WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood establishment computer

  1. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... validation of computer systems in the user's facility, the guidance does not address the software... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated...

  2. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  3. Adverse blood transfusion outcomes: establishing causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, James P; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Erhard, Jochen; Farmer, Shannon L; Hofmann, Axel

    2011-04-01

    The transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) and other blood components is ingrained in modern medical practice. The rationale for administering transfusions is based on key assumptions that efficacy is established and risks are acceptable and minimized. Despite the cliché that, "the blood supply is safer than ever," data about risks and lack of efficacy of RBC transfusions in several clinical settings have steadily accumulated. Frequentist statisticians and clinicians demand evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs); however, causation for the recognized serious hazards of allogeneic transfusion has never been established in this manner. On the other hand, the preponderance of evidence implicating RBC transfusions in adverse clinical outcomes related to immunomodulation and the storage lesion comes from observational studies, and a broad and critical analysis to evaluate causation is overdue. It is suggested in several circumstances that this cannot wait for the design, execution, and conduct of rigorous RCTs. We begin by examining the nature and definition of causation with relevant examples from transfusion medicine. Deductive deterministic methods may be applied to most of the well-accepted and understood serious hazards of transfusion, with modified Koch's postulates being fulfilled in most circumstances. On the other hand, when several possible interacting risk factors exist and RBC transfusions are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, establishing causation requires inferential probabilistic methodology. In the latter circumstances, the case for RBC transfusions being causal for adverse clinical outcomes can be strengthened by applying modified Bradford Hill criteria to the plethora of existing observational studies. This being the case, a greater precautionary approach to RBC transfusion is necessary and equipoise that justifying RCTs may become problematic. PMID:21345639

  4. China's High Performance Computer Standard Commission Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's High Performance Computer Standard Commission was established on March 28, 2007, under the guidance of the Science and Technology Bureau of the Ministry of Information Industry. It will prepare relevant professional standards on high performance computers to break through the monopoly in the field by foreign manufacturers and vendors.

  5. A rational framework for production decision making in blood establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoa, Augusto; Maia, Salomé; Lourenço, Anália

    2012-01-01

    SAD_BaSe is a blood bank data analysis software, created to assist in the management of blood donations and the blood production chain in blood establishments. In particular, the system keeps track of several collection and production indicators, enables the definition of collection and production strategies, and the measurement of quality indicators required by the Quality Management System regulating the general operation of blood establishments. This paper describes the general scenario of blood establishments and its main requirements in terms of data management and analysis. It presents the architecture of SAD_BaSe and identifies its main contributions. Specifically, it brings forward the generation of customized reports driven by decision making needs and the use of data mining techniques in the analysis of donor suspensions and donation discards. PMID:22829575

  6. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 263a) and 42 CFR part 493... the profession of pharmacy including the business of dispensing and selling blood products at...

  7. Pulmonary blood flow distribution measured by radionuclide computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributions of pulmonary blood flow per unit lung volume were measured in sitting patients with a radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) by intravenously administered Tc-99m macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). Four different types of distribution were distinguished, among which a group referred as type 2 had a three zonal blood flow distribution as previously reported (West and co-workers, 1964). The pulmonary arterial pressure (Pa) and the venous pressure (Pv) were determined in this group of distribution. These values showed satifactory agreements with the pulmonary artery pressure (Par) and the capillary wedged pressure (Pcw) measured by Swan-Ganz catheter in eighteen supine patients. Those good correlations enable to establish a noninvasive methodology for measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures

  8. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  9. The value to blood establishments of supplier quality audit and of adopting a European Blood Alliance collaborative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Mark J.; Ceulemans, Jan; Ágoston, Stephanie; van Mourik, Peter; Marcou-Cherdel, Céline; Wickens, Betty; Johnstone, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of suppliers of critical goods and services to European blood establishments is a regulatory requirement proving difficult to resource. This study was to establish whether European Blood Alliance member blood services could collaborate to reduce the cost of auditing suppliers without diminishing standards. Materials and method Five blood services took part, each contributing a maximum of one qualified auditor per audit (rather than the usual two). Four audits were completed involving eight auditors in total to a European Blood Alliance agreed policy and process using an audit scope agreed with suppliers. Results Audits produced a total of 22 observations, the majority relating to good manufacturing practice and highlighted deficiencies in processes, procedures and quality records including complaints’ handling, product recall, equipment calibration, management of change, facilities’ maintenance and monitoring and business continuity. Auditors reported that audits had been useful to their service and all audits prompted a positive response from suppliers with satisfactory corrective action plans where applicable. Audit costs totalled € 3,438 (average € 860 per audit) which is no more than equivalent traditional audits. The four audit reports have been shared amongst the five participating blood establishments and benefitted 13 recipient departments in total. Previously, 13 separate audits would have been required by the five blood services. Discussion Collaborative supplier audit has proven an effective and efficient initiative that can reduce the resource requirements of both suppliers and individual blood service’s auditing costs. Collaborative supplier audit has since been established within routine European Blood Alliance management practice. PMID:24553596

  10. Application of Computational Physics: Blood Vessel Constrictions and Medical Infuses

    CERN Document Server

    Suprijadi,; Subekti, Petrus; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Application of computation in many fields are growing fast in last two decades. Increasing on computation performance helps researchers to understand natural phenomena in many fields of science and technology including in life sciences. Computational fluid dynamic is one of numerical methods which is very popular used to describe those phenomena. In this paper we propose moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) and molecular dynamics (MD) to describe different phenomena in blood vessel. The effect of increasing the blood pressure on vessel wall will be calculate using MD methods, while the two fluid blending dynamics will be discussed using MPS. Result from the first phenomenon shows that around 80% of constriction on blood vessel make blood vessel increase and will start to leak on vessel wall, while from the second phenomenon the result shows the visualization of two fluids mixture (drugs and blood) influenced by ratio of drugs debit to blood debit. Keywords: molecular dynamic, blood vessel, fluid dynamic, movin...

  11. Establishing a group of endpoints in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.; Xue, Hanhong

    2016-02-02

    A parallel computer executes a number of tasks, each task includes a number of endpoints and the endpoints are configured to support collective operations. In such a parallel computer, establishing a group of endpoints receiving a user specification of a set of endpoints included in a global collection of endpoints, where the user specification defines the set in accordance with a predefined virtual representation of the endpoints, the predefined virtual representation is a data structure setting forth an organization of tasks and endpoints included in the global collection of endpoints and the user specification defines the set of endpoints without a user specification of a particular endpoint; and defining a group of endpoints in dependence upon the predefined virtual representation of the endpoints and the user specification.

  12. Computational Biorheology of Human Blood Flow in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George Em; Suresh, Subra

    2013-01-01

    Hematologic disorders arising from infectious diseases, hereditary factors and environmental influences can lead to, and can be influenced by, significant changes in the shape, mechanical and physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), and the biorheology of blood flow. Hence, modeling of hematologic disorders should take into account the multiphase nature of blood flow, especially in arterioles and capillaries. We present here an overview of a general computational framework based on diss...

  13. Computational Approach for Developing Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the computational approach to developing a ventricular assist device (VAD) which utilizes NASA aerospace technology. The VAD is used as a temporary support to sick ventricles for those who suffer from late stage congestive heart failure (CHF). The need for donor hearts is much greater than their availability, and the VAD is seen as a bridge-to-transplant. The computational issues confronting the design of a more advanced, reliable VAD include the modelling of viscous incompressible flow. A computational approach provides the possibility of quantifying the flow characteristics, which is especially valuable for analyzing compact design with highly sensitive operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and rocket engine technology has been applied to modify the design of a VAD which enabled human transplantation. The computing requirement for this project is still large, however, and the unsteady analysis of the entire system from natural heart to aorta involves several hundred revolutions of the impeller. Further study is needed to assess the impact of mechanical VADs on the human body

  14. Xenon computed tomographic blood flow mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon CT flow information appears to be clinically useful in the diagnosis and management of a broad spectrum of clinical disorders. It also appears to be a useful tool for the experimental study of the cerebral circulation, with recent work also extending to application to the study of solid abdominal organs. The authors therefore found xenon CT CBF mapping to be a useful new blood flow methodology and are of the opinion that as CT technology improves, one will be able to obtain still better flow information with less accompanying radiation exposure and/or a reduction in the level of xenon inhalation required

  15. The establishment of computed tomography diagnostic reference levels in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of Portuguese computed tomography (CT) examinations, identify protocol application and establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). CT departments (n5211) were surveyed nationally (June 2011-January 2012) and CT protocol information and dose data were collected, as were retrospective age-categorised paediatric CT data from three national paediatric centres. The proposed national CT DRLs (CTDIvol) for adults were 75, 18, 14, 18, 17, 36, 22, 27 and 16 mGy for head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, cervical, dorsal, lumbar and joints, respectively. The levels for paediatric head and chest examinations were as follows: 48 and 2 mGy (newborns), 50 and 6 mGy (5 y olds), 70 and 6 mGy (10 y olds) and 72 and 7 mGy (15 y olds). A limited number of current paediatric protocols aligned to recommended international age categorisations. Portuguese DRLs were generally higher than European recommendations, suggesting potential for optimisation. The need for greater standardisation of age-categorised paediatric protocols was identified. (authors)

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Based Design Optimization Method for Archimedes Screw Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Janiga, Gábor; Thévenin, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    An optimization method suitable for improving the performance of Archimedes screw axial rotary blood pumps is described in the present article. In order to achieve a more robust design and to save computational resources, this method combines the advantages of the established pump design theory with modern computer-aided, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based design optimization (CFD-O) relying on evolutionary algorithms and computational fluid dynamics. The main purposes of this project are to: (i) integrate pump design theory within the already existing CFD-based optimization; (ii) demonstrate that the resulting procedure is suitable for optimizing an Archimedes screw blood pump in terms of efficiency. Results obtained in this study demonstrate that the developed tool is able to meet both objectives. Finally, the resulting level of hemolysis can be numerically assessed for the optimal design, as hemolysis is an issue of overwhelming importance for blood pumps. PMID:26526039

  17. [Establishing an umbilical cord blood bank for unrelated allogenic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichelli, A; Surbek, D; Huxol, H; Schmolck, C; John, L; Wicki, R; Hoffmann, T; Wodnar-Filipowicz, A; Passweg, J; Kühne, T; Imbach, P; Holzgreve, W; Gratwohl, A

    1998-10-17

    We report the establishment of a cord-blood bank in a routine hematological laboratory. Cord-blood collection was performed with placenta in utero by a trained team and immediately sent to the cord-blood bank. There, 6.8 ml cord-blood was used for analysis of nucleated cell counts, counts of CD34-positive cells, CFU's, complete HLA-typing, ABO and Rhesus blood groups, bacteriologic cultures and serology for HIV 1 and 2, HbsAg, HVC, CMV, syphilis and toxoplasmosis. The cord-blood collection was frozen and conserved at -192 degrees C. From each cord-blood vials of DNA, viable cells and plasma were cryopreserved. Between June 1997 and April 1998, 54 cord-bloods were collected. 40 of them were cryo-preserved, and 14 discarded because of low cell counts. The median volume was 109 ml with 1.4 x 10(9) nucleated cells. The in vitro capacity of proliferation of the cord-blood correlated well with the absolute counts of CD34-positive cells (r = 0.93), moderately with the relative counts of CD34 (r = 0.68) as well as the nucleated cells (r = 0.70), poorly with the volume (r = 0.44). Three of the 40 (7.5%) cord-blood products contained a bacterial contamination. This study shows that a cord-blood bank can be organised in a routine hematological laboratory, which is familiar with transplantation products. However, the procedure is time consuming, expensive and requires a highly qualified team and specialised technical equipment. PMID:9824889

  18. Quality management in European screening laboratories in blood establishments: A view of current approaches and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The screening laboratory has a critical role in the post-transfusion safety. The success of its targets and efficiency depends on the management system used. Even though the European Union directive 2002/98/EC requires a quality management system in blood establishments, its requirements for screening laboratories are generic. Complementary approaches are needed to implement a quality management system focused on screening laboratories. This article briefly discusses the current good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices, as well as the trends in quality management system standards. ISO 9001 is widely accepted in some European Union blood establishments as the quality management standard, however this is not synonymous of its successful application. The ISO "risk-based thinking" is interrelated with the quality risk-management process of the EuBIS "Standards and criteria for the inspection of blood establishments". ISO 15189 should be the next step on the quality assurance of a screening laboratory, since it is focused on medical laboratory. To standardize the quality management systems in blood establishments' screening laboratories, new national and European claims focused on technical requirements following ISO 15189 is needed. PMID:25765135

  19. Cerebral blood flow velocities after subarachnoid haemorrhage in relation to the amount of blood clots in the initial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 72 patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) the relationship between the amount of subarachnoid blood clots detected by initial cranial computed tomography (CCT) up to 48 hours after bleeding and the later development of vasospasm, established by blood flow velocity measurement with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) was investigated. The serial Doppler examinations started within the first 72 hours after SAH and were carried out every second day up to three weeks. Each Doppler recording was accompanied by a neurological examination. Patients classified as Hunt and Hess grade V were excluded from the study. All patients with remarkable brain oedema in CCT or with intracranial pressure above 25 mmHg were also excluded. Because of the well known agedependence of vasospasm after SAH, two age groups were formed. A statistically significant correlation (p > 0.05) between blood flow velocities and blood load after SAH was not found. The mean age of the investigated 72 individuals was 48.9 years (14 up to 76 years). 47 patients were younger than 56 years. Linear regression analysis indicated a correlation with a quite low significance level (r = 0.350, p 0.05) between these two variables could be established in the 25 patients older than 55 years. In a second step an intra-individual comparison of side-to-side differences in TCD and CCT was made. There were no significant differences in blood flow velocities between subjects with or without side-to-side differences in cisternal blood load. It is concluded that the amount of blood visible on initial CCT after SAH is not a powerful predictor of cerebral blood flow velocities measured by TCD. (author)

  20. Establishment of a molecular tool for blood meal identification in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernieenor Faraliana Che Lah; Mariana Ahamad; Mohd Subail Haron; Ho Tze Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique based on cytochrome b (cytb) gene of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) for blood meal identification. Methods: The PCR technique was established based on published information and validated using blood sample of laboratory animals of which their whole gene sequences are available in GenBank. PCR was next performed to compile gene sequences of different species of wild rodents. The primers used were complementary to the conserved region of the cytb gene of vertebrate’s mtDNA. A total of 100 blood samples, both from laboratory animals and wild rodents were collected and analyzed. The obtained unknown sequences were compared with those in the GenBank database using BLAST program to identify the vertebrate animal species. Results: Gene sequences of 11 species of wild animals caught in 9 localities of Peninsular Malaysia were compiled using the established PCR. The animals involved were Rattus (rattus) tanezumi, Rattus tiomanicus, Leopoldamys sabanus,Tupaia glis, Tupaia minor, Niviventor cremoriventor, Rhinosciurus laticaudatus, Callosciurus caniseps, Sundamys muelleri, Rattus rajah and Maxomys whiteheadi. The BLAST results confirmed the host with exact or nearly exact matches (>89% identity). Ten new gene sequences have been deposited in GenBank database since September 2010. Conclusions: This study indicates that the PCR direct sequencing system using universal primer sets for vertebrate cytb gene is a promising technique for blood meal identification.

  1. Computational biorheology of human blood flow in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George Em; Suresh, Subra

    2014-02-01

    Hematologic disorders arising from infectious diseases, hereditary factors and environmental influences can lead to, and can be influenced by, significant changes in the shape, mechanical and physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), and the biorheology of blood flow. Hence, modeling of hematologic disorders should take into account the multiphase nature of blood flow, especially in arterioles and capillaries. We present here an overview of a general computational framework based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) which has broad applicability in cell biophysics with implications for diagnostics, therapeutics and drug efficacy assessments for a wide variety of human diseases. This computational approach, validated by independent experimental results, is capable of modeling the biorheology of whole blood and its individual components during blood flow so as to investigate cell mechanistic processes in health and disease. DPD is a Lagrangian method that can be derived from systematic coarse-graining of molecular dynamics but can scale efficiently up to arterioles and can also be used to model RBCs down to the spectrin level. We start from experimental measurements of a single RBC to extract the relevant biophysical parameters, using single-cell measurements involving such methods as optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy and micropipette aspiration, and cell-population experiments involving microfluidic devices. We then use these validated RBC models to predict the biorheological behavior of whole blood in healthy or pathological states, and compare the simulations with experimental results involving apparent viscosity and other relevant parameters. While the approach discussed here is sufficiently general to address a broad spectrum of hematologic disorders including certain types of cancer, this paper specifically deals with results obtained using this computational framework for blood flow in malaria and sickle cell anemia. PMID:24419829

  2. Establishing normal reference values in quantitative computed tomography of emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Benjamin M.; Barr, R Graham

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can provide reliable and valid measures of lung structure and volumes. Similar to lung function and volumes measured by spirometry, lung measures obtained by QCT vary by demographic and anthropomorphic factors including sex, race/ethnicity and height in asymptomatic non-smokers. Hence, some accounting for these factors is necessary to define abnormal from normal QCT values and disease severity. Similar to spirometry and cardiac volumes, prediction equati...

  3. Establishment of rat model of opening blood-brain barrier with conventional whole-brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a rat model of opening blood-brain barrier with conventional whole-brain irradiation. Methods: According to different dosage of irradiation, a hundred Sprague-Dowley rats were randomly assigned into five groups, the control group (no irradiation), and four irradiated groups at 10 grays, 20 grays, 30 grays and 40 grays. The rats were administered to conventional fraction irradiation (2 Gy/day and 5 days a week) with routine 60Co gamma-rays. The intake of feed and autonomic activities were observed every day. Changes in skin and hair in the irradiated field, body weight, and center nervous system symptoms and signs were examined and recorded every week during irradiation. The neurological status was ranked on a scale based on the Mickley's Scale. Ultrastructure changes of blood-brain barrier at 16 hours after the last irradiation were examined with electron microscope using lanthanum trace labeling. Results: Neither abnormal nervous sign, nor change of feed intake, skin and hair was observed in all the rats. No statistically significant difference of body weight was observed among the five groups (P>0.05). The effect that radiation can directly damage the function and structure of blood-brain barrier was proportional to irradiation doses. Conclusion: This rat model is a suitable for study on blood-brain barrier pathophysiology and molecular biology after conventional whole-brain irradiation. (authors)

  4. A Computer Science Educational Program for Establishing an Entry Point into the Computing Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Bruria; Yehezkel, Cecile

    2008-01-01

    The rapid evolvement of the computing domain has posed challenges in attempting to bridge the gap between school and the contemporary world of computing, which is related to content, learning culture, and professional norms. We believe that the interaction of high-school students who major in computer science or software engineering with leading…

  5. Establishment and performance assessment of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; MA, CHUNYA; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; GUAN, XIAOZHEN; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Linfeng; Lin, Zilin; Pan, Jichun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, Deqing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and to optimize the preparation technology of whole blood internal quality control (IQC) products for blood transfusion compatibility testing. Several B-type RhD-negative blood samples collected from healthy donors were mixed. Two groups of whole blood IQC products, namely, the preservative solution group (PS group) and the saline group, were prepared. The agglutination intensity of IQC sample red cells and anti-B antibody, IgM anti-A antibody and revers...

  6. Nicholas Metropolis Award Talk for Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Work in Computational Physics: Computational biophysics and multiscale modeling of blood cells and blood flow in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry

    2011-03-01

    Computational biophysics is a large and rapidly growing area of computational physics. In this talk, we will focus on a number of biophysical problems related to blood cells and blood flow in health and disease. Blood flow plays a fundamental role in a wide range of physiological processes and pathologies in the organism. To understand and, if necessary, manipulate the course of these processes it is essential to investigate blood flow under realistic conditions including deformability of blood cells, their interactions, and behavior in the complex microvascular network. Using a multiscale cell model we are able to accurately capture red blood cell mechanics, rheology, and dynamics in agreement with a number of single cell experiments. Further, this validated model yields accurate predictions of the blood rheological properties, cell migration, cell-free layer, and hemodynamic resistance in microvessels. In addition, we investigate blood related changes in malaria, which include a considerable stiffening of red blood cells and their cytoadherence to endothelium. For these biophysical problems computational modeling is able to provide new physical insights and capabilities for quantitative predictions of blood flow in health and disease.

  7. 77 FR 46096 - Statistical Process Controls for Blood Establishments; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Whole Blood and blood components; (2) statistical methods used for biologic product quality control; (3...: Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the monitoring, or quality control... monitors manufacturing procedures, validation summaries, and quality control data prior to licensure...

  8. A computational model predicting disruption of blood vessel development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kleinstreuer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis and remodeling (angiogenesis come from a variety of biological pathways linked to endothelial cell (EC behavior, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and the local generation of chemokines and growth factors. Simulating these interactions at a systems level requires sufficient biological detail about the relevant molecular pathways and associated cellular behaviors, and tractable computational models that offset mathematical and biological complexity. Here, we describe a novel multicellular agent-based model of vasculogenesis using the CompuCell3D (http://www.compucell3d.org/ modeling environment supplemented with semi-automatic knowledgebase creation. The model incorporates vascular endothelial growth factor signals, pro- and anti-angiogenic inflammatory chemokine signals, and the plasminogen activating system of enzymes and proteases linked to ECM interactions, to simulate nascent EC organization, growth and remodeling. The model was shown to recapitulate stereotypical capillary plexus formation and structural emergence of non-coded cellular behaviors, such as a heterologous bridging phenomenon linking endothelial tip cells together during formation of polygonal endothelial cords. Molecular targets in the computational model were mapped to signatures of vascular disruption derived from in vitro chemical profiling using the EPA's ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS dataset. Simulating the HTS data with the cell-agent based model of vascular development predicted adverse effects of a reference anti-angiogenic thalidomide analog, 5HPP-33, on in vitro angiogenesis with respect to both concentration-response and morphological consequences. These findings support the utility of cell agent-based models for simulating a

  9. The establishment of the Blacknest seismological database on the Rutherford Laboratory system 360/195 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the problems which might arise from monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty by seismological methods, an experimental monitoring operation is being conducted. This work has involved the establishment of a database on the Rutherford Laboratory 360/195 system computer. The database can be accessed in the UK over the public telephone network and in the USA via ARPANET. (author)

  10. Establishment of long-term monocyte suspension cultures from normal human peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The long-term suspension growth of normal, immature myeloid cells from fresh human cord blood was recently reported and required cells separated on supplemented discontinuous Percoll gradients, growth in media containing hydrocortisone and vitamins D3, and gentle, continuous agitation (13). When normal adult bone marrow (six donors) or blood from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive donors (nine donors) was used as a source of fresh human leukocytes, only short-term proliferation of myeloid ...

  11. Android Blood Donor Life Saving Application in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Hilda Jenipha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations, such as accidents, create an immediate, critical need for specific blood type. In addition to emergency requirements, advances in medicine have increased the need for blood in many on-going treatments and elective surgeries. Despite increasing requirements for blood, only about 5% of the Indian population donates blood. In this paper we propose a new and efficient way to overcome such scenarios with our project. We have to create a new idea, just touch the button. Donor will be prompted to enter an individual's details, like name, phone number, and blood type. After that your contact details will appear in alphabetical order on the screen; the urgent time of a blood requirement, you can quickly check for contacts matching a particular or related blood group and reach out to them via Phone Call/SMS through the Blood donor App. Blood Donor App provides list of donors in your city/area. Use this app in case of emergency. A large number of blood donors are attracted using an Android application. Cloud- based services can prove important in emergency blood delivery since they can enable central and immediate access to donors' data and location from anywhere. Since almost everyone carries a mobile phone with him, it ensures instant location tracking and communication. The location-based app, operational on android platform, will help users easily find donors of matching blood groups in their location and access their mobile numbers for instant help. Only a registered person, with willingness to donate blood, will be able to access the service.

