Earth Observation Data Exploitation Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, A.; Pinto, S.; Loekken, S.; Marin, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the last few years data produced daily by several private and public Earth Observation (EO) satellites reached the order of tens of Terabytes, representing for scientists and commercial application developers both a big opportunity for their exploitation and a challenge for their management. New IT technologies, such as Big Data and cloud computing, enable the creation of web-accessible data exploitation platforms, which offer to scientists and application developers the means to access and use EO data in a quick and cost effective way. RHEA Group is particularly active in this sector, supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the Exploitation Platforms (EP) initiative, developing technology to build multi cloud platforms for the processing and analysis of Earth Observation data, and collaborating with larger European initiatives such as the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) and the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). An EP is a virtual workspace, providing a user community with access to (i) large volume of data, (ii) algorithm development and integration environment, (iii) processing software and services (e.g. toolboxes, visualization routines), (iv) computing resources, (v) collaboration tools (e.g. forums, wiki, etc.). When an EP is dedicated to a specific Theme, it becomes a Thematic Exploitation Platform (TEP). Currently, ESA has seven TEPs in a pre-operational phase dedicated to geo-hazards monitoring and prevention, costal zones, forestry areas, hydrology, polar regions, urban areas and food security. On the technology development side, solutions like the multi cloud EO data processing platform provides the technology to integrate ICT resources and EO data from different vendors in a single platform. In particular it offers (i) Multi-cloud data discovery, (ii) Multi-cloud data management and access and (iii) Multi-cloud application deployment. This platform has been demonstrated with the EGI Federated Cloud, Innovation Platform Testbed Poland

  10. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red ...

  11. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Types What's in this article? Four Blood Groups... Plus Rh Factor... ...Make Eight Blood Types Why Blood Type Matters Print en español Tipos de sangre About 5 million Americans need blood transfusions every ...

  12. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Miller, Bonnie B; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam

    2013-10-01

    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989-2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called 'customers' or 'consumers,' and occasionally 'predators'; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a 'victimless crime,' maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade.

  13. Uncovering Indicators of Commercial Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Delaney, Kathleen R; Julion, Wrenetha; Breitenstein, Susan

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that annually 100,000 to 300,000 youth are at risk for sex trafficking; a commercial sex act induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or any such act where the person induced to perform such an act is younger than 18 years of age. Increasingly, such transactions are occurring online via Internet-based sites that serve the commercial sex industry. Commercial sex transactions involving trafficking are illegal; thus, Internet discussions between those involved must be veiled. Even so, transactions around sex trafficking do occur. Within these transactions are innuendos that provide one avenue for detecting potential activity. The purpose of this study is to identify linguistic indicators of potential commercial sexual exploitation within the online comments of men posted on an Internet site. Six hundred sixty-six posts from five Midwest cities and 363 unique members were analyzed via content analysis. Three main indicators were found: the presence of youth or desire for youthfulness, presence of pimps, and awareness of vulnerability. These findings begin a much-needed dialogue on uncovering online risks of commercial sexual exploitation and support the need for further research on Internet indicators of sex trafficking.

  14. Compressed sensing MRI exploiting complementary dual decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok

    2014-04-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) MRI exploits the sparsity of an image in a transform domain to reconstruct the image from incoherently under-sampled k-space data. However, it has been shown that CS suffers particularly from loss of low-contrast image features with increasing reduction factors. To retain image details in such degraded experimental conditions, in this work we introduce a novel CS reconstruction method exploiting feature-based complementary dual decomposition with joint estimation of local scale mixture (LSM) model and images. Images are decomposed into dual block sparse components: total variation for piecewise smooth parts and wavelets for residuals. The LSM model parameters of residuals in the wavelet domain are estimated and then employed as a regional constraint in spatially adaptive reconstruction of high frequency subbands to restore image details missing in piecewise smooth parts. Alternating minimization of the dual image components subject to data consistency is performed to extract image details from residuals and add them back to their complementary counterparts while the LSM model parameters and images are jointly estimated in a sequential fashion. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in preserving low-contrast image features even at high reduction factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PROBA-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Goor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.

  16. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  17. Ultrasonic Flaw Imaging via Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin D. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior boundaries. These reflections can be cast as direct paths to the target corresponding to the virtual sensors appearing on the top and bottom side of the target. Some of these virtual sensors constitute a virtual aperture, whereas in others, the aperture changes with the transmitter position. Exploitations of multipath extended virtual array apertures provide enhanced imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as the virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles, thus allowing proper multiview imaging of flaws. We derive the wideband point spread functions for dominant multipaths and show that fusion of physical and virtual sensor data improves the flaw perimeter detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated using real data.

  18. The effect of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation on the leucocyte eosinophil cell profile on sheep

    OpenAIRE

    S Widjajanti; S.E Estuningsih; Subandriyo; D Piedrafita; H.W Raadsma

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil is one of the major leucocyte cell in the blood which specifically reacted on parasite infection, thus it is important to determine its profile against the F. gigantica infection. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of the eosinophil count profiles on the different breed of sheep infected with F. gigantica and its relation with the resistance of sheep bred against parasitic disease. Four groups of sheep consist of Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT) sheep, Merino sheep, b...

  19. A Federated Geospatial and Imagery Exploitation Service (GIXS) Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Derek

    2000-01-01

    In order for the Geospatial and Imagery Exploitation Service (GIXS) architecture to take advantage of distributed processing of image exploitation tasks, it needs to be adapted to suit a federated environment...

  20. The Theory of Exploitation as the Unequal Exchange of Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the normative and positive foundations of the theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour (UEL). The key intuitions behind all of the main approaches to UEL exploitation are explicitly analysed as a series of formal claims in a general economic environment. It is then argued that these intuitions can be captured by one fundamental axiom - called Labour Exploitation - which defines the basic domain of all UEL exploitation forms and identifies the formal and the...

  1. The theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the normative and positive foundations of the theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour (UEL). The key intuitions behind all of the main approaches to UEL exploitation are explicitly analysed as a series of formal claims in a general economic environment. It is then argued that these intuitions can be captured by one fundamental axiom - called Labour Exploitation - which defines the basic domain of all UEL exploitation forms and identifies the formal and the...

  2. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las

  3. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano

    2017-04-01

    The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP) [1] [2] project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre

  4. Characterization of nine microsatellite loci for Dicrocoelium dendriticum, an emerging liver fluke of ungulates in North America, and their use to detect clonemates and random mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paridon, Bradley J; Goater, Cameron P; Gilleard, John S; Criscione, Charles D

    2016-05-01

    This study characterizes polymorphic microsatellite loci from adults of the liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum sampled from a population of sympatric beef cattle and wapiti in a region of emergence in southern Alberta, Canada. We also scrutinized the markers to validate their use in studying the population genetics of this complex life cycle parasite. Among the nine loci described, four deviated significantly from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) due to technical artefacts. The remaining five loci were in HWE. These five provided sufficient resolution to identify clonemates produced from the obligate asexual reproduction phase of the life cycle in snails and to assess the impact of non-random transmission of clonemates on measures of FIS, FST and genotypic disequilibrium. Excluding clonemates, we show that the sub-population of worms was in HWE, that average FIS within hosts was 0.003 (p=0.4922) and that there was no population genetic structure among hosts FST=0.001 (p=0.3243). These markers will be useful for studies of Dicrocoelium dendriticum ecology, transmission, and evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S; Zadoks, Ruth N; Skuce, Philip J; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson's R = 0.89, p hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer.

  6. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    empirically before drawing the conclusion that Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is economically detrimental can be established directly. Nevertheless, the model does reveal a need for intertemporal balance with respect to both fish size and harvest volume. These aspects are not addressed in any systematic way...... at the ecosystem level in the present management. Therefore, economic predictions for an ecosystem managed as a common pool resource must be that  the exploitation probably are conducted at lower sized than optimum. In addition, given its population stock approach, the present management probably overlooks...... the ability of an ecosystem to sustain total volume of harvest. Given the two aspects of intertemporal choice revealed by the model, the conclusion must be that the Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is probably driven by the current management's inability to conduct adequate intertemporal balancing; therefore...

  7. Exploiting HRM in support of lean manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in HRM practices are-and could potentially be-exploited to support lean manufacturing in practice. First, a review of the pertinent literature regarding HRM, SHRM, and lean manufacturing is presented to provide an understanding of the mechanisms...... by which HRM practices could, theoretically, be used to support a lean implementation. Data presented in the paper are derived from 1) a longitudinal case study on lean implementation and 2) from managers currently involved with lean manufacturing in a second company. The relevant literature and the data......'s contribution to the change process itself and through bundling particular HRM practices that are aligned with the lean strategy. The paper contributes to both theory and practice, by suggesting specific ways in which HRM can be strategically aligned with a major change implementation such as lean manufacturing....

  8. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  9. Does high indebtedness increase natural resource exploitation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Eric [London School of Economics and Political Science, Dept. of Geography and Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    The debt-resource-hypothesis suggests that high indebtedness leads to increased natural resource exploitation as well as more unsustainable patterns of resource use. Countries with high debt burdens supposedly increase their extraction of fossil fuels and mineral resources as well as their production of so-called cash crops in order to service their debt obligations. In spite of its popularity, there have been few attempts to systematically test the hypothesis. Existing analyses refer to deforestation only and come to mixed results. This study fills a gap in testing the hypothesis more comprehensively for 23 natural resources and cash crops. It uses first differencing, period-specific time dummies, and a lagged dependent variable to mitigate omitted variable bias. No evidence is found that would support the debt-resource-hypothesis. (Author)

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  11. Redesigning the exploitation of wheat genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C

    2014-10-01

    More than half a million wheat genetic resources are resting in gene banks worldwide. Unlocking their hidden favorable genetic diversity for breeding is pivotal for enhancing grain yield potential, and averting future food shortages. Here, we propose exploiting recent advances in hybrid wheat technology to uncover the masked breeding values of wheat genetic resources. The gathered phenotypic information will enable a targeted choice of accessions with high value for pre-breeding among this plethora of genetic resources. We intend to provoke a paradigm shift in pre-breeding strategies for grain yield, moving away from allele mining toward genome-wide selection to bridge the yield gap between genetic resources and elite breeding pools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social network analysis realization and exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Jack H.; Nolan, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence analysts demand rapid information fusion capabilities to develop and maintain accurate situational awareness and understanding of dynamic enemy threats in asymmetric military operations. The ability to extract meaning in relationships between people, objects, and locations from a variety of unstructured text datasets is critical to proactive decision making. Additionally, the ability to automatically cluster text documents about entities and discover connections between those documents allows the analyst to navigate an extremely large collection of documents. Analysts also demand a temporal understanding of the extracted relationships between entities and connections between documents. We describe approaches to automatically realize the social networks via concept extraction, relationship extraction, and document connection algorithms; we also describe approaches to exploit the network by visualizing the results to the analyst such that changes over time are evident.

  13. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ill patients. Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations The Foundation for America's Blood Centers Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations About Blood What is Blood? ...

  14. Summary of radiation protection in exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcier, Yves; Guers, Rene; Bidard, Francoise; Colson, Philippe; Gonin, Michele; Delabre, Herve; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Corgnet, Bruno; Perrin, Marie-Claire; Phan Hoang, Long; Abela, Gonzague; Crepieux, Virginie; Guyot, Pierre; Haranger, Didier; Warembourg, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    This document proposes a large and detailed overview of notions and practices regarding radiation protection in relationship with an NPP exploitation framework. It presents the main notions: matter structure, radioactivity, interactions between matter and radiations, types of ionizing radiation, magnitudes and measurement units, exposure modes, main principles of radiation protection, means of protection against internal and external exposures. The second part proposes an overview of the origin of radiological risks in a nuclear power plant. This origin can be found in fission products, activation products, actinides, designed protections, or circuit contaminations. These radiological risks are more precisely identified and described in terms of detection and prevention (internal exposure risk, contamination risk, iodine-related risk, alpha radiation-related risk, access to the reactor building). The next part addresses the medical and radiological follow-up of exposed workers by a special medical control, by an individual exposure control, by a specific control of female personnel, and by attention to exceptional exposures. Measurement means are presented (detection principles, installation continuous control, workspaces control, personnel contamination control, follow-up of individual dose) as well as collective and individual protection means. The management of radiation protection is addressed through a presentation of decision and management structures for radiation protection, and of EDF objectives and ambitions in this domain. The organization of radiation protection during exploitation is described: responsibilities for radiation protection in a nuclear power station, requirements for workers, preparation of interventions in controlled zone, work execution in controlled zone, zone controls and radiological cleanness of installations. The two last chapters address issues and practices of radiation protection in the case of deconstruction or dismantling, and

  15. Artificial Blood for Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-11-10

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain "blood" for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin-albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA 3 ), was synthesized as an artificial O 2 -carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O 2 -binding affinity was high (P 50  = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA 3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O 2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations.

  16. GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampierto, D.

    2011-07-01

    New ESA missions dedicated to the observation of the Earth from space, like the gravity-gradiometry mission GOCE and the radar altimetry mission CRYOSAT 2, foster research, among other subjects, also on inverse gravimetric problems and on the description of the nature and the geographical location of gravimetric signals. In this framework the GEMMA project (GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Applications), funded by the European Space Agency and Politecnico di Milano, aims at estimating the boundary between Earth's crust and mantle (the so called Mohorovičić discontinuity or Moho) from GOCE data in key regions of the world. In the project a solution based on a simple two layer model in spherical approximation is proposed. This inversion problem based on the linearization of the Newton's gravitational law around an approximate mean Moho surface will be solved by exploiting Wiener-Kolmogorov theory in the frequency domain where the depth of the Moho discontinuity will be treated as a random signal with a zero mean and its own covariance function. The algorithm can be applied in a numerically efficient way by using the Fast Fourier Transform. As for the gravity observations, we will consider grids of the anomalous gravitational potential and its second radial derivative at satellite altitude. In particular this will require first of all to elaborate GOCE data to obtain a local grid of the gravitational potential field and its second radial derivative and after that to separate the gravimetric signal due to the considered discontinuity from the gravitational effects of other geological structures present into the observations. The first problem can be solved by applying the so called space- wise approach to GOCE observations, while the second one can be achieved by considering a priori models and geophysical information by means of an appropriate Bayesan technique. Moreover other data such as ground gravity anomalies or seismic profiles can be combined, in an

  17. Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, E.

    2017-12-01

    VITO and partners developed the Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) as an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the Proba-V (an EC Copernicus contributing mission) EO-data archive, the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers (e.g. the EC Copernicus Global Land Service) and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (PB range) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data on a powerful and scalable processing environment. New features are still developed, but the platform is yet fully operational since November 2016 and offers A time series viewer (browser web client and API), showing the evolution of Proba-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any country, region, pixel or polygon defined by the user. Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. On-demand processing chains on a powerfull Hadoop/Spark backend. Virtual Machines can be requested by users with access to the complete data archive mentioned above and pre-configured tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. This allows users to immediately work with the data without having to install tools or download data, but as well to design, debug and test applications on the platform. Jupyter Notebooks is available with some examples python and R projects worked out to show the potential of the data. Today the platform is already used by several international third party projects to perform R&D activities on the data, and to develop/host data analysis toolboxes. From the Proba-V MEP, access to other data sources such as Sentinel-2 and landsat data is also addressed. Selected components of the MEP are also deployed on public cloud infrastructures in various R&D projects. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to

  18. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  19. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  20. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion.

  1. Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploiting Virtualization and Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Van der Ster, Daniel; Benjamin, Doug; De, Kaushik; Gable, Ian; Paterson, Michael; Taylor, Ryan; Hendrix, Val; Vitillo, Roberto A; Panitkin, Sergey; De Silva, Asoka; Walker, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing; since the start of data-taking, this model has proven very successful in the federated operation of more than one hundred Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites for offline data distribution, storage, processing and analysis. However, new paradigms in computing, namely virtualization and cloud computing, present improved strategies for managing and provisioning IT resources that could allow ATLAS to more flexibly adapt and scale its storage and processing workloads on varied underlying resources. In particular, ATLAS is developing a “grid-of-clouds” infrastructure in order to utilize WLCG sites that make resources available via a cloud API. This work will present the current status of the Virtualization and Cloud Computing R and D project in ATLAS Distributed Computing. First, strategies for deploying PanDA queues on cloud sites will be discussed, including the introduction of a “cloud factory” for managing cloud VM instances. Next, performance results when running on virtualized/cloud resources at CERN LxCloud, StratusLab, and elsewhere will be presented. Finally, we will present the ATLAS strategies for exploiting cloud-based storage, including remote XROOTD access to input data, management of EC2-based files, and the deployment of cloud-resident LCG storage elements.

  3. Tonic dopamine modulates exploitation of reward learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this closed economy paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior.

  4. Prevalence of fascioliasis (liver flukes infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa T. Elshraway

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis infections in cattle and buffaloes, slaughtered in El-Kharga city slaughterhouse at New Valley Governorate. Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for liver fascioliasis allover 2016. Macroscopic fascioliasis was detected from a total of 2251 basing on animals specie, sex, season, and Fasciola spp. in addition to microscopic examination of blood, fecal samples which collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each. Results: The total prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. infection occurs in the study area were about 695/2251 (30.88% from the total cattle and bovine slaughtered carcasses. The incidence of fascioliasis was 4/12 (33.33% and 678/2200 (30.82% for females and males cattle carcasses, respectively, while the infection rate in buffalo carcasses was 1/4 (25.00% and 12/35 (34.29% for females and males buffalo carcasses, respectively. Conclusion: The moderate fasciolosis infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt. The highest fascioliasis infection was recorded during winter and autumn. It constitutes a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir and threat public health.

  5. Prevalence of fascioliasis (liver flukes) infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshraway, Nagwa T; Mahmoud, Wafaa G

    2017-08-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis infections in cattle and buffaloes, slaughtered in El-Kharga city slaughterhouse at New Valley Governorate. The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for liver fascioliasis allover 2016. Macroscopic fascioliasis was detected from a total of 2251 basing on animals specie, sex, season, and Fasciola spp. in addition to microscopic examination of blood, fecal samples which collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each). The total prevalence rate of Fasciola sp. infection occurs in the study area were about 695/2251 (30.88%) from the total cattle and bovine slaughtered carcasses. The incidence of fascioliasis was 4/12 (33.33%) and 678/2200 (30.82%) for females and males cattle carcasses, respectively, while the infection rate in buffalo carcasses was 1/4 (25.00%) and 12/35 (34.29%) for females and males buffalo carcasses, respectively. The moderate fasciolosis infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt. The highest fascioliasis infection was recorded during winter and autumn. It constitutes a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir and threat public health.

  6. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum (trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Xu, Min-Jun; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-15

    Eurytrema pancreaticum is one of the most common trematodes living in the pancreatic and bile ducts of ruminants and also occasionally infects humans, causing eurytremiasis. In spite of its economic and medical importance, very little is known about the genomic resources of this parasite. Herein, we performed de novo sequencing, assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of adult E. pancreaticum. Approximately 36.4 million high-quality clean reads were obtained, and the length of the transcript contigs ranged from 66 to 19,968 nt with mean length of 479 nt and N50 length of 1094 nt, and then 23,573 unigenes were assembled. Of these unigenes, 15,353 (65.1%) were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Among these, 15,267 (64.8%), 2732 (11.6%) and 10,354 (43.9%) of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the NR, NT and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. 5510 (23.4%) and 4567 (19.4%) unigenes were assigned to GO and COG, respectively. 8886 (37.7%) unigenes were identified and mapped onto 254 pathways in the KEGG Pathway database. Furthermore, we found that 105 (1.18%) unigenes were related to pancreatic secretion and 61 (0.7%) to pancreatic cancer. The present study represents the first transcriptome of any members of the family Dicrocoeliidae, which has little genomic information available in the public databases. The novel transcriptome of E. pancreaticum should provide a useful resource for designing new strategies against pancreatic flukes and other trematodes of human and animal health significance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south

  8. Aspects of abuse: commercial sexual exploitation of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Melissa; Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and adolescents is a serious worldwide problem. It is, in essence, the sexual abuse of a minor for economic gain. In the United States, there is no uniform nationwide database to capture the incidence and prevalence of CSEC. Therefore, there is a great variation in the estimates, but the actual numbers are unknown. Given the clandestine nature of the practice, it is often underreported and underidentified. Healthcare providers will often encounter victims of commercial sexual exploitation due to mental health, physical health, and sexual health consequences, and therefore should be knowledgeable in the signs of possible sexual exploitation. The aim of this article is to educate healthcare providers on how vulnerable children may become sexually exploited, the health consequences involved with sexual exploitation, how to better identify possible victims, and the medical evaluation of a victim of sexual exploitation. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin; Dries, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    VITO and partners developed the Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) as an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the Proba-V (a Copernicus contributing mission) EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data on a powerful and scalable processing environment. Furthermore data from the Copernicus Global Land Service is in scope of the platform. From November 2015 an operational Proba-V MEP environment, as an ESA operation service, is gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Since autumn 2016 the platform is operational and yet several applications are released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of Proba-V bands and derived vegetation parameters from the Copernicus Global Land Service for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains on a powerfull Hadoop/Spark backend e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - Virtual Machines can be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes (GDAL, QGIS, GrassGIS, SNAP toolbox, …) and support for R and Python. This allows users to immediately work with the data without having to install tools or download data, but as well to design, debug and test applications on the platform. - A prototype of jupyter Notebooks is available with some examples worked out to show the potential of the data. Today the platform is used by several third party projects to perform R&D activities on the data, and to develop/host data analysis toolboxes. In parallel the platform is further improved and extended. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will

  10. Exploitation of Apoptotic Regulation in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Ucker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Within an organism, environmental stresses can trigger cell death, particularly apoptotic cell death. Apoptotic cells, themselves, are potent regulators of their cellular environment, involved primarily in effecting homeostatic control. Tumors, especially, exist in a dynamic balance of cell proliferation and cell death. This special feature of the tumorous microenvironment—namely, the prominence and persistence of cell death—necessarily entails a magnification of the extrinsic, postmortem effects of dead cells. In both normal and malignant tissues, apoptotic regulation is exerted through immune as well as non-immune mechanisms. Apoptotic cells suppress the repertoire of immune reactivities, both by attenuating innate (especially inflammatory responses and by abrogating adaptive responses. In addition, apoptotic cells modulate multiple vital cell activities, including survival, proliferation (cell number, and growth (cell size. While the microenvironment of the tumor may contribute to apoptosis, the postmortem effects of apoptotic cells feature prominently in the reciprocal acclimatization between the tumor and its environment. In much the same way that pathogens evade the host’s defenses through exploitation of key aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, cancer cells subvert several normal homeostatic processes, in particular wound healing and organ regeneration, to transform and overtake their environment. In understanding this subversion, it is crucial to view a tumor not simply as a clone of malignant cells, but rather as a complex and highly organized structure in which there exists a multidirectional flow of information between the cancer cells themselves and the multiple other cell types and extracellular matrix components of which the tumor is comprised. Apoptotic cells, therefore, have the unfortunate consequence of facilitating tumorigenesis and tumor survival.

  11. Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 91-3); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPPs as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. In particular, our goals are to: (1) Reconfigure the prediction equations such that the time iteration process can be compressed by use of MMP architecture, and to develop appropriate algorithms. (2) Develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state- of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics. (3) Capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. By careful choice of initial states, many realizations of the climate system can be determined concurrently and more realistic assessments of the climate prediction can be made in a realistic time frame. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts.

  12. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  13. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  14. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toes. Let's find out more about each ingredient. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, ... after you are better, B cells can become memory cells that remember how to make the special ...

  15. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Donating Blood What's in this article? Who Can Donate Blood? Before Donating Are There Any Risks? Print en español Donar sangre According to the American Red Cross, there's a ...

  16. Vomiting Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if vomiting blood causes dizziness after standing, rapid, shallow breathing or other signs of shock. Call 911 ... severe blood loss or shock, such as: Rapid, shallow breathing Dizziness or lightheadedness after standing up Blurred ...

  17. Foregrounding possibilities and backgrounding exploitation in transnational medical research projects in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Today medical research funded by resourceful commercial companies and philanthropic organizations increasingly takes place in much less resourceful settings across the globe. Recent academic studies of this trend have observed how global inequalities have shaped the movements of this research......, and how human subjects who make their blood and bodies available are at risk of exploitation. In Lusaka, people expressed their fears of being used by transnational medical research projects in various idioms of concern. While such concerns were always latent, people were generally eager to join...... the projects. Concerns were often backgrounded in favor of pragmatic attention to—and active creation of—possibilities that might stretch well beyond the purpose and time limit of individual research projects. The article illuminates how intimately the ambiguities and possible scenarios of exploitation...

  18. Simulation of subsea gas hydrate exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2014-05-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several subsea sediments and permafrost regions around the world is a promising perspective to overcome future shortages in natural gas supply. Being aware that conventional natural gas resources are limited, research is going on to develop technologies for the production of natural gas from such new sources. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, India, and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop required technologies. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of CO2 from combustion processes to reduce climate impact. While different natural or man-made reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid CO2, the storage of CO2 as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in the form of hydrates. Regarding technological implementation many problems have to be overcome. Especially mixing, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR« different technological approaches for the optimized exploitation of gas hydrate deposits are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical processes are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs. Simulations based on geological field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the potential of gas production from turbidites and their fitness for CO2 storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within

  19. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  20. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  1. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  2. Exploitation program of ''Adamow'' quarry up to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlaw, A.

    1994-01-01

    The brown coal deposits exploited by the quarry ''Adamow'' located in Central Poland are shortly described and the prognosis of their exploitation up to 2015 is given. The basis data on the perspective deposits in the quarry's area are also presented. All deposits are shown on the map. 3 ills, 2 tabs

  3. The Dark Side of Courtship: Violence and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sally A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature on physical violence and sexual exploitation between premarital partners. Suggests that two features of dating encourage exploitative behavior: different context of courtship for males versus females encourages male control of relationships and female compliance, and highly romanticized nature of courtship encourages partners to…

  4. Teaching the Mentally Handicapped To Avoid Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gary L.; And Others

    Existing curricula on prevention of sexual exploitation for non-mentally handicapped children are not appropriate for the mentally retarded. Curricula specifically designed for special needs students include the "Special Education Curriculum on Sexual Exploitation" for mildly handicapped students and "Self-Protection for the…

  5. Early Sexual Exploitation as an Influence in Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Mimi H.; Pines, Ayala M.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 200 female street prostitutes to determine whether they were sexually exploited during childhood. Results showed 60 percent of the subjects were sexually exploited. The few girls who discussed their abuse with others were met with shame and most often inaction. Only 10 percent were abused by strangers. (JAC)

  6. A Descriptive Study on Sexually Exploited Children in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twill, Sarah E.; Green, Denise M.; Traylor, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual exploitation and prostitution of children and adolescents is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States (Estes and Weiner in "Medical, legal & social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and internet crimes, vol I," G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc, St Louis,…

  7. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  8. Antifibrotic effect of xanthohumol in combination with praziquantel is associated with altered redox status and reduced iron accumulation during liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnongkan, Wassana; Thanee, Malinee; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Loilome, Watcharin; Thanan, Raynoo; Kimawaha, Phongsaran; Boonmars, Tidarat; Silakit, Runglawan; Namwat, Nisana; Techasen, Anchalee

    2018-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by infection of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini , (Ov) is the major public health problem in northeast Thailand. Following Ov infection the subsequent molecular changes can be associated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced chronic inflammation, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Notably, resistance to an activation of cell death in prolonged oxidative stress conditions can occur but some damaged/mutated cells could survive and enable clonal expansion. Our study used a natural product, xanthohumol (XN), which is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, to examine whether it could prevent Ov-associated CCA carcinogenesis. We measured the effect of XN with or without praziquantel (PZ), an anti-helminthic treatment, on DNA damage, redox status change including iron accumulation and periductal fibrosis during CCA genesis induced by administration of Ov and N -dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA) in hamsters. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I, Ov infection and NDMA administration (ON); group II, Ov infection and NDMA administration and PZ treatment (ONP); the latter 2 groups were similar to group I and II, but group III received additional XN (XON) and group IV received XN plus PZ (XONP). The results showed that high 8-oxodG (a marker of DNA damage) was observed throughout cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of CD44v8-10 (a cell surface in regulation of the ROS defense system), whereas decreased expression of phospho-p38 MAPK (a major ROS target), was found during the progression of the bile duct cell transformation. In addition, high accumulation of iron and expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1) in both malignant bile ducts and inflammatory cells were detected. Furthermore, fibrosis also increased with the highest level being on day 180. On the other hand, the groups of XN with or without PZ supplementations showed an effective reduction in all the markers

  9. Antifibrotic effect of xanthohumol in combination with praziquantel is associated with altered redox status and reduced iron accumulation during liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassana Jamnongkan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA caused by infection of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, (Ov is the major public health problem in northeast Thailand. Following Ov infection the subsequent molecular changes can be associated by reactive oxygen species (ROS induced chronic inflammation, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Notably, resistance to an activation of cell death in prolonged oxidative stress conditions can occur but some damaged/mutated cells could survive and enable clonal expansion. Our study used a natural product, xanthohumol (XN, which is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, to examine whether it could prevent Ov-associated CCA carcinogenesis. We measured the effect of XN with or without praziquantel (PZ, an anti-helminthic treatment, on DNA damage, redox status change including iron accumulation and periductal fibrosis during CCA genesis induced by administration of Ov and N-dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA in hamsters. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I, Ov infection and NDMA administration (ON; group II, Ov infection and NDMA administration and PZ treatment (ONP; the latter 2 groups were similar to group I and II, but group III received additional XN (XON and group IV received XN plus PZ (XONP. The results showed that high 8-oxodG (a marker of DNA damage was observed throughout cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of CD44v8-10 (a cell surface in regulation of the ROS defense system, whereas decreased expression of phospho-p38MAPK (a major ROS target, was found during the progression of the bile duct cell transformation. In addition, high accumulation of iron and expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1 in both malignant bile ducts and inflammatory cells were detected. Furthermore, fibrosis also increased with the highest level being on day 180. On the other hand, the groups of XN with or without PZ supplementations showed an effective reduction in all the

  10. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  11. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity. Copyright

  12. Imouraren mining exploitation : Complementary studies Synthetic report Volum B - Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the current study is to determine the main technical characteristics of the reference project of a mine that can supply the necessary ore quantity at a production of 3000 tonnes uranium per year, along 10 years. The project is one of the possible solutions for exploiting the mine. The current study permits to establish : investment and functioning cost estimation, overall project of the mining exploitation program, necessary strength estimation, average ore grades evaluation and variations of these grades, utilities needs, production vizing program, main exploitation methods and necessary materials. Reference project study of the mine serves as base to the economics studies and studies optimization [fr

  13. The possibilities of exploitation of Serbian thermomineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, L.

    2002-01-01

    Global ecological problem of petrol resources deficit caused an intensive search of alternative energy sources. Deficit of conventional energy fluids in Yugoslavia requires serious efforts to create a program of alternative energy sources exploitation. Geothermal energy represents an important energetic source for the countries with poor energy resources. Geothermal energy can become the basis for economic development. At present these geothermal resources are not being exploited in Yugoslavia. The possibilities of effective exploitation of thermal and thermomineral water resources in Yugoslavia are presented in this paper

  14. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  15. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  16. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amount of blood given. Although rare, a hemolytic transfusion reaction can occur when transfused red cells are damaged ... center staff needs to be aware of this reaction and take precautions if you undergo subsequent transfusions. Viral infection transmission . Since blood is a biological ...

  17. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  18. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  19. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  20. Rumours about blood and reimbursements in a microbicide gel trial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... community and trial participants in terms of which the rumour about the exchange of blood for cash is seen as: 1) the result of ignorance of the clinical trial procedures; 2) the exploitation of poor and vulnerable women; 3) an example of young women's desire for material gain; and 4) a reciprocal exchange of 'clean blood' ...

  1. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...

  2. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  3. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.

    2005-01-01

    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...

  4. Exporting DNA – striking a balance between preventing exploitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ); additional documentation that would apparently limit this exploitation is now required. This includes: (i) a material transfer agreement (MTA) that details what will be done with the. DNA and how the information derived therefrom will be used; ...

  5. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a doctor immediately. There have been many research advances that have improved the prevention and treatment of blood clots. Some current treatments include: Anticoagulants - medicine that prevents clots from forming Thrombolytics - medicine that ...

  6. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen (hemoglobinopathies) Iron deficiency Liver disease Spleen removal Presence of ... in which there is excessive breakdown of hemoglobin ( thalassemia ) The presence of cells called burr cells may ...

  7. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  8. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Gerassi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definit...