  12. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsenik Jernej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with pathologies such as acute stroke, tumors, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank for South Africa: an enquiry into public acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA. PMID:23943126

  14. A computer planning model for blood platelet production and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirelson, V; Brodheim, E

    1991-08-01

    We consider a class of policies for stocking hospital blood banks with units of random donor platelet concentrate ('Platelets') based upon scheduled daily deliveries from a regional blood center to replenish the platelet inventory to a fixed 'base stock' level. The measures of interest are the 'shortage rate' (the proportion of days for which the on-hand inventory at the hospital blood bank is insufficient to meet the demand) and the 'outdate rate' (the proportion of total units shipped which are not transfused within the usable life span of 5 days). Our principal results give a predictive model which relates the base stock level to the shortage rate and outdate rate. Our model uses only the mean daily demand as a parameter. It provides a basis to unify the results from other studies which have demonstrated improvements in platelet inventory management in particular hospitals and blood centers. PMID:1752123

  15. Interventional model establishment and computed tomography perfusion imaging for early diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish interventionally a new canine model of focal cerebral infarction suitable to the study of imaging diagnosis and thrombolytic therapy, and to evaluate the application of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in super acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods: Ten beagle adult dogs with self white thrombi of venous blood, injected into the left internal carotid arteries through 4F headhunter catheter selectively were created under fluoroscopic guidance. The cerebral angiography was performed before and after the embolization and the patency of the occluded cerebral arteries was observed with angiography at 1, 2 and 5 hours after the procedure. The CTP was performed at 2 hours after embolization. These dogs were sacrificed and their cerebra were taken out for pathologic study at 24th hour. Results: The occlusions of middle cerebral artery were shown angiographically in all 10 dogs with additional other cerebral arteries occlusion in 4. All occluded arteries were not recanalized at 2 hours after embolization, but the occluded arteries of 2 canines were partly recanalized at 5 hours. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was decreased to 48.3% ± 13.2% (33.7%-69.2%) in CTP of 9 canines showing no significant difference between digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CTP (P>0.05). All dogs were survived at 24 hours without any severe complications. The cerebral infarction was found in deep part of cerebrum of all dogs. Conclusions: The establishment of acute cerebral infarction model in dogs with interventional technique is simple, micro invasive and reliable, for investigating CTP as a fast, accurate and no invasive method in evaluating the canine super acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. (authors)

  16. Blood vessel segmentation for neck and head computed tomography angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Hedblom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents tests and discussions evaluating different methods for doing automatic or semi automatic blood vessel segmentation on single CT data volumes of the head and neck. The two approaches being closest to accomplish this are a bone subtracting registration process, and a more advanced region growing combined with morphology.

  17. Cerebral blood flow measurements using electron beam computed tomography (EBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In close collaboration with the participants of the TEMPUS-Project Nr. 11117 a new technical and theoretical approach was developed to estimate cerebral blood flow using i.v. applied contrast agent and evaluating the cerebral time density curves using EBT as imaging method. This new approach and first clinical results are described. (author)

  18. In vitro model of the blood-brain barrier established by co-culture of primary cerebral microvascular endothelial and astrocyte cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Wang; Ning Wang; Biao Cai; Guang-yun Wang; Jing Li; Xing-xing Piao

    2015-01-01

    Drugs for the treatment and prevention of nervous system diseases must permeate the blood-brain barrier to take effect. In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier are therefore important in the investigation of drug permeation mechanisms. However, to date, no unified method has been described for establishing a blood-brain barrier model. Here, we modified an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier by seeding brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes from newborn rats on a polyest...

  19. Blood supply of the insular cortex of Cercopithecus Aethiops: Another approach to establish non-human primate model for addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Branislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-human primate model has already been applied in studies about alcoholism in the last decade, demonstrating a high confidence level of similarities between humans and non-human monkeys. Authors indented to establish the definitive model for addiction by investigating the insular blood supply in Cercopithecus Aethiops. In 23 out of 24 Latex injected adult brains, the insula received blood supplied by the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. The cortex was supplied by two separate trunks, while perforating branches originating directly from MCA, individually, or together with lateral striate (lenticulostriate arteries. Their average caliber was about 120 µm, and the number of its branches ranged from 2 to 9. No left - right asymmetries have been recorded. Similarities with the human vascular pattern have been studied. .

  20. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Dix, David; Rountree, Michael; Baker, Nancy; Sipes, Nisha; Reif, David; Spencer, Richard; Knudsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a variety of biological pathways linked to endothelial cell (EC) behavior, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and the local generation of chemokines and growth factors. Simulating these interactions at a systems level req...

  1. Computational Prediction of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Decision Tree Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Huwyler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability is essential to drug development, as a molecule cannot exhibit pharmacological activity within the brain parenchyma without first transiting this barrier. Understanding the process of permeation, however, is complicated by a combination of both limited passive diffusion and active transport. Our aim here was to establish predictive models for BBB drug permeation that include both active and passive transport. A database of 153 compounds was compiled using in vivo surface permeability product (logPS values in rats as a quantitative parameter for BBB permeability. The open source Chemical Development Kit (CDK was used to calculate physico-chemical properties and descriptors. Predictive computational models were implemented by machine learning paradigms (decision tree induction on both descriptor sets. Models with a corrected classification rate (CCR of 90% were established. Mechanistic insight into BBB transport was provided by an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO-based binary classifier analysis to identify the most predictive chemical substructures. Decision trees revealed descriptors of lipophilicity (aLogP and charge (polar surface area, which were also previously described in models of passive diffusion. However, measures of molecular geometry and connectivity were found to be related to an active drug transport component.

  2. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDIw, CTDIvol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDIvol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  3. Establishment of a new calibration method of pencil ionization chamber for dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pencil ionization chambers are used for beam dosimetry in computed tomography equipment (CT). In this study, a new calibration methodology was established, in order to make the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LCI) suitable to international metrological standards, dealing with specific procedures for calibration of these chambers used in CT. Firstly, the setup for the new RQT radiation qualities was mounted, in agreement with IEC61267 from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). After the establishment of these radiation qualities, a specific calibration methodology for pencil ionization chambers was set, according to Technical Report Series No. 457, from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which describes particularities of the procedure to be followed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDL's), concerning to collimation and positioning related to the radiation beam. Initially, PPV (kV) measurements and the determination of copper additional filtrations were carried out, measuring the half value layers (HVL) recommended by the IEC 61267 standard, after that the RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10 radiation quality references were established. For additional filters, aluminum and copper of high purity (around 99.9%) were used. RQT's in thickness of copper filters equivalent to the set 'RQR (Al) + Additional Filtration (Cu)' was directly found by an alternative methodology used to determine additional filtrations, which is a good option when RQR's have not the possibility of be setting up. With the establishment of this new methodology for the ionization pencil chambers calibration, the LCI is ready to calibrate these instruments according to the most recent international standards. Therefore, an improvement in calibration traceability, as well as in metrological services offered by IPEN to all Brazil is achieved. (author)

  4. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resource countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. (authors)

  5. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  6. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDIw ), volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv ), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDIw, CTDIv , and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDIv and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level. (author)

  7. Relative value of computed tomography scanning and venous sampling in establishing the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative merits of the postural simulation test, adrenal computed tomography (CT) and venous sampling in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with primary hyperaldosteronism. The records of 20 patients presenting with primary hyperaldosteronism were reviewed retrospectively. There were 15 patients with a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), 4 patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) and 1 patient with primary adrenal hyperplasia (PAH). Bilateral venous sampling of adrenal veins was attempted in all patients and blood collected for aldosterone and cortisol assay. Plasma aldosterone concentration increased after 4 h of standing in all cases of hyperplasia, but was also demonstrated in 10/15 patients with a surgically-proven APA. CT scanning correctly identified all 15 cases of APA and also classified correctly the remaining 5 cases of hyperplasia. CT scanning may be used alone to confirm the cause of hyperaldosteronism where postural studies suggest an adrenal adenoma, and such patients may be considered for early surgery. 21 refs

  8. Demonstration of blood brain barrier injury by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) injury was evoked by the injection of hypertonic solution, 50% glucose or 80% sodium iothalamate, through the catheter placed in the common carotid artery of the adult mongrel dogs. Plain CT and then contrast CT were performed at 30 minutes intervals until 3 hours to determine the relationship between the degrees of contrast enhancement (CE) and the amount of injected hypertonic solution, and to examine the diminishing rates of CE according to time elapsed after the intravenous contrast injection. Another four groups of dogs received contrast CT immediately, at 1, 2 and 3 hours after the injection of hypertonic solution to examine the degree of repair of BBB injury. Contrast media, which was leaked through BBB injured by the injection of hypertonic solution, was recognized by CT, and the area of CE coincided exactly with the dyed area by Evans blue, injected intravenously after induction of BBB injury. Degrees of CE were found to correlate linearly to the amount of hypertonic solution within a certain range. These results indicate that CT can demonstrate BBB injury qualitatively and quantitatively. In sequential CT after the artificial injury of BBB, degree of CE diminished linearly with a half life of about 3 hours. Hydrocortisone accelerated this washout of leaked contrast media. Repair of BBB itself, determined by contrast CT which were performed at 1, 2 and 3 hours after the induction of BBB injury, has been accomplished until 3 hours, and not affected by the administration of hydrocortisone. These experimental results suggest that CT is the most promising method to detect quantitatively and non-invasively the degree and the extent of BBB injury in clinical cases. (J.P.N.)

  9. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF BLOOD FLOW IN ARTERIES AFFECTED BY MULTIPLE ANEURYSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. GIRIJA BAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is a numerical simulation of hemodynamics in blood vessels with multiple fusiform aneurysms. Dilation of 0.25 is considered. Using computational fluid dynamics, hemodynamic factors such as velocity and pressure are investigated. The problem is solved by finite volume method. Numerical simulation is prescribed using the CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. High pressure and low velocity is observed in the region of aneurysm. This is an indication to the interruption of blood flow. These techniques based on computer flow study are important for understanding the relationship between hemodynamic parameters and risk of rupture.

  10. Establishment and validation of computational model for MT1-MMP dependent ECM degradation and intervention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hoshino

    Full Text Available MT1-MMP is a potent invasion-promoting membrane protease employed by aggressive cancer cells. MT1-MMP localizes preferentially at membrane protrusions called invadopodia where it plays a central role in degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM. Previous reports suggested a role for a continuous supply of MT1-MMP in ECM degradation. However, the turnover rate of MT1-MMP and the extent to which the turnover contributes to the ECM degradation at invadopodia have not been clarified. To approach this problem, we first performed FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching experiments with fluorescence-tagged MT1-MMP focusing on a single invadopodium and found very rapid recovery in FRAP signals, approximated by double-exponential plots with time constants of 26 s and 259 s. The recovery depended primarily on vesicle transport, but negligibly on lateral diffusion. Next we constructed a computational model employing the observed kinetics of the FRAP experiments. The simulations successfully reproduced our FRAP experiments. Next we inhibited the vesicle transport both experimentally, and in simulation. Addition of drugs inhibiting vesicle transport blocked ECM degradation experimentally, and the simulation showed no appreciable ECM degradation under conditions inhibiting vesicle transport. In addition, the degree of the reduction in ECM degradation depended on the degree of the reduction in the MT1-MMP turnover. Thus, our experiments and simulations have established the role of the rapid turnover of MT1-MMP in ECM degradation at invadopodia. Furthermore, our simulations suggested synergetic contributions of proteolytic activity and the MT1-MMP turnover to ECM degradation because there was a nonlinear and marked reduction in ECM degradation if both factors were reduced simultaneously. Thus our computational model provides a new in silico tool to design and evaluate intervention strategies in cancer cell invasion.

  11. Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist. PMID:22256137

  12. In vitro model of the blood-brain barrier established by co-culture of primary cerebral microvascular endothelial and astrocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs for the treatment and prevention of nervous system diseases must permeate the blood-brain barrier to take effect. In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier are therefore important in the investigation of drug permeation mechanisms. However, to date, no unified method has been described for establishing a blood-brain barrier model. Here, we modified an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier by seeding brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes from newborn rats on a polyester Transwell cell culture membrane with 0.4-µm pores, and conducted transepithelial electrical resistance measurements, leakage tests and assays for specific blood-brain barrier enzymes. We show that the permeability of our model is as low as that of the blood-brain barrier in vivo. Our model will be a valuable tool in the study of the mechanisms of action of neuroprotective drugs.

  13. Study on Speciation of Pr(III) in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Speciation of Pr(III) in human blood plasma has been investigated by computer simulation. The speciation and distribution of Pr(III) has been obtained. It has been found that most of Pr(III) is bound to phosphate and to form precipitate. The results obtained are in accord with experimental observations.

  14. Particle image velocimetry experimental and computational investigation of a blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Gui, Xingmin; Huang, Hui; Shen, Yongbin; Yu, Ziwen; Zhang, Yan

    2012-06-01

    Blood pumps have been adopted to treat heart failure over the past decades. A novel blood pump adopting the rotor with splitter blades and tandem cascade stator was developed recently. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to verify the design of the blood pump based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and further analyze the flow properties in the rotor and stator. The original sized pump model with an acrylic housing and an experiment loop were constructed to perform the optical measurement. The PIV testing was carried out at the rotational speed of 6952±50 r/min with the flow rate of 3.1 l/min and at 8186±50 r/min with 3.5 l/min, respectively. The velocity and the Reynolds shear stress distributions were investigated by PIV and CFD, and the comparisons between them will be helpful for the future blood pump design.

  15. Brain blood flow studies with single photon emission computed tomography in patients with plateau waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied brain blood flow with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in two patients with plateau waves. The intracranial pressure and blood pressure were also monitored continuously in these patients. They included one patient with brain-tumor (rt. sphenoid ridge meningioma) and another with hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of lt. internal carotid aneurysm. The intracranial pressure was monitored through an indwelling ventricular catheter attached to a pressure transducer. The blood pressure was recorded through an intraarterial catheter placed in the dorsalis pedis artery. Brain blood flow was studied with Headtome SET-011 (manufactured by Shimazu Co., Ltd.). For this flow measurement study, an intravenous injection of Xenon-133 of about 30 mCi was given via an antecubital vein. The position of the slice for the SPECT was selected so as to obtain information not only from the cerebral hemisphere but also from the brain stem : a cross section 25 deg over the orbito-meatal line, passing through the inferior aspect of the frontal horn, the basal ganglia, the lower recessus of the third ventricle and the brain stem. The results indicated that, in the cerebral hemisphere, plateau waves were accompanied by a decrease in blood flow, whereas, in the brain stem, the blood flow showed little change during plateau waves as compared with the interval phase between two plateau waves. These observations may explain why there is no rise in the blood pressure and why patients are often alert during plateau waves. (author)

  16. The Food and Drug Administration Is Now Preparing to Establish Tighter Performance Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Klonoff, David C.

    2010-01-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) ...

  17. Cerebral blood flow SPECT may be helpful in establishing the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 4 cases, which illustrate the usefulness of neuroimaging studies in atypical forms of Parkinsonism. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD) are rare neurodegenerative progressive disorders of the central nervous system of unknown cause. The clinical accuracy in this diagnosis is not very high even in centres specialising in movement disorders. Functional imaging can be helpful in diagnosing PSP and CBD. We present the results of cerebral blood flow (CBF) SPECT scanning in 2 patients with PSP and 2 patients with CBD. This was performed using a triple-head gammacamera and 99mTc-HMPAO. In PSP patients a diffuse frontal perfusion deficit was seen, eventually with striatal and occipital hypoperfusion. CT/MRI was either normal or showed a diffuse cortical-subcortical atrophy. In CBD patients left fronto-parieto-temporal cortex and a striatal hypoperfusion were shown. CT scanning was normal in one case and showed an asymmetrical temporo-parietal atrophy in second one. The pattern of diffuse frontal perfusions deficit in PSP and asymmetrical, contralateral to symptoms of CBD, cortico-subcortical hypoperfusion may be helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (author)

  18. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  19. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and hemolysis analysis of axial blood pumps with various impeller structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dongdong; ZHAO Chunzhang; ZHANG Xiwen; BAI Jing

    2006-01-01

    The flow fields in the blood pump were analyzed three-dimensionally using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).Hemolysis of the pump was calculated based on the changes in shear stress and related exposure times along the particle trace lines using a forward Euler approach. In this way, how different impeller structures and rotational speeds affect the hemolysis was particularly acquired. As a result, impeller with long-short alternant vanes behaved best in hemolysis property and can be utilized to axial blood pumps' development and design.

  20. Computational Prediction of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Decision Tree Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg Huwyler; Felix Hammann; Claudia Suenderhauf

    2012-01-01

    Predicting blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is essential to drug development, as a molecule cannot exhibit pharmacological activity within the brain parenchyma without first transiting this barrier. Understanding the process of permeation, however, is complicated by a combination of both limited passive diffusion and active transport. Our aim here was to establish predictive models for BBB drug permeation that include both active and passive transport. A database of 153 compounds was co...

  1. Shape optimization of the diffuser blade of an axial blood pump by computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lailai; Zhang, Xiwen; Yao, Zhaohui

    2010-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been a viable and effective way to predict hydraulic performance, flow field, and shear stress distribution within a blood pump. We developed an axial blood pump with CFD and carried out a CFD-based shape optimization of the diffuser blade to enhance pressure output and diminish backflow in the impeller-diffuser connecting region at a fixed design point. Our optimization combined a computer-aided design package, a mesh generator, and a CFD solver in an automation environment with process integration and optimization software. A genetic optimization algorithm was employed to find the pareto-optimal designs from which we could make trade-off decisions. Finally, a set of representative designs was analyzed and compared on the basis of the energy equation. The role of the inlet angle of the diffuser blade was analyzed, accompanied by its relationship with pressure output and backflow in the impeller-diffuser connecting region. PMID:20447042

  2. Study and establishment of a computer program for radiotherapy treatment planning development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern radiotherapy requires the use of computers. In addition to their accuracy, computers involve an appreciable saving of time in the calculation of isodoses, permitting us to change several times a technique in order to choose the best dose distribution for each case of tumor. The aim of this work was to set a computer program calculating a suitable dose distribution for a given treatment. The algorithm of calculation of the depth dose used in our program permits us to calculate the dose distribution for all photon energies used in radiotherapy, whatever are the energy and modification of the field by the use of wedge filters or bolus

  3. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose

  4. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  5. Establishing a Service Model of Private Elastic VPN for cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Gupta; Ashok Verma

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of elastic VPN serviceswith Hypervisor on Cloud Computing. Under the CloudComputing mainly VPN is a IaaS cloud services which is createfor small unit business and medium size company which isbased on pay-as- much as used policy. Under this we proposed amethod through which we simply create an VPN network , andalso show the concept of Hypervisor which truly adjust theresources dynamically and the Load Balancing Algorithm isused which balanced the work loa...

  6. Establishing a Service Model of Private Elastic VPN for cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the concept of elastic VPN serviceswith Hypervisor on Cloud Computing. Under the CloudComputing mainly VPN is a IaaS cloud services which is createfor small unit business and medium size company which isbased on pay-as- much as used policy. Under this we proposed amethod through which we simply create an VPN network , andalso show the concept of Hypervisor which truly adjust theresources dynamically and the Load Balancing Algorithm isused which balanced the work load dynamically and also adjustthe resources by need and it also improve the scalability andavailability of the resources for the better performance of thenetwork.

  7. Establishment of a brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography database in children by statistical imaging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We made a 3-dimensional, 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) database in children by a statistical analysis. We selected 52 individuals between 1 and 15 years of age whose brain SPECT and brain MRI findings were normal, and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. By comparing databases obtained for each group, an age-dependent change of regional cerebral blood flow was investigated. The results showed that the relative blood flow increases in the frontal lobe and cerebeller hemisphere and decrease in the occipital lobe with increasing age, findings consistent with those of previous reports. This database enabled us to easily find 3-dimensional brain perfusion abnormality in individual patient by SPECT, and may help elucidate the pathophysiology of many brain disorders. (author)

  8. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Blood Values (Establishing hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges for wild Hawaiian Monk Seals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hematology and serum chemistry evaluations are essential to a patients comprehensive health exam by providing measures of organ function, blood cell volume and...

  9. Establishment of a Computer Assisted Instructional Program to Teach Managerial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    1981-01-01

    The rapid growth of the health care industry demands that nurse managers be competent in decision making. The development of a computer assisted instructional package designed to meet this demand is described. Utilizing a branching technique, a decision model, written in FORTRAN, presents a user with decision junctures in selected scenarios. The model aids in teaching as well as evaluating managerial decision making.

  10. Computer simulation of blood flow and colour doppler studies of experimental aneurysms: A correlative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent interest in the use endovascular techniques to treat cerebral aneurysm has stimulated the investigation of the role played by hemodynamic factors such as blood velocity and wall shear stress before and after aneurysmal creation. The purpose of this research is to create an animal model with a view to assay the feasibility of using a new angiographic-data-based computer simulation in evaluating the hemodynamics of aneurysms. Colour Doppler flow direction analysis measurements are used to validate the computer simulation. The analysis of the obtained data demonstrates that both colour Doppler and computer simulation are complementary. Both procedures show a rapid reversal of flow direction within the aneurysmal cavity during one cardiac cycle, and a shear stress increase in the proximal and distal neck of the aneurysm. 15 refs., 10 figs. (author)

  11. 3D Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flows in Vessels and in the Aortic Arch: Investigation of Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Human Blood

    CERN Document Server

    Sultanov, Renat A; Engelbrekt, Brent; Blankenbecler, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics are applied to simulate pulsatile blood flow in human vessels and in the aortic arch. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated in simple vessels of actual size. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of two different geometries are presented. For pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and widely used method in literature: a simple Newtonian approximation. A significant increase of the strain rate and, as a result, wall sear stress distribution, is found in the region of the aortic arch. We consider this result as theoretical evidence that supports existing clinical observations and those models not using non-Newtonian treatment underestimate the risk of disru...

  12. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted. PMID:25967984

  13. Established and Emerging Trends in Computational Drug Discovery in the Structural Genomics Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Baell, Jonathan B.; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Villoutreix, Bruno O.

    2012-01-01

    Bioinformatics and chemoinformatics approaches contribute to hit discovery, hit-to-lead optimization, safety profiling, and target identification and enhance our overall understanding of the health and disease states. A vast repertoire of computational methods has been reported and increasingly...... combined in order to address more and more challenging targets or complex molecular mechanisms in the context of large-scale integration of structure and bioactivity data produced by private and public drug research. This review explores some key computational methods directly linked to drug discovery and...... chemical biology with a special emphasis on compound collection preparation, virtual screening, protein docking, and systems pharmacology. A list of generally freely available software packages and online resources is provided, and examples of successful applications are briefly commented upon....