  9. The ESA scientific exploitation element results and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Donlon, Craig; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Fernandez, Diego; Gascon, Ferran; Zehner, Claus; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Koetz, Benjamin; Pinnock, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) element of ESA's fourth Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP4) prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community built up over the last 25 years exploiting ESA's EO missions. SEOM enables the science community to address new scientific research areas that are opened by the free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, key research studies have been launched over the last years to further exploit data from the Sentinels (http://seom.esa.int/). During 2016 several Science users consultation workshops have been organized, new results from scientific studies have been published and open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been distributed (SNAP 80000 users from 190 countries). In addition the first ESA Massive Open Online Courses on Climate from space have been deployed (20000 participants) and the second EO Open Science conference was organized at ESA in September 2016 bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. The new EOEP5 Exploitation element approved in 2016 and starting in 2017 is taking stock of all precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation and in particular a workplan for ESA scientific exploitation activities has been presented to Member States taking full benefit of the latest information and communication technology. The results and highlights from current scientific exploitation activities will be presented and an outlook on the upcoming activities under the new EOEP5 exploitation element will be given.

  10. Rational Exploitation and Utilizing of Groundwater in Jiangsu Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B.; Lin, X.

    2017-12-01

    Jiangsu coastal area is located in the southeast coast of China, where is a new industrial base and an important coastal and Land Resources Development Zone of China. In the areas with strong human exploitation activities, regional groundwater evolution is obviously affected by human activities. In order to solve the environmental geological problems caused by groundwater exploitation fundamentally, we must find out the forming conditions of regional groundwater hydrodynamic field, and the impact of human activities on groundwater hydrodynamic field evolution and hydrogeochemical evolition. Based on these results, scientific management and reasonable exploitation of the regional groundwater resources can be provided for the utilization. Taking the coastal area of Jiangsu as the research area, we investigate and analyze of the regional hydrogeological conditions. The numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was established according to the water power, chemical and isotopic methods, the conditions of water flow and the influence of hydrodynamic field on the water chemical field. We predict the evolution of regional groundwater dynamics under the influence of human activities and climate change and evaluate the influence of groundwater dynamic field evolution on the environmental geological problems caused by groundwater exploitation under various conditions. We get the following conclusions: Three groundwater exploitation optimal schemes were established. The groundwater salinization was taken as the primary control condition. The substitution model was proposed to model groundwater exploitation and water level changes by BP network method.Then genetic algorithm was used to solve the optimization solution. Three groundwater exploitation optimal schemes were submit to local water resource management. The first sheme was used to solve the groundwater salinization problem. The second sheme focused on dual water supply. The third sheme concerned on emergency water

  11. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  13. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  14. A major cathepsin B protease from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has atypical active site features and a potential role in the digestive tract of newly excysted juvenile parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Simone A.; Piedrafita, David; Phillips, Carolyn I.; Samarawickrema, Nirma; Law, Ruby H.P.; Smooker, Peter M.; Quinsey, Noelene S.; Irving, James A.; Greenwood, Deanne; Verhelst, Steven H. L.; Bogyo, Matthew; Turk, Boris; Coetzer, Theresa H.; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Spithill, Terry W.; Pike, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    The newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage of the Fasciola hepatica lifecycle occurs just prior to invasion into the wall of the gut of the host, rendering it an important target for drug development. The cathepsin B enzymes from NEJ flukes have recently been demonstrated to be crucial to invasion and migration by the parasite. Here we characterize one of the cathepsin B enzymes (recombinant FhcatB1) from NEJ flukes. FhcatB1 has biochemical properties distinct from mammalian cathepsin B enzymes, with an atypical preference for Ile over Leu or Arg residues at the P2 substrate position and an inability to act as an exopeptidase. FhcatB1 was active across a broad pH range (optimal activity at pH 5.5–7.0) and resistant to inhibition by cystatin family inhibitors from sheep and humans, suggesting that this enzyme would be able to function in extracellular environments in its mammalian hosts. It appears, however, that the FhcatB1 protease functions largely as a digestive enzyme in the gut of the parasite, due to the localization of a specific, fluorescently labeled inhibitor with an Ile at the P2 position. Molecular modelling and dynamics were used to predict the basis for the unusual substrate specificity: a P2 Ile residue positions the substrate optimally for interaction with catalytic residues of the enzyme, and the enzyme lacks an occluding loop His residue crucial for exopeptidase activity. The unique features of the enzyme, particularly with regard to its specificity and likely importance to a vital stage of the parasite’s life cycle, make it an excellent target for therapeutic inhibitors or vaccination. PMID:19401154

  15. Adolescent Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation versus Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A; Lewis, John E; Chitiva, Harvey A; Pangilinan, Andrew R

    2017-09-01

    We have discovered in our clinical review that sexually abused girls have significantly better therapeutic outcomes than girls who have been victims of sex trafficking. Thus, we compared the mental health records of 25 adolescent female victims of commercial sexual exploitation with a group of 25 girls with a history of sexual abuse matched for age. Exclusion criteria included IQ sexual exploitation were more likely to be in foster care; to have arrests, suspensions from school, and a history of running away; to abuse drugs; to be more impaired in social and school activities; to be withdrawn and depressed; to manifest social and thought problems and aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors; and to have a diagnosis of mood or conduct disorder or both. The results of this study suggest that the psychopathology of girl victims of sexual exploitation is markedly different from that of sexually abused girls. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  16. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  17. Sexual exploitation and labor during adolescence: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dutra-Thomé

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article focused on the perception of sexual exploitation as a job, using a single case study design. The aim of the study was to investigate the case of a 14 year-old girl, involved in commercial sexual exploitation, who considered this situation as her labor activity. A content analysis showed protective and risk factors as categories, especially related to her labor activities. The girl perceived the sexual exploitation activity as a job that provided autonomy, subsistence, and survival. The study revealed that the negative effects of working during adolescence may bring consequences to health and development. Youth work may be defined as a risk factor, especially when the labour conditions are not adequate and protected.

  18. Cultural Work as a Site of Struggle: Freelancers and Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Cohen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Marxist political economy is a useful framework for understanding contemporary conditions of cultural work. Drawing on Karl Marx’s foundational concepts, labour process theory, and a case study of freelance writers, I argue that the debate over autonomy and control in cultural work ignores exploitation in labour-capital relationships, which is a crucial process shaping cultural work. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, I discuss two methods media firms use to extract surplus value from freelance writers: exploitation of unpaid labour time and exploitation of intellectual property through aggressive copyright regimes. I argue that a Marxist perspective can uncover the dynamics that are transforming cultural industries and workers’ experiences. From this perspective, cultural work is understood as a site of struggle.

  19. Cord Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-01-01

      Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord...

  20. Trajectories and cycles of sexual exploitation and trafficking for sexual exploitation of women in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaris Mujica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial sexual exploitation is a constant activity in the Peruvian Amazon. Around the river port of Pucallpa in ucayali region, the practice appears systematically: teenage attend taverns around the port, and those dedicated to the work of cooking camps logging, are victims of constant exploitation and many also of trafficking. this article aims to reconstruct the path of life and reproductive cycle of the forms of exploitation in a sample of 20 women, and focuses on: (i evidence of seasonal forms of exploitation; (ii the path of life of these women showing steps in a chain holding several stages and in different work areas; (iii in this context, sexual exploitation and trafficking are not permanent phenomena, are concentrated in one point in the path and stopped to motherhood, between 19 and 25 years; (iv with motherhood and matrilocal settlement, daughters and sons repeat the cycle and reproduce the chain.

  1. On species preservation and Non-Cooperative Exploiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    Game-theoretic fisheries models typically consider cases where some players harvest a single common fish stock. It is, however, the case that these types of models do not capture many real world mixed fisheries, where species are biological independent or dependent. The present paper considers...... cases where several non-cooperative exploiters are involved in mixed fisheries. This paper is targeting biodiversity preservation by setting up a two species model with the aim of ensuring both species survive harvesting of exploiters adapting a non-cooperative behaviour. The model starts out as a multi...

  2. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  3. Shale Gas Exploitation: Challenges for Development in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Ammar CHEBIRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the situation of Algeria in the field of shale gas to illustrate the various potential benefits and risks in the exploitation area. The constraints for Algeria are numerous : the risks due in its exploitation, particularly the pollution generated by hydraulic fracturing and also the increased risk of earthquake; the scarcity of water resources and the high cost of such investments. Currently, and under conditions of non-availability of clean and safe technologies, the most available choice for Algeria is the diversification of non-hydrocarbon exports and the development of renewable energies.

  4. Final Report, “Exploiting Global View for Resilience”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Andrew [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-29

    Final technical report for the "Exploiting Global View for Resilience" project. The GVR project aims to create a new approach to portable, resilient applications. The GVR approach builds on a global view data model,, adding versioning (multi-version), user control of timing and rate (multi-stream), and flexible cross layer error signalling and recovery. With a versioned array as a portable abstraction, GVR enables application programmers to exploit deep scientific and application code insights to manage resilience (and its overhead) in a flexible, portable fashion.

  5. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, resulting in a condition known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) . To prevent development of Rh antibodies, an ... consequences, one of the most common causes of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is actually an incompatibility between the mother's ...

  6. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, (2) explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and (3) review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels. PMID:26726289

  7. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, (2) explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and (3) review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels.

  8. Sexual exploitation and abuse by UN peacekeepers: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, ...

  9. Traditional exploitation of edible freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... they also targeted each year the same sites regardless rotation planning. Finally, oyster`s shell, a main substrate for larval settlement and bed restoration, were left on riverbanks after exploitation, reducing stocks reconstitution potential. Appropriate measures were suggested to Reserve staff for sustainable management.

  10. Assisting children born of sexual exploitation and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rumble

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UN Secretary-General has issued a strategy tosupport victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UNstaff. It includes a controversial proposal to introduceDNA sampling for all UN staff. Unless this suggestionis adopted, an important opportunity to implementa truly survivor-centred approach may be lost.

  11. Prey choice and habitat use of people exploiting intertidal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Blijdenstein, A.F.; Longamane, F.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of human exploitation depends mostly on the size of the catch and the species targeted. The value of a species is an important explanatory variable in understanding human impact. Co-management of resources should take into account these different resource values, when evaluating

  12. Exploitation Rates and Management Implications for the Fisheries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploitation rates of eight major component fishery species, Auchenoglanis occidentalis, Brycinus nurse, Clarias gariepinus, Hemichromis fasciatus, Marcusenius senegalensis, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia zillii, of gill net fishery of Bontanga reservoir, were studied from March 2004 to ...

  13. Exploiting network redundancy for low-cost neural network realizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, H; Jansen, WJ; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Stevens, H; Udding, JT

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented to optimize a trained neural network for physical realization styles. Target architectures are embedded microcontrollers or standard cell based ASIC designs. The approach exploits the redundancy in the network, required for successful training, to replace the synaptic weighting

  14. Desiring TESOL and International Education: Market Abuse and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raqib; Ha, Phan Le

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses how Western universities have constructed themselves as global providers of education, and are driven to be globally competitive. It examines how the term "international" has been exploited by the market in the form of government educational policies and agencies, host institutions, academia and the mass media. The…

  15. Spatial dynamics of fuel wood exploitation in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the spatial and temporal changes in fuel wood exploitation as a result of environmental degradation, between 2008 and 2013 in Delta State, Nigeria. It utilised data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from a survey of selected settlements using a questionnaire.

  16. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

  17. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the School Nurse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Lisa Goldblatt; Starck, Maureen; Potenza, Jane; Kenney, Patricia A.; Sheetz, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    As trusted health professionals in the school setting, school nurses are well positioned to identify students who may be victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, until recently this issue has been clouded by lack of awareness, stigma, and/or denial. Since nationally the average age of entry for girls into the…

  18. A multidisciplinary response to commercial sexual exploitation of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Pamela T

    2016-11-19

    Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is associated with child abuse, neglect, poverty, homelessness, and societal causes. Sex trafficking is the participation in commercial sex acts in which force, fraud, or coercion occur. This article discusses the scope of CSEC and sex trafficking, and the necessary identification skills and medical evaluations needed to help these patients.

  19. The Sexual Exploitation of Missing Children: A Research Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Gerald T.; Finkelhor, David

    This paper evaluates current knowledge about the prevalence, dynamics, and short- and long-term effects of sexual exploitation among missing children. It is based upon empirical research findings from books, papers presented at professional meetings, doctoral dissertations, works in progress, and more than 75 articles in professional journals.…

  20. Sexual Abuse, Incest, and Sexual Exploitation: Mental Health Practitioners' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freet, Mary A.; Scalise, Joseph J.; Ginter, Earl J.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a 33-item questionnaire based on Alexander G. Zaphiris's conceptualization of the terminology of sexual mistreatment. Results indicate that mental health counselors (N=300) who encountered sexual abuse, incest, and sexual exploitation agreed with Zaphiris's conceptualization but did not use this system of classification in actual…

  1. Sexual Exploitation: What Parents of Handicapped Persons Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    Directed toward parents of handicapped children, this brochure defines five major categories of sexual exploitation under Washington State laws: rape, attempted rape, incest, indecent liberties, and statutory rape. Changes in child behavior that may signal victimization are discussed, as well as immediate and long-term action that parents can…

  2. Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of People with Disabilities. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick; Varnhagen, Connie

    The literature is reviewed on sexual abuse, assault, and exploitation of people with disabilities; and new data from two pilot studies are introduced. The pilot studies consisted of two surveys: (1) a survey of 19 Canadian community service agencies dealing with sexual abuse, focusing on types of services provided and self-evaluation of services…

  3. Exploitation of Bush Mango ( Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to assess the exploitation of Bush Mango Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu (ogbono) among rural households in Enugu State, Nigeria. Interview schedule was used to collect data from 91 respondents and data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The mean ...

  4. Indicators of Nuclear safety and exploitation in ANAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana Prieto, M.; Jorda Alcove, M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of indicators by ANAV plants, aims to be a tool to facilitate the assessment of the behaviour of the plants nuclear over a specific time period. The following are and are they explain those related to Nuclear safety and exploitation.

  5. zero day exploits and national readiness for cyber-warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    this shared pool of computing resources. Most affairs of ... logical and information layers including the users represent a .... These programs and data are prone to vulnerabilities that are exploitable. A search for vulnerabilities based on software flaws between January 2010 and October 2016 as contained in the National ...

  6. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepa Khushalani is currently an Associate. Professor at TIFR, Mumbai. Her area of specialization involves materials chemistry with emphasis on exploiting alternate sources of clean energy involving photovoltaics and energy storage devices. Her group also works on drug delivery devices, photocatalysis, and.

  7. Exploiting Network Topology Information to Mitigate Ambiguities in VMP Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an extension to the probabilistic model of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in the variational message passing localization algorithm. This extension exploits network topology information to mitigate ambiguities in WSN localization schemes. In a simulation case study we show that th...

  8. Efficient Depth Map Compression Exploiting Segmented Color Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milani, Simone; Zanuttigh, Pietro; Zamarin, Marco

    2011-01-01

    performances is still an open research issue. This paper presents a novel compression scheme that exploits a segmentation of the color data to predict the shape of the different surfaces in the depth map. Then each segment is approximated with a parameterized plane. In case the approximation is sufficiently...

  9. Fishery benefits from exploiting spawning aggregations not solely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vulnerability of spawning aggregations to exploitation varies among fisheries as a result of differences in the population-density changes associated with this behaviour. However, vulnerability to fishing is also influenced by technology, environmental factors, and fish and fisher behaviours. Focusing on a fishery for the ...

  10. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of bitumen exploitation on animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the environmental impact of Bitumen exploitation on wildlife resources in Ode-Irele forest area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there are 9 orders and 40 species of mammals in the study area. Primates recorded the highest specie number (13,) and rodentia as ...

  12. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  13. Human trafficking for labour exploitation: Interpreting the crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster van Voorhout, J.E.B.

    2007-01-01

    The definition of human trafficking for labour exploitation, as follows from the European Council Framework Decision, proves to be unclear. Literal interpretation does not suffice, because it does not clarify all elements of what is deemed to be criminal behaviour, and hermeneutical interpretation

  14. Software defined radio receivers exploiting noise cancelling: A tutorial review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Traditional radio receivers were narrowband and dedicated to a single frequency band exploiting LC tanks, whereas software defined radios target a flexibly programmable frequency. The broadband noise cancelling circuit technique has proven useful to achieve this target, as it breaks the traditional

  15. Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya. Ibrahim Eldaghayes, Abdunaser Dayhum, Abdulwahab Kammon, Monier Sharif, Giancarlo Ferrari, Christianus Bartels, Keith Sumption, Donald P. King, Santina Grazioli, Emiliana Brocchi ...

  16. Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2005-01-01

    Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) are commonly used to amplify signals that are too weak for direct processing for example in radio or cable receivers. Traditionally, low noise amplifiers are implemented via tuned amplifiers, exploiting inductors and capacitors in resonating LC-circuits. This can render

  17. Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A Nigerian Coastal Settlement. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Result show that 90% of the total local energy requirement is from fuelwood, the average per capita production rate of fuelwood in the local area is 0.38m3 and the ...

  18. Malware Sandbox Analysis for Secure Observation of Vulnerability Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Hoshizawa, Yuji; Nogawa, Hiroki; Nakao, Koji

    Exploiting vulnerabilities of remote systems is one of the fundamental behaviors of malware that determines their potential hazards. Understanding what kind of propagation tactics each malware uses is essential in incident response because such information directly links with countermeasures such as writing a signature for IDS. Although recently malware sandbox analysis has been studied intensively, little work is done on securely observing the vulnerability exploitation by malware. In this paper, we propose a novel sandbox analysis method for securely observing malware's vulnerability exploitation in a totally isolated environment. In our sandbox, we prepare two victim hosts. We first execute the sample malware on one of these hosts and then let it attack the other host which is running multiple vulnerable services. As a simple realization of the proposed method, we have implemented a sandbox using Nepenthes, a low-interaction honeypot, as the second victim. Because Nepenthes can emulate a variety of vulnerable services, we can efficiently observe the propagation of sample malware. In the experiments, among 382 samples whose scan capabilities are confirmed, 381 samples successfully started exploiting vulnerabilities of the second victim. This indicates the certain level of feasibility of the proposed method.

  19. Grooming Cybervictims: The Psychosocial Effects of Online Exploitation for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of the benefits and risks of Web-based interactions for youth. Discusses, as an illustrative example, the psychosocial effects of online "grooming" practices that are designed to lure and exploit children by enticing them, typically in a nonsexual way, toward a sexual encounter. Suggests constructive solutions and a…

  20. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application.

  1. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  2. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of mature blood cells found in blood — red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Cord-blood stem cells also may have the potential to give rise to other cell types in the body. Some ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you ... g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... America Asia-Pacific Latin America Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Gain knowledge, through “How I Treat” presentations, that ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  6. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  7. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... than likely, the doctor will order a fasting blood sugar test. The blood glucose test is also used to ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  9. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Blood Transfusion Blood Transfusion What Is A blood transfusion is a safe, ... store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ways to make ...

  10. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  11. Blood gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5.1 to 5.6 kPa) Arterial blood pH: 7.38 to 7.42 Oxygen saturation (SaO2): 94% to 100% Bicarbonate - (HCO3): 22 to 28 mEq/L Note: mEq/L = milliequivalents per liter; mmHg = millimeters of mercury At altitudes of 3,000 feet (900 meters) and higher, the oxygen value is lower. Normal ...

  12. Images of Blood in American Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødje, Kjetil

    by following one (audio)visual element through an exploration that traverses established standards for film production and reception. This study does not heed distinctions regarding to genres (horror, western, gangster) or models of film production (exploitation, independent, studio productions) but rather......Through studying images of blood in film from the mid-1950s to the end of the 1960s, this path-breaking book explores how blood as an (audio)visual cinematic element went from predominately operating as a signifier, providing audiences with information about a film’s plot and characters...

  13. Images of Blood in American Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødje, Kjetil

    , to increasingly operating in terms of affect, potentially evoking visceral and embodied responses in viewers. Using films such as The Return of Dracula, The Tingler, Blood Feast, Two Thousand Maniacs, Color Me Blood Red, Bonnie and Clyde, and The Wild Bunch, Rødje takes a novel approach to film history...... by following one (audio)visual element through an exploration that traverses established standards for film production and reception. This study does not heed distinctions regarding to genres (horror, western, gangster) or models of film production (exploitation, independent, studio productions) but rather......Through studying images of blood in film from the mid-1950s to the end of the 1960s, this path-breaking book explores how blood as an (audio)visual cinematic element went from predominately operating as a signifier, providing audiences with information about a film’s plot and characters...

  14. Blood exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-26

    [Name removed], an HIV-positive Illinois man, was sentenced to 5 years in prison for splattering 2 police officers with his blood and threatening to give them AIDS. The police were called to [name removed]'s apartment after receiving a report about an attempted suicide. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to attempted transmission of HIV in a plea bargain agreement, and the prosecutor dropped the more serious charge of attempted battery of a police officer. The officers show no sign of infection to date.

  15. Target Localization with a Single Antenna via Directional Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Muqaibel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Target localization in urban sensing can benefit from angle dependency of the pulse shape at a radar receiver antenna. We propose a localization approach that utilizes the embedded directivity in ultra-wideband (UWB antennas to estimate target positions. A single radar unit sensing operation of indoor targets surrounded by interior walls is considered, where interior wall multipaths are exploited to provide target cross-range. This exploitation assumes resolvability of the multipath components, which is made possible by the virtue of using UWB radar signals. The proposed approach is most attractive when only few multipaths are detectable due to propagation obstructions or owing to low signal-to-noise ratios. Both simulated and experimental data are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Online child sexual exploitation: prevalence, process, and offender characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloess, Juliane A; Beech, Anthony R; Harkins, Leigh

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of current knowledge and understanding of the process of sexual grooming and exploitation of children via the Internet. Specifically, the prevalence of online sexual grooming and exploitation is explored as well as associated challenges relating to the identification of its occurrence. This is complemented by a detailed outline and discussion of the process, both online and in the physical world, and legal responses to this phenomenon. A number of factors are examined to provide an explanation of the facilitating and contributing role they may play in offense processes online. Finally, current typologies are discussed in relation to characteristics of Internet offenders in general and "groomers"/chat room offenders specifically. This review concludes by offering suggestions for future research.

  17. Analysis Of Damage Arising From Exploitation Of The Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploitation, due to a variety of reasons, aircrafts are damaged or suffer from different failures. In the process of operation, using appropriate methods of diagnosis, failure, damage, and relative deregulation of individual elements or units can be detected. For this purpose, one can apply a number of indirect diagnostic methods with the use of recorded diagnostic signals or a direct diagnosis with the use of non-destructive methods. The proper identification of the technical condition allows to determine the causes of irregularities and take actions aimed at preventing their occurrence. The article presents the types of exploitation damage of a multi-purpose aircraft. In addition, the criteria for the division of damage and research methods of the causes of damage are presented. Furthermore, an analysis of the scope of activities to be performed during the research of causes of damage to the aircraft is made.

  18. Exploitation of the Virtual Worlds in Tourism and Tourism Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejda Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academics perceive a great potential of virtual worlds in various areas, including tourism and education. Efforts adapting the virtual worlds in practice are, however, still marginal. There is no clear definition of the virtual world. Therefore the author of this article attempts to provide one. The paper also focuses on the barriers of a wider exploitation of the virtual worlds and discusses the principles that might help to increase their potential in tourism area. One of the principles – gamification – favours a wider adaptation of the virtual worlds in tourism. Applying gamification principles provides visitors with some unique experiences while serving as a powerful marketing tool for institutions. The benefits of implementing tourism education activities based on cooperative principles set in an immersive environment of the virtual worlds are depicted afterwards. Finally, this paper includes successful case studies, which show advantages and drawbacks of some approaches in exploiting the virtual worlds in tourism and tourism education.

  19. Exploiting Social Media Sensor Networks through Novel Data Fusion Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouri, Tina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Unprecedented amounts of data are continuously being generated by sensors (“hard” data) and by humans (“soft” data), and this data needs to be exploited to its full potential. The first step in exploiting this data is determine how the hard and soft data are related to each other. In this project we fuse hard and soft data, using the attributes of each (e.g., time and space), to gain more information about interesting events. Next, we attempt to use social networking textual data to predict the present (i.e., predict that an interesting event is occurring and details about the event) using data mining, machine learning, natural language processing, and text analysis techniques.

  20. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  1. Exploitation of Natural Resources and the Public Sector in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    This paper considers the role of the public sector in future exploitation of non-renewable resources, especially minerals, in Greenland. The focus is on fiscal sustainability, principles for public sector involvement and the form of government take from mining activities. At present, the public...... to GDP. Hence, fiscal policy is quite far from being sustainable. Apart from a need for reforms, these facts also constrain the possible role of the public sector in future resource exploitation. In any case, the government should preferably adhere to strict principles when developing the mineral sector...... in Greenland. Furthermore, serious attention should be given to how to secure an appropriate government take from mineral activities. The paper discusses several types of taxes as well as financing models....

  2. Transformation-aware Exploit Generation using a HI-CFG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    buffer structure (the chain of buffers used between transformations) of a program, and use this structure to construct an exploit input by inverting one...make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or... inverting one transformation at a time. We propose a new program representation, a hybrid information- and control-flow graph (HI-CFG), and give

  3. Exploitation of Technology by Tshwane Residents for Tourism Development Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    P. P. S. Sifolo; M. J. Maimela M. P. Tladi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates technology used by Tshwane residents intended for tourism purposes. The aim is to contribute information for planning and management concerning technology within the tourism sector in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. This study identified the types of tourist related technologies used by the Tshwane residents, be it for business purposes or personal use. The study connected the exploitation of technology for tourism purposes through unpacking the tourism sector as ...

  4. Women trafficking for sexual exploitation in Portugal: Life narratives.

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative research about women trafficking for sexual exploitation in Portugal. The life experiences of a group of Brazilian women were characterised through the use of a comprehensive methodology – life narratives. The evidences found in this study, analysed and interpreted discursively from a feminist critical perspective, show us an unmistakable and intricate articulation between gender issues and poverty and social exclusion. Those conditions seem to establish the...

  5. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  6. Organizational Ambidexterity : Balancing Exploitation and Exploration in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yigit, Mert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate necessity of ambidexterity for organizations. The main interest of this thesis is to investigate why organizations should be ambidextrous and how organizations can reach ambidexterity under the pressure of limited resources and competitive market condition. Findings: This thesis explored relations and tensions between exploitation and exploration in organizational and individual aspects. Findings in the research show that communication skill of the subu...

  7. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-01-01

    Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process...

  8. Exploitation des ressources naturelles et dynamique actuelle de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ground loss is on average 1-2 cm thickness on the summit, 1-12 cm on the cliff, and 1-6 cm on the mid-slopes. The impact of the exploitation of the natural resources resulted in a regression of the natural plant formations at the expense of the anthropic plant formations. On the whole, from 1949 to 2003, this regression ...

  9. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  10. Exploitation Agricole des Berges : Une Strategie D'Adaptation aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    renforçant la capacité d'exploitation des paysans pour le labour en contre saison des terres inondables lourdes au Tchad. Cependant les incidences environnementales sont négatives et se résument en la réduction progressive des réserves foncières, la dégradation et la fragilisation des sols, leur érosion et leur lessivage ...

  11. Exploiting Temporal Secondary Access Opportunities in Radar Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Tercero, Miurel; Sung, Ki Won; Zander, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the temporal opportunities for secondary access to radar spectrum. Secondary users are assumed to be WLANs which opportunistically share the radar frequency band under the constraint that the aggregate interference does not harm radar operation. Each WLAN device employs dynamic frequency selection (DFS) as a mechanism to protect the radar from the interference. We also consider an advanced interference protection mechanism, which is termed temporal DFS. It exploits ...

  12. Exploiting Innocuous Activity for Correlating Users Across Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Goga , Oana; Lei , Howard; Parthasarathi , Sree Hari Krishnan; Friedland , Gerald; Sommer , Robin; Teixeira , Renata

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We study how potential attackers can identify accounts on different social network sites that all belong to the same user, exploiting only innocuous activity that inherently comes with posted content. We examine three specific features on Yelp, Flickr, and Twitter: the geo-location attached to a user's posts, the timestamp of posts, and the user's writing style as captured by language models. We show that among these three features the location of posts is the most powe...

  13. Neanderthal exploitation of ibex and chamois in southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, José; Cobo-Sánchez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Neanderthals had a diverse and flexible diet. They exploited a wide range of resources from large proboscideans to small animals like turtles, rabbits, and marine species. Here, we discuss the importance of ibex and chamois in Neanderthal hunting strategies. The exploitation of both animals has traditionally been regarded as typical of Homo sapiens hunting behavior but was not a feature of Neanderthal behavior, which was thought to have focused on other kinds of game like deer, horses or large bovids. Our analysis of an extensive sample of Middle Paleolithic sites with faunal remains in the Iberian Peninsula reveals that Iberian ibex and chamois were frequently present throughout this period. Statistical analyses allowed us to assess the conditions that might have favored the presence or absence of these animals in the sites, while the taphonomic analyses enabled us to address the issue of whether ibex and chamois were indeed hunted by Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula. Our results indicate a better representation of both species in rocky and mountainous areas. The taphonomy of some sites reveals that chamois and ibex were hunted by Neanderthals, who showed great adaptive capacities to a wide variety of environments, including mountainous habitats. In contrast, other sites with favorable ecological conditions for ibex and chamois where these animals were not exploited by Neanderthals, who chose to hunt other species like deer, horses or aurochs, suggest behavioral complexity and large versatility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing uncertainty and risk in exploited marine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogarty, M.J.; Mayo, R.K.; O'Brien, L.; Serchuk, F.M.; Rosenberg, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment and management of exploited fish and invertebrate populations is subject to several types of uncertainty. This uncertainty translates into risk to the population in the development and implementation of fishery management advice. Here, we define risk as the probability that exploitation rates will exceed a threshold level where long term sustainability of the stock is threatened. We distinguish among several sources of error or uncertainty due to (a) stochasticity in demographic rates and processes, particularly in survival rates during the early fife stages; (b) measurement error resulting from sampling variation in the determination of population parameters or in model estimation; and (c) the lack of complete information on population and ecosystem dynamics. The first represents a form of aleatory uncertainty while the latter two factors represent forms of epistemic uncertainty. To illustrate these points, we evaluate the recent status of the Georges Bank cod stock in a risk assessment framework. Short term stochastic projections are made accounting for uncertainty in population size and for random variability in the number of young surviving to enter the fishery. We show that recent declines in this cod stock can be attributed to exploitation rates that have substantially exceeded sustainable levels

  15. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Richard J; English, Abigail

    2015-08-01

    This review describes the current state of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents in the United States and globally, the legal and health implications of this severe form of abuse, and the roles that pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play in addressing this issue. Although this form of exploitation and abuse is shrouded in secrecy, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers are well positioned to respond when it arises. However, awareness and understanding of the issue are generally lacking among healthcare professionals, currently limiting their effectiveness in combating this problem. Although the empirical evidence base available to guide clinical care of victims of trafficking remains limited given the secretive nature of the abuse, important contributions to the multidisciplinary literature on this issue have been made in recent years, including the Institute of Medicine's landmark report in the United States. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents represent a human rights tragedy that remains inadequately addressed. As preeminent advocates for the health and well-being of adolescents, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play a crucial role in advancing efforts not only to intervene but also to prevent further victimization of vulnerable youth.

  16. Combating sexual exploitation at the macro and micro levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpinan, M S

    1998-01-01

    The Third World Movement against the Exploitation of Women (TW-MAE-W) is an international nongovernmental organization based in the Philippines which conducts advocacy upon global issues such as the root causes of exploitation and campaigns against sex tourism and military prostitution. TW-MAE-W began providing direct services at the local level in 1987, and now has 7 drop-in centers and 3 homes around the country, run by 35 female staff members. In addition, the Bethany Transition Home in Quezon City, Manila, houses 10-20 women, all who have outside employment. The girls and women who come to TW-MAE-W's facilities have all been exploited in some way. For example, they may be battered wives, women who have experienced incest, or girls who have been sold or tricked into prostitution. They arrive after either calling a telephone hotline on their own or being referred by social workers and nongovernmental organizations. Following an initial 3-month course of recuperation, center residents are helped to either continue their academic training, receive vocational training, or find a job. Basic health services are provided to the residents and drop-in center clients.