  14. Reliability of lower limb alignment measures using an established landmark-based method with a customized computer software program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sled, Elizabeth A; Sheehy, Lisa M; Felson, David T; Costigan, Patrick A; Lam, Miu; Cooke, T Derek V

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the reliability of frontal plane lower limb alignment measures using a landmark-based method by (1) comparing inter- and intra-reader reliability between measurements of alignment obtained manually with those using a computer program, and (2) determining inter- and intra-reader reliability of computer-assisted alignment measures from full-limb radiographs. An established method for measuring alignment was used, involving selection of 10 femoral and tibial bone landmarks. (1) To compare manual and computer methods, we used digital images and matching paper copies of five alignment patterns simulating healthy and malaligned limbs drawn using AutoCAD. Seven readers were trained in each system. Paper copies were measured manually and repeat measurements were performed daily for 3 days, followed by a similar routine with the digital images using the computer. (2) To examine the reliability of computer-assisted measures from full-limb radiographs, 100 images (200 limbs) were selected as a random sample from 1,500 full-limb digital radiographs which were part of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study. Three trained readers used the software program to measure alignment twice from the batch of 100 images, with two or more weeks between batch handling. Manual and computer measures of alignment showed excellent agreement (intraclass correlations [ICCs] 0.977-0.999 for computer analysis; 0.820-0.995 for manual measures). The computer program applied to full-limb radiographs produced alignment measurements with high inter- and intra-reader reliability (ICCs 0.839-0.998). In conclusion, alignment measures using a bone landmark-based approach and a computer program were highly reliable between multiple readers. PMID:19882339

  15. Numerical reconstruction of pulsatile blood flow from 4D computer tomography angiography data

    CERN Document Server

    Lovas, Attila; Csobo, Elek; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Sótonyi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel numerical algorithm developed to reconstuct pulsatile blood flow from ECG-gated CT angiography data. A block-based optimization method was constructed to solve the inverse problem corresponding to the Riccati-type ordinary differential equation that can be deduced from conservation principles and Hooke's law. Local flow rate for 5 patients was computed in 10cm long aorta segments that are located 1cm below the heart. The wave form of the local flow rate curves seems to be realistic. Our approach is suitable for estimating characteristics of pulsatile blood flow in aorta based on ECG gated CT scan thereby contributing to more accurate description of several cardiovascular lesions.

  16. Prediction of shear stress-related hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps by computational fluid dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fangqun; LI Lan; FENG Zhigang; QIAN Kunxi

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of shear stress-related hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps with different impeller designs has been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to track the shear stress history of the streamlines of red cells. The power law model of the relations among the hemolysis, shear stress and exposure time is used to evaluate the hemolysis in the pumps.Hemolysis tests are also conducted to verify the estimations. Both the estimations and experimentally measured hemolysis levels show that the hemolysis in the streamlined impeller pump developed by the authors is lower than the pump with straight-vane under the same boundary conditions. The approach is proved to be acceptable and practical to predict hemolysis levels of blood pumps.

  17. Postmortem computed tomography with the use of air for blood vessel enhancement-Early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska-Solonynko, Aleksandra; Solonynko, Bohdan; Fudalej, Marcin; Żyłkowski, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Computed tomography routinely performed in clinical medicine involves intravenous contrast administration. Unfortunately, postmortem examinations are typically limited to uncontrasted CT scans, where blood vessels and their potential injury sites are invisible. One serious problem is the fact that due to the process of decomposition, contrast agents used for vessel visualization in the living cannot be used in cadavers. Therefore, a special contrast agent designed for cadavers has been developed. This contrast agent has a high density and is lipophilic. Its use ensures very good visualization of blood vessels it is, however, associated with high costs and may alter findings of a later histopathological examination. This study presents early experience with the air as negative contrast agent to enhance all blood vessels in the body. The carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used as a contrast agent in live individuals with contraindications against the use of iodinated contrast. In corpses with advanced postmortem changes, putrefaction gases also considerably enhance the visibility of blood vessels and organs they fill. There have also been some positive effects with the use of gas in postmortem angiography of coronary vessels. These findings encouraged us to attempt air administration via catheters introduced into the femoral artery or a central venous access site in the superior vena cava. The gas distributed easily throughout the body and surprisingly well contrasted both arteries and veins of various caliber. The presence of the air administered into vessels did not cause any apparent, significant alterations in autopsy findings. Although optimization of the gas administration technique requires further studies, we can already say that this is a promising direction in postmortem angiography. PMID:26921814

  18. Scientific and Organizational Problems Connected with the Establishment of Bone-Marrow and Blood-Component Banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the results of studies carried out with a view to devising rational means for the long-term preservation of bone-marrow and blood cells at ultra- low temperatures. Attention is especially directed to freezing conditions and cryoprotective agents. The paper stresses the significance of the apparatus that has been constructed for programmed freezing operations and analyses the data regarding bone-marrow donors. The present level of knowledge in regard to the preservation of bone-marrow and blood components makes it possible to organize banks for their long-term storage, thereby permitting more extensive clinical use of bone-marrow transplantation and haemotherapy. (author)

  19. Assessing regional cerebral blood flow in depression using 320-slice computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    Full Text Available While there is evidence that the development and course of major depressive disorder (MDD symptomatology is associated with vascular disease, and that there are changes in energy utilization in the disorder, the extent to which cerebral blood flow is changed in this condition is not clear. This study utilized a novel imaging technique previously used in coronary and stroke patients, 320-slice Computed-Tomography (CT, to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in those with MDD and examine the pattern of regional cerebral perfusion. Thirty nine participants with depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 24 (HAMD24 score > 20, and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS score > 53 and 41 healthy volunteers were studied. For all subjects, 3 ml of venous blood was collected to assess hematological parameters. Transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound was utilized to measure parameters of cerebral artery rCBFV and analyse the Pulsatility Index (PI. 16 subjects (8 =  MDD; 8 =  healthy also had rCBF measured in different cerebral artery regions using 320-slice CT. Differences among groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson's tests were employed in our statistical analyses. Compared with the control group, whole blood viscosity (including high\\middle\\low shear rateand hematocrit (HCT were significantly increased in the MDD group. PI values in different cerebral artery regions and parameters of rCBFV in the cerebral arteries were decreased in depressive participants, and there was a positive relationship between rCBFV and the corresponding vascular rCBF in both gray and white matter. rCBF of the left gray matter was lower than that of the right in MDD. Major depression is characterized by a wide range of CBF impairments and prominent changes in gray matter blood flow. 320-slice CT appears to be a valid and promising tool for measuring rCBF, and could thus be employed in psychiatric settings for biomarker and treatment response purposes.

  20. Role of dental pulp in identification of the deceased individual by establishing ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Aswath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: As the teeth are the hardest, most stable biological material, resist adverse environmental conditions and the pulpal tissue inside the teeth is well protected, the blood group antigen from pulp remains stable for long. Thus, the high potential value of dental pulp tissue is highlighted in this study.

  1. Establishment of a real-time PCR for quantifying transforming growth factor beta1 in blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background: The carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial, multistep and complex process. Its prognosis is poor and early detection is of the utmost importance. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) message RNA (mRNA) has been reported to be elevated in HCC patients using Northern blotting. However, little work has been done about the detection of TGF-β1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood of patients with HCC using the real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) method. Objective: To assess the prognostic value of quantitative levels of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with HCC, and to investigate the relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood and many diagnostic and pathological factors. Methods: We developed an optimized Taqman real-time PCR to quantify TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of 53 patients with HCC and 44 healthy volunteers. In addition, blood was collected from patients with HCC for measuring levels of total bilirubin (TBil), prealbumin, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), viral load and platelet counts. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software system (SPSS 10.0). Results: In real-time PCR, fluorescence was detectable in all blood specimens from patients with HCC and healthy volunteers. The levels of TGF-β1 mRNA expression in patients with HCC were significantly higher compared to that in healthy volunteers (P<0.000 1), suggesting an association of the activated TGF-β1 gene transcription with hepatocarcinogenesis. Patients with HCC were divided into 2 groups according to their TGF-β1 mRNA above (group A, n=28) or below (group B, n=25) the mean level. Statistical results demonstrated that TGF-β1 mRNA expression level was correlated with patients age, serum levels of CEA

  2. Establishment of scatter factors for use in shielding calculations and risk assessment for computed tomography facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification of shielding for CT facilities in the UK and many other countries has been based on isodose scatter curves supplied by the manufacturers combined with the scanner's mAs workload. Shielding calculations for radiography and fluoroscopy are linked to a dose measurement of radiation incident on the patient called the kerma–area product (KAP), and a related quantity, the dose-length product (DLP), is now employed for assessment of CT patient doses. In this study the link between scatter air kerma and DLP has been investigated for CT scanners from different manufacturers. Scatter air kerma values have been measured and scatter factors established that can be used to estimate air kerma levels within CT scanning rooms. Factors recommended to derive the scatter air kerma at 1 m from the isocentre are 0.36 µGy (mGy cm)−1 for the body and 0.14 µGy (mGy cm)−1 for head scans. The CT scanner gantries only transmit 10% of the scatter air kerma level and this can also be taken into account when designing protection. The factors can be used to predict scatter air kerma levels within a scanner room that might be used in risk assessments relating to personnel whose presence may be required during CT fluoroscopy procedures.

  3. Validation of an axial flow blood pump: computational fluid dynamics results using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Boyang; Chua, Leok Poh; Wang, Xikun

    2012-04-01

    A magnetically suspended axial flow blood pump is studied experimentally in this article. The pump casing enclosed a three-blade straightener, a two-blade impeller shrouded by a permanent magnet-embedded cylinder, and a three-blade diffuser. The internal flow fields were simulated earlier using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the pump characteristic curves were determined. The simulation results showed that the internal flow field was basically streamlined, except the diffuser region. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of the 1:1 pump model was conducted to validate the CFD result. In order to ensure the optical access, an acrylic prototype was fabricated with the impeller driven by a servomotor instead, as the magnet is opaque. In addition to the transparent model, the blood analog fluid with the refractive index close to that of acrylic was used to avoid refraction. According to the CFD results, the axial flow blood pump could generate adequate pressure head at the rotating speed of 9500rpm and flow rate of 5L/min, and the same flow condition was applied during the PIV measurement. Through the comparisons, it was found that the experimental results were close to those obtained by CFD and had thus validated the CFD model, which could complement the limitation of the measurement in assessing the more detailed flow fields of the axial flow pump. PMID:22040356

  4. The re-establishment of the normal blood lactate response to exercise in humans after prolonged acclimatization to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A; Søndergaard, H; Saltin, B

    1. One to five weeks of chronic exposure to hypoxia has been shown to reduce peak blood lactate concentration compared to acute exposure to hypoxia during exercise, the high altitude 'lactate paradox'. However, we hypothesize that a sufficiently long exposure to hypoxia would result in a blood...... lowlanders acclimatized for 9 weeks to an altitude of 5260 m, the arterial lactate concentration was similar at 0 m acute hypoxia and 5260 m chronic hypoxia. The net lactate release from the active leg was higher at 5260 m chronic hypoxia compared to 0 m acute hypoxia, implying an enhanced lactate...... utilization with prolonged acclimatization to altitude. The present study clearly shows the absence of a lactate paradox in lowlanders sufficiently acclimatized to altitude....

  5. Establishment of computed tomography reference dose levels in Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to apply European Commission (EC) Reference Dose Levels (RDL) in Computed Tomography (CT) examinations at Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center (OCSC). These are weighted CT Dose Index (CTDIw ) for a single slice and Dose-Length Product (DLP) for a complete examination. During the period 1998-1999, the total number of CT examinations, every type of CT examination, patient related data and technical parameters of the examinations were recorded. The most frequent examinations were chosen for investigation which were the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. CTDI measurements were performed and CTDIw and DLP were calculated. Third Quartile values of CTDIw were chosen to be 43mGy for head, 8mGy for chest, and 22mGy for abdomen and pelvis examinations. Third quartile values of DLP were chosen to be 740mGycm for head, 370mGycm for chest, 490mGycm for abdomen and 420mGycm for pelvis examination. Results confirm that OCSC follows successfully the proposed RDL for the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations in terms of radiation dose. (author)

  6. Microarterial anastomoses: A parameterised computational study examining the effect of suture position on intravascular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, R A J; Hammond, D; McPhillips, M; Whitty, J P M; Ahmed, W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the extent to which individual aspects of suture placement influence local haemodynamics within microarterial anastomoses. An attempt to physically quantify flow characteristics of blood past microvascular sutures is made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Particular focus has been placed on increased shear strain rate (SSR), a known precipitant of intravascular platelet activation and thrombosis. Measurements were taken from micrographs of sutured anastomoses in chicken femoral vessels, with each assessed for bite width, suture angle and suture spacing. Computational geometries were then created to represent the anastomosis. Each suture characteristic was parameterised to allow independent or simultaneous adjustment. Flow rates were obtained from anonymised Doppler ultrasound scans of analogous vessels during preoperative assessment for autologous breast reconstruction. Vessel simulations were performed in 2.5mm ducts with blood as the working fluid. Vessel walls were non-compliant and a continuous Newtonian flow was applied, in accordance with current literature. Suture bite angle and spacing had significant effects on local haemodynamics, causing notably higher local SSRs, when simulated at extremes of surgical practice. A combined simulation, encompassing subtle changes of each suture parameter simultaneously i.e. representing optimum technique, created a more favourable SSR profile. As such, haemodynamic changes associated with optimum suture placement are unlikely to influence thrombus formation significantly. These findings support adherence to the basic principles of good microsurgical practice. PMID:26876115

  7. Comparison of Myelography and computed tomography in establishing lumbar disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, M.K.J.; Thelander, U.E.

    The results of lumbar myelography and computed tomography (CT) were compared in 51 consecutive patients with clinically suggested lumbar disc herniation. A total of 100 intervertebral levels were examined. At 62 levels, either L4/L5 or L5/S1, myelography was normal. CT showed no pathologic changes at 55 levels. The results concurred between myelography and CT in 89% of the patients with normal findings. Four cases of disc herniation and one bulging disc, which had been missed at myelography because of a large epidural space at L5/S1, were picked up by CT. Two of these were verified by surgery and two were treated conservatively. There was one possible false negative case with CT as well. Abnormalities were shown at 38 intervertebral levels, 22 in the bulging and 16 in the herniated disc group. The pathologic changes concurred in 84% between the two investigations. For intervertebral disc herniation the true negative rate was, for myelography 88% and for CT 97%. The treatment strategy could have been based on CT alone at 37 out of 38 levels (97%), and on myelography alone at 34 out of 38 levels (89%). Furthermore, at CT the imaging of soft tissues and intervertebral joints was superior to that at myelography. It is concluded that CT should be the primary examination method of imaging for lumbar disc herniation. Myelography is, however, to be preferred where the level of the lesion is clinically unclear or when the entire lumbar region and thoraco-lumbar junction are to be examined. (orig.).

  8. ESTABLISHING A METHODOLOGY FOR BENCHMARKING SPEECH SYNTHESIS FOR COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zöe Handley

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the new possibilities that speech synthesis brings about, few Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL applications integrating speech synthesis have found their way onto the market. One potential reason is that the suitability and benefits of the use of speech synthesis in CALL have not been proven. One way to do this is through evaluation. Yet, very few formal evaluations of speech synthesis for CALL purposes have been conducted. One possible reason for the neglect of evaluation in this context is the fact that it is expensive in terms of time and resources. An important concern given that there are several levels of evaluation from which such applications would benefit. Benchmarking, the comparison of the score obtained by a system with that obtained by one which is known, to guarantee user satisfaction in a standard task or set of tasks, is introduced as a potential solution to this problem. In this article, we report on our progress towards the development of one of these benchmarks, namely a benchmark for determining the adequacy of speech synthesis systems for use in CALL. We do so by presenting the results of a case study which aimed to identify the criteria which determine the adequacy of the output of speech synthesis systems for use in its various roles in CALL with a view to the selection of benchmark tests which will address these criteria. These roles (reading machine, pronunciation model, and conversational partner are also discussed here. An agenda for further research and evaluation is proposed in the conclusion.

  9. Computational modelling of blood-flow-induced changes in blood electrical conductivity and its contribution to the impedance cardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have shown that blood-flow-induced change in electrical conductivity is of equal importance in assessment of the impedance cardiogram (ICG) as are volumetric changes attributed to the motion of heart, lungs and blood vessels. To better understand the sole effect of time-varying blood conductivity on the spatiotemporal distribution of trans-thoracic electric fields (i.e. ICG), this paper presents a segmented high-resolution (1 mm3) thoracic cardiovascular system, in which the time-varying pressures, flows and electrical conductivities of blood in different vessels are evaluated using a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations, red blood cell orientation and cardiac cycle functions. Electric field and voltage simulations are performed using two and four electrode configurations delivering a small alternating electric current to an anatomically realistic and electrically accurate model of modelled human torso. The simulations provide a three-dimensional electric field distribution and show that the time-varying blood conductivity alters the voltage potential difference between the electrodes by a maximum of 0.28% for a cardiac output of about 5 L min−1. As part of a larger study, it is hoped that this initial model will be useful in providing improved insights into blood-flow-related spatiotemporal electric field variations and assist in the optimal placement of electrodes in impedance cardiography experiments

  10. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: Implications for non-invasive monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Colleen E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); College of Charleston, Grice Marine Laboratory, 205 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States)], E-mail: colleen.bryan@nist.gov; Christopher, Steven J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, Florida 34236 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n = 51) and skin (n = 40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r = 0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  11. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: Implications for non-invasive monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n = 51) and skin (n = 40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r = 0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  12. A Framework for a Smart Social Blood Donation System Based on Mobile Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Almetwally M.; Youssef, Ahmed E.; Alshorbagy, Gamal

    2014-01-01

    Blood Donation and Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) are crucial for saving people lives. Recently, worldwide efforts have been undertaken to utilize social media and smartphone applications to make the blood donation process more convenient, offer additional services, and create communities around blood donation centers. Blood banks suffer frequent shortage of blood; hence, advertisements are frequently seen on social networks urging healthy individuals to donate blood for patients who urgent...

  13. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (pdolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends established in this study will serve as a benchmark for comparison and aid in sampling design for future monitoring of this population and other coastal bottlenose dolphin populations. PMID:17870146

  14. A finite element framework for high performance computer simulation of blood flow in the left ventricle of the human heart

    OpenAIRE

    Spühler, Jeannette Hiromi; Jansson, Johan; Jansson, Niclas; HOFFMAN, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Progress in medical imaging, computational fluid dynamics and high performance computing enables computer simulations to evolve as a significant tool to enhance our understanding of the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and hemodynamics. The field of cardiac flow simulations is highly interdisciplinary and challenging. Therefore, the aim of our research is to build a simple and reliable framework for modeling and simulation of the blood flow in the heart that is both easy to modify...

  15. Blood flow measurement in human brain by 133Xe inhalation and single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerbral blood flow (rCBF) was studied tomographically in 39 volunteers in the resting state by single photon emission computed tomography with inhalation of 133Xe. In each study, rCBF in 3 slices of 2 cm thickness was measured simultaneously and changes of radioactivity in the brain were stored on the magnetic disk in 32 x 32 matrix. Activity in the arterial blood was measured by a stationary collimated scintillation detector kept over the upper chest on the right side. The algorithm for calculation of tomographic rCBF was based on a combination of ''sequence of picture method'' and ''early picture method''. Mean rCBF and its standard deviation were obtained in each pixel calculated from the rCBF value. The tomographic rCBF map having a resolution element of 17 x 17 x 20 mm were symmetrical in left and right pattern. The average cerebral and, cerebellar blood flow was 56+-8 and 54+-6 ml/100g/min respectively. Correlation between rCBF and PaCO2 was significant (P<0.01; r=0.7) and the one between rCBF and age was also significant (P<0.05; r=-0.3). When visual activation was made in one volunteer, rCBF in the occipital lobe increased and a slight increase was also noted in the frontal area. In auditory activation, rCBF in the temporal lobe increased on both sides. In stroke patients, abnormal findings appeared earlier in the rCBF study than in X-ray CT scan. (J.P.N.)

  16. Computed tomography and blood gas analysis of anesthetized bloodhounds with induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly severe degrees of pneumothorax were produced in 6 adult anesthetized bloodhounds. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed on each dog to evaluate the effects of pneumo thorax on thoracic and on pulmonary cross-sectional area (TA and PA). Arterial PO2 (PaO2) and PCO2 (PaCO2), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were determined and related to the severity of pneumothorax. Volumes of air equal to 1, 1.5 and 2 times functional residual capacity of the lung produced approximately 33%, 40%, and 50% reductions in pulmonary area respectively. These amounts of atelectasis correspond to a radiographically “moderate” degree of pneumothorax. As severity of pneumothorax increased, thoracic area consistently increased, PaO2 consistently decreased, and PaCO2 consistently increased, with all being statistically significant relationships (p0.2)

  17. Parallel Adaptive Computation of Blood Flow in a 3D ``Whole'' Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M.; Figueroa, C. A.; Taylor, C. A.; Sahni, O.; Jansen, K. E.

    2008-11-01

    Accurate numerical simulations of vascular trauma require the consideration of a larger portion of the vasculature than previously considered, due to the systemic nature of the human body's response. A patient-specific 3D model composed of 78 connected arterial branches extending from the neck to the lower legs is constructed to effectively represent the entire body. Recently developed outflow boundary conditions that appropriately represent the downstream vasculature bed which is not included in the 3D computational domain are applied at 78 outlets. In this work, the pulsatile blood flow simulations are started on a fairly uniform, unstructured mesh that is subsequently adapted using a solution-based approach to efficiently resolve the flow features. The adapted mesh contains non-uniform, anisotropic elements resulting in resolution that conforms with the physical length scales present in the problem. The effects of the mesh resolution on the flow field are studied, specifically on relevant quantities of pressure, velocity and wall shear stress.

  18. A Computational Fluid Dynamic Study of Blood Flow Within the Coiled Umbilical Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, David; Denier, James; Mattner, Trent; Khong, Yee

    2013-11-01

    The umbilical cord is the lifeline of the fetus throughout gestation. In a normal pregnancy it facilitates the supply of oxygen and nutrients from the placenta via a single vein, in addition to the return of deoxygenated blood from the developing embryo or fetus via two umbilical arteries. Despite the major role it plays in the growth of the fetus, pathologies of the umbilical cord are poorly understood. In particular, variations in the cord geometry, which typically forms a helical arrangement, have been correlated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy. Cords exhibiting either abnormally low or high levels of coiling have been associated with pathological results including growth-restriction and fetal demise. Despite this, the methodology currently employed by clinicians to characterize umbilical pathologies can misdiagnose cords and is prone to error. In this talk a computational model of blood flow within rigid three-dimensional structures representative of the umbilical arteries will be presented. This study determined that the current characterization was unable to differentiate between cords which exhibited clinically distinguishable flow properties, including the cord pressure drop, which provides a measure of the loading on the fetal heart.

  19. Computational and in vitro studies of blast-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Del Razo, Mauricio J; Meabon, James S; Huber, B Russell; Peskind, Elaine R; Banks, William A; Mourad, Pierre D; Leveque, Randall J; Cook, David G

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern that blast-exposed individuals are at risk of developing neurological disorders later in life. Therefore, it is important to understand the dynamic properties of blast forces on brain cells, including the endothelial cells that maintain the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which regulates the passage of nutrients into the brain and protects it from toxins in the blood. To better understand the effect of shock waves on the BBB we have investigated an {\\em in vitro} model in which BBB endothelial cells are grown in transwell vessels and exposed in a shock tube, confirming that BBB integrity is directly related to shock wave intensity. It is difficult to directly measure the forces acting on these cells in the transwell container during the experiments, and so a computational tool has been developed and presented in this paper. Two-dimensional axisymmetric Euler equations with the Tammann equation of state were used to model the transwell materials, and a high-resolution finite volume method b...