  17. Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Whitlock, G

    2015-11-01

    Fear of scarcity of resources highlight the need to exploit secondary materials from urban mines in the anthroposphere. Analogous to primary mines rich in one type of material (e.g. copper, gold, etc.), some urban mines are unique/distinct. We introduce, illustrate and discuss the concept of Distinct Urban Mines (DUM). Using the example of a university DUM in the UK, analogous to a primary mine, we illustrate potential product/material yields in respect of size, concentration and spatial location of the mine. Product ownership and replacement cycles for 17 high-value electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) among students showed that 20 tonnes of valuable e-waste were in stockpile in this DUM and a further 87 tonnes would 'soon' be available for exploitation. We address the opportunities and challenges of exploiting DUMs and conclude that they are readily available reservoirs for resource recovery. Two original contributions arise from this work: (i) a novel approach to urban mining with a potential for maximising resource recovery within the anthroposphere is conceptualised; and (ii) previously unavailable data for high-value products for a typical university DUM are presented and analysed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fishing elevates variability in the abundance of exploited species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Hao; Reiss, Christian S; Hunter, John R; Beddington, John R; May, Robert M; Sugihara, George

    2006-10-19

    The separation of the effects of environmental variability from the impacts of fishing has been elusive, but is essential for sound fisheries management. We distinguish environmental effects from fishing effects by comparing the temporal variability of exploited versus unexploited fish stocks living in the same environments. Using the unique suite of 50-year-long larval fish surveys from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations we analyse fishing as a treatment effect in a long-term ecological experiment. Here we present evidence from the marine environment that exploited species exhibit higher temporal variability in abundance than unexploited species. This remains true after accounting for life-history effects, abundance, ecological traits and phylogeny. The increased variability of exploited populations is probably caused by fishery-induced truncation of the age structure, which reduces the capacity of populations to buffer environmental events. Therefore, to avoid collapse, fisheries must be managed not only to sustain the total viable biomass but also to prevent the significant truncation of age structure. The double jeopardy of fishing to potentially deplete stock sizes and, more immediately, to amplify the peaks and valleys of population variability, calls for a precautionary management approach.

  19. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  20. Host species exploitation and discrimination by animal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Mark R; Morrill, André; Schellinck, Jennifer

    2017-05-05

    Parasite species often show differential fitness on different host species. We developed an equation-based model to explore conditions favouring host species exploitation and discrimination. In our model, diploid infective stages randomly encountered hosts of two species; the parasite's relative fitness in exploiting each host species, and its ability to discriminate between them, was determined by the parasite's genotype at two independent diallelic loci. Relative host species frequency determined allele frequencies at the exploitation locus, whereas differential fitness and combined host density determined frequency of discrimination alleles. The model predicts instances where populations contain mixes of discriminatory and non-discriminatory infective stages. Also, non-discriminatory parasites should evolve when differential fitness is low to moderate and when combined host densities are low, but not so low as to cause parasite extinction. A corollary is that parasite discrimination (and host-specificity) increases with higher combined host densities. Instances in nature where parasites fail to discriminate when differential fitness is extreme could be explained by one host species evolving resistance, following from earlier selection for parasite non-discrimination. Similar results overall were obtained for haploid extensions of the model. Our model emulates multi-host associations and has implications for understanding broadening of host species ranges by parasites.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Parasite immune evasion and exploitation: reflections and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, R T

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in parasite immune evasion and exploitation are reviewed with special reference to the papers presented in this volume. Parasites, broadly defined, of animals with good immune responses have evolved many strategies that adapt them to survive and reproduce. These strategies may be passive, or may involve active intervention with host immune regulation, and can be categorized as immune evasion, immune exploitation and molecular piracy. The concept of immune evasion began with Paul Ehrlich's demonstration of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes and was reinforced by later ideas on molecular mimicry. Molecular mimicry is updated in the light of recent discoveries about degeneracy and plasticity of TCR/MHC-peptide recognition. Possible connections between two of its postulated consequences, evasion and autoimmunity, are discussed. Another putative consequence of molecular mimicry, host antigenic polymorphism, is also updated. The concept of exploitation of host immune responses by parasites has been reinforced by new data on its first known examples, especially the immune dependence of schistosome egg excretion. Newer examples include use of host cytokines as parasite growth factors, virokines, viroreceptors and helminth pseudocytokines. Finally, questions of host gene capture by viruses and possible horizontal gene transfer between host and parasite mediated by retroviruses are examined. The latter is compared with molecular conservation as a source of molecular mimicry and other aspects of host--parasite coevolution.

  2. Exploitation of marine gas hydrates: Benefits and risks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in marine gas hydrates deposited at continental margins. The global inventory of carbon bound as methane in gas hydrates is currently estimated as 1000 × 500 Gt. Large-scale national research projects located mostly in South-East Asia but also in North America and Europe are aiming to exploit these ice-like solids as new unconventional resource of natural gas. Japan, South Korea and other Asian countries are taking the lead because their national waters harbor exploitable gas hydrate deposits which could be developed to reduce the dependency of these nations on costly LGN imports. In 2013, the first successful production test was performed off Japan at water depths of ca. 1000 m demonstrating that natural gas can be released and produced from marine hydrates by lowering the pressure in the sub-seabed hydrate reservoirs. In an alternative approach, CO2 from coal power plans and other industrial sources is used to release natural gas (methane) from hydrates while CO2 is bound and stored in the sub-surface as solid hydrate. These new approaches and technologies are still in an early pre-commercial phase; the costs of field development and gas production exceed the value of natural gas being produced from the slowly dissociating hydrates. However, new technologies are currently under development in the German SUGAR project and elsewhere to reduce costs and enhance gas production rates such that gas hydrates may become commercially exploitable over the coming decade(s). The exploitation of marine gas hydrates may help to reduce CO2 emissions from the fossil fuel sector if the produced natural gas is used to replace coal and/or LNG. Hydrate development could also provide important incentives for carbon capture technologies since CO2 can be used to produce natural gas from hydrates. However, leakage of gas may occur during the production process while slope failure may be induced by the accompanying dissociation/conversion of gas

  3. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus ... Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  7. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very safe, some people choose to use a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which you later receive if you need a transfusion during or after surgery. You can have blood ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  9. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  11. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names aspirin No US brand name Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders Overview of Blood Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ... that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission of ASH and help move hematology ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  14. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Also known as Hypercholesterolemia High blood cholesterol is ... Lipid panel tests to check for healthy blood cholesterol levels Doctors use lipid panels to check whether ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  16. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  17. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  18. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  19. Exploration and exploitation of Victorian science in Darwin's reading notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Jaimie; Allen, Colin; DeDeo, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between exploitation of past discoveries and further exploration. This extends to information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this decision-making process, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. From the full-text of books listed in his chronologically-organized reading journals, we generate topic models to quantify his local (text-to-text) and global (text-to-past) reading decisions using Kullback-Liebler Divergence, a cognitively-validated, information-theoretic measure of relative surprise. Rather than a pattern of surprise-minimization, corresponding to a pure exploitation strategy, Darwin's behavior shifts from early exploitation to later exploration, seeking unusually high levels of cognitive surprise relative to previous eras. These shifts, detected by an unsupervised Bayesian model, correlate with major intellectual epochs of his career as identified both by qualitative scholarship and Darwin's own self-commentary. Our methods allow us to compare his consumption of texts with their publication order. We find Darwin's consumption more exploratory than the culture's production, suggesting that underneath gradual societal changes are the explorations of individual synthesis and discovery. Our quantitative methods advance the study of cognitive search through a framework for testing interactions between individual and collective behavior and between short- and long-term consumption choices. This novel application of topic modeling to characterize individual reading complements widespread studies of collective scientific behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The strv 1 microsatellite semes: Exploiting the geosynchronous transfer orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blott, R. J.; Wells, N. S.; Eves, J.

    Following 3 successful years in orbit, the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency's two Space Technology Research Vehicle microsatellites (STRV) 1 a&b will be followed by a second mission. STRV 1 c&d are now in construction for a planned launch in 1999. The new mission, which includes 22 experimental payloads and developmental spacecraft bus technologies from European, US and Canadian military, civil and commercial sponsors, exploits the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) to offer an affordable, working space research tool for both government and industry. The STRV 1 programme objective is to promote the enhancement of military and civil space communications, remote sensing and navigation capabilities at reduced cost and risk. Additional aims are to help industry to achieve commercial benefit from investment in emerging technologies and to develop the synergy between government, commercial and civilian space applications. The paper explains how STRV 1 exploits the variable altitude and high radiation environment of GTO to investigate the performance of emerging technologies and techniques. This includes the accelerated life testing of components and materials, such as infra-red detectors, advanced microprocessors and solar cell technologies, and the prototyping of new techniques to improve communications and spacecraft autonomy. Experiments include implementing a secure version of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packet telecommand and telemetry standards, further development of the Internet-based Space Communication Protocol Standards (SCPS) and evaluating the exploitation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in geosynchronous orbit. The new mission also builds on and extends the comprehensive environmental monitoring achieved by STRV 1 a&b.

  1. Examples of Sentinel-2A Mission Exploitation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetz, Benjamin; Hoersch, Bianca; Gascon, Ferran; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Seifert, Frank Martin; Paganini, Marc; Ramoino, Fabrizio; Arino, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 Copernicus mission will bring significant breakthrough in the exploitation of space borne optical data. Sentinel-2 time series will transform land cover, agriculture, forestry, in-land water and costal EO applications from mapping to monitoring, from snapshot to time series data analysis, from image-based to pixel-based processing. The 5-days temporal revisiting of the Sentinel-2 satellites, when both units will be operated together, will usher us in a new era for time series analysis at high spatial resolutions (HR) of 10-20 meters. The monitoring of seasonal variations and processes in phenology and hydrology are examples of the many R&D areas to be studied. The mission's large swath and systematic acquisitions will further support unprecedented coverage at the national scale addressing information requirements of national to regional policies. Within ESA programs, such as the Data User Element (DUE), Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) and Climate Change Initiative (CCI), several R&D activities are preparing the exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission towards reliable measurements and monitoring of e.g. Essential Climate Variables and indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals. Early Sentinel-2 results will be presented related to a range of applications and scientific domains such as agricultural monitoring at national scale (DUE Sen2Agri), wetland extent and condition over African Ramsar sites (DUE GlobWetland-Africa), land cover mapping for climate change (CCI Land Cover), national land monitoring (Cadaster-Env), forest degradation (DUE ForMoSa), urban mapping (DUE EO4Urban), in-land water quality (DUE SPONGE), map of Mediterranean aquaculture (DUE SMART) and coral reef habitat mapping (SEOM S2-4Sci Coral). The above-mentioned activities are only a few examples from the very active international land imaging community building on the long-term Landsat and Spot heritage and knowledge.

  2. Using choice architecture to exploit a university Distinct Urban Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Xavier; Williams, Ian D; Shaw, Peter J; Cleaver, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    There are widespread concerns regarding the potential future scarcity of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. However, there are already potentially rich reserves of secondary materials via high ownership of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) in economically-developed nations. Young people are particularly high consumers of EEE, thus university students and campuses may present an opportunity to harness this potential. University Distinct Urban Mines (DUM) may be used to exemplify how potential reserves of secondary metals may be exploited, and could contribute to the transition from a linear to a circular economy. This study aimed to evaluate small household appliances (SHA) DUM from a UK university, with the objectives to identify and quantify student households' SHA ownership, WEEE recycling, stockpiling and discarding habits amongst student households, assess and evaluate the monetary potential of SHA DUM at UK level, and propose methods to exploit DUM for universities in the UK. To this purpose, a quantitative survey was undertaken to measure students' ownership and discarding behaviour with respect to SHA. The amounts of ferrous and non-ferrous materials were then estimated and converted to monetary values from secondary materials market data to appraise the SHA DUM overall value. Thirty-five per cent of SHA are discarded in the general refuse. Broken personal care appliances (PCA) tend to be discarded due to hygiene and small size factors. When in working order, SHA tend to be equally reused, recycled or stockpiled. We conclude that a total of 189 tonnes of ferrous and non-ferrous materials were available via discarding or being stockpiled at the University of Southampton. Extrapolated to UK higher education level, discarded and stockpiled SHA represent a potential worth ∼USD 11 million. To initiate DUM exploitation within Higher Education campuses, we suggest improving users' choice architecture by providing collection methods specific to broken SHA

  3. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  4. Routes for drug translocation across the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Brodin, Birger

    2017-01-01

    -mediated transcytosis, adsorptive-mediated transcytosis, and the paracellular route. The latter, however, being controversial due to the risk of co-delivery of blood-borne potential harmful substances. On the other hand a number of studies report on drug delivery across the BBB exploiting receptor-mediated transcytosis...

  5. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  6. Exploiting N=2 in consistent coset reductions of type IIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassani, Davide [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: cassani@lpt.ens.fr; Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie, 35, route de Chartres, 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: kashani@ihes.fr

    2009-08-11

    We study compactifications of type IIA supergravity on cosets exhibiting SU(3) structure. We establish the consistency of the truncation based on left-invariance, providing a justification for the choice of expansion forms which yields gauged N=2 supergravity in four dimensions. We explore N=1 solutions of these theories, emphasizing the requirements of flux quantization, as well as their non-supersymmetric companions. In particular, we obtain a no-go result for de Sitter solutions at string tree level, and, exploiting the enhanced leverage of the N=2 setup, provide a preliminary analysis of the existence of de Sitter vacua at all string loop order.

  7. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus

    2013-01-01

    Black-box optimization (BBO) problems arise in numerous scientic and engineering applications and are characterized by compu- tationally intensive objective functions, which severely limit the number of evaluations that can be performed. We present a robust set of features that analyze the tness...... landscape of BBO problems and show how an algorithm portfolio approach can exploit these general, problem indepen- dent features and outperform the utilization of any single minimization search strategy. We test our methodology on data from the GECCO Workshop on BBO Benchmarking 2012, which contains 21...

  8. Construct exploit constraint in crash analysis by bypassing canary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Huang, Shuguang; Huang, Hui; Chang, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Selective symbolic execution is a common program testing technology. Developed on the basis of it, some crash analysis systems are often used to test the fragility of the program by constructing exploit constraints, such as CRAX. From the study of crash analysis based on symbolic execution, this paper find that this technology cannot bypass the canary stack protection mechanisms. This paper makes the improvement uses the API hook in Linux. Experimental results show that the use of API hook can effectively solve the problem that crash analysis cannot bypass the canary protection.

  9. Exploitation of natural resources and conflict in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Sandoval

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has increasingly been specializing in the extraction of mineral and energy resources such as gold, coal, oil and ferronickel. These activities, in the context of state weakness, have engendered conflicts of different dimensions. This paper proposes an indicator of conflict related to mineral exploitation that classifies five dimensions of conflict: social, economic, cultural, political and environmental. The aggregate indicator shows that murders, displacement of Afrodescendent populations, flooding, pollution, fires, infant mortality, coca crops and sexual offenses are highly and positively correlated with the number of conflicts.

  10. Transformation of national economy and the problem of exploiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The present course of transformation of our society has been influenced by the process of continuous clarifying the content and the methods of attaining the "ultimate goal". Some disunited views on the realization of the transformation process caused its ambiguous development, as documented by the absence of the state raw material and energy policy needed for designating today´s position of the Slovak mining. A typical example is the situation of enterprises exploiting Slovak brown coal. This paper deals with a possibility of solving this problem.

  11. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    A powerful new space-mapping (SM) optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. It draws upon recent developments in both surrogate model-based optimization and modeling of microwave devices, SM optimization is formulated as a general optimization problem of a surrogate model. This model...... is a convex combination of a mapped coarse model and a linearized fine model. It exploits, in a novel way, a linear frequency-sensitive mapping. During the optimization iterates, the coarse and fine models are simulated at different sets of frequencies. This approach is shown to be especially powerful...

  12. Synergy in spreading processes: from exploitative to explorative foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Ludlam, Jonathan J; Taraskin, Sergei N; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-05-27

    An epidemiological model which incorporates synergistic effects that allow the infectivity and/or susceptibility of hosts to be dependent on the number of infected neighbors is proposed. Constructive synergy induces an exploitative behavior which results in a rapid invasion that infects a large number of hosts. Interfering synergy leads to a slower and sparser explorative foraging strategy that traverses larger distances by infecting fewer hosts. The model can be mapped to a dynamical bond percolation with spatial correlations that affect the mechanism of spread but do not influence the critical behavior of epidemics. © 2011 American Physical Society

  13. The largest renewable, easily exploitable, and economically sustainable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Giancarlo; Saraceno, Eugenio

    2018-02-01

    Sun, the ultimate energy resource of our planet, transfers energy to the Earth at an average power of 23,000 TW. Earth surface can be regarded as a huge panel transforming solar energy into a more convenient mechanical form, the wind. Since millennia wind is recognized as an exploitable form of energy and it is common knowledge that the higher you go, the stronger the winds flow. To go high is difficult; however Bill Gates cites high wind among possible energy miracles in the near future. Public awareness of this possible miracle is still missing, but today's technology is ready for it.