  20. Computational Modelling of Blood Flow Development and Its Characteristics in Magnetic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Chandra Shit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of concern in this paper is an investigation of the entrance length behind singularities in cardiovascular hemodynamics under magnetic environment. In order to get better interpretation of scan MRI images, the characteristics of blood flow and electromagnetic field within the circulatory system have to be furthermore investigated. A 3D numerical model has been developed as an example of blood flowing through a straight circular tube. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluid flow are reduced to a nondimensional form, which are then characterized by four dimensionless parameters. With an aim to validate our numerical approach, the computational results are compared with those of the analytical solution available in the developed region far from the singularity. The hydraulic impedance by unit length within the developed flow region increases with the magnetic field. The time average entrance length with a greater precision on the unsteady case decreases with increasing magnetic field strength. The overall voltage characteristics do not depend on the developed flow field within the entry region.

  1. In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Models-An Overview of Established Models and New Microfluidic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Anette; Antfolk, Maria; Brodin, Birger; Tenje, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The societal need for new central nervous system (CNS) medicines is substantial, because of the global increase in life expectancy and the accompanying increase in age-related CNS diseases. Low blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability has been one of the major causes of failure for new CNS drug candidates. There has therefore been a great interest in cell models, which mimic BBB permeation properties. In this review, we present an overview of the performance of monocultured, cocultured, and triple-cultured primary cells and immortalized cell lines, including key parameters such as transendothelial electrical resistance values, permeabilities of paracellular flux markers, and expression of BBB-specific marker proteins. Microfluidic systems are gaining ground as a new automated technical platform for cell culture and systematic analysis. The performance of these systems was compared with current state-of-the-art models and it was noted that, although they show great promise, these systems have not yet reached beyond the proof-of-concept stage. In general, it was found that there were large variations in experimental protocols, BBB phenotype markers, and paracellular flux markers used. It is the author's opinion that the field may benefit greatly from developing standardized methodologies and initiating collaborative efforts on optimizing culture protocols. PMID:25630899

  2. Computational modeling of non-Newtonian blood flow through stenosed arteries in the presence of magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshare, Aiman; Tashtoush, Bourhan; El-Khalil, Hossam H

    2013-11-01

    Steady flow simulations of blood flow in an axisymmetric stenosed artery, subjected to a static magnetic field, are performed to investigate the influence of artery size, magnetic field strength, and non-Newtonian behavior on artery wall shear stress and pressure drop in the stenosed section. It is found that wall shear stress and pressure drop increase by decreasing artery size, assuming non-Newtonian fluid, and increasing magnetic field strength. In the computations, the shear thinning behavior of blood is accounted for by the Carreau-Yasuda model. Computational results are compared and found to be inline with available experimental data. PMID:24061603

  3. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Han, Min-Young; Cho, Young-Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies. PMID:26915613

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow in status epileptics measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amineoxime (HM-PAO) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in status epileptics (SE) caused by a cerebral vascular accident. In addition, we have discussed the neurophysiology of SE based on the SPECT findings. A total of sixteen patients (5 males and 11 females, average age; 78.2 years old) with SE who were suffering from prolonged consciousness disturbance were investigated. When SPECT was performed in the ictal state, there was a remarkable increase in radio isotope (RI) uptake at the focus which correlated well with EEG findings. However, in other cortical regions, basal ganglia and thalamus, there was a relatively demonstrated decrease in RI uptake compared with that of the focus. Additionally in the interictal state, we found a decrease in RI uptake in the epileptic foci and normal recovery of the RI uptake level in other cerebral regions. We speculate that these characteristic patterns of cerebral blood flow distribution shown by SPECT scans in the ictal state reflect the state of consciousness disturbance due to SE. In general, in the elderly, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis between prolonged consciousness disturbance due to nonconvulsive SE and other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, dehydration, metabolic disorder, etc. Nevertheless, nonconvulsive SE causes diffuse cell loss and irreversible brain damage. Therefore the elderly who have suffered from prolonged consciousness disturbance due to SE need an exact diagnosis and immediate medical treatment. When we diagnose a nonconvulsive SE, the characteristic findings of SPECT scans in the ictal state are very clear and useful. In conclusion, SPECT is a very simple and non-invasive method that demonstrates abnormalities of brain function exactly. Therefore, we should perform not only EEC but also SPECT scans when making a diagnosis of SE. (author)

  5. Pulmonary blood volume imaging with dual-energy computed tomography: Spectrum of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, K.D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Flors, L.; Housseini, A.M.; Phull, A. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Ali Ahmad, E. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Department of Radiology, Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Bozlar, U.; Norton, P.T. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Bonatti, H.J.R. [Department of Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Dual-energy (DE) pulmonary blood volume (PBV) computed tomography (CT) has recently become available on clinical CT systems. The underlying physical principle of DECT is the fact that the photoelectric effect is strongly dependent on the CT energies resulting in different degrees of x-ray attenuation for different materials at different energy levels. DECT thus enables the characterization and quantification of iodine within tissues via imaging at different x-ray energies and analysis of attenuation differences. Technical approaches to DECT include dual-source scanners acquiring two scans with different energy levels simultaneously, and single-source CT scanners using sandwich detectors or rapid voltage switching. DE PBV CT enables the creation of iodine maps of the pulmonary parenchyma. Experience to date shows that these studies can provide additional physiological information in patients with acute or chronic pulmonary embolism beyond the pure morphological assessment a standard CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) provides. It appears also to be promising for the evaluation of patients with obstructive airways disease. This article reviews the physics and technical aspects of DE PBV CT as well as the appearance of normal and abnormal lung tissue on these studies. Special consideration is given to pitfalls and artefacts.

  6. Computing the blood brain barrier (BBB) diffusion coefficient: A molecular dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Pedram, Maysam Z.; Heidari, Hossein; Alasty, Aria

    2016-07-01

    Various physical and biological aspects of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) structure still remain unfolded. Therefore, among the several mechanisms of drug delivery, only a few have succeeded in breaching this barrier, one of which is the use of Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs). However, a quantitative characterization of the BBB permeability is desirable to find an optimal magnetic force-field. In the present study, a molecular model of the BBB is introduced that precisely represents the interactions between MNPs and the membranes of Endothelial Cells (ECs) that form the BBB. Steered Molecular Dynamics (SMD) simulations of the BBB crossing phenomenon have been carried out. Mathematical modeling of the BBB as an input-output system has been considered from a system dynamics modeling viewpoint, enabling us to analyze the BBB behavior based on a robust model. From this model, the force profile required to overcome the barrier has been extracted for a single NP from the SMD simulations at a range of velocities. Using this data a transfer function model has been obtained and the diffusion coefficient is evaluated. This study is a novel approach to bridge the gap between nanoscale models and microscale models of the BBB. The characteristic diffusion coefficient has the nano-scale molecular effects inherent, furthermore reducing the computational costs of a nano-scale simulation model and enabling much more complex studies to be conducted.

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the relationship between the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular dementia, eleven patients with vascular dementia and eight patients with non-demented infarction were studied and regional CBF were measured quantitatively with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. All cases were basal infarction and vascular dementia were diagnosed by less than 21.5 of the Hasegawa's dementia score and more than 7 of Hachinsk's ischemic score. The results of the present study were as follows: (1) Cerebrovascular dementia showed lower mean CBF value compared with non-demented group. (2) Regional CBF of bilateral frontal areas and affected basal ganglia were significantly reduced than occipital area in the dementia group. (3) A comparison of regional CBF and the Hasegawa's dementia score revealed a statistically significant correlation at the bilateral frontal areas in the dementia group. It is possible that measuring the regional CBF quantitatively by IMP-SPECT is useful for clinical analysis of vascular dementia. (author)

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Pulsatile Blood Flow Behavior in Modelled Stenosed Vessels with Different Severities

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Mehrabi; Saeed Setayeshi

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is gove...

  9. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  10. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  11. Cerebral blood flow determination within the first 8 hours of cerebral infarction using stable xenon-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow mapping with stable xenon-enhanced computed tomography (Xe/CT) was performed in conjunction with conventional computed tomography (CT) within the first 8 hours after the onset of symptoms in seven patients with cerebral infarction. Six patients had hemispheric infarctions, and one had a progressive brainstem infarction. Three patients with very low (less than 10 ml/100 g/min) blood flow in an anatomic area appropriate for the neurologic deficit had no clinical improvement by the time of discharge from the hospital; follow-up CT scans of these three patients confirmed infarction in the area of very low blood flow. Three patients with moderate blood flow reductions (15-45 ml/100 g/min) in the appropriate anatomic area had significant clinical improvement from their initial deficits and had normal follow-up CT scans. One patient studied 8 hours after stroke had increased blood flow (hyperemia) in the appropriate anatomic area and made no clinical recovery

  12. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla; Rudenick, Paula A.; Fatima Crispi; Monica Cruz-Lemini; Georgina Palau; Oscar Camara; Eduard Gratacos; Bijnens, Bart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding ...

  13. Computational Modeling of Open-Irrigated Electrodes for Radiofrequency Cardiac Ablation Including Blood Motion-Saline Flow Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Suárez, Ana; Berjano, Enrique; Guerra, Jose M.; Gerardo-Giorda, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a routine treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. During RFCA, the electrode-tissue interface temperature should be kept below 80°C to avoid thrombus formation. Open-irrigated electrodes facilitate power delivery while keeping low temperatures around the catheter. No computational model of an open-irrigated electrode in endocardial RFCA accounting for both the saline irrigation flow and the blood motion in the cardiac chamber has been proposed yet. We present the first computational model including both effects at once. The model has been validated against existing experimental results. Computational results showed that the surface lesion width and blood temperature are affected by both the electrode design and the irrigation flow rate. Smaller surface lesion widths and blood temperatures are obtained with higher irrigation flow rate, while the lesion depth is not affected by changing the irrigation flow rate. Larger lesions are obtained with increasing power and the electrode-tissue contact. Also, larger lesions are obtained when electrode is placed horizontally. Overall, the computational findings are in close agreement with previous experimental results providing an excellent tool for future catheter research. PMID:26938638

  14. SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY OF REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH HEMISPATIAL NEGLECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雅芙; 任艳; 李亚明

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To explore the correlations between the occurrence and severity of neglect and the region,range or extent of the decrease in regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF). Methods. Nineteen dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as unilateral stroke clinically and hemispatial neglect by a neglect test battery received single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) scans. Results. On images,the damages of patients with neglect were seen most frequently in the frontal cortex,and then in turn in the parietal cortex,occipital cortex,temporal cortex,basal ganglia and thalamus. Most patients with neglect had two or more regions damaged. The most significant region was temporal-parietal-occipi-tal(TPO)junction. The correlation coefficient between rCBF and the severity of neglect was -0.34(t=-1.5,P>0.05),and that between the decrease percentage of rCBF and the severity of neglect was 0.34(t=1.47,P>0.05). The correlation coefficients between the range,number of foci,the flow deficit size and the severity of neglect were 0.71(t=4.13,P<0.01),0.70(t=4.07,P<0.01)and 0.64(t=3.40, P<0.01),respectively. Conclusions. The severity of neglect correlates with rCBF and the decrease percentage of rCBF insignificantly,but correlates positively with the range,number of foci and the flow deficit size significantly. Hemispatial neglect is caused by the damage of multiple sites and combined damage results in more severe neglect.

  15. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Pulsatile Blood Flow Behavior in Modelled Stenosed Vessels with Different Severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is governed by the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, the stenosis shape is cosine by using Tu and Devil model. Comparing the results obtained from three stenosed vessels with 30%, 50%, and 75% area severity, we find that higher percent-area severity of stenosis leads to higher extrapressure jumps and higher blood speeds around the stenosis site. Also, we observe that the size of the stenosis in stenosed vessels does influence the blood flow. A little change on the cross-sectional value makes vast change on the blood flow rate. This simulation helps the people working in the field of physiological fluid dynamics as well as the medical practitioners.

  17. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. METHODS: Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27 and uninfected controls (n = 20 were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls. From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for

  18. Study on Effect of Gd (III) Speciation on Ca (II) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ca (II) speciation and effect of Gd (III) speciation on Ca (II) speciation in human blood plasma were studied by computer simulation. [CaHCO3]+ is a predominant compound species of Ca (II). Gd (III) can compete with Ca (II) for biological molecules. The presence of Gd (III) results in a increase of concentration of free Ca (II) and a decrease of concentration of Ca (II) compounds.

  19. Automated computational framework of blood vessel quantification in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Hong, Jinsheng; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong

    2014-10-01

    Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay has been widely used for finding drugs targeting new blood vessel development in cancer research. In addition to the setup materials and protocols, laboratory findings depend on the quantification and analysis of microscopic blood vessel images. However, it is still a challenging problem because of the high complexity of blood vessel branching structures. We applied preprocessing on CAM microscopic images by keeping the integrity of minor branches in the vessel structure. We then proposed an efficient way to automatically extract blood vessel centerlines based on vector tracing starting from detected seed points. Finally, all branches were coded to construct an abstract model of the branching structure, which enabled more accurate modeling for in-depth analysis. The framework was applied in quantifying Icaritin (ICT) inhibition effects on angiogenesis in a CAM model. Experimental results showed the high accuracy in blood vessel quantification and modeling compared with semimanual measurements. Meanwhile, a set of blood vessel growth indicators were extracted to provide fully automated analysis for angiogenesis assays. Further analysis proved that ICT took effect in a dose-dependent manner which could be applied in suppressing tumor blood vessel growth.

  20. Automated computational framework of blood vessel quantification in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Hong, Jinsheng; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong

    2014-01-01

    Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay has been widely used for finding drugs targeting new blood vessel development in cancer research. In addition to the setup materials and protocols, laboratory findings depend on the quantification and analysis of microscopic blood vessel images. However, it is still a challenging problem because of the high complexity of blood vessel branching structures. We applied preprocessing on CAM microscopic images by keeping the integrity of minor branches in the vessel structure. We then proposed an efficient way to automatically extract blood vessel centerlines based on vector tracing starting from detected seed points. Finally, all branches were coded to construct an abstract model of the branching structure, which enabled more accurate modeling for in-depth analysis. The framework was applied in quantifying Icaritin (ICT) inhibition effects on angiogenesis in a CAM model. Experimental results showed the high accuracy in blood vessel quantification and modeling compared with semimanual measurements. Meanwhile, a set of blood vessel growth indicators were extracted to provide fully automated analysis for angiogenesis assays. Further analysis proved that ICT took effect in a dose-dependent manner which could be applied in suppressing tumor blood vessel growth. PMID:25277148

  1. Establishment of blood glucose fluctuation diabetic rats model%大鼠糖尿病血糖波动模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖洁; 雷闽湘; 胡维

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨利用胰岛素建立大鼠糖尿病血糖波动模型.方法 取60只SD大鼠随机分成正常组(n=20)和模型组(n=40),高糖高脂饲料喂养模型组SD大鼠6周后用小剂量链尿佐菌素(STZ)30 mg/KS腹腔注射诱导建立糖尿病模型,模型成功后将其随机分成持续高糖组(n=20)和血糖波动组(n=20).血糖波动组大鼠每日2次皮下注射普通胰岛素诱导血糖波动,从而建立糖尿病大鼠血糖波动模型.观察大鼠"三多一少"症状,血糖变化情况.结果 (1)血糖波动组和持续组的"三多一少"症状明显.(2)血糖波动组的SDBG,LAGE明显高于正常组[(8.56 ±0.49)mmol/L vs (0.69 ±0.05)mmol/L,(23.15±2.51)mmol/L vs(2.14±0.52)mmol/L]及持续组[(8.56±0.49)mmol/L vs(3.25±0.26)mmol/L,(23.15±2.51)mmol/L vs(9.45±2.46)mmol/L],持续组的MBG(24.66±3.32)mmol/L高于正常组(6.10±0.75)mmol/L及波动组(18.16±8.91)mmoL/L.(3)持续组和波动组的24 h尿蛋白均较普通组明显增加[(100.38±7.99)mg/24 h vs(18.13±1.41)mg/24h,(123.71±11.23)mg/24 h vg(18.13±1.41)mg/24 h],差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),波动组较持续组增加[(123.71±11.23)mg/24 h ys(100.38±7.99)mg/24 h],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 使用每日皮下注射两次胰岛素的方法能成功制作出糖尿病大鼠血糖波动模型,并可作为研究血糖波动及其并发症的理想动物模型.%Objective To establish the blood glucose fluctuation diabetic rat model by subcutaneous injecting insulin. Method The male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into two groups, normal group ( n =20) and model group ( n =40). Normal group rats were fed with normal diet, model group rats were fed with a high-sucrose-high-fat diet. After 6 weeks, a low dose of streptozotocin ( STZ ,30mg/kg) was injected to induce hyperglycemia in model group rats. And then the model group rats were ran-dom divided into two subgroups, diabetic group ( n = 20) and blood glucose fluctuation group ( n = 20

  2. N-13 ammonia for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial blood flow by positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics and characteristics of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia as an indicator of blood flow in the myocardium were evaluated in open-chest dogs. Its utility as an imaging agent was tested in animals and man

  3. N-13 ammonia for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial blood flow by positron emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetics and characteristics of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia as an indicator of blood flow in the myocardium were evaluated in open-chest dogs. Its utility as an imaging agent was tested in animals and man. (PSB)

  4. Margination of white blood cells - a computational approach by a hydrodynamic phase field model

    CERN Document Server

    Marth, Wieland

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate margination of white blood cells and demonstrate the dependency on a number of conditions including hematocrit, the deformability of the cells and the Reynolds number. A detailed mesoscopic hydrodynamic Helfrich-type model is derived, validated and used for the simulations to provides a quantitative description of the margination of white blood cells. Previous simulation results, obtained with less detailed models, could be confirmed, e.g. the largest probability of margination of white blood cells at an intermediate range of hematocrit values and a decreasing tendency with increasing deformability. The consideration of inertia effects, which become of relevance in small vessels, also shows a dependency and leads to less pronounced margination of white blood cells with increasing Reynolds number.

  5. Computational and in vitro studies of blast-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Del Razo, Mauricio J.; MOROFUJI, Yoichi; Meabon, James S.; Huber, B. Russell; Peskind, Elaine R.; Banks, William A; Mourad, Pierre D.; LeVeque, Randall J.; Cook, David G.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern that blast-exposed individuals are at risk of developing neurological disorders later in life. Therefore, it is important to understand the dynamic properties of blast forces on brain cells, including the endothelial cells that maintain the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which regulates the passage of nutrients into the brain and protects it from toxins in the blood. To better understand the effect of shock waves on the BBB we have investigated an {\\em in vitro} model in ...

  6. Computational Modelling of Blood Flow Development and Its Characteristics in Magnetic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Chandra Shit

    2013-01-01

    Of concern in this paper is an investigation of the entrance length behind singularities in cardiovascular hemodynamics under magnetic environment. In order to get better interpretation of scan MRI images, the characteristics of blood flow and electromagnetic field within the circulatory system have to be furthermore investigated. A 3D numerical model has been developed as an example of blood flowing through a straight circular tube. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of m...

  7. The short-to-mid-term blood gas changes after TIPS with the shunting established at different sites of portal vein for the treatment of hepatopulmonary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the short-to-mid-term blood gas changes in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) after receiving TIPS with the shunting established at different sites of portal vein. Methods: During the period from July 2008 to May 2013, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) was employed in treating clinically - proved HPS at the hospital. A total of 81 cases had complete material, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 81 cases, shunting was established at the main branch of portal vein in 30 (group A), at the left branch of portal vein in 24 (Group B) and at the right branch of portal vein in 27 (Group C). After TIPS all the patients were followed up for 3- 12 months. With the patients laying in horizontal position and receiving no oxygen inhalation, A-aPO2, PaO2 and SO2 levels were determined both before and after TIPS. The results were analyzed and compared between each other among the three groups by using paired t-test. Results: Half months after TIPS, A-aPO2, PaO2 and SO2 levels of group A and group B showed a significant improvement when compared with those determined before TIPS (P<0.05), while no significant differences in A-aPO2, PaO2 and SO2 levels were found in group C after TIPS (P>0.05). Three months after TIPS, A-aPO2, PaO2 and SO2 levels of group A and group B still showed an obvious improvement when compared with those determined before TIPS (P<0.05), while in group C only the A-aPO2 level showed a significant improvement when compared with that determined before TIPS (P<0.05). Twelve months after TIPS, A-aPO2, PaO2 and SO2 levels of group B still showed a significant improvement when compared with those determined before TIPS (P<0.05), while those of group A and group C showed no significant changes when compared with those determined before TIPS (P>0.05). Conclusion: In performing TIPS for the treatment of hepatopulmonary syndrome, to establish the shunting at the main branch of portal vein

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  9. Computational micro-scale model of control of extravascular water and capillary perfusion in the air blood barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Enrico; Aliverti, Andrea; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    A computational model of a morphologically-based alveolar capillary unit (ACU) in the rabbit is developed to relate lung fluid balance to mechanical forces between capillary surface and interstitium during development of interstitial edema. We hypothesize that positive values of interstitial liquid pressure Pliq impact on capillary transmural pressure and on blood flow. ACU blood flow, capillary recruitment and filtration are computed by modulating vascular and interstitial pressures. Model results are compared with experimental data of Pliq increasing from ~-10 (control) up to ~4cmH2O in two conditions, hypoxia and collagenase injection. For hypoxia exposure, fitting data requires a linear increase in hydraulic conductivity Lp and capillary pressure PC, that fulfils the need of increase in oxygen delivery. For severe fragmentation of capillary endothelial barrier (collagenase injection), fitting requires a rapid increase in both hydraulic and protein permeability, causing ACU de-recruitment, followed by an increase in PC as a late response to restore blood flow. In conclusion, the model allows to describe the lung adaptive response to edemagenic perturbations; the increase in Pliq, related to the low interstitial compliance, provides an efficient control of extravascular water, by limiting microvascular filtration. PMID:27059893

  10. Choice of blood rheology model has minor impact on computational assessment of shear stress mediated vascular risk

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, Miguel O; Groen, Derek; Carver, Hywel B; Hetherington, James; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations to the homeostatic distribution of mechanical forces exerted by blood on the endothelial layer have been correlated with vascular pathologies including intracranial aneurysms and atherosclerosis. Recent computational work suggests that in order to correctly characterise such forces, the shear-thinning properties of blood must be taken into account. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been compared against experimentally observed pathological thresholds. In the current work, we apply the three-band diagram (TBD) analysis due to Gizzi et al. to assess the impact of the choice of blood rheology model on a computational model of the right middle cerebral artery. Our results show that the differences between the wall shear stress predicted by a Newtonian model and the well known Carreau-Yasuda generalized Newtonian model are only significant if the vascular pathology under study is associated with a pathological threshold in the range 0.94 Pa to 1.56 Pa, where the results of the T...

  11. Computational Dynamics of Arterial Blood Flow in the Presence of Magnetic Field and Thermal Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinyoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a numerical study to determine the influence of magnetic field and thermal radiation on both velocity and temperature distributions in a single blood vessel. The model here assumes that blood is a Newtonian incompressible conducting fluid with radially varying viscosity due to hematocrit variation. The transient equations of momentum and energy transport governing the flow in an axisymmetric configuration are solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Results are presented graphically and discussed both qualitatively and quantitatively from the physiological point of view. The results of this work may enhance current understanding of the factors that determine the effects of hyperthermia treatment on tumor tissues.

  12. A method for calculating regional cerebral blood flow from emission computed tomography of inert gas concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celsis, P; Goldman, T; Henriksen, L; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    Emission tomography of positron or gamma emitting inert gases allows calculation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in cross-sectional slices of human brain. An algorithm is presented for rCBF calculations from a sequence of time averaged tomograms using inhaled 133Xe. The approach is designe...