  14. Exploration versus Exploitation in Global Atomistic Structure Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Mathias S.; Larsen, Uffe F.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2018-01-01

    The ability to navigate vast energy landscapes of molecules, clusters, and solids is a necessity for discovering novel compounds in computational chemistry and materials science. For high-dimensional systems, it is only computationally feasible to search a small portion of the landscape, and hence......, the search strategy is of critical importance. Introducing Bayesian optimization concepts in an evolutionary algorithm framework, we quantify the concepts of exploration and exploitation in global minimum searches. The method allows us to control the balance between probing unknown regions of the landscape...... reconstruction. In addition, global search behaviors are analyzed to provide reasonable grounds for an optimal balance for different problems....

  15. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  16. Exploiting first-class arrays in Fortran for accelerator programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Craig E.; Weseloh, Wayne N.; Robey, Robert W.; Sottile, Matthew J.; Quinlan, Daniel; Overbey, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Emerging architectures for high performance computing often are well suited to a data parallel programming model. This paper presents a simple programming methodology based on existing languages and compiler tools that allows programmers to take advantage of these systems. We will work with the array features of Fortran 90 to show how this infrequently exploited, standardized language feature is easily transformed to lower level accelerator code. Our transformations are based on a mapping from Fortran 90 to C++ code with OpenCL extensions. The sheer complexity of programming for clusters of many or multi-core processors with tens of millions threads of execution make the simplicity of the data parallel model attractive. Furthermore, the increasing complexity of todays applications (especially when convolved with the increasing complexity of the hardware) and the need for portability across hardware architectures make a higher-level and simpler programming model like data parallel attractive. The goal of this work has been to exploit source-to-source transformations that allow programmers to develop and maintain programs at a high-level of abstraction, without coding to a specific hardware architecture. Furthermore these transformations allow multiple hardware architectures to be targeted without changing the high-level source. It also removes the necessity for application programmers to understand details of the accelerator architecture or to know OpenCL.

  17. Exploiting GPUs in Virtual Machine for BioCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heeseung; Jeong, Jinkyu; Lee, Myoungho; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E) channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment. PMID:23710465

  18. A Novel Passive Tracking Scheme Exploiting Geometric and Intercept Theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biao; Sun, Chao; Ahn, Deockhyeon; Kim, Youngok

    2018-03-17

    Passive tracking aims to track targets without assistant devices, that is, device-free targets. Passive tracking based on Radio Frequency (RF) Tomography in wireless sensor networks has recently been addressed as an emerging field. The passive tracking scheme using geometric theorems (GTs) is one of the most popular RF Tomography schemes, because the GT-based method can effectively mitigate the demand for a high density of wireless nodes. In the GT-based tracking scheme, the tracking scenario is considered as a two-dimensional geometric topology and then geometric theorems are applied to estimate crossing points (CPs) of the device-free target on line-of-sight links (LOSLs), which reveal the target's trajectory information in a discrete form. In this paper, we review existing GT-based tracking schemes, and then propose a novel passive tracking scheme by exploiting the Intercept Theorem (IT). To create an IT-based CP estimation scheme available in the noisy non-parallel LOSL situation, we develop the equal-ratio traverse (ERT) method. Finally, we analyze properties of three GT-based tracking algorithms and the performance of these schemes is evaluated experimentally under various trajectories, node densities, and noisy topologies. Analysis of experimental results shows that tracking schemes exploiting geometric theorems can achieve remarkable positioning accuracy even under rather a low density of wireless nodes. Moreover, the proposed IT scheme can provide generally finer tracking accuracy under even lower node density and noisier topologies, in comparison to other schemes.

  19. Film-induced, steps for a Real Exploitation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco di Cesare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to enhance Europe visibility, its entirety rather than a set of destinations, is implementing cooperation between the Member States especially in creating and developing trans-border thematic tourist products and experiences. One of them could be the film-induced tourism. In looking back over the past two cycles of European programming it is possible to find some examples, described in the article, in which the theme of audiovisual productions in their shooting phase in European locations has been the subject of EU attention.This article refers to some previous research results reminding how movie-induced tourism seems to be used just through sporadic attempts and therefore not developed and exploited in a strategic way. Whether from demand-side is clear what potential is inherent in the relationship between movie and tourism, on the supply side there is still much to do.As the current EC funding period (2014-2020 is favouring, at least in the first calls for proposal that came out, SMEs projects and being aware of the apparent lack of such activities developed by private businesses, the article explores new opportunities to be gathered suggesting a new exploitation path.

  20. The exploration-exploitation dilemma: a multidisciplinary framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Berger-Tal

    Full Text Available The trade-off between the need to obtain new knowledge and the need to use that knowledge to improve performance is one of the most basic trade-offs in nature, and optimal performance usually requires some balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviors. Researchers in many disciplines have been searching for the optimal solution to this dilemma. Here we present a novel model in which the exploration strategy itself is dynamic and varies with time in order to optimize a definite goal, such as the acquisition of energy, money, or prestige. Our model produced four very distinct phases: Knowledge establishment, Knowledge accumulation, Knowledge maintenance, and Knowledge exploitation, giving rise to a multidisciplinary framework that applies equally to humans, animals, and organizations. The framework can be used to explain a multitude of phenomena in various disciplines, such as the movement of animals in novel landscapes, the most efficient resource allocation for a start-up company, or the effects of old age on knowledge acquisition in humans.

  1. Cheating by Exploitation of Developmental Prestalk Patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anupama; Shaulsky, Gad

    2010-01-01

    The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters—strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC), a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway. PMID:20195510

  2. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA’s HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Verified trustworthy software systems’. PMID:28871050

  3. JPEG2000-coded image error concealment exploiting convex sets projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Luigi; Ginesu, Giaime; Raccis, Alessio

    2005-04-01

    Transmission errors in JPEG2000 can be grouped into three main classes, depending on the affected area: LL, high frequencies at the lower decomposition levels, and high frequencies at the higher decomposition levels. The first type of errors are the most annoying but can be concealed exploiting the signal spatial correlation like in a number of techniques proposed in the past; the second are less annoying but more difficult to address; the latter are often imperceptible. In this paper, we address the problem of concealing the second class or errors when high bit-planes are damaged by proposing a new approach based on the theory of projections onto convex sets. Accordingly, the error effects are masked by iteratively applying two procedures: low-pass (LP) filtering in the spatial domain and restoration of the uncorrupted wavelet coefficients in the transform domain. It has been observed that a uniform LP filtering brought to some undesired side effects that negatively compensated the advantages. This problem has been overcome by applying an adaptive solution, which exploits an edge map to choose the optimal filter mask size. Simulation results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. A case study of exploiting enterprise resource planning requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nan; Jin, Mingzhou; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2011-05-01

    The requirements engineering (RE) processes have become a key to conceptualising corporate-wide integrated solutions based on packaged enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. The RE literature has mainly focused on procuring the most suitable ERP package. Little is known about how an organisation exploits the chosen ERP RE model to frame the business application development. This article reports an exploratory case study of a key tenet of ERP RE adoption, namely that aligning business applications to the packaged RE model leads to integral practices and economic development. The case study analysed a series interrelated pilot projects developed for a business division of a large IT manufacturing and service company, using Oracle's appl1ication implementation method (AIM). The study indicated that AIM RE improved team collaboration and project management experience, but needed to make hidden assumptions explicit to support data visibility and integrity. Our study can direct researchers towards rigorous empirical evaluations of ERP RE adoption, collect experiences and lessons learned for practitioners, and help generate more effective and mature processes when exploiting ERP RE methods.

  5. Noise-exploitation and adaptation in neuromorphic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindo, Thamira; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2012-04-01

    Even though current micro-nano fabrication technology has reached integration levels where ultra-sensitive sensors can be fabricated, the sensing performance (resolution per joule) of synthetic systems are still orders of magnitude inferior to those observed in neurobiology. For example, the filiform hairs in crickets operate at fundamental limits of noise; auditory sensors in a parasitoid fly can overcome fundamental limitations to precisely localize ultra-faint acoustic signatures. Even though many of these biological marvels have served as inspiration for different types of neuromorphic sensors, the main focus these designs have been to faithfully replicate the biological functionalities, without considering the constructive role of "noise". In man-made sensors device and sensor noise are typically considered as a nuisance, where as in neurobiology "noise" has been shown to be a computational aid that enables biology to sense and operate at fundamental limits of energy efficiency and performance. In this paper, we describe some of the important noise-exploitation and adaptation principles observed in neurobiology and how they can be systematically used for designing neuromorphic sensors. Our focus will be on two types of noise-exploitation principles, namely, (a) stochastic resonance; and (b) noise-shaping, which are unified within our previously reported framework called Σ▵ learning. As a case-study, we describe the application of Σ▵ learning for the design of a miniature acoustic source localizer whose performance matches that of its biological counterpart(Ormia Ochracea).

  6. Exploitation of Clustering Techniques in Transactional Healthcare Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad Mahoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare service centres equipped with electronic health systems have improved their resources as well as treatment processes. The dynamic nature of healthcare data of each individual makes it complex and difficult for physicians to manually mediate them; therefore, automatic techniques are essential to manage the quality and standardization of treatment procedures. Exploratory data analysis, patternanalysis and grouping of data is managed using clustering techniques, which work as an unsupervised classification. A number of healthcare applications are developed that use several data mining techniques for classification, clustering and extracting useful information from healthcare data. The challenging issue in this domain is to select adequate data mining algorithm for optimal results. This paper exploits three different clustering algorithms: DBSCAN (Density-Based Clustering, agglomerative hierarchical and k-means in real transactional healthcare data of diabetic patients (taken as case study to analyse their performance in large and dispersed healthcare data. The best solution of cluster sets among the exploited algorithms is evaluated using clustering quality indexes and is selected to identify the possible subgroups of patients having similar treatment patterns

  7. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Khare

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC, a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway.

  8. The environmental impacts of foamed concrete production and exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsone, E.; Korjakins, A.; Sahmenko, G.; Sinka, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a study focusing on the environmental impacts of foamed concrete production and exploitation. CO2 emissions are very important factor for describing durability and sustainability of any building material and its life cycle. The building sector is one of the largest energy-consuming sectors in the world. In this study CO2 emissions are evaluated with regard to three types of energy resources (gas, coal and eco-friendly fuel). The related savings on raw materials are up to 120 t of water per 1000 t of traditionally mixed foamed concrete and up to 350 t of sand per 1000 t of foamed concrete produced with intensive mixing technology. In addition, total reduction of CO2 emissions (up to 60 t per 1000 m3 of material) and total energy saving from introduction of foamed concrete production (depending on the type of fuel) were calculated. In order to analyze the conditions of exploitation, both thermal conductivity and thickness of wall was determined. All obtained and calculated results were compared to those of the commercially produced autoclaved aerated concrete.

  9. Exploiting GPUs in virtual machine for BioCloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heeseung; Jeong, Jinkyu; Lee, Myoungho; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E) channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment.

  10. Human trafficking for labour exploitation:
    Interpreting the crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill E.B. Coster van Voorhout

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of human trafficking for labour exploitation, as follows from the European Council Framework Decision, proves to be unclear. Literal interpretation does not suffice, because it does not clarify all elements of what is deemed to be criminal behaviour, and hermeneutical interpretation also falls short discouraging the aim of this legislation, namely harmonisation. Hence, another solution is required. This article does so by firstly challenging assumptions about human trafficking for labour exploitation that are generally pertinent, but nonetheless untrue. This accurate appraisal of the crime’s nature is followed by a synopsis of national legislation and adjudication in three Member States, so as to also focus on these actualities regarding the crime that are commonly not conceived. This article examines two countries that have implemented the Framework Decision, namely Belgium and the Netherlands, and one that has not yet done so, the United Kingdom. Thereafter remaining unexplained elements of the Framework Decision’s definition are interpreted with use of international, pan-European and European legislation and adjudication. Based upon all this, a suggested interpretation of the Framework Decision’s definition is provided so as to overcome all identified difficulties with it.

  11. Exploiting first-class arrays in Fortran for accelerator programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weseloh, Wayne N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robey, Robert W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matthew, Sottile J [GALORIS, INC.; Quinlan, Daniel [LLNL; Overbye, Jeffrey [INDIANA UNIV.

    2010-12-15

    Emerging architectures for high performance computing often are well suited to a data parallel programming model. This paper presents a simple programming methodology based on existing languages and compiler tools that allows programmers to take advantage of these systems. We will work with the array features of Fortran 90 to show how this infrequently exploited, standardized language feature is easily transformed to lower level accelerator code. Our transformations are based on a mapping from Fortran 90 to C++ code with OpenCL extensions. The sheer complexity of programming for clusters of many or multi-core processors with tens of millions threads of execution make the simplicity of the data parallel model attractive. Furthermore, the increasing complexity of todays applications (especially when convolved with the increasing complexity of the hardware) and the need for portability across hardware architectures make a higher-level and simpler programming model like data parallel attractive. The goal of this work has been to exploit source-to-source transformations that allow programmers to develop and maintain programs at a high-level of abstraction, without coding to a specific hardware architecture. Furthermore these transformations allow multiple hardware architectures to be targeted without changing the high-level source. It also removes the necessity for application programmers to understand details of the accelerator architecture or to know OpenCL.

  12. The Potential Socio-economic Impacts of Gas Hydrate Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although

  13. Development of a Curriculum on Sexual Exploitation and Self-Protection for Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Ellen; Sundem, Jennifer McGilvray

    1981-01-01

    To assist handicapped persons in preventing sexual exploitation, the Curriculum for Developing an Awareness of Sexual Exploitation and Teaching Self Protection Techniques was developed and pilot tested with 13 special education teachers in Seattle, Washington. (SB)

  14. Water Exploitation and Its Outcomes Caused by Capitalism as Reflected on Gore Verbinski's Rango Movie

    OpenAIRE

    SETIAWAN, DANIEL NUGRAHA

    2014-01-01

    Nugraha Setiawan, Daniel. 2014. Water Exploitation and Its Outcome Caused byCapitalism as Reflected on Gore Verbinski's Rango Movie. Study Program ofEnglish, Universitas Brawijaya.Supervisor: Yusri Fajar, Co-supervisor: Melania Shinta Harendika.Keywords: water exploitation, environment, capitalism, Rango movie. Water exploitation threats ecosystem and causes a great damage to environment. One of the causes of the water exploitation is capitalism. The movie entitled Rango reveals some causes a...

  15. Sporting Events, the Trafficking of Women for Sexual Exploitation and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores the possibilities of applying a human rights framework to sexual exploitation, sex work and sporting events. Human rights perspectives are emerging as useful ways to interrogate a range of global social injustices. However, defining sexual exploitation is not straightforward. First, I focus on how sexual exploitation and sex work are understood within human rights instruments. Second, I provide a vivid illustration of the trafficking of women for sexual exploitation. Thr...

  16. Data adaptive estimation of transversal blood flow velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirnia, E.; Jakobsson, A.; Gudmundson, E.

    2014-01-01

    The examination of blood flow inside the body may yield important information about vascular anomalies, such as possible indications of, for example, stenosis. Current Medical ultrasound systems suffer from only allowing for measuring the blood flow velocity along the direction of irradiation......, posing natural difficulties due to the complex behaviour of blood flow, and due to the natural orientation of most blood vessels. Recently, a transversal modulation scheme was introduced to induce also an oscillation along the transversal direction, thereby allowing for the measurement of also...... the transversal blood flow. In this paper, we propose a novel data-adaptive blood flow estimator exploiting this modulation scheme. Using realistic Field II simulations, the proposed estimator is shown to achieve a notable performance improvement as compared to current state-of-the-art techniques....

  17. The exploitation of living resources in the Dutch Wadden Sea : a historical overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W J

    An overview, based on written sources and personal observations, is presented of exploitation of living resources in and around the Dutch Wadden Sea during the past few centuries. It is concluded that before about 1900 exploitation was almost unrestricted. Exploitation of plants has been documented

  18. The Illusions and Juxtapositions of Commercial Sexual Exploitation among Youth: Identifying Effective Street-Outreach Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holger-Ambrose, Beth; Langmade, Cheree; Edinburgh, Laurel D.; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    To explore sexually exploited youths' perspectives of how street outreach workers can effectively provide outreach and connections to services, we conducted qualitative interviews with 13 female participants, ages 14 to 22, in a Midwest U.S. city. Participants reported multiple types of exploitation, most first exploited by age 13, plus substance…

  19. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and the...