  13. Linkage analysis of systolic blood pressure: a score statistic and computer implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Yingwei; Wang Kai

    2003-01-01

    Abstract A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted on systolic blood pressure using a score statistic. The randomly selected Replicate 34 of the simulated data was used. The score statistic was applied to the sibships derived from the general pedigrees. An add-on R program to GENEHUNTER was developed for this analysis and is freely available.

  14. Establishment of Elevated Serum Levels of IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as Potential Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Tubercular Lymphadenitis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhimanyu; Bose, Mridula; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Jain, Ashima; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Tiwari, Pradeep Kumar; Agrawal, Anurag; Banavaliker, Jayant Nagesh; Bhowmick, Kumar Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubercular lymphadenitis (TL) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) consisting about 15–20% of all TB cases. The currently available diagnostic modalities for (TL), are invasive and involve a high index of suspicion, having limited accuracy. We hypothesized that TL would have a distinct cytokine signature that would distinguish it from pulmonary TB (PTB), peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (LNTB), healthy controls (HC), other lymphadenopathies (LAP) and cancerous LAP. To assess this twelve cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)—α, Interferon (IFN) -γ, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4, IL-1Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8 and TNF-β, which have a role in pathogenesis of tuberculosis, were tested as potential peripheral blood biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of TL when routine investigations prove to be of limited value. Methods and Findings A prospective observational cohort study carried out during 2010–2013. This was a multi-center study with three participating hospitals in Delhi, India where through random sampling cohorts were established. The subjects were above 15 years of age, HIV-negative with no predisposing ailments to TB (n = 338). The discovery cohort (n = 218) had LNTB (n = 50), PTB (n = 84) and HC (n = 84). The independent validation cohort (n = 120) composed of patients with cancerous LAP (n = 35), other LAP (n = 20) as well as with independent PTB (n = 30), LNTB (n = 15) and HC (n = 20). Eight out of twelve cytokines achieved statistical relevance upon evaluation by pairwise and ROC analysis. Further, variable selection using random forest backward elimination revealed six serum biosignatures including IL-12, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as optimal for classifying the LNTB status of an individual. For the sake of clinical applicability we further selected a three analyte panel (IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-β) which was subjected to multinomial modeling in the independent

  15. The necessity of the use of social networks as an ingredient of computer-integrated marketing communications for advancement of higher educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostiuk Mariia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The volume of demand and supply on educational services constantly grows and education becomes the perspective sphere of the Ukrainian economy. In the conditions of the permanent increased competition between educational establishments, it is impossible to do without marketing, namely - to marketing of educational services. The article substantiates the necessity of the use of computer-integrated marketing communications in advancement of higher educational establishment. It considers questions of advancement of higher educational establishments and educational services in Internet, analyses indexes of advancement of higher educational establishment in «VKontakte» social network. The recommendations for the promotion of universities in social networks were formulated on the basis of the study results.

  16. Computational blood flow and vessel wall modeling in a CT-based thoracic aorta after stent-graft implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazer, Dilana; Stoll, Markus; Schmidt, Eduard; Richter, Goetz-M.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2010-03-01

    Abnormal blood flow conditions and structural fatigue within stented vessels may lead to undesired failure causing death to the patient. Image-based computational modeling provides a physical and realistic insight into the patientspecific biomechanics and enables accurate predictive simulations of development, growth and failure of cardiovascular diseases as well as associated risks. Controlling the efficiency of an endovascular treatment is necessary for the evaluation of potential complications and predictions on the assessment of the pathological state. In this paper we investigate the effects of stent-graft implantation on the biomechanics in a patient-specific thoracic aortic model. The patient geometry and the implanted stent-graft are obtained from morphological data based on a CT scan performed during a controlling routine. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structure mechanics (CSM) simulations are conducted based on the finite volume method (FVM) and on the finite element method (FEM) to compute the hemodynamics and the elastomechanics within the aortic model, respectively. Physiological data based on transient pressure and velocity profiles are used to set the necessary boundary conditions. Further, the effects of various boundary conditions and definition of contact interactions on the numerical stability of the blood flow and the vessel wall simulation results are also investigated. The quantification of the hemodynamics and the elastomechanics post endovascular intervention provides a realistic controlling of the state of the stented vessel and of the efficiency of the therapy. Consequently, computational modeling would help in evaluating individual therapies and optimal treatment strategies in the field of minimally invasive endovascular surgery.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging-based computational modelling of blood flow and nanomedicine deposition in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Shaolie S; Zhang, Yongjie; Fu, Xiaoyi; Brunner, Gerd; Singh, Jaykrishna; Hughes, Thomas J R; Shah, Dipan; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is generally attributed to the progressive vascular accumulation of lipoproteins and circulating monocytes in the vessel walls leading to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This is known to be regulated by the local vascular geometry, haemodynamics and biophysical conditions. Here, an isogeometric analysis framework is proposed to analyse the blood flow and vascular deposition of circulating nanoparticles (NPs) into the superficial femoral artery (SFA) of a PAD patient. The local geometry of the blood vessel and the haemodynamic conditions are derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed at baseline and at 24 months post intervention. A dramatic improvement in blood flow dynamics is observed post intervention. A 500% increase in peak flow rate is measured in vivo as a consequence of luminal enlargement. Furthermore, blood flow simulations reveal a 32% drop in the mean oscillatory shear index, indicating reduced disturbed flow post intervention. The same patient information (vascular geometry and blood flow) is used to predict in silico in a simulation of the vascular deposition of systemically injected nanomedicines. NPs, targeted to inflammatory vascular molecules including VCAM-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1, are predicted to preferentially accumulate near the stenosis in the baseline configuration, with VCAM-1 providing the highest accumulation (approx. 1.33 and 1.50 times higher concentration than that of ICAM-1 and E-selectin, respectively). Such selective deposition of NPs within the stenosis could be effectively used for the detection and treatment of plaques forming in the SFA. The presented MRI-based computational protocol can be used to analyse data from clinical trials to explore possible correlations between haemodynamics and disease progression in PAD patients, and potentially predict disease occurrence as well as the outcome of an intervention. PMID:25878124

  18. Establishing an Empirical Link between Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and SLA: A Meta-Analysis of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interactionist and socio-cultural theories, tools provided in computer-mediated communication (CMC) environments have long been considered able to create an environment that shares many communicative features with face-to-face communication. Over the past two decades, researchers have employed a variety of strategies to examine the…

  19. Cine Computed Tomography Angiography Evaluation of Blood Flow for Full Face Transplant Surgical Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Sisk, Geoffroy C; Kanako K Kumamaru; Schultz, Kurt; Bueno, Ericka M.; Diaz-Siso, J. Rodrigo; GEORGE, Elizabeth; Redjaee, Marta M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Michael L Steigner; Pomahac, Bohdan; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Screening for full face transplantation candidates includes computed tomographic vascular mapping of the external carotid distribution for potential arterial and venous anastomoses. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of cine computed tomographic imaging for preoperative vascular mapping compared with best arterial and venous phase static images. Methods: Two image data sets were retrospectively created and compared for diagnostic findings. The fir...

  20. Establishment of ANSI N13.11 X-ray radiation fields for personal dosimetry performance test by computation and experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J L; Kim, B. H.(Seoul National University, 151-742, Seoul, South Korea); Chang, S Y; J. K. Lee

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes establishment by computational and experimental methods of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N13.11 X-ray radiation fields by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These fields were used in the standard irradiations of various personal dosimeters for the personal dosimetry performance test program performed by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea in the autumn of 1995. Theoretical X-ray spectra produced from two KAERI X-ray generator...

  1. Blood profile holds clues to role of infection in a premonitory state for idiopathic parkinsonism and of gastrointestinal infection in established disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlett André

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The two-stage neuroinflammatory process, containment and progression, proposed to underlie neurodegeneration may predicate on systemic inflammation arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Helicobacter infection has been described as one switch in the pathogenic-circuitry of idiopathic parkinsonism (IP: eradication modifies disease progression and marked deterioration accompanies eradication-failure. Moreover, serum Helicobacter-antibody-profile predicts presence, severity and progression of IP. Slow gastrointestinal-transit precedes IP-diagnosis and becomes increasingly-apparent after, predisposing to small-intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO. Although IP is well-described as a systemic illness with a long prodrome, there has been no comprehensive overview of the blood profile. Here, it is examined in relation to Helicobacter status and lactulose-hydrogen-breath-testing for SIBO. A robust finding of reduced lymphocyte count in 126 IP-probands and 79 spouses (without clinically-definite IP, compared with that in 381 controls (p Helicobacter-status or breath-hydrogen. This complements a previous report that spouses were 'down-the-pathway' to 'clinically-definite' disease. In 205 other controls without clinically-definite IP, there were strong associations between sporadic cardinal features and immunoglobulin class concentration, not explained by Helicobacter-status. Premonitory states for idiopathic parkinsonism associated with relative lymphopenia, higher serum immunoglobulin concentrations and evidence of enteric-nervous-system damage may prove viral in origin. Although only 8% of the above 79 spouses were urea-breath-test-positive for Helicobacter, all 8 spouses with clinically-definite IP were (p Helicobacter-colonised recipient might result in progression to the diagnostic threshold. Twenty-five percent of the 126 probands were seropositive for anti-nuclear autoantibody. In 20 probands, monitored before and serially after anti

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were performed on 26 patients with cerebrovascular accidents using N-Isopropyl-p-[123I] Iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography (ECT). The equation for determining rCBF is as follows: F=100.R.Cb/(N.A), where F is rCBF in ml/100 g/min., R is the constant withdrawal rate of arterial blood in ml/min., Cb is the brain activity concentration in μCi/g, A is the total activity (5 min.) in the withdrawal arterial whole blood in μCi and N is the fraction of A that is true tracer activity (0.75). In determining Cb at 5 min. after injection, reconstructed counts from 35 min. to 59 min. were corrected to represent those from 4 min. to 5 min. with the use of time activity curve for the entire brain immediately after injection to 30 min. Reconstructed counts of central region in tomographic image were corrected 118% of the obtained values from the result of the countingrate ratio between peripheral and central regions of interests obtained from phantom study. Brain mean blood flow values were distributed from 11 to 39 ml/100 g/min. In 119 cortical regions obtained from 11 measurements in 9 patients, there was a significant correlation (r=0.41, p123I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT and those from 133Xe inhalation method. rCBF measurement using 123I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT is not only relatively noninvasive measurement for the entire brain but also three-dimensional evaluation. Besides, it is superior in spatial resolution and accuracy to conventional 133Xe clearance method. (author)

  3. Path to facilitate the prediction of functional amino acid substitutions in red blood cell disorders--a computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajith B

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major area of effort in current genomics is to distinguish mutations that are functionally neutral from those that contribute to disease. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs are amino acid substitutions that currently account for approximately half of the known gene lesions responsible for human inherited diseases. As a result, the prediction of non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs that affect protein functions and relate to disease is an important task. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of deleterious SNPs at both functional and structural level in the respective genes associated with red blood cell metabolism disorders using bioinformatics tools. We analyzed the variants in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and isoforms of Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR & PKM2 genes responsible for major red blood cell disorders. Deleterious nsSNPs were categorized based on empirical rule and support vector machine based methods to predict the impact on protein functions. Furthermore, we modeled mutant proteins and compared them with the native protein for evaluation of protein structure stability. SIGNIFICANCE: We argue here that bioinformatics tools can play an important role in addressing the complexity of the underlying genetic basis of Red Blood Cell disorders. Based on our investigation, we report here the potential candidate SNPs, for future studies in human Red Blood Cell disorders. Current study also demonstrates the presence of other deleterious mutations and also endorses with in vivo experimental studies. Our approach will present the application of computational tools in understanding functional variation from the perspective of structure, expression, evolution and phenotype.

  4. Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flow Through 3D-Models of the Human Aortic Arch, Vessels of Simple Geometry and a Bifurcated Artery: Investigation of Blood Viscosity and Turbulent Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sultanov, Renat A

    2008-01-01

    We report computational results of blood flow through a model of the human aortic arch and a vessel of actual diameter and length. On the top of the aortic arch the branching of the %%three arteries are included: the subclavian and jugular. A realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Calculations for bifurcation type vessels are also carried out and presented. Different mathematical methods for numerical solution of the fluid dynamics equations have been considered. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated together with turbulence effects. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of three different geometries are presented: for pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and the widely used method in the literature: a simple Newtonian approximati...

  5. Removal of malaria-infected red blood cells using magnetic cell separators: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongho; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F; Gandini, Alberto

    2012-02-15

    High gradient magnetic field separators have been widely used in a variety of biological applications. Recently, the use of magnetic separators to remove malaria-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) from blood circulation in patients with severe malaria has been proposed in a dialysis-like treatment. The capture efficiency of this process depends on many interrelated design variables and constraints such as magnetic pole array pitch, chamber height, and flow rate. In this paper, we model the malaria-infected RBCs (pRBCs) as paramagnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. Trajectories of the infected cells are numerically calculated inside a micro-channel exposed to a periodic magnetic field gradient. First-order stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the trajectory of particles under periodic magnetic fields due to an array of wires are solved numerically using the 1(st) -5(th) order adaptive step Runge-Kutta solver. The numerical experiments show that in order to achieve a capture efficiency of 99% for the pRBCs it is required to have a longer length than 80 mm; this implies that in principle, using optimization techniques the length could be adjusted, i.e., shortened to achieve 99% capture efficiency of the pRBCs. PMID:22345827

  6. Computer simulations of blood flow with mass transport through the carotid artery bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nenad D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paradigm for clinical diagnostic for the treatment of vascular disease relies exclusively on diagnostic imaging data to define the present state of the patient, empirical data to evaluate the efficacy of prior treatments for similar patients. These techniques are insufficient to predict the outcome of a given treatment for an individual patient. We here propose a new paradigm of predictive medicine where physician could use computational simulation to construct and evaluate a specific geometrical/anatomical model to predict the outcome for an individual patient. For this purpose it is necessary to develop a complex software system which combines user friendly interface, automatic solid modeling, automatic finite mesh generation, computational fluid dynamics and post-processing visualization. The flow dynamics is defined according to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Mass transport of oxygen and macromolecules is modeled by the convection diffusion equation and coupled with flow dynamics. The computer simulations are based upon finite element analysis where the new computer methods for coupling oxygen transport and fluid flow are described. The comparison results shows a good agreement between clinical observation for critical zones of flow separation, flow recirculation, low wall shear stresses which may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic diseases.

  7. Abnormalities of cerebral blood flow: Investigation by intravenous digital substraction angiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 110 patients with signs of cerebral infarct computed tomography (CT) and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed. With DSA 63 arterial wall lesions could be seen, in CT 27 infarcts were found. In 9 examinations DSA was not diagnostic. Combination of both methods makes it possible to relate vascular lesions with size and localisation of cerebral infarcts. (orig.)

  8. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L

    2008-02-04

    To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating

  9. Tb(Ⅲ) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-phase model was developed and Tb(Ⅲ) speciation in human blood plasma was studied. At a concentration below 3.744×10-4mol/L (or at the concentration), Tb(Ⅲ) is mostly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of TbPO4. As the concentration of Tb(Ⅲ) increases,phosphate is exceeded and another kind of precipitate of Tb2(CO3)3 appears. Among soluble Tb(Ⅲ) species, Tb(Ⅲ) mainly distribute in [Tb (Tf)] at low concentration and in [Tb (HSA)], [Tb2(Tf], [Tb (IgG)], [Tb (Lactate)]2+, [Tb (CitArgH)] and free Tb(Ⅲ) at high concentration.

  10. Computer-assisted spatial reconstruction of cerebral blood vessels and intracranial aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Igor M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Today, many medical procedures are based on image analysis with the aim of providing accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. The goal of this report was to present clinical implications of computer-assisted geometric design of carotid aneurysms. Material and methods. In this study, the three-dimensional reconstruction was based on the approximation power of the parametric spline function, which achieves interpolation and surface fitting of the arterial information obtained by ...

  11. Do distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows? A computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinetics of inhaled agents are often described by physiological models. However, many pharmacokinetic concepts, such as context-sensitive half-times, have been developed for drugs described by classical compartmental models. We derived classical compartmental models that describe the course of the alveolar concentrations (FA generated by the physiological uptake and distribution models used by the Gas Man® program, and describe how distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows. Methods Gas Man® was used to generate FA vs. time curves during the wash-in and wash-out period of 115 min each with a high fresh gas flow (8 L.min-1, a constant alveolar minute ventilation (4 L.min-1, and a constant inspired concentration (FI of halothane (0.75%, isoflurane (1.15%, sevoflurane (2%, or desflurane (6%. With each of these FI, simulations were ran for a 70 kg patient with 5 different cardiac outputs (CO (2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 L.min-1 and for 5 patients with different weights (40, 55, 70, 85, and 100 kg but the same CO (5 L.min-1. Two and three compartmental models were fitted to FA of the individual 9 runs using NONMEM. After testing for parsimony, goodness of fit was evaluated using median prediction error (MDPE and median absolute prediction error (MDAPE. The model was tested prospectively for a virtual 62 kg patient with a cardiac output of 4.5 L.min-1 for three different durations (wash-in and wash-out period of 10, 60, and 180 min each with an FI of 1.5% halothane, 1.5% isoflurane, sevoflurane 4%, or desflurane 12%. Results A three-compartment model fitted the data best (MDPE = 0% and MDAPE ≤ 0.074% and performed equally well when tested prospectively (MDPE ≤ 0.51% and MDAPE ≤ 1.51%. The relationship between CO and body weight and the distribution volumes and clearances is complex. Conclusion The kinetics of anesthetic gases can be adequately described e by a mammilary compartmental model. Therefore

  12. Contribution of the single photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc red blood cells in splenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mu and ntilde;oz-Bellvis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term splenosis refers to the presence of auto-transplanted splenic tissue in a heterotopic location. These foci can be localized to the liver simulating a malignant lesion. Sometimes these lesions are difficult to identify using conventional imaging techniques (ultrasound, CT and MR. Then, a scan with denatured erythrocytes marked with 99mTc has proven to be an effective technique to confirm the diagnosis of splenosis and to establish its extension. The incorporation of hybrid imaging techniques (SPECT-CT into usual clinical practice has increased the precision of the localization of these foci of splenosis. We hereby report the cases of two patients diagnosed with splenosis, the first by laparotomy and the second after performing scintigraphy with red blood cells labeled with 99mTc. In the first case, the laparotomy revealed numerous reticulated nodules on the diaphragmatic peritoneal surface, the transverse colon and the right kidney. Finally, the anatomopathological diagnosis confirmed a case of splenosis. In the second case, the results of the 99mTc marked red blood cell gammagraphy and SPECT-CT were consistent with the diagnosis of splenosis in the patient. To obtain correct information in cases of lesions highly suspicious of splenosis, 99mTc marked red blood cell gammagraphy should be performed due to the high sensitivity and specificity of the test. Combined diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, have increased the specificity of this test due to improvements in the characterization of lesions. We believe that the use of this technique will help avoid unnecessary surgical procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2464-2467

  13. Computational model of cerebral blood flow redistribution during cortical spreading depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verisokin, Andrey Y.; Verveyko, Darya V.; Postnov, Dmitry E.

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades modelling studies on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and migraine waves successfully contributed to formation of modern view on these fundamental phenomena of brain physiology. However, due to the extreme complexity of object under study (brain cortex) and the diversity of involved physiological pathways, the development of new mathematical models of CSD is still a very relevant and challenging research problem. In our study we follow the functional modelling approach aimed to map the action of known physiological pathways to the specific nonlinear mechanisms that govern formation and evolution of CSD wave patterns. Specifically, we address the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) redistribution that is caused by excessive neuronal activity by means of neurovascular coupling and mediates a spatial pattern of oxygen and glucose delivery. This in turn changes the local metabolic status of neural tissue. To build the model we simplify the web of known cell-to-cell interactions within a neurovascular unit by selecting the most relevant ones, such as local neuron-induced elevation of extracellular potassium concentration and biphasic response of arteriole radius. We propose the lumped description of distance-dependent hemodynamic coupling that fits the most recent experimental findings.

  14. Computer-assisted spatial reconstruction of cerebral blood vessels and intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Igor M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today, many medical procedures are based on image analysis with the aim of providing accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. The goal of this report was to present clinical implications of computer-assisted geometric design of carotid aneurysms. Material and methods. In this study, the three-dimensional reconstruction was based on the approximation power of the parametric spline function, which achieves interpolation and surface fitting of the arterial information obtained by conventional angiography. Two views of conventional angiograms (anterioposterior and lateral views were used with a personal computer and commercial software. Results. This method of three-dimensional generated images was applied in 45 cases of cerebral aneurysms in carotid bifurcation. 3D reconstructions were made in approximately 20 minutes. They contributed to assessing vascular structures, and it was possible to rotate the three-dimensional image in different angles. Conclusion. Three-dimensional reconstruction of cerebral vessels is very useful for discussing surgical strategies preoperatively. Furthermore, it could also be used in endovascular procedures. .

  15. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of blade tip clearances on hemodynamic performance and blood damage in a centrifugal ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingchun; Paden, Bradley E; Borovetz, Harvey S; Antaki, James F

    2010-05-01

    An important challenge facing the design of turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (VADs) intended for long-term support is the optimization of the flow path geometry to maximize hydraulic performance while minimizing shear-stress-induced hemolysis and thrombosis. For unshrouded centrifugal, mixed-flow and axial-flow blood pumps, the complex flow patterns within the blade tip clearance between the lengthwise upper surface of the rotating impeller blades and the stationary pump housing have a dramatic effect on both the hydrodynamic performance and the blood damage production. Detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed in this study to investigate such flow behavior in blade tip clearance region for a centrifugal blood pump representing a scaled-up version of a prototype pediatric VAD. Nominal flow conditions were analyzed at a flow rate of 2.5 L/min and rotor speed of 3000 rpm with three blade tip clearances of 50, 100, and 200 microm. CFD simulations predicted a decrease in the averaged tip leakage flow rate and an increase in pump head and axial thrust with decreasing blade tip clearances from 200 to 50 microm. The predicted hemolysis, however, exhibited a unimodal relationship, having a minimum at 100 microm compared to 50 microm and 200 microm. Experimental data corroborate these predictions. Detailed flow patterns observed in this study revealed interesting fluid dynamic features associated with the blade tip clearances, such as the generation and dissipation of tip leakage vortex and its interaction with the primary flow in the blade-blade passages. Quantitative calculations suggested the existence of an optimal blade tip clearance by which hydraulic efficiency can be maximized and hemolysis minimized. PMID:19832736

  16. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used clinically for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular flow and function, as it is capable of providing directly-measured 3D velocity maps. Alternatively, vascular flow can be estimated from model-based computation fluid...... approach in regularizing 3D flow fields is evaluated. METHODS: The proposed algorithm incorporates both a Newtonian fluid physics model and a linear PC-MRI signal model. The model equations are solved numerically using a modified CFD algorithm. The numerical solution corresponds to the optimal solution of...... dynamics (CFD) calculations. CFD provides arbitrarily high resolution, but its accuracy hinges on model assumptions, while velocity fields measured with PC-MRI generally do not satisfy the equations of fluid dynamics, provide limited resolution, and suffer from partial volume effects. The purpose of this...

  17. The location of midfacial landmarks according to the method of establishing the midsagittal reference plane in three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of facial asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheock; Yoon, Suk Ja [Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, In Ja [Dept. of Nursing, Kwangju Women' s University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of methods of establishing the midsagittal reference plane (MRP) on the locations of midfacial landmarks in the three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis of facial asymmetry. A total of 24 patients (12 male and 12 female; mean age, 22.5 years; age range, 18.2-29.7 years) with facial asymmetry were included in this study. The MRP was established using two different methods on each patient's CT image. The x-coordinates of four midfacial landmarks (the menton, nasion, upper incisor, and lower incisor) were obtained by measuring the distance and direction of the landmarks from the MRP, and the two methods were compared statistically. The direction of deviation and the severity of asymmetry found using each method were also compared. The x-coordinates of the four anatomic landmarks all showed a statistically significant difference between the two methods of establishing the MRP. For the nasion and lower incisor, six patients (25.0%) showed a change in the direction of deviation. The severity of asymmetry also changed in 16 patients (66.7%). The results of this study suggest that the locations of midfacial landmarks change significantly according to the method used to establish the MRP.

  18. Abnormalities in rCBF [regional cerebral blood flow] and computed tomography in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of abnormal distribution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracer 99m-technetium-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcm-HMPAO) was investigated in 14 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) who subsequently had post-mortem confirmation, and also in 14 elderly control subjects. These abnormalities were compared with computed tomography (CT) scans to investigate the degree to which the focal SPECT deficits were due to atrophy. Results show that SPECT imaging with 99Tcm-HMPAO and CT scanning both have a higher incidence of abnormality in AD patients than in controls and that the difference between patients and controls is greater with SPECT than with CT. Frontal SPECT and CT abnormalities in moderate/severe Alzheimer's disease occur as frequently as temporal/occipital abnormalities but the latter are rare in control subjects. Around 50% of SPECT deficits occur in CT normal brain regions, showing that atrophy is not the sole cause of SPECT deficits. (author)

  19. Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patients: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p<0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p<0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH. (author)

  20. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient’s identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient’s identification and sample errors were collec...

  1. Establishment of a microplate assay for flow cytometric assessment and it is use for the evaluation of age-related phenotypic changes in canine whole blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Alexandre B; Carneiro, Cláudia M; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo C; Mayrink, Wilson; Genaro, Odair; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo A

    2005-02-10

    The effectiveness of flow cytometric assays for canine use is still requiring standardization. Despite several studies using purified mononuclear cells, no methodology or reference ranges are available for immunophenotyping of whole blood leukocytes (WBL). Fresh and pre-fixed WBL were used to identify cell-subsets, (Thy-1(+)/CD5(+)/CD4(+)/CD8(+)/CD21(+) and CD14(+)) and measure MHC-II, CD45RA/CD45RB expression. We described here an efficient method for fast quantification of canine-WBL, using pre-fix in a microplate assay, which allows long-term sample storage prior to phenotyping. Decreased percentage of CD5(+)-T-cells within the lymphocyte-gate and increased percentage of CD21(+)-B-cells were observed in young animals, which led to higher T/B cell ratios in middle-aged dogs. Lower numerical counts of Thy-1(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD21(+) lymphocyte were observed when compared to young animals. In addition, we identified an age-related decline of MHC-II/CD45RA expression by lymphocytes. We proposed an improved method for phenotyping of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that has significant use for researchers and veterinary clinicians. The hematological changes of senescence previously identified on PBMC could be adequately reproduced on features identified by whole blood. Furthermore, this study supplies normal range references as baseline standards for clinical purposes, besides specific immunological parameters to monitor canine aging process. PMID:15621304

  2. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to regional pulmonary flow (RPF) in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean ± standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 ± 0.4, 1.1 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 for A, M and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0--41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man

  3. Computer-aided method for automated selection of optimal imaging plane for measurement of total cerebral blood flow by MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Pang-yu; Bagci, Ahmet Murat; Alperin, Noam

    2009-02-01

    A computer-aided method for finding an optimal imaging plane for simultaneous measurement of the arterial blood inflow through the 4 vessels leading blood to the brain by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The method performance is compared with manual selection by two observers. The skeletons of the 4 vessels for which centerlines are generated are first extracted. Then, a global direction of the relatively less curved internal carotid arteries is calculated to determine the main flow direction. This is then used as a reference direction to identify segments of the vertebral arteries that strongly deviates from the main flow direction. These segments are then used to identify anatomical landmarks for improved consistency of the imaging plane selection. An optimal imaging plane is then identified by finding a plane with the smallest error value, which is defined as the sum of the angles between the plane's normal and the vessel centerline's direction at the location of the intersections. Error values obtained using the automated and the manual methods were then compared using 9 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets. The automated method considerably outperformed the manual selection. The mean error value with the automated method was significantly lower than the manual method, 0.09+/-0.07 vs. 0.53+/-0.45, respectively (p<.0001, Student's t-test). Reproducibility of repeated measurements was analyzed using Bland and Altman's test, the mean 95% limits of agreements for the automated and manual method were 0.01~0.02 and 0.43~0.55 respectively.

  4. Strategies for Establishing Policy, Environmental, and Systems-Level Interventions for Managing High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol in Health Care Settings: A Qualitative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria V. Anwuri, MPH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPolicy, environmental, and systems-level interventions are part of a comprehensive approach to managing high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which are key risk factors for heart disease and stroke. In this qualitative case study, we identified clinical practices in health care organizations that used policy, environmental, or systems-level interventions to improve patient outcomes for these conditions. Our 4 objectives were to describe 1 policy, environmental, and systems-level interventions; 2 enabling factors and barriers that affected implementation; 3 methods for evaluating the success of the intervention; and 4 lessons learned from the health care practices that implemented these interventions.MethodsThrough literature review and expert guidance, we identified 34 health care practices that used policy, environmental, and systems-level interventions to manage high blood pressure and high cholesterol. In 2003, we conducted case study interviews with key informants for 9 health care practices that 1 demonstrated improved patient outcomes for blood pressure or cholesterol; 2 implemented the interventions for at least 1 year; and 3 remained committed to sustaining or institutionalizing interventions. We taped and transcribed the interviews and used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EZ-Text software (www.cdc.gov/hiv/software/ez-text.htm to code, categorize, and analyze the responses.ResultsThe health care practices we studied implemented specialized lipid clinics, disease management programs, physician reminder systems, and participation in the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Bureau of Primary Care Health Disparities Collaboratives. All practices used comprehensive systems for patient care that were well-defined, measurable, and linked to desirable patient outcomes. Most relied on data systems to identify patients targeted for the interventions and practice areas that needed improvement, and to track the

  5. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  6. Cost-effectiveness modeling of colorectal cancer: Computed tomography colonography vs colonoscopy or fecal occult blood tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To assess the cost-effectiveness of three colorectal-cancer (CRC) screening strategies in France: fecal-occult-blood tests (FOBT), computed-tomography-colonography (CTC) and optical-colonoscopy (OC). Methods: Ten-year simulation modeling was used to assess a virtual asymptomatic, average-risk population 50–74 years old. Negative OC was repeated 10 years later, and OC positive for advanced or non-advanced adenoma 3 or 5 years later, respectively. FOBT was repeated biennially. Negative CTC was repeated 5 years later. Positive CTC and FOBT led to triennial OC. Total cost and CRC rate after 10 years for each screening strategy and 0–100% adherence rates with 10% increments were computed. Transition probabilities were programmed using distribution ranges to account for uncertainty parameters. Direct medical costs were estimated using the French national health insurance prices. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses used 5000 Monte Carlo simulations generating model outcomes and standard deviations. Results: For a given adherence rate, CTC screening was always the most effective but not the most cost-effective. FOBT was the least effective but most cost-effective strategy. OC was of intermediate efficacy and the least cost-effective strategy. Without screening, treatment of 123 CRC per 10,000 individuals would cost €3,444,000. For 60% adherence, the respective costs of preventing and treating, respectively 49 and 74 FOBT-detected, 73 and 50 CTC-detected and 63 and 60 OC-detected CRC would be €2,810,000, €6,450,000 and €9,340,000. Conclusion: Simulation modeling helped to identify what would be the most effective (CTC) and cost-effective screening (FOBT) strategy in the setting of mass CRC screening in France.

  7. Uteroplacental blood flow in pre-eclampsia measurements with /sup 113 m/In and a computer-linked gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uteroplacental blood flow was measured with a computer-linked gamma camera after intravenous injection of 1 mCi 113In. Results of the measurements from 32 pre-eclamptic pregnancies and 37 normal controls are compared. The uteroplacental blood flow was measured as an index calculated from the rise time and maximum activity of the isotope accumulation curve. The uteroplacental blood flow was reduced with 50% in pre-eclampsia. In severe pre-eclampsia it was more compromised than in mild pre-eclampsia. A diminished uteroplacental blood flow was found in pre-eclampsia even in the absence of intrauterine growth retardation. The maternal placental circulation in the supine position was reduced with one third compared to that in the left lateral recumbent position

  8. Restrained cerebral hyperperfusion in response to superimposed acute hypoxemia in growth-restricted human fetuses with established brain-sparing blood flow.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Jing; Olofsson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral circulatory response to superimposed acute hypoxemia in growth-restricted fetuses with established brain-sparing flow (BSF) during basal conditions. Material and methods: 76 term fetuses suspected of growth restriction were exposed to Doppler velocimetry in the umbitical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA), and in 38-39 cases also in Galen's vein (GV), straight sinus (SS), and transverse sinus (TS), before and during an oxytocin challenge te...

  9. Perfusion computed tomography of intracranial meningiomas: In vivo correlation of cerebral blood volume and vascular permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Francesca; Morabito, Rosa; Alafaci, Concetta; Barresi, Valeria; Tomasello, Francesco; Vinci, Sergio; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Grasso, Giovanni; Salpietro, Francesco Maria; Longo, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Background A noninvasive method to predict the grade of a meningioma would be desirable since it would anticipate information about tumour nature, recurrence and improve tumour management and outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of perfusion computed tomography (PCT) technique in predicting the meningioma grade before surgery. Data from PCT, such as cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability surface (PS), were correlated with immunohistolopathological information. Methods Twenty-three patients with a diagnosis of intracranial meningioma underwent PCT for pre-surgical evaluation of CBV and PS. During surgery, samples from the centre and periphery of the tumour were obtained. Two correspondent regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on CBV and PS maps. Central and peripheral CBV and PS mean values were calculated. PCT parameters were correlated to CD-34 and endoglin. Results There was a positive correlation between PS and CD-34. No correlation was found between PS values and endoglin, CBV values and CD-34 and endoglin values. Conclusion Our findings suggest that PCT may support conventional morphological imaging in predicting meningioma grading before surgery. PMID:26246100

  10. Establishment of computer aided bracket positioning system%计算机辅助托槽定位系统的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰泽栋; 周丽淑

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立基于3D扫描、打印架构下的计算机辅助托槽定位系统(computer aided bracket placement system,CABPS).方法 通过3D扫描获取3D数字化牙颌模型,利用正畸计算机辅助设计(orthodontics computer aided design,Ortho CAD)技术对数字化模型进行牙齿分离,按照正常咬合六项标准进行牙齿排列;基于临床冠中心法和托槽槽沟平直化原则做计算机辅助托槽定位,计算机对已附带托槽定位标尺的牙齿进行原态模型复位,3D打印,压制托槽定位模板,在模拟(牙合)架上进行托槽间接粘接后模拟矫治,验证矫治效果.结果 在3D扫描、打印架构下,基于Ortho CAD技术建立了CABPS.结论 CABPS可提高托槽定位精度,实现了矫治效果可预期、可视.%Objective The aim of this study was to present a computer aided orthodontic bracket positioning system,which was based on 3D scanning,3D printing and orthodontic computer aided design (Ortho CAD).Methods Digital dental model was obtained by 3D scanning.By the aid of Ortho CAD,digital teeth were separated from virtual model and realigned based on the rule of Andrew's Six Keys.The positions of orthodontic brackets were calculated on individual digital tooth in the center of clinical crown with the diriction according to slot straighthening principle.The virtual teeth were then aligned back to their original position,and created a new dental model with bracket positioning marker by 3D printer.Based on the new dental model,an individual stent was produced for indirect bonding.To test the accuracy of the system,a simulated orthodontic treatment was performed through Typodont procedures.Results the Computer Aided Bracket Positioning System (CABPS) was established based on Ortho CAD,3D scanning and 3D printing.Conclusions CABPS could increase the accuracy of bracket placement and predictability of orthodontic treatment.

  11. Establishment of ANSI N13.11 X-ray radiation fields for personal dosimetry performance test by computation and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J L; Kim, B H; Chang, S Y; Lee, J K

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes establishment by computational and experimental methods of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N13.11 X-ray radiation fields by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These fields were used in the standard irradiations of various personal dosimeters for the personal dosimetry performance test program performed by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea in the autumn of 1995. Theoretical X-ray spectra produced from two KAERI X-ray generators were estimated using a modified Kramers' theory with target attenuation and backscatter correction and their spectral distributions experimentally measured by a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector through proper corrections for measured pulse height distributions with photopeak efficiency, Compton fraction, and K-escape fraction. The average energies and conversion coefficients obtained from the computation and experimental methods, when compared with ANSI N13.11 and the recently published National Institute of Standards and Technology X-ray beams, appeared to be in good agreement--(+/-)3% between corresponding values--and thus, could be satisfactorily applied in the performance test of personal dosimeters. PMID:9467054

  12. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan

  13. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan.

  14. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient's identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient's identification and sample errors were collected daily. The average scores of 8 items users' perceived ease of use was 25.21(3.72), 9 items users' perceived usefulness was 28.53(5.00), and 14 items task-technology fit was 52.24(7.09), the rate of patient identification error and samples with order cancelled were down to zero, however, new errors were generated after the new system deployed; which were the position of barcode stickers on the sample tubes. Overall, more than half of nurses (62.5%) were willing to use the new system. PMID:24199057

  15. CERN Director General, L. Maiani, signing the letter of intent to establish a regional computer centre in Pakistan on the occasion of the visit of Dr. Hameed A. Khan, Executive Director COMSATS, Pakistan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    CERN Director General, L. Maiani, signing the letter of intent to establish a regional computer centre in Pakistan on the occasion of the visit of Dr. Hameed A. Khan, Executive Director COMSATS, Pakistan.

  16. Comparison of uteroplacental blood flow in normal and pre-eclamptic patients measurement with technetium-99m and a computer-linked gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uteroplacental blood flow studies in preeclampsia are of special interest since the vascular changes reported in this disease might constitute a structural basis for a reduction of blood flow. Evidence has also been given for a decreased uteroplacental blood flow in preeclampsia. Among the various methods to estimate the maternal placental blood flow, the one most frequently reported in the literature during the last years has been the time activity analysis of short lived radiotracer such as technetium-99m or indium-113m injected intravenously. Only few studies with the above mentioned technique comparing normal and preeclampsia cases have been undertaken. In clinical practice we frequently experience difficuly in finding the optimal time to get the delivery in preeclampsia patients. The aim of this study was first to measure uteroplacental blood flow in preeclamptic pregnancies using a computer-linked gamma camera method for the time-activity analysis of technetium-99m and second to discuss the possibility of clinical application of these measurements for determination of fetal well-being and the timing of the delivery in these patients. Uteroplacental blood flow was measured from 13 preeclamptic patients and 19 pregnancies without any complication after 35 completed weeks of gestation from Jan. 1983 to Sep. 1983 at Obstetrics department of Hanyang University Hospital. (Author)

  17. Comparison of uteroplacental blood flow in normal and pre-eclamptic patients measurement with technetium-99m and a computer-linked gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.H.; Moon, H.; Kim, D.S.; Cho, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    Uteroplacental blood flow studies in preeclampsia are of special interest since the vascular changes reported in this disease might constitute a structural basis for a reduction of blood flow. Evidence has also been given for a decreased uteroplacental blood flow in preeclampsia. Among the various methods to estimate the maternal placental blood flow, the one most frequently reported in the literature during the last years has been the time activity analysis of short lived radiotracer such as technetium-99m or indium-113m injected intravenously. Only few studies with the above mentioned technique comparing normal and preeclampsia cases have been undertaken. In clinical practice we frequently experience difficuly in finding the optimal time to get the delivery in preeclampsia patients. The aim of this study was first to measure uteroplacental blood flow in preeclamptic pregnancies using a computer-linked gamma camera method for the time-activity analysis of technetium-99m and second to discuss the possibility of clinical application of these measurements for determination of fetal well-being and the timing of the delivery in these patients. Uteroplacental blood flow was measured from 13 preeclamptic patients and 19 pregnancies without any complication after 35 completed weeks of gestation from Jan. 1983 to Sep. 1983 at Obstetrics department of Hanyang University Hospital. (Author).

  18. ACL-TOP700血凝仪凝血4项正常参考区间的建立%Establishment of normal reference interval for four items of blood coagulation on ACL-TOP Automatic coagulation analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 鲁燕飞; 周志兰; 姚振国; 陈国强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish normal reference interval for four items of blood coagulation on ACL‐TOP Automatic coagu‐lation analyzer .Methods The fasting anti‐coagulation blood samples were collected from 1 268 inpatients and people conducted physical examination ,all subjects without liver disease ,history of blood disease and coagulation disfunction .The prothrombin time (PT) ,activated partical prothrombin time(APTT) ,thrombin time(TT) and serum levels of fibrinogen(FIB) were determined by u‐sing ACL‐TOP automatic coagulation analyzer which was producted by America IL company .And data of determination results were used to establish the normal reference intervals of indexes in this laboratory .Results The precision and accuracy of this analy‐zer was good .There were differences of normal reference intervals between which established in this laboratory and which provided by the manufacturer .Conclusion Each laboratory should establish its own normal reference interval ,not blindly refer to reference interval provided by regents manual .%目的:建立ACL‐TOP700全自动血凝分析仪本实验室凝血4项的正常参考区间。方法筛选1268住院患者及门诊体检者,均无肝病、血液病史及出凝血功能障碍,空腹采集其静脉抗凝血。采用美国IL公司生产的ACL‐TOP700全自动血凝分析仪进行凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血酶原时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)测定,建立本实验室 PT、APTT、TT、FIB的正常参考区间。结果该仪器精密度、正确度均良好,各参考区间与厂家提供的参考区间有一定的差异。结论各个实验室应建立自己的参考区间,不可盲目引用厂家试剂说明书上提供的正常参考区间。

  19. Computer simulation models for the low-molecular-weight complex distribution of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) in human blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, A.; Furnival, C.; Huang, Z.X.; Jones, D.C.; May, P.M.; Smith, G.L.; Whittaker, J.; Williams, D.R.

    1985-11-01

    A computer simulation investigation into the nature of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) binding by low-molecular-weight ligands in human blood plasma is described. The distribution of these metal ions amongst the complexes formed with nearly 50 ligands has been computed. The most important formation constants required for the calculations have been determined experimentally under biological conditions. The predominant complexes formed by cadmium(II) are binary cysteinate species, whereas nickel(II) exists mainly as a ternary complex involving both cysteinate and histidinate.

  20. Establishment of Technical Collaboration basis between Korea and France for the development of severe accident assessment computer code under high burnup condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was performed by KAERI in the frame of construction of the international cooperative basis on the nuclear energy. This was supported from MOST under the title of 'Establishment of Technical Collaboration basis between Korea and France for the development of severe accident assessment computer code under high burn up condition'. The current operating NPP are converting the burned fuel to the wasted fuel after burn up of 40 GWD/MTU. But in Korea, burn up of more than 60 GWD/MTU will be expected because of the high fuel efficiency but also cost saving for storing the wasted fuel safely. The domestic research for the purpose of developing the fuel and the cladding that can be used under the high burn up condition up to 100 GWD/MTU is in progress now. But the current computer code adopts the model and the data that are valid only up to the 40 GWD/MTU at most. Therefore the current model could not take into account the phenomena that may cause differences in the fission product release behavior or in the core damage process due to the high burn up operation (more than 40 GWD/MTU). To evaluate the safety of the NPP with the high burn up fuel, the improvement of current severe accident code against the high burn up condition is an important research item. Also it should start without any delay. Therefore, in this study, an expert group was constructed to establish the research basis for the severe accident under high burn up conditions. From this expert group, the research items regarding the high burn up condition were selected and identified through discussion and technical seminars. Based on these selected items, the meeting between IRSN and KAERI to find out the cooperative research items on the severe accident under the high burn up condition was held in the IRSN headquater in Paris. After the meeting, KAERI and IRSN agreed to cooperate with each other on the selected items, and to co-host the international seminar, and to develop the model and to

  1. Establishment of a murine model for radiation-induced bone loss using micro-computed tomography in adult C3H/HeN mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone changes are common sequela of radiation therapy for cancer. The purpose of this study was to establish an experimental model of radiation-induced bone loss in adult mice using micro-computed tomography (µCT). The extent of changes following 2 Gy gamma irradiation (2 Gy/min) was studied at 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks after exposure. Adult mice that received 1, 2, 4 or 6 Gy of gamma-rays were examined 12 weeks after irradiation. Tibiae were analyzed using µCT. Serum markers and biomechanical properties were measured and the osteoclast surface was examined. A significant loss of trabecular bone in tibiae was evident 12 weeks after exposure. Measurements performed after irradiation showed a dose-related decrease in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and bone mineral density (BMD), respectively. The best-fitting dose-response curves were linear-quadratic. Taking the controls into accounts, the lines of best fit were as follows: BV/TV (%)= -0.071D(2)-1.799D+18.835 (r (2)=0.968, D=dose in Gy) and BMD (mg/cm(3)) = -3.547D(2)-14.8D+359.07 (r (2)=0.986, D=dose in Gy). Grip strength and body weight did not differ among the groups. No dose-dependent differences were apparent among the groups with regard to mechanical and anatomical properties of tibia, serum biochemical markers and osteoclast activity. The findings provide the basis required for better understanding of the results that will be obtained in any further studies of radiation-induced bone responses. (author)

  2. 建立POCT血糖检测质量管理体系的实践与思考%Practice and reflection on establishing the quality management system of POCT blood glucose measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马钰香; 张莉; 顾民; 马建锋; 陈妍; 吴建国

    2014-01-01

    使用便携式血糖仪可实现对患者血糖水平的随时监测,为临床医师制定和调整治疗方案提供了客观依据。POCT血糖检测的优势和局限都很明显,其检测质量直接影响着临床诊疗质量,医院对POCT血糖检测的质量管理尚有许多困难,探索建立血糖检测质量管理体系,旨在保证血糖检测结果的准确和可靠,同时为其它即时检验项目的质量管理提供借鉴和启示。%The blood glucose levels of patients can be monitored at any time by using a portable blood glucose meter, which provides an objective basis for developing and adjusting the treatment plan for clinicians. The advantages and limitations of POCT glucose measurement are obvious, and the detection quality directly influences the quality of clinical diagnosis and treatment. In addition, hospitals still encounter many difficulties in quality management of POCT glucose measurement. The exploration and establishment of quality management system aim to ensure the accuracy and reliability of blood glucose test results, as well as to provide reference and inspiration for the quality management of other instant test projects.