  20. To exploit or not to exploit: The structure and development of arguments over the use of wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Korvela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the discourse surrounding the exploitation of wetlands (also called marshlands, bogs, mires and peatlands in Finland. The focus of the paper is on the development of the arguments used in the discourse – thus the paper also gives an insight into how the legal regimes concerning wetlands have developed. The arguments are analysed using the dualistic and deconstructive model developed in Critical Legal Studies by Martti Koskenniemi. The hypothesis is that, to some extent, the model developed for international law can be adapted to fit national laws, but that significant problems may still arise. Throughout the history of discourse on wetlands, legal arguments have essentially dealt with the conflict between the conservation of wetlands or their exploitation for peat, which is a source of energy. Three arguments are discussed in this paper: 1 The ‘sovereignty argument’; 2 The ‘no harm argument’; and 3 The ‘climate change argument’. The sovereignty argument has been dominant from the beginning of the industrialised production of peat, but the no harm argument has been steadily gaining weight. Interestingly, the climate change argument lacks traction in the discourse even though the importance of wetlands in adaptation to climate change is common knowledge. This paper argues that regional and national authorities use legislation and the no harm argument in innovative ways. These innovations may be useful for the aims underlying the climate change argument.

  1. Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks - SHEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Cesca, Simone; Gunning, Andrew; jaroslawsky, Janusz; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Westwood, Rachel; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Shale gas operations may affect the quality of air, water and landscapes; furthermore, it can induce seismic activity, with the possible impacts on the surrounding infrastructure. The SHEER project aims at setting up a probabilistic methodology to assess and mitigate the short and the long term environmental risks connected to the exploration and exploitation of shale gas. In particular we are investigating risks associated with groundwater contamination, air pollution and induced seismicity. A shale gas test site located in Poland (Wysin) has been monitored before, during and after the fracking operations with the aim of assessing environmental risks connected with groundwater contamination, air pollution and earthquakes induced by fracking and injection of waste water. The severity of each of these hazards depends strongly on the unexpected enhanced permeability pattern, which may develop as an unwanted by-product of the fracking processes and may become pathway for gas and fluid migration towards underground water reservoirs or the surface. The project is devoted to monitor and understand how far this enhanced permeability pattern develops both in space and time. The considered hazards may be at least partially inter-related as they all depend on this enhanced permeability pattern. Therefore they are being approached from a multi-hazard, multi parameter perspective. We expect to develop methodologies and procedures to track and model fracture evolution around shale gas exploitation sites and a robust statistically based, multi-parameter methodology to assess environmental impacts and risks across the operational lifecycle of shale gas. The developed methodologies are going to be applied and tested on a comprehensive database consisting of seismicity, changes of the quality of ground-waters and air, ground deformations, and operational data collected from the ongoing monitoring episode (Wysin) and past episodes: Lubocino (Poland), Preese Hall (UK), Oklahoma (USA

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  3. Sentinel-2 data exploitation with ESA's Sentinel-2 Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Ferran; Ramoino, Fabrizzio; deanos, Yves-louis

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 Toolbox is a project kicked off by ESA in early 2014, under the umbrella of the ESA SEOM programme with the aim to provide a tool for visualizing, analysing, and processing the Sentinel-2 datasets. The toolbox is an extension of the SeNtinel Application Platform (SNAP), a project resulting from the effort of the developers of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 toolbox to provide a single common application framework suited for the mixed exploitation of SAR, high resolution optical and medium resolution optical datasets. All three development teams collaborate to drive the evolution of the common SNAP framework in a developer forum. In this triplet, the Sentinel-2 toolbox is dedicated to enhance SNAP support for high resolution optical imagery. It is a multi-mission toolbox, already providing support for Sentinel-2, RapidEye, Deimos, SPOT 1 to SPOT 5 datasets. In terms of processing algorithms, SNAP provides tools specific to the Sentinel-2 mission : • An atmospheric correction module, Sen2Cor, is integrated into the toolbox, and provides scene classification, atmospheric correction, cirrus detection and correction. The output L2A products can be opened seamlessly in the toolbox. • A multitemporal synthesis processor (L3) • A biophysical products processor (L2B) • A water processor • A deforestation detector • OTB tools integration • SNAP Engine for Cloud Exploitation along with a set of more generic tools for high resolution optical data exploitation. Together with the generic functionalities of SNAP this provides an ideal environment for designing multi-missions processing chains and producing value-added products from raw datasets. The use of SNAP is manifold and the desktop tools provides a rich application for interactive visualization, analysis and processing of data. But all tools available from SNAP can be accessed via command-line through the Graph Processing Framework (GPT), the kernel of the SNAP processing engine. This

  4. Exploiting open data: a new era in pharmacoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Daria; Montanari, Floriane; Richter, Lars; Zdrazil, Barbara; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-04-01

    Within the last decade open data concepts has been gaining increasing interest in the area of drug discovery. With the launch of ChEMBL and PubChem, an enormous amount of bioactivity data was made easily accessible to the public domain. In addition, platforms that semantically integrate those data, such as the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform, permit querying across different domains of open life science data beyond the concept of ligand-target-pharmacology. However, most public databases are compiled from literature sources and are thus heterogeneous in their coverage. In addition, assay descriptions are not uniform and most often lack relevant information in the primary literature and, consequently, in databases. This raises the question how useful large public data sources are for deriving computational models. In this perspective, we highlight selected open-source initiatives and outline the possibilities and also the limitations when exploiting this huge amount of bioactivity data.

  5. Exploiting mitochondria as targets for the development of new antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Calderone, Richard

    2017-02-17

    Mitochondria are essential for cell growth and survival of most fungal pathogens. Energy (ATP) produced during oxidation/reduction reactions of the electron transport chain (ETC) Complexes I, III and IV (CI, CIII, CIV) fuel cell synthesis. The mitochondria of fungal pathogens are understudied even though more recent published data suggest critical functional assignments to fungal-specific proteins. Proteins of mammalian mitochondria are grouped into 16 functional categories. In this review, we focus upon 11 proteins from 5 of these categories in fungal pathogens, OXPHOS, protein import, stress response, carbon source metabolism, and fission/fusion morphology. As these proteins also are fungal-specific, we hypothesize that they may be exploited as targets in antifungal drug discovery. We also discuss published transcriptional profiling data of mitochondrial CI subunit protein mutants, in which we advance a novel concept those CI subunit proteins have both shared as well as specific responsibilities for providing ATP to cell processes.

  6. Waveform design for detection of weapons based on signature exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.; Dogaru, Traian

    2010-04-01

    We present waveform design based on signature exploitation techniques for improved detection of weapons in urban sensing applications. A single-antenna monostatic radar system is considered. Under the assumption of exact knowledge of the target orientation and, hence, known impulse response, matched illumination approach is used for optimal target detection. For the case of unknown target orientation, we analyze the target signatures as random processes and perform signal-to-noise-ratio based waveform optimization. Numerical electromagnetic modeling is used to provide the impulse responses of an AK-47 assault rifle for various target aspect angles relative to the radar. Simulation results depict an improvement in the signal-to-noise-ratio at the output of the matched filter receiver for both matched illumination and stochastic waveforms as compared to a chirp waveform of the same duration and energy.

  7. Synthetic biology approaches: Towards sustainable exploitation of marine bioactive molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghal Kiran, G; Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Sekar, Sivasankari; Ramu, Meenatchi; Hassan, Saqib; Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

    2018-06-01

    The discovery of genes responsible for the production of bioactive metabolites via metabolic pathways combined with the advances in synthetic biology tools, has allowed the establishment of numerous microbial cell factories, for instance the yeast cell factories, for the manufacture of highly useful metabolites from renewable biomass. Genome mining and metagenomics are two platforms provide base-line data for reconstruction of genomes and metabolomes which is based in the development of synthetic/semi-synthetic genomes for marine natural products discovery. Engineered biofilms are being innovated on synthetic biology platform using genetic circuits and cell signalling systems as represillators controlling biofilm formation. Recombineering is a process of homologous recombination mediated genetic engineering, includes insertion, deletion or modification of any sequence specifically. Although this discipline considered new to the scientific domain, this field has now developed as promising endeavor on the accomplishment of sustainable exploitation of marine natural products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploiting the instability of smart structure for reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Zhang, Chen; Hao, Lin; Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao

    2017-08-01

    Aiming to verify the concept of using heteroclinic connections to reconfigure smart structures, a multistable buckled beam with integrated Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires is utilized as a high fidelity model. The Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires are resistively heated to provide the actuation force to stabilize the unstable configuration and the transition of the beam from one unstable equilibrium condition to the other. This concept provides a means of reducing the energy requirement for transitions between configurations of the structure, which is an energy-efficient reconfiguration scheme between equal-energy unstable (but actively controlled) equilibria. This letter presents a detailed design of the system, and how the active (heated) SMA wires control the structure stay in unstable configuration and drive the structure to achieve reconfiguration. Exploiting the instability of the smart structure has significant interests in many power reduction applications, including active flow control, reconfiguration of large deployable aerospace structures, and MEMS devices.

  9. La prostitution : profession ou exploitation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lavallée, Diane

    2016-01-01

    La prostitution est-elle une profession comme une autre ou une forme d’exploitation des femmes ? Une simple activité génératrice de revenus ou une expression de violence à l’égard des femmes ? Un métier librement choisi ou une contrainte imposée ? Cet article présente quelques définitions de la prostitution et en identifie certaines causes. Il examine également la question du trafic sexuel et décrit un profil des clients de la prostitution, des proxénètes et des prostituées. Finalement, il tr...

  10. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Child sexual exploitation and youth offending: A research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen

    2012-11-01

    Links between child sexual exploitation (CSE) and youth offending should be better recognised, according to these preliminary research findings from the UK. Data from a leading CSE service provider and Youth Offending Team were analysed for the period 2001-2010 inclusive. Of CSE victims, 40 percent had offending records and recidivism rates were high. Together they committed 1586 offences - 5 percent of all local youth crime. Male and female offending behaviour differed significantly. The types of offences identified were potentially symptomatic of CSE. Referral to CSE services typically post-dated arrest, indicating that children were recognised first as offenders. Challenges in researching the interactions between these two complex issues are discussed. This study has important implications for youth justice policy and practice, both nationally and internationally.

  12. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas: Interference Mechanisms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Plagens

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of biological concepts can often provide a framework for the development of novel molecular tools, which can help us to further understand and manipulate life. One recent example is the elucidation of the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses or conjugative plasmids. The immunity is based on small RNA molecules that are incorporated into versatile multi-domain proteins or protein complexes and specifically target viral nucleic acids via base complementarity. CRISPR/Cas interference machines are utilized to develop novel genome editing tools for different organisms. Here, we will review the latest progress in the elucidation and application of prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas systems and discuss possible future approaches to exploit the potential of these interference machineries.

  13. Exploiting Biocatalysis in the Synthesis of Supramolecular Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sangita; Ulijn, Rein V.

    This chapter details the exploitation of biocatalysis in generating supramolecular polymers. This approach provides highly dynamic supramolecular structures, inspired by biological polymeric systems found in the intra- and extracellular space. The molecular design of the self-assembling precursors is discussed in terms of enzyme recognition, molecular switching mechanisms and non-covalent interactions that drive the supramolecular polymerisation process, with an emphasis on aromatic peptide amphiphiles. We discuss a number of unique features of these systems, including spatiotemporal control of nucleation and growth of supramolecular polymers and the possibility of kinetically controlling mechanical properties. Fully reversible systems that operate under thermodynamic control allow for defect correction and selection of the most stable structures from mixtures of monomers. Finally, a number of potential applications of enzymatic supramolecular polymerisations are discussed in the context of biomedicine and nanotechnology.

  14. SMARTS: Exploiting Temporal Locality and Parallelism through Vertical Execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, P.; Crotinger, J.; Karmesin, S.; Malony, A.; Oldehoeft, R.; Shende, S.; Smith, S.; Vajracharya, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the solution of large-scale numerical prob- lems, parallel computing is becoming simultaneously more important and more difficult. The complex organization of today's multiprocessors with several memory hierarchies has forced the scientific programmer to make a choice between simple but unscalable code and scalable but extremely com- plex code that does not port to other architectures. This paper describes how the SMARTS runtime system and the POOMA C++ class library for high-performance scientific computing work together to exploit data parallelism in scientific applications while hiding the details of manag- ing parallelism and data locality from the user. We present innovative algorithms, based on the macro -dataflow model, for detecting data parallelism and efficiently executing data- parallel statements on shared-memory multiprocessors. We also desclibe how these algorithms can be implemented on clusters of SMPS

  15. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for industrial sustainability has pushed biosurfactants to the top of the agenda of many companies. Biosurfactants offer the possibility of replacing chemical surfactants, produced from nonrenewable resources, with alternatives produced from cheap renewable feedstocks. Biosurfactants are also attractive because they are less damaging to the environment yet are robust enough for industrial use. The most promising biosurfactants at the present time are the glycolipids, sophorolipids produced by Candida yeasts, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, and rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas. Despite the current enthusiasm for these compounds several residual problems remain. This review highlights remaining problems and indicates the prospects for imminent commercial exploitation of a new generation of microbial biosurfactants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploiting the Undesired: Beam-Gas Interactions in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Baglin, V; Mereghetti, A

    2012-01-01

    The vacuum inside the LHC pipes has a key role in correct operation of the accelerator. The interaction of the beam with residual gas in the pipes can lead to the loss of the beam itself and damage accelerator components. Nevertheless, beam-gas interactions can be exploited to indirectly measure the gas pressure inside the beam pipe, detecting the secondaries produced. The showers generated are detected by Beam Loss Monitors, whose signals depend on the gas pressure. This technique would also allow to punctually measure the gas pressure in sections of the accelerator where vacuum gauges are not frequent, such as the arcs. The problem has been addressed by means of FLUKA simulations and the results have been benchmarked with direct measurements performed in the LHC in 2011.

  17. Exploiting PV technology for basic need provision in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoh, L.; Gyoh, S.

    2004-01-01

    Transitional economies are confronted with ever declining standard of living and low per capita income. Development institutions around the world have come to realize the strategic importance of Sustainable Energy as a Basic Need in the development process. Despite the efforts made by emerging democracies to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. Unreliable energy supply currently presents a constant obstacle to many poverty alleviation programmes. Against this background, some states government in Nigeria are exploiting the unique advantage offered by PV technology in the provision of Basic Needs. This study appraises some of the scheme in which the authors have been heavily involved with. This paper identifies some of the strategic policies that might accelerate the successful implementation of PV technology as a poverty alleviation tool in terms of electricity provision in transitional economies. (authors)

  18. International petroleum exploration and exploitation agreements: a comprehensive environmental appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiguo Gao

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the environmental aspects of international petroleum exploration and exploitation is outlined. Four case studies of modern petroleum contracts from four developing countries are presented. These are Thailand's modern concession contract, Indonesia's production sharing contract, Brazil's risk service contract and China's hybrid contract. The failure of these four countries to provide adequate environmental regulation through their petroleum contracts is typical of many countries in the developing world. An urgent need exists to recognise that important environmental and resource consequences are associated with the developments authorised by petroleum contracts and that appropriate legal changes must be made to take them into account. Environmental sustainability should be an explicit part of all investment arrangements. (UK)

  19. Exploiting nonlinearities of micro-machined resonators for filtering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-21

    We demonstrate the exploitation of the nonlinear behavior of two electrically coupled microbeam resonators to realize a band-pass filter. More specifically, we combine their nonlinear hardening and softening responses to realize a near flat pass band filter with sharp roll-off characteristics. The device is composed of two near identical doubly clamped and electrostatically actuated microbeams made of silicon. One of the resonators is buckled via thermal loading to produce a softening frequency response. It is then further tuned to create the desired overlap with the second resonator response of hardening behavior. This overlapping improves the pass band flatness. Also, the sudden jumps due to the softening and hardening behaviors create sharp roll-off characteristics. This approach can be promising for the future generation of filters with superior characteristics.

  20. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas: Interference Mechanisms and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hagen; Randau, Lennart; Plagens, André

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of biological concepts can often provide a framework for the development of novel molecular tools, which can help us to further understand and manipulate life. One recent example is the elucidation of the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses or conjugative plasmids. The immunity is based on small RNA molecules that are incorporated into versatile multi-domain proteins or protein complexes and specifically target viral nucleic acids via base complementarity. CRISPR/Cas interference machines are utilized to develop novel genome editing tools for different organisms. Here, we will review the latest progress in the elucidation and application of prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas systems and discuss possible future approaches to exploit the potential of these interference machineries. PMID:23857052

  1. Exploiting existing software in libraries : successes, failures, and reasons why.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, W.