  3. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  4. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.;

    2016-01-01

    through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the...... design considerations of the MuxBCT app and the results of a preliminary usability evaluation. METHODS: The MuxBCT tablet app was developed and set up for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory. A near-live simulation study was conducted in the clinical microbiology laboratory to evaluate the...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  6. Comprehensive validation of computational fluid dynamics simulationsof in-vivo blood flow in patient-specific cerebral aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Q.; Groth, A.; Aach, T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, image-based computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been proposed to investigate the local hemodynamics inside human cerebral aneurysms. It is suggested that the knowledge ofthe computed three-dimensional flow fields can be used to assist clinical risk assessment and tr

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  9. Predicting effects of blood flow rate and size of vessels in a vasculature on hyperthermia treatments using computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Tzu-Ching

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pennes Bio Heat Transfer Equation (PBHTE has been widely used to approximate the overall temperature distribution in tissue using a perfusion parameter term in the equation during hyperthermia treatment. In the similar modeling, effective thermal conductivity (Keff model uses thermal conductivity as a parameter to predict temperatures. However the equations do not describe the thermal contribution of blood vessels. A countercurrent vascular network model which represents a more fundamental approach to modeling temperatures in tissue than do the generally used approximate equations such as the Pennes BHTE or effective thermal conductivity equations was presented in 1996. This type of model is capable of calculating the blood temperature in vessels and describing a vasculature in the tissue regions. Methods In this paper, a countercurrent blood vessel network (CBVN model for calculating tissue temperatures has been developed for studying hyperthermia cancer treatment. We use a systematic approach to reveal the impact of a vasculature of blood vessels against a single vessel which most studies have presented. A vasculature illustrates branching vessels at the periphery of the tumor volume. The general trends present in this vascular model are similar to those shown for physiological systems in Green and Whitmore. The 3-D temperature distributions are obtained by solving the conduction equation in the tissue and the convective energy equation with specified Nusselt number in the vessels. Results This paper investigates effects of size of blood vessels in the CBVN model on total absorbed power in the treated region and blood flow rates (or perfusion rate in the CBVN on temperature distributions during hyperthermia cancer treatment. Also, the same optimized power distribution during hyperthermia treatment is used to illustrate the differences between PBHTE and CBVN models. Keff (effective thermal conductivity model delivers the

  10. Computer simulation of metal ion equilibria in biofluids. IV. Plutonium speciation in human blood plasma and chelation therapy using polyaminopolycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, J.R.; May, P.M.; Williams, D.R.

    1984-03-01

    An investigation by computer simulation into the nature of Pu(IV) binding to low-molecular ligands in human blood plasma is described. Particular consideration is given to the interactions of various chelating agents which have been or might be used for treating plutonium intoxication. Formation constants of EDTA and DTPA with Cu(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) have been measured under biologic conditions of temperature and background electrolyte. The relative ability of these and other chelating agents to cause excretion of plutonium and the concomitant loss of certain essential trace metals has thus been assessed.

  11. C-arm computed tomography parenchymal blood volume measurement in evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma before transarterial chemoembolization with drug eluting beads

    OpenAIRE

    Syha, Roland; Grözinger, Gerd; Grosse, Ulrich; Maurer, Michael; Zender, Lars; Horger, Marius; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Ketelsen, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Background C-arm computed tomography (CT) guided intervention is an increasingly applied technique in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to analyse the value of parenchymal blood volume (PBV) maps acquired during C-arm CT acquisition, for pre-treatment evaluation and planning of TACE in HCC patients. Methods A total of 64 HCC lesions in 29 patients (median age, 73 years, range, 62–77 years) were included in this retrospective st...

  12. Tumour blood flow and partition coefficients: correlation with grade of cerebral gliomas using xenon-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to underestimate the grade of nonenhancing cerebral tumours on conventional contrast-enhanced MRI or CT. Differentiation of high- and low-grade gliomas by measurement of the brain-blood partition coefficient lambda (Tλ) with Xe-enhanced CT (XeCT) has been reported. We assessed the practical applications of XeCT in suspected low-grade astrocytomas. We examined 15 patients with tumours which showed no contrast enhancement on conventional MRI and CT, using XeCT. Tumour blood flow (TBF) and Tλ were calculated. Fourteen patients underwent surgery, one patient had a biopsy. We recognised three histological groups. While Tλ differed significantly between them, TBF did not. Group 1 contained grade II-III astrocytomas and Tλ was 0.77; group 2 contained grade I-II astrocytomas with Tλ 1.14, and group 3 four oligodendrogliomas in which a Tλ of 1.50 was found. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Biodegradable radiopaque microspheres for the evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution using electron-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Michael J.; Tajik, Jehangir K.; Robinson, Miguel T.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution is of interest both as a research and diagnostic tool. Measurements of regional pulmonary perfusion via x-ray CT offer the possibility of detecting perfusion deficits due to pulmonary embolus while maintaining a high degree of anatomic detail. Use of bolus injection of conventional radiopaque contrast with associated short mean transit times (5 - 7 seconds), requires a high degree of temporal resolution offered clinically only by electron beam x-ray CT (Imatron). The present study was intended to characterize biodegradable radiopaque microspheres as an alternative contrast agent which would allow for measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow with scanning times associated with conventional or spiral thin slice, volumetric x-ray CT protocols. To test this, a dog was scanned at 6 slice levels and 13 time points with image acquisition gated to the cardiac cycle. Lung volumes were maintained at functional residual capacity.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Blade Tip Clearances on Hemodynamic Performance and Blood Damage in a Centrifugal Ventricular Assist Device

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jingchun; Paden, Bradley E.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Antaki, James F.

    2009-01-01

    An important challenge facing the design of turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (VADs) intended for long-term support is the optimization of the flow path geometry to maximize hydraulic performance while minimizing shear-stress-induced hemolysis and thrombosis. For unshrouded centrifugal, mixed-flow and axial-flow blood pumps, the complex flow patterns within the blade tip clearance between the lengthwise upper surface of the rotating impeller blades and the stationary pump housing have a...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging-based computational modelling of blood flow and nanomedicine deposition in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaolie S.; Zhang, Yongjie; Fu, Xiaoyi; Brunner, Gerd; Singh, Jaykrishna; Hughes, Thomas J.R.; Shah, Dipan; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is generally attributed to the progressive vascular accumulation of lipoproteins and circulating monocytes in the vessel walls leading to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This is known to be regulated by the local vascular geometry, haemodynamics and biophysical conditions. Here, an isogeometric analysis framework is proposed to analyse the blood flow and vascular deposition of circulating nanoparticles (NPs) into the superficial femoral artery (SFA)...

  16. Blood Damage Through a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve: A Quantitative Computational Study Using a Multiscale Suspension Flow Solver

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yun, B.; Aidun, Cyrus K.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2014-01-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are among the most popular prostheses to replace defective native valves. However, complex flow phenomena caused by the prosthesis are thought to induce serious thromboembolic complications. This study aims at employing a novel multiscale numerical method that models realistic sized suspended platelets for assessing blood damage potential in flow through BMHVs. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow th...

  17. Blood damage through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve: a quantitative computational study using a multiscale suspension flow solver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Yun, B; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-10-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are among the most popular prostheses to replace defective native valves. However, complex flow phenomena caused by the prosthesis are thought to induce serious thromboembolic complications. This study aims at employing a novel multiscale numerical method that models realistic sized suspended platelets for assessing blood damage potential in flow through BMHVs. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow through a 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent™ valve in the aortic position at very high spatiotemporal resolution with the presence of thousands of suspended platelets. Platelet damage is modeled for both the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. No platelets exceed activation thresholds for any of the simulations. Platelet damage is determined to be particularly high for suspended elements trapped in recirculation zones, which suggests a shift of focus in blood damage studies away from instantaneous flow fields and toward high flow mixing regions. In the diastolic phase, leakage flow through the b-datum gap is shown to cause highest damage to platelets. This multiscale numerical method may be used as a generic solver for evaluating blood damage in other cardiovascular flows and devices. PMID:25070372

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  19. Computational approaches to the prediction of blood-brain barrier permeability: A comparative analysis of central nervous system drugs versus secretase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishton, Gilbert M; LaBonte, Kristen; Williams, Antony J; Kassam, Karim; Kolovanov, Eduard

    2006-05-01

    This review summarizes progress made in the development of fully computational approaches to the prediction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of small molecules, with a focus on rapid computational methods suitable for the analysis of large compound sets and virtual screening. A comparative analysis using the recently developed Advanced Chemistry Development (ACD/Labs) Inc BBB permeability algorithm for the calculation of logBB values for known Alzheimer's disease medicines, selected central nervous system drugs and new secretase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease, is presented. The trends in logBB values and the associated physiochemical properties of these agents as they relate to the potential for BBB permeability are also discussed. PMID:16729726

  20. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans' ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI (ΔCHI), iCMI (ΔiCMI), and ER (ΔER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year (ΔBF) were also determined. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly correlated with ΔBF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  1. Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The pixelated rectangle we spend most of our day staring at in silence is not the television as many long feared, but the computer-the ubiquitous portal of work and personal lives. At this point, the computer is almost so common we don't notice it in our view. It's difficult to envision that not that long ago it was a gigantic, room-sized structure only to be accessed by a few inspiring as much awe and respect as fear and mystery. Now that the machine has decreased in size and increased in popular use, the computer has become a prosaic appliance, little-more noted than a toaster. These dramati

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  4. In-vivo measurements of coronary blood flow using 16-slice multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, Kathrin Barbara; Bovenschulte, H. [Klinikum der Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Geissler, H.J. [Klinikum der Koeln Univ. (DE). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Herz- und Thoraxchirurgie] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    To determine whether CTCA supplemented with CT flow measurements can be used to demonstrate and semiquantitatively evaluate poststenotic coronary blood flow in a porcine model. In 10 thoracotomized pigs, transit time flow meter probes were attached to the aorta and left anterior descending artery (LAD) for real-time blood flow volumetry. A vascular silicone occluder was deployed around the LAD proximal to the probe to create medium-grade (MGS) and high-grade stenoses (HGS). The blood flow was measured by CT without vessel occlusion and distal to the stenoses. Time-density curves were generated from CT data. The curves were evaluated by calculating and cross-plotting the variables ''slope of the density increase'', ''peak density'' and ''slope of the post-peak density decrease'' from the LAD and aortic CT data. The flow in the LAD dropped to 41 % {+-} 9 % (mean {+-} SD) for MGS and 12 % {+-} 6 % for HGS of the baseline. Coronary time-density curves plateaued proportional to luminal narrowing. Unimpaired flow could be differentiated statistically significant from poststenotic flow adjacent to MGS and HGS (p < 0.000 and p < 0.002, respectively). Flow adjacent to MGS and HGS was successfully differentiated for ''slope of the density increase'' and ''slope of the post-peak density decrease'' (p < 0.003 and p < 0.030, respectively). (orig.)

  5. Computational Simulations of Flow Dynamics and Blood Damage Through a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Scaled to Pediatric Size and Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, B. Min; McElhinney, Doff B.; Arjunon, Shiva; Mirabella, Lucia; Aidun, Cyrus K.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite pressing needs, there are currently no FDA approved prosthetic valves available for use in the pediatric population. This study is performed for predictive assessment of blood damage in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) with pediatric sizing and flow conditions. A model of an adult-sized 23mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent™ valve is selected for use in simulations, which is scaled in size for a 5-year old child and 6-month old infant. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann me...

  6. Establishment and verification of blood cell analysis review criteria in women and children specialized hospital%妇儿专科医院血液分析复检规则的建立及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月芳; 江咏梅; 张鸽; 杜泽丽; 陈岚; 叶蕾; 陈琪

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立适合妇女儿童专科医院的血常规复检规则.方法 以“XE-2100血细胞分析复检标准制定协作组”制定的XE-2100血液分析仪复检规则为评估基础,根据妇女儿童专科医院自己独特的病种特点及儿童白细胞(WBC)分类存在生理性交叉现象完善相应规则.Sysmex XE-2100全自动血液分析仪检测1 120例标本,以涂片镜检为金标准,进行临床复检工作并进行规则优化.结果 初始复检规则复检率65.98%,根据妇儿医院特点,通过调整WBC、血小板(PLT)计数、WBC分类百分比进行第1次优化后,假阳性率40.71%;将未成熟粒细胞(IG)与WBC≥10×109/L组合、幼稚细胞(Blast)与WBC≤4×109/L或≥10×109/L组合、变异淋巴细胞(Atypical/Variant)与淋巴细胞(Lymph)%>50%组合进行第2次优化后,假阳性率为17.53%,假阴性率4.49%,造成假阴性的主要项目为Atypical/Variant Lymph(< 5%)、PLT >70×109/L,验证通过.最终制定出符合妇女儿童专科医院的专有复检规则.结论 血涂片复检规则在临床应用过程中,应注意收集、整理发现问题,及时根据自身医院特点对复检规则进行修改、完善,以提高血细胞分析质量和工作效率.%Objective To establish proper review criteria for blood cell analysis in women and children specialized hospital. Methods Based on the review criteria from the cooperation group of formulation for blood cell analysis by Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer, as the women and children specialized hospital with the own unique disease characteristics and children white blood cell ( WBC ) physiological characteristics, the review criteria was optimized. The total 1120 samples were detected by Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer, blood smear determination was as the golden standard, and the new review criteria was evaluated and optimized. Results The review rate of initial review criteria was 65.98%. According to the women and children

  7. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Chun On Tsang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents.

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  15. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each of...... the N distinct parameter values x_i of the at least one input parameter x, while keeping all other input parameters fixed, constructed a Vandermonde matrix VM using the set of N parameter values x_i of the at least one input parameter x, and computed the model W for emulating the physical quantity P...

  16. Optimal Magnetic Field for Crossing Super-Para-Magnetic Nanoparticles through the Brain Blood Barrier: A Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysam Z. Pedram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes the magnetic field effect to deliver the superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNs through the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB. Herein we study the interaction between the nanoparticle (NP and BBB membrane using Molecular Dynamic (MD techniques. The MD model is used to enhance our understanding of the dynamic behavior of SPMNs crossing the endothelial cells in the presence of a gradient magnetic field. Actuation of NPs under weak magnetic field offers the great advantage of a non-invasive drug delivery without the risk of causing injury to the brain. Furthermore, a weak magnetic portable stimulator can be developed using low complexity prototyping techniques. Based on MD simulation results in this paper, SPMNs can cross the cell membrane while experiencing very weak mechanical forces in the range of pN. This study also derives guidelines for the design of the SPMNs dedicated to crossing the BBB using external magnetic fields.

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  4. Assessment of left ventricular function by gated cardiac blood-pool emission computed tomography using a rotating gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the usefulness of gated cardiac blood-pool single photon emission CT (SPECT) with Tc-99m for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) global and regional functions, 18 patients with coronary artery disease were studied. Thirty-two gated projection images were obtained over 360-degree at 16 frames per cardiac cycle. As LV volume was calculated by integrating the numbers of voxels which constituted LV and multiplying by the volume of a single voxel (0.1143 ml), we performed phantom studies to determine the appropriate cut-off level to detect LV outline. These cut-off levels were affected by the background activity and organ volume itself. So we constructed Volume-Cut-Level-Curve at each background activity. In clinical studies, short axis images which constituted LV were selected and provisional LV volumes were calculated at the cut-off levels of 45, 50 and 55%. These volumes were plotted on the Volume-Cut-Level-Curve and the true cut-off levels were obtained to calculate LV end-diastolic or end-systolic volume (EDV, ESV). The cut-off levels were different at every patient and ED or ES. EDV, ESV and LV ejection fraction obtained by SPECT were correlatd well with those obtained by contrast ventriculography (LVG) (r=0.89, 0.94, 0.94 each, p<0.01). For the LV wall motion analysis, LVGs obtained at two projections were compared with SPECT or gated cardiac blood-pool planar imaging (Planar) in 5 segments. In addition to visual comparison, wall motion scores (WMS) based on the degree of wall motion abnormality were calculated in each segment. Correlation of WMS between LVG and SPECT (r=0.84) was significantly (p<0.01) superior to that between LVG and Planar (r=0.62). Especially in SPECT, wall motion analyses at septal and infero-posterior segments were superior to those in Planar. Although gated SPECT requires relatively long time to perform, it is a useful method to detect LV global and regional functions. (author)

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  6. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with 133Xe inhalation and dynamic single photon emission computer tomography. Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow was studied by 133Xe inhalation tomography in 25 healthy subjects. Mean age was 41 years and range 23-66 years. Mean hemispheric CBF at rest was 59.8 ml/100 g/min, and cerebellar flow 60.8 ml/100 g/min. The distribution of CBF values was skewed and approximated a log normal distribution. Estimated lower and upper normal reference range limits calculated as mean (log) = - 2 S.D. (log) were 47-74 ml/100 g/min. Women had approximately 5 ml/100 g/min higher CBF values than men, corresponding to the difference in hematocrit. Neither in men or women was there any tendency to age dependent reduction or increase in flow. In both sexes hemispheric regional CBF (rCBF) was asymmetric with higher flow values in the right cerebral hemisphere; particularly in the anterior distribution territory of the middle cerebral artery. Emotional activation as a consequence of the study conditions is assumed to be the cause of this observed asymmetry. Cerebellar flow was not assymetric. No significant difference in cerebellar or hemispheric CBF was found when a second study followed the first by 3-15 months, PCO2 correction of flow improved reproducibility. Acetazolamide responses are reported. (author)

  7. MR vascular fingerprinting: A new approach to compute cerebral blood volume, mean vessel radius, and oxygenation maps in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, T; Pannetier, N A; Ni, W W; Qiu, D; Moseley, M E; Schuff, N; Zaharchuk, G

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we describe a fingerprinting approach to analyze the time evolution of the MR signal and retrieve quantitative information about the microvascular network. We used a Gradient Echo Sampling of the Free Induction Decay and Spin Echo (GESFIDE) sequence and defined a fingerprint as the ratio of signals acquired pre- and post-injection of an iron-based contrast agent. We then simulated the same experiment with an advanced numerical tool that takes a virtual voxel containing blood vessels as input, then computes microscopic magnetic fields and water diffusion effects, and eventually derives the expected MR signal evolution. The parameter inputs of the simulations (cerebral blood volume [CBV], mean vessel radius [R], and blood oxygen saturation [SO2]) were varied to obtain a dictionary of all possible signal evolutions. The best fit between the observed fingerprint and the dictionary was then determined by using least square minimization. This approach was evaluated in 5 normal subjects and the results were compared to those obtained by using more conventional MR methods, steady-state contrast imaging for CBV and R and a global measure of oxygenation obtained from the superior sagittal sinus for SO2. The fingerprinting method enabled the creation of high-resolution parametric maps of the microvascular network showing expected contrast and fine details. Numerical values in gray matter (CBV=3.1±0.7%, R=12.6±2.4μm, SO2=59.5±4.7%) are consistent with literature reports and correlated with conventional MR approaches. SO2 values in white matter (53.0±4.0%) were slightly lower than expected. Numerous improvements can easily be made and the method should be useful to study brain pathologies. PMID:24321559

  8. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  9. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  10. Absolute quantification of cerebral blood flow in neurologically normal volunteers: dynamic-susceptibility contrast MRI-perfusion compared with computed tomography (CT)-perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelitz, Doerthe; Starck, Göran; Mikkelsen, Irene K; Tullberg, Mats; Edsbagge, Mikael; Wikkelsö, Carsten; Forssell-Aronson, Eva; Holtås, Stig; Knutsson, Linda

    2009-07-01

    To improve the reproducibility of arterial input function (AIF) registration and absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification in dynamic-susceptibility MRI-perfusion (MRP) at 1.5T, we rescaled the AIF by use of a venous output function (VOF). We compared CBF estimates of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, obtained by computed tomography (CT)-perfusion (CTP) and MRP on two consecutive days. MRP, calculated without the AIF correction, did not result in any significant correlation with CTP. The rescaled MRP showed fair to moderate correlation with CTP for the central gray matter (GM) and the whole brain. Our results indicate that the method used for correction of partial volume effects (PVEs) improves MRP experiments by reducing AIF-introduced variance at 1.5T. PMID:19253361

  11. Regional cerebral function and blood flow: complementary single photon emission computed tomography of the brain using xenon-133 and [123I]iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral function and blood flow can be imaged using isopropyl[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP), or 133Xe (DSPECT), respectively. This study assessed the in vivo information about intracerebral disease provided by IMP and DSPECT techniques to determine the optimal diagnostic use of these modalities. Single photon emission computed tomograms of 53 subjects were acquired using similar displays for IMP and DSPECT data. Overall, both IMP and DSPECT had similar patterns. However, while similar, one or the other technique often displayed abnormalities not present on both. Although technical factors may account for some differences between the modalities, a case of arteriovenous malformation proves that discordant findings can result directly from tracer localization properties. Thus at least some discordances provide truly complementary diagnostic information lacking in either single study taken alone. (author)

  12. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.wagner@kgu.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Kyriakou, Yiannis, E-mail: yiannis.kyriakou@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Health Care Sector (Germany); Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du, E-mail: mesnil@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Singer, Oliver C., E-mail: o.singer@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Department of Neurology (Germany); Berkefeld, Joachim, E-mail: berkefeld@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy.

  13. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy

  14. Computational simulations of flow dynamics and blood damage through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve scaled to pediatric size and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B Min; McElhinney, Doff B; Arjunon, Shiva; Mirabella, Lucia; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-09-22

    Despite pressing needs, there are currently no FDA approved prosthetic valves available for use in the pediatric population. This study is performed for predictive assessment of blood damage in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) with pediatric sizing and flow conditions. A model of an adult-sized 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent(™) valve is selected for use in simulations, which is scaled in size for a 5-year old child and 6-month old infant. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow with thousands of suspended platelets for cases of adult, child, and infant BMHV flows. Adult BMHV flows demonstrate more disorganized small-scale flow features, but pediatric flows are associated with higher fluid shear stresses. Platelet damage in the pediatric cases is higher than in adult flow, highlighting thrombus complication dangers of pediatric BMHV flows. This does not necessarily suggest clinically important differences in thromboembolic potential. Highly damaged platelets in pediatric flows are primarily found far downstream of the valve, as there is less flow recirculation in pediatric flows. In addition, damage levels are well below expected thresholds for platelet activation. The extent of differences here documented between the pediatric and adult cases is of concern, demanding particular attention when pediatric valves are designed and manufactured. However, the differences between the pediatric and adult cases are not such that development of pediatric sized valves is untenable. This study may push for eventual approval of prosthetic valves resized for the pediatric population. Further studies will be necessary to determine the validity and potential thrombotic and clinical implications of these findings. PMID:25011622

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with sickle cell disease: study with single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurological complications have been reported in patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) using positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT), but not with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The objective of this study was to investigate brain perfusion in the patients with SCD using SPECT after technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO), was administered and compare the findings with those of demography, physical examination, MRI and hematological profile. The study involved 21 patients (12 males, 9 females, age at study 8-45 years) who were known to be having SCD for a duration of at least 5 years. The patients were not in acute crisis and had normal neurological assessments with no known history of stroke or transient ischemic episode or previous abnormal CT or MRI brain scan, and were right-handed. The brain SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 740 MBq (20 mCi) 99mTc-HMPAO in adults or an appropriate dose in pediatric patients. The scans were visually interpreted by two nuclear medicine physicians and a decision was reached by consensus. An MRI done 3 months later was interpreted by a radiologist. The demographic data and hematological profile were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Of the 21 patients, 7 (age 11-22 years) had brain perfusion deficit mostly in the frontal lobe either alone or in combination with temporal and/or parietal lobe. The MRI was abnormal in 2 patients. The brain perfusion deficit was not associated with the demographic data of the patients or hematological profiles. The findings show that SPECT was useful in detecting brain perfusion deficit in SCD patients, and such an early detection may be clinically useful in the subsequent follow-up of such patients, since it is known that cerebral perfusion deficit can lead to silent infarct and/or overt stroke, and affect cognitive skills. (author)

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  17. Minimal-flow xenon and semiclosed circuit anesthesia for computed tomographic measurement of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of decreasing the volume of expensive xenon, anesthesia with minimal-flow xenon and semiclosed circuit were induced for computed tomographic LCBF measurement. Eighteen patients with ischemic cerebral disease were studied. Xenon inhalation programs were subdivided into three groups, each of them consisted of 6 patients. The formula for calculating fresh gas flow for low flow semiclosed circuit was introduced according to Shimoji's which was based on the original formula of Foldes. O2 concentration in circuit was predicted to be 25%. Mean xenon uptake for initial 20 minutes was predicted to be125 ml/min. or 360 ml/min. The first group started xenon inhalation during pure xenon inflow into semic losed circuit for two minutes and followed by about 68% xenon in O2 inhalation for 23 munites. FXe and VXe were fixed at 700 ml/min and 360 ml/min respectively. The second group was set at the same conditions as the first group except FXe and VXe as shown in Fig.2. The third group inhaled about 63% xenon-oxygen mixture affer four minutes pure xenon inflow. Xenon concentrations in trachea, carotid artery and jugular vein were estimated from the conversion into equivalent enhancement in CT units for every four minutes on line. Fig. 3 shows the O2 concentration change in semiclosed circuit, endtidal CO2 tension and percent change of mean arterial pressure. After 20 minutes xenon inhalation O2 concentration in each group closed to 25% which was predicted O2 concentration of the third group closed more rapidly to 25% than other groups. Normocarbia and stable hemodynamics could be confirmed throughout the procedures in each group. Fig. 5 shows xenon washin curves in trachea and xenon concentration change in carotid artery and jugular vein during xenon inhalation. The washin curves in trachea are quite different in each group. (J.P.N.)