    1999-01-13

    The PETSc (Portable Extensible Tools for Scientific computing) library arose from research into domain decomposition methods which require combining many different solutions in a single application. The initial efforts tried to use existing numerical software but had limited success. The problems include everything from faulty assumptions about the computing environment (e.g., how many processes there are) to implicit (yet deadly) global state. More recently, PETSC and PVODE have found a way to cooperate, and new techniques that exploit dynamically linked libraries offer a more general approach to interoperable components. The paper highlights some of the issues in building sharable component software and discussing mistakes still often made in designing, maintaining, documenting, and testing components.

  2. Analysis of ecological environment impact of coal exploitation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoliu; Luo, Hong; Lv, Lianhong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Baoshi

    2018-02-01

    Based on the theory of life cycle assessment, the ecological and environmental impacts of coal mining, processing, utilization and transportation will be analyzed, with analysing the status of china’s coal exploitation and utilization as the basis, it will find out the ecological and environmental impact in the development and utilization of coal, mainly consist of ecological impact including land damage, water resource destructionand biodiversity loss, etc., while the environmental impact include air, water, solid waste pollutions. Finally with a summary of the ecological and environmental problems, to propose solutionsand countermeasures to promote the rational development and consumption of coal, as well as to reduce the impact of coal production and consumption on the ecological environment, finally to achieve the coordinated development of energy and the environment.

  3. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  4. Mangrove exploitation effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Fensholt, Rasmus; Mertz, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most important coastal ecosystems as they support many local communities. However, over the last two decades harvesting of mangrove forests has been extensive with effects on mangrove biodiversity and ecosystem services. We investigate the effect of mangrove...... with local forestry and fishery workers to determine the level of exploitation. Ten mangrove species were recorded (Avicennia alba, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora stylosa, and Sonneratia...... alba) belonging to six families (Avicenniaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Combretaceae, Arecaceae and Sonneratiaceae). Mangrove forests are now dominated by saplings and seedlings, with few trees above 15 cm diameter at breast height. Rhizophora sp. were found to be the most important and dominant...

  5. Exploiting CRISPR-Cas to manipulate Enterococcus faecalis populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullahalli, Karthik; Rodrigues, Marinelle; Palmer, Kelli L

    2017-06-23

    CRISPR-Cas provides a barrier to horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes. It was previously observed that functional CRISPR-Cas systems are absent from multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus faecalis , which only possess an orphan CRISPR locus, termed CRISPR2, lacking cas genes. Here, we investigate how the interplay between CRISPR-Cas genome defense and antibiotic selection for mobile genetic elements shapes in vitro E. faecalis populations. We demonstrate that CRISPR2 can be reactivated for genome defense in MDR strains. Interestingly, we observe that E. faecalis transiently maintains CRISPR targets despite active CRISPR-Cas systems. Subsequently, if selection for the CRISPR target is present, toxic CRISPR spacers are lost over time, while in the absence of selection, CRISPR targets are lost over time. We find that forced maintenance of CRISPR targets induces a fitness cost that can be exploited to alter heterogeneous E. faecalis populations.

  6. Television production, Funding Models and Exploitation of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Doyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of digital platforms has transformative implications for strategies of financing media production and for exploitation of the economic value in creative content. In the television industry, changes in technologies for distribution and the emergence of SVOD services such as Netflix are gradually shifting audiences and financial power away from broadcasters while at the same time creating unprecedented opportunities for programme-makers.  Drawing on findings from recent RCUK-funded research, this article examines how these shifts are affecting production financing and the economics of supplying television content.  In particular, it focuses on how changes in the dynamics of rights markets and in strategic approaches towards the financing of television production might mean for markets, industries and for policies intended to support the economic sustainability of independent television content production businesses.

  7. Exploitation and Benefits of BIM in Construction Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, Peter; Mandičák, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    BIM is increasingly getting into the awareness in construction industry. BIM is the process of creating and data managing of the building during its life cycle. BIM became a part of management tools in modern construction companies. Construction projects have a number of participants. It means difficulty process of construction project management and a serious requirement for processing the huge amount of information including design, construction, time and cost parameters, economic efficiency and sustainability. Progressive information and communication technologies support cost management and management of construction project. One of them is Building Information Modelling. Aim of the paper is to examine the impact of BIM exploitation and benefits on construction project management in Slovak companies.

  8. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primarily to investigate whether this policy should change to improve transfusion safety. This thesis explores the risk on red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion in oncohematologic patien...

  9. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  10. Sensor Exposure, Exploitation, and Experimentation Environment (SE4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, D.; Duff, F.; Goding, J.; Bankston, M.; McLaughlin, T.; Six, S.; Taylor, S.; Wootton, S.

    2011-09-01

    As the resident space object population increases from new launches and events such as the COSMOS/IRIDIUM collision, the maintenance of high-level Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has become increasingly difficult. To maintain situational awareness of the changing environment, new systems and methods must be developed. The Sensor Exposure, Exploitation and Experimentation Environment (SE4) provides a platform to illustrate “The Art of the Possible” that shows the potential benefit of enriched sensor data collections and real-time data sharing. Through modeling and simulation, and a net-centric architecture, SE4 shows the added value of sharing data in real-time and exposing new types of sensor data. The objective of SE4 is to develop an experimentation and innovation environment for sensor data exposure, composable sensor capabilities, reuse, and exploitation that accelerates the delivery of needed Command and Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance capabilities to the warfighter. Through modeling, simulation and rapid prototyping, the art of the possible for a fully-connected, net-centric space Command and Control (C2) and sensor enterprise can be demonstrated. This paper provides results that demonstrate the potential for faster cataloging of breakup events and additional event monitoring that are possible with data available today in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Demonstrating the art of the possible for the enterprise will guide net-centric requirements definition and facilitate discussions with stakeholder organizations on the Concept of Operations (CONOPS), policy, and Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) evolution necessary to take full advantage of net-centric operations. SE4 aligns with direction from Secretary Gates and the Chairman Joint Chief of Staff that emphasizes the need to get the most out of our existing systems. Continuing to utilize SE4 will enable the enterprise by demonstrating the benefits of applying

  11. Detect and exploit hidden structure in fatty acid signature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Suzanne; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Thiemann, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of predator diet composition are essential to our understanding of their ecology. Although several methods of estimating diet are practiced, methods based on biomarkers have become increasingly common. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a popular method that continues to be refined and extended. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis is based on differences in the signatures of prey types, often species, which are recognized and designated by investigators. Similarly, predator signatures may be structured by known factors such as sex or age class, and the season or region of sample collection. The recognized structure in signature data inherently influences QFASA results in important and typically beneficial ways. However, predator and prey signatures may contain additional, hidden structure that investigators either choose not to incorporate into an analysis or of which they are unaware, being caused by unknown ecological mechanisms. Hidden structure also influences QFASA results, most often negatively. We developed a new method to explore signature data for hidden structure, called divisive magnetic clustering (DIMAC). Our DIMAC approach is based on the same distance measure used in diet estimation, closely linking methods of data exploration and parameter estimation, and it does not require data transformation or distributional assumptions, as do many multivariate ordination methods in common use. We investigated the potential benefits of the DIMAC method to detect and subsequently exploit hidden structure in signature data using two prey signature libraries with quite different characteristics. We found that the existence of hidden structure in prey signatures can increase the confusion between prey types and thereby reduce the accuracy and precision of QFASA diet estimates. Conversely, the detection and exploitation of hidden structure represent a potential opportunity to improve predator diet estimates and may lead to new

  12. Automated motion imagery exploitation for surveillance and reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se, Stephen; Laliberte, France; Kotamraju, Vinay; Dutkiewicz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for many military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning and others, such as post-operation analysis / damage assessment. Motion imagery gathered from both manned and unmanned platforms provides surveillance and reconnaissance information that can be used for pre- and post-operation analysis, but these sensors can gather large amounts of video data. It is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyse hours of collected data without the aid of automated tools. At MDA Systems Ltd. (MDA), we have previously developed a suite of automated video exploitation tools that can process airborne video, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, within a GIS framework. The mosaicking tool produces a geo-referenced 2D map from the sequence of video frames. The change detection tool identifies differences between two repeat-pass videos taken of the same terrain. The 3D reconstruction tool creates calibrated geo-referenced photo-realistic 3D models. The key objectives of the on-going project are to improve the robustness, accuracy and speed of these tools, and make them more user-friendly to operational users. Robustness and accuracy are essential to provide actionable intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information. Speed is important to reduce operator time on data analysis. We are porting some processor-intensive algorithms to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to improve throughput. Many aspects of video processing are highly parallel and well-suited for optimization on GPUs, which are now commonly available on computers. Moreover, we are extending the tools to handle video data from various airborne platforms and developing the interface to the Coalition Shared Database (CSD). The CSD server enables the dissemination and storage of data from different sensors among NATO countries. The CSD interface allows

  13. Nontrilocality: Exploiting nonlocality from three-particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Sarkar, Debasis

    2017-08-01

    Branciard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170401 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.170401] first characterized the correlations arising in an entanglement swapping network under the assumption that the sources generating the initially uncorrelated quantum systems are independent. Precisely speaking, Branciard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170401 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.170401 and later in Phys. Rev. A 85, 032119 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.032119] analyzed the importance of bilocal (source independence) assumption to lower the restrictions over correlations for revealing quantumness in the network where each of two sources generates a bipartite entangled state. In this context, one may find interest to characterize correlations in a network involving independent sources which can correlate more than two initially uncorrelated multipartite entangled quantum systems. Our present topic of discussion basically analyzes such a network scenario. Specifically, we introduce a trilocal network scenario where each of three sources independently generates a tripartite entangled quantum system, thereby exploring the role of source independence assumption to exploit nonlocality in a network involving multipartite entanglement analogous to bilocal assumption in a network where only bipartite entanglement was considered. Interestingly, genuine entanglement content did not turn out to be an essential requirement for exploiting nonlocality in such a scenario. Moreover, it is interesting to explore whether such a scenario can be generalized so as to characterize correlations arising in a network involving n number of n -partite systems for any finite value of n ≥4 under source independence assumption.

  14. GOCE and Future Gravity Missions for Geothermal Energy Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorutti, Alberto; Braitenberg, Carla; Pivetta, Tommaso; Mariani, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Geothermal energy is a valuable renewable energy source the exploitation of which contributes to the worldwide reduction of consumption of fossil fuels oil and gas. The exploitation of geothermal energy is facilitated where the thermal gradient is higher than average leading to increased surface heat flow. Apart from the hydrologic circulation properties which depend on rock fractures and are important due to the heat transportation from the hotter layers to the surface, essential properties that increase the thermal gradient are crustal thinning and radiogenic heat producing rocks. Crustal thickness and rock composition form the link to the exploration with the satellite derived gravity field, because both induce subsurface mass changes that generate observable gravity anomalies. The recognition of gravity as a useful investigation tool for geothermal energy lead to a cooperation with ESA and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) that included the GOCE derived gravity field in the online geothermal energy investigation tool of the IRENA database. The relation between the gravity field products as the free air gravity anomaly, the Bouguer and isostatic anomalies and the heat flow values is though not straightforward and has not a unique relationship. It is complicated by the fact that it depends on the geodynamical context, on the geologic context and the age of the crustal rocks. Globally the geological context and geodynamical history of an area is known close to everywhere, so that a specific known relationship between gravity and geothermal potential can be applied. In this study we show the results of a systematic analysis of the problem, including some simulations of the key factors. The study relies on the data of GOCE and the resolution and accuracy of this satellite. We also give conclusions on the improved exploration power of a gravity mission with higher spatial resolution and reduced data error, as could be achieved in principle by flying

  15. Relationships between blood lead, blood pressure, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study examined the associations between blood – Pb, serum cholesterol, diastolic and, systolic blood pressures, hematocrit, body weight, age and body mass index in 528 study subjects comprising 50% cigarette smoking and 50% non-smoking male residents of Abeokuta, Nigeria, aged from 15 to 80 years. Blood Pb was ...

  16. Blood Cancer: Bad Neighbours Cause Bad Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Gordon; Neel, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a blood-cancer-associated genetic mutation only in the non-blood cells of the bone marrow is sufficient to cause blood cancer in mice. This finding might point to new approaches to treating an often-fatal disease. See Letter p.XXX

  17. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  18. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  19. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  20. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation for America's Blood Centers ADRP What is blood? MEETINGS EDUCATION ADVOCACY PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  1. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  5. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  6. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... app (over 1 million downloads and counting!) and online scheduler make it quick to set up your ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... Type 2 Diabetes program to get help and support during your first year. Featured Book Type 2 ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... doctor's approval. Be aware of the signs and symptoms of a blood clot . Visit your doctor immediately ...

  9. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots ( ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  11. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  12. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  13. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  14. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003469.htm CO2 blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate ...

  15. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  16. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  17. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  18. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003490.htm Ferritin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. ...

  19. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  20. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  1. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  2. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  3. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  4. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  5. ACTH blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003695.htm ACTH blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This test can help find the causes of certain hormone ...

  6. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  7. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003634.htm Haptoglobin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. ...

  8. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  9. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, patients interested in ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ...

  15. Toward a dynamic perspective on explorative and exploitative innovation activities: a longitudinal study of innovation in the wind blade industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Innovation requires a combination of explorative and exploitative innovation activities. Previous studies have provided valuable insights in the antecedents of investing in explorative and exploitative activities, the structural governance of exploration and exploitation and the performance

  16. Toward a dynamic perspective on explorative and exploitative innovation activities: A longitudinal study of innovation in the wind blade industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Matthias; Faems, D.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Innovation requires a combination of explorative and exploitative innovation activities. Previous studies have provided valuable insights in the antecedents of investing in explorative and exploitative activities, the structural governance of exploration and exploitation and the performance

  17. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact

  18. Making and exploiting fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco (eds.) [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2014-11-01

    This volume contains nine chapters which are presenting critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemistry research. The chapter ''Solubilization of Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene'' by Alain Penicaud describes the various ingenious approaches to solve the solubility issue and describes in particular how graphite, and modern nanocarbons, can be made soluble by reductive dissolution. A large part of the present volume concerns the merging of nanocarbons with nanotechnology and their impact on technical development in many areas. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene find, for instance, various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. The chapter ''Incorporation of Balls, Tubes and Bowls in Nanotechnology'' by James Mack describes the recent development of the area of fullerene fragments, and corannulene in particular, and their direct applications to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, while, in the chapter ''Exploiting Nanocarbons in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells'' by Ladislav Kavan, the exploitation of nanocarbons in the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability and costs is thoroughly reviewed. The functionalization of CNSs has the invaluable advantage of combining their unique properties with those of other classes of materials. Supramolecular chemistry represents an elegant alternative approach for the construction of functional systems by means of noncovalent bonding interactions. In the chapter ''Supramolecular Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes'' by Gildas Gavrel et al., the incredibly varied world of supramolecular, non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes and their applications is examined and reviewed, and the synthetic strategies devised for fabricating mechanically-linked molecular architectures are described in the chapter &apos

  19. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Professional Version Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ... CORTEF, SOLU-CORTEF Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ...

  20. Analysis of energetic exploitation of straw in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Popov, Stevan D.; Zekic, Vladislav N.; Rodic, Vesna O.; Tica, Nedeljko Lj.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in the Republic of Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The average yearly quantity of the cellulose wastes in Vojvodina amounts to about 9 millions tons barely in the agriculture, and the same potential on the level of Serbia estimates to almost 13 million tons. This study gives the analysis of energetic exploitation of straws from stubble cereals processed in different forms. Costs for the equipment that uses biomass in the EU are approximately two times higher with respect to those for the equipment for combustion of natural gas or of fuel oil. Costs of investments for combustion of biomass in Vojvodina if compared with the cited data are approximately for 40-50% lower. The difference of the investment costs for the construction of such units is because units for straw combustion designed and constructed in our country, have neither the complicated devices for manipulation of fuels, nor the devices for the waste gasses processing. The definite conclusions about the economic justification of the energetic exploitation of stubble straws can be obtained only by comparison of costs of the so obtained energy, with the costs of energy obtained through the combustion of classical fuels. Previous comparisons were the most often based on the comparisons of value of prices of the equivalent straw quantity with the process of fuel oil of other classical fuels. Such the comparisons leaded to the very positive evaluations of the economical effects of straws, without taking into account the realizability of the named method. Namely, comparisons of straw and fuel oil hardly could lead to the conclusion that these two fuels are mutually substitutable. According to its physical properties, straw is most similar to firewood, but the preciousness and lacking of this the very resource excludes it from the comparative analysis, so