  18. Have You Given Blood Lately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing: After donation, blood establishments are required to test each unit of donated blood for the following infectious disease agents: · Hepatitis B · Hepatitis C · Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) 1 and ...

  19. The feasibility and clinical application of flat-panel detector computer tomography in evaluating cerebral blood volume: an initial prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and clinical value of the determination of cerebral blood volume (CBV) map by using flat-panel detector computer tomography (FDCT) angiography system. Methods: A prospective self-control clinical trial was conducted in 20 patients with cerebral ischemia who were encountered during the period from June 2010 to March 2011. All the patients were diagnosed as cerebral ischemic diseases and were scheduled to take interventional procedures. All patients underwent cerebral perfusion computer tomography (PCT) and CBV map exam which was performed by flat-panel detector computer tomography (FDCT-CBV). The CBV values obtained by the two exam types were analyzed and compared with each other by using statistic methods. Results: All PCT and FDCT-CBV exams were successfully accomplished in all the twenty patients. A significant correlation existed between the CBV images and CBV values obtained by the two exam types. The correlation coefficient was 0.68 (P<0.01). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -0.25±2.79 between FDCT-CBV and PCT-CBV, indicating that FDCT-CBV values were only slightly lower than those of PCT-CBV. Conclusion: CBV exam by using flat-panel detector angiography system is clinically feasible and the results of FDCT-CBV is comparable to those of PCT-CBV. As the FDCT-CBV can offer functional images of the whole brain within the catheter lab, this technique is very helpful in making the reasonable operation plan and in improving the safety of endovascular procedures in neurosurgery. (authors)

  20. Establishing Cephalometric Landmarks for the Translational Study of Le Fort-based Facial Transplantation in Swine: Enhanced applications using computer-assisted surgery and custom cutting guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Gabriel F.; Susarla, Srinivas M.; Al Rakan, Mohammed; Coon, Devin; Rada, Erin M.; Sarhane, Karim; Shores, Jamie T.; Bonawitz, Steven C.; Cooney, Damon; Sacks, Justin; Murphy, Ryan J.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Brandacher, Gerald; Lee, WP Andrew; Liacouras, Peter; Grant, Gerald; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Le Fort-based, maxillofacial allotransplantation is a reconstructive alternative gaining clinical acceptance. However, the vast majority of single-jaw transplant recipients demonstrate less-than-ideal skeletal and dental relationships with suboptimal aesthetic harmony. The purpose of this study was to investigate reproducible cephalometric landmarks in a large animal model, where refinement of computer-assisted planning, intra-operative navigational guidance, translational bone osteotomies, and comparative surgical techniques could be performed. Methods Cephalometric landmarks that could be translated into the human craniomaxillofacial skeleton, and would remain reliable following maxillofacial osteotomies with mid-facial alloflap inset, were sought on six miniature swine. Le Fort I-and Le Fort III-based alloflaps were harvested in swine with osteotomies, and all alloflaps were either auto-replanted or transplanted. Cephalometric analyses were performed on lateral cephalograms pre- and post-operatively. Critical cephalometric data sets were identified with the assistance of surgical planning and virtual prediction software, and evaluated for reliability and translational predictability. Results Several pertinent landmarks and human analogues were identified including pronasale (PRN), zygion (Zy), parietale (PA), gonion (GO), gnathion (GN), lower incisior base (LIB), and alveolare (ALV). PA-PRN-ALV and PA-PRN-LIB were found to be reliable correlates of SNA and SNB measurements in humans, respectively. Conclusions There is a set of reliable cephalometric landmarks and measurement angles pertinent for utilization within a translational large animal model. These craniomaxillofacial landmarks will allow us to develop novel navigational software technology, improve our cutting guide designs, and explore new avenues for investigation and collaboration. Level of Evidence N/A (Large Animal Study) PMID:24445879

  1. Relationship between ischemic ST depression pattern and coronary blood volume. Study using [sup 13]NH[sub 3] positron emission computed tomography under light exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Takuya; Okazaki, Osamu; Michihata, Tetsuo; Hara, Toshihiko; Harumi, Kenichi (National Nakano Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)); Akutsu, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hideyuki; Katagiri, Takashi

    1994-09-01

    To determine the relationship between ST depression pattern and coronary blood volume in exercise induced myocardial ischemia, exercise-induced ST changes on ECG and regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) on positron emission computed tomography (PET) were examined. The subjects were 41 patients with myocardial infarction and 30 with angina pectoris, consisting of 55 men and 16 women. Five normal men served as controls. In the group of ST depression, maximum PRP and age were significantly high, and patients with multiple vessel disease accounted for 63.6%. RMBF, as shown on PET, increased by 10% or more after exercise in 71.1% in the group of non ST change and in the control group. In 60.6% of the patients having ST depression, there was a decrease in RMBF or an unfavorable increase in RMBF. Among 33 patients in the group of ST depression, 17 had a sagging type. Of these 17, 12 (70.6%) showed a decrease of RMBF or an unfavorable increase in RMBF, and 10 had triple vessel disease. Sixteen patients had a horizontal type, 8 of whom (50.0%) had a decrease or unfavorable increase in RMBF. These findings suggest that a decrease or unfavorable increase (an increased rate of 10% or less) may be involved in the occurrence of ST depression induced by exercise. In particular, patients with a sagging type ST depression should be monitored during exercise because many of these patients may have triple vessel disease and a decrease or unfavorable increase in RMBF. (N.K.).

  2. Relationship between ischemic ST depression pattern and coronary blood volume. Study using 13NH3 positron emission computed tomography under light exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relationship between ST depression pattern and coronary blood volume in exercise induced myocardial ischemia, exercise-induced ST changes on ECG and regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) on positron emission computed tomography (PET) were examined. The subjects were 41 patients with myocardial infarction and 30 with angina pectoris, consisting of 55 men and 16 women. Five normal men served as controls. In the group of ST depression, maximum PRP and age were significantly high, and patients with multiple vessel disease accounted for 63.6%. RMBF, as shown on PET, increased by 10% or more after exercise in 71.1% in the group of non ST change and in the control group. In 60.6% of the patients having ST depression, there was a decrease in RMBF or an unfavorable increase in RMBF. Among 33 patients in the group of ST depression, 17 had a sagging type. Of these 17, 12 (70.6%) showed a decrease of RMBF or an unfavorable increase in RMBF, and 10 had triple vessel disease. Sixteen patients had a horizontal type, 8 of whom (50.0%) had a decrease or unfavorable increase in RMBF. These findings suggest that a decrease or unfavorable increase (an increased rate of 10% or less) may be involved in the occurrence of ST depression induced by exercise. In particular, patients with a sagging type ST depression should be monitored during exercise because many of these patients may have triple vessel disease and a decrease or unfavorable increase in RMBF. (N.K.)

  3. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  4. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  5. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  6. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  7. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  8. Computer-assisted system for diagnosing degenerative dementia using cerebral blood flow SPECT and 3D-SSP. A multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with dementia, more physicians who do not specialize in brain nuclear medicine are being asked to interpret SPECT images of cerebral blood flow. We conducted a multicenter study to determine whether a computer-assisted diagnostic system Z-score summation analysis method (ZSAM) using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) can differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD)/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and non-AD/DLB in institutions using various types of gamma cameras. We determined the normal thresholds of Z-sum (summed Z-score) within a template region of interest for each single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) device and then compared them with the Z-sums of patients and calculated the accuracy of the differential diagnosis by ZSAM. We compared the diagnostic accuracy between ZSAM and visual assessment. We enrolled 202 patients with AD (mean age, 76.8 years), 40 with DLB (mean age 76.3 years) and 36 with non-AD/DLB (progressive supranuclear palsy, n=10; frontotemporal dementia, n=20; slowly progressive aphasia, n=2 and one each with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease) who underwent N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow SPECT imaging at each participating institution. The ZSAM sensitivity to differentiate between AD/DLB and non-AD/DLB in all patients, as well as those with mini-mental state examination scores of ≥24 and 20-23 points were 88.0, 78.0 and 88.4%, respectively, with specificity of 50.0, 44.4 and 60.0%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy rates were 83.1, 72.9 and 84.2%, respectively. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves for visual inspection by four expert raters were 0.74-0.84, 0.66-0.85 and 0.81-0.93, respectively, in the same patient groups. The diagnostic accuracy rates were 70.9-89.2%, 50.9-84.8% and 76.2-93.1%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy

  9. Analysis of regional cerebral blood flow and distribution volume in Machado-Joseph disease by iodine-123I IMP single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Its clinical features vary greatly in different generations of the same family. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and distribution volume (Vd) in the pons, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex were measured in 12 patients with MJD by autoradiography (ARG) and the table look-up (TLU) method of iodine-123 IMP (123I-IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Representative cases were as follows: A 46-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 38. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no atrophy in the pons or cerebellum, but rCBF measured by the 123I-IMP SPECT ARG method detected hypoperfusion in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. A 76-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 69. CT and MRI findings showed severe atrophy in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. Moreover, rCBF was decreased in the pons, whereas it was not decreased in the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. In the pons of patients with MJD, rCBF was markedly decreased regardless of disease severity. Because this SPECT finding for the pons looked like a 'dot', we have called it the 'pontine dot sign'. In the MJD group, rCBF was significantly decreased in the pons (Student's t test, pd was also significantly decreased in the pons (pd for the pons and age at onset (r=0.59, pd in the cerebellar hemispheres and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (r=0.644, pd obtained by 123I-IMP SPECT for patients with MJD identified by gene analysis. Our study shows that SPECT measurement of rCBF and Vd is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of MJD. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Hepatic Tissue Blood Flow Using Xenon Computed Tomography with Fibrosis Progression in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Shigefuku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study evaluated the utility of xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure for the measurement of hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or chronic hepatitis C (CH-C. Methods: Xe-CT was performed in 93 patients with NAFLD and in 109 patients with CH-C. Subjects were classified into one of three groups, based on fibrosis stage: group 1, no bridging fibrosis; group 2, bridging fibrosis; and group 3, liver cirrhosis. Correlations between hepatic TBFs in each fibrosis stage were examined. Results: In group 1, portal venous TBF (PVTBF, hepatic arterial (HATBF, and total hepatic TBF (THTBF were significantly lower in patients with in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH than in those with CH-C (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively. In group 2, PVTBF and THTBF were significantly lower in patients with in NASH than in those with CH-C (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively. In group 3, hepatic TBFs were not significantly different when comparing patients with NASH and those with CH-C. Conclusions: PVTBF decreased due to fat infiltration. Therefore, hemodynamic changes occur relatively earlier in NAFLD than in CH-C. Patients with NASH should be monitored carefully for portal hypertensive complications in the early fibrosis stage.

  11. Simultaneous in vivo synchrotron radiation computed tomography of regional ventilation and blood volume in rabbit lung using combined K-edge and temporal subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhonen, H [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Porra, L [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Bayat, S [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Faculte de Medecine, PERITOX (EA-INI RIS) and Cardiologie et Pneumo-Allerglogie Pediatriques, CHU Amiens (France); Sovijaervi, A R A [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Suortti, P [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-02-07

    In K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging with synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT), two images are taken simultaneously using energies above and below the K-absorption edge of a contrast agent. A logarithmic difference image reveals the contrast agent concentration with good accuracy. Similarly, in temporal subtraction imaging (TSI) the reference image is taken before the introduction of the contrast agent. Quantitative comparisons of in vivo images of rabbit lung indicated that similar results for concentrations of iodine in blood vessels and xenon in airways are obtained by KES and TSI, but the level of noise and artifacts was higher in the latter. A linear fit showed that in the lung parenchyma {rho}{sub TSI} = (0.97 {+-} 0.03){rho}{sub KES} + (0.00 {+-} 0.05) for xenon and {rho}{sub TSI} = (1.21 {+-} 0.15){rho}{sub KES} + (0.0 {+-} 0.1) for iodine. For xenon the calculation of time constant of ventilation gave compatible values for both of the methods. The two methods are combined for the simultaneous determination of the xenon concentration (by KES) and the iodine concentration (by TSI) in lung imaging, which will allow simultaneous in vivo determination of ventilation and perfusion.

  12. Transformations for a generalized variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries model from blood vessels, Bose-Einstein condensates, rods and positons with symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-typed models, although often hard to be studied, are of current interest in describing various real situations. Under investigation hereby is a large class of the generalized variable-coefficient KdV models with external-force and perturbed/dissipative terms. Recent examples of this class include those in blood vessels and circulatory system, arterial dynamics, trapped Bose-Einstein condensates related to matter waves and nonlinear atom optics, Bose gas of impenetrable bosons with longitudinal confinement, rods of compressible hyperelastic material and semiconductor heterostructures with positonic phenomena. In this Letter, based on symbolic computation, four transformations are proposed from this class either to the cylindrical or standard KdV equation when the respective constraint holds. The constraints have nothing to do with the external-force term. Under those transformations, such analytic solutions as those with the Airy, Hermit and Jacobian elliptic functions can be obtained, including the solitonic profiles. The roles for the perturbed and external-force terms to play are observed and discussed. Investigations on this class can be performed through the properties of solutions of cylindrical and standard KdV equations

  13. Diagnosing osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot: a pilot study to examine the sensitivity and specificity of Tc(99m) white blood cell-labelled single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Mallory M; Holloway, Samantha; Vyce, Steven D; Obando, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a significant threat of osteomyelitis (OM) and subsequent amputation. The diagnosis of OM via imaging studies is difficult as radiographic findings do not present immediately and advanced imaging studies may be contraindicated or unavailable. A novel diagnostic tool has been developed which synthesises technetium-99 white blood cell-labelled single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography (Tc(99m) WBC labelled-SPECT/CT) imaging, effectively enhancing anatomic detail. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the validity and reliability of this novel imaging technique in patients with diabetic foot ulcers in a Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. A retrospective review was performed on consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria (n = 14) and underwent Tc(99m) WBC-labelled SPECT/CT for suspected OM. Histopathologic analysis of bone specimen (when available) and International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot consensus criteria were used as a reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity of Tc(99m) WBC-labelled SPECT/CT were 87·50% [confidence interval (CI): 64·58-110·42%] and 71·43% (CI: 37·96-104·90%), respectively. Negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were 83·33% (CI: 53·51-113·15%) and 77·78% (CI: 50·62-104·94%), respectively, with a likelihood ratio (LR) of 3·063 and an accuracy of 80%. These findings suggest Tc(99m) WBC-labelled SPECT/CT can be useful in imaging OM in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:24976368

  14. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  15. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  16. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confidence to respond in emergency situations with the skills that can help to save a life. Learn more » Red Cross Information Donating Blood Learn About Blood Hosting a Blood Drive For Hospitals Engage with Us About Us Media ...

  17. Comparison of gated blood pool SPECT and spiral multidetector computed tomography in the assessment of right ventricular functional parameters. Validation with first-pass radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare gated blood pool single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (GBPS) and multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) for the determination of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and right ventricular volumes (RVV) and to compare first-pass radionuclide angiography (FP-RNA) as the gold standard. Twenty consecutive patients (11 men, 9 women) referred for MDCT for the evaluation of the presence of coronary artery disease underwent FP-RNA and GBPS. The mean right ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) calculated with GBPS revealed a statistically significant lower value than that of MDCT. The mean right ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) calculated with GBPS was also lower than that of MDCT. A comparison of right ventricular EDV from GBPS and MDCT yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.5972. Right ventricular ESV between GBPS and MDCT showed a correlation coefficient of 0.5650. The mean RVEFs calculated with FP-RNA (39.8%±4.0%), GBPS (43.7%±6.9%), and MDCT (40.4%±7.7%) showed no statistical differences (Kruskal-Wallis statistics 4.538, P=0.1034). A comparison of RVEFs from FP-RNA and GBPS yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.7251; RVEFs between FP-RNA and MDCT showed a correlation coefficient of 0.6166 and between GBPS and MDCT showed a correlation coefficient of 0.6367. The RVEF, EDV, and ESV calculated by GBPS had good correlation with those obtained with MDCT. In addition, there were no statistical differences of RVEF calculated from FP-RNA, GBPS, and MDCT. However, with regard to RVV, EDV and ESV from GBPS revealed statistically significantly lower values than those of MDCT. Although reasonable correlations among these modalities were obtained, the agreement among these three modalities was not good enough for interchangeable use in the clinical setting. Also, these results should be confirmed in patients with cardiac diseases in future larger population-based studies. (author)

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs

  19. A New Computational Model for Neuro-Glio-Vascular Coupling: Astrocyte Activation Can Explain Cerebral Blood Flow Nonlinear Response to Interictal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Solenna; Saillet, Sandrine; Ivanov, Anton; Benquet, Pascal; Bénar, Christian-George; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Benali, Habib; Wendling, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) response and neuronal activity is of significant importance because CBF increase is essential to the health of neurons, for instance through oxygen supply. This relationship can be investigated by analyzing multimodal (fMRI, PET, laser Doppler…) recordings. However, the important number of intermediate (non-observable) variables involved in the underlying neurovascular coupling makes the discovery of mechanisms all the more difficult from the sole multimodal data. We present a new computational model developed at the population scale (voxel) with physiologically relevant but simple equations to facilitate the interpretation of regional multimodal recordings. This model links neuronal activity to regional CBF dynamics through neuro-glio-vascular coupling. This coupling involves a population of glial cells called astrocytes via their role in neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA) recycling and their impact on neighboring vessels. In epilepsy, neuronal networks generate epileptiform discharges, leading to variations in astrocytic and CBF dynamics. In this study, we took advantage of these large variations in neuronal activity magnitude to test the capacity of our model to reproduce experimental data. We compared simulations from our model with isolated epileptiform events, which were obtained in vivo by simultaneous local field potential and laser Doppler recordings in rats after local bicuculline injection. We showed a predominant neuronal contribution for low level discharges and a significant astrocytic contribution for higher level discharges. Besides, neuronal contribution to CBF was linear while astrocytic contribution was nonlinear. Results thus indicate that the relationship between neuronal activity and CBF magnitudes can be nonlinear for isolated events and that this nonlinearity is due to astrocytic activity, highlighting the importance of astrocytes in the

  20. Effect of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells: computational and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, swine flu (H1N1) had spread significantly to levels that threatened pandemic influenza. There have been many treatments that have arisen for patients since the WHO first reported the disease. Although some progress in controlling influenza has taken place during the last few years, the disease is not yet under control. The development of new and less expensive anti-influenza drugs is still needed. Here, we show that sesamin from the seeds of the Thai medicinal plant Sesamum indicum has anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1. In this study, the combinatorial screening method combined with the computational approach was applied to investigate the new molecular binding structures of sesamin against the 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1 (p09N1) crystallized structure. Experimental methods were applied to propose the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from H1N1-induced human PBMC model. The molecular dynamics simulation of sesamin binding with the p09N1 crystallized structure showed new molecular binding structures at ARG118, ILE222, ARG224, and TYR406, and it has been proposed that sesamin could potentially be used to produce anti-H1N1 compounds. Furthermore, the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced PBMCs by ELISA and signaling transduction showed that sesamin exhibits the ability to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and to enhance the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2 via downregulating the phosphorylated JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. This information might very well be useful in the prevention and treatment of immune-induced inflammatory disorders. PMID:26424131

  1. A New Computational Model for Neuro-Glio-Vascular Coupling: Astrocyte Activation Can Explain Cerebral Blood Flow Nonlinear Response to Interictal Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Solenna; Saillet, Sandrine; Ivanov, Anton; Benquet, Pascal; Bénar, Christian-George; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Benali, Habib; Wendling, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) response and neuronal activity is of significant importance because CBF increase is essential to the health of neurons, for instance through oxygen supply. This relationship can be investigated by analyzing multimodal (fMRI, PET, laser Doppler…) recordings. However, the important number of intermediate (non-observable) variables involved in the underlying neurovascular coupling makes the discovery of mechanisms all the more difficult from the sole multimodal data. We present a new computational model developed at the population scale (voxel) with physiologically relevant but simple equations to facilitate the interpretation of regional multimodal recordings. This model links neuronal activity to regional CBF dynamics through neuro-glio-vascular coupling. This coupling involves a population of glial cells called astrocytes via their role in neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA) recycling and their impact on neighboring vessels. In epilepsy, neuronal networks generate epileptiform discharges, leading to variations in astrocytic and CBF dynamics. In this study, we took advantage of these large variations in neuronal activity magnitude to test the capacity of our model to reproduce experimental data. We compared simulations from our model with isolated epileptiform events, which were obtained in vivo by simultaneous local field potential and laser Doppler recordings in rats after local bicuculline injection. We showed a predominant neuronal contribution for low level discharges and a significant astrocytic contribution for higher level discharges. Besides, neuronal contribution to CBF was linear while astrocytic contribution was nonlinear. Results thus indicate that the relationship between neuronal activity and CBF magnitudes can be nonlinear for isolated events and that this nonlinearity is due to astrocytic activity, highlighting the importance of astrocytes in the

  2. A New Computational Model for Neuro-Glio-Vascular Coupling: Astrocyte Activation Can Explain Cerebral Blood Flow Nonlinear Response to Interictal Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solenna Blanchard

    Full Text Available Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF response and neuronal activity is of significant importance because CBF increase is essential to the health of neurons, for instance through oxygen supply. This relationship can be investigated by analyzing multimodal (fMRI, PET, laser Doppler… recordings. However, the important number of intermediate (non-observable variables involved in the underlying neurovascular coupling makes the discovery of mechanisms all the more difficult from the sole multimodal data. We present a new computational model developed at the population scale (voxel with physiologically relevant but simple equations to facilitate the interpretation of regional multimodal recordings. This model links neuronal activity to regional CBF dynamics through neuro-glio-vascular coupling. This coupling involves a population of glial cells called astrocytes via their role in neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA recycling and their impact on neighboring vessels. In epilepsy, neuronal networks generate epileptiform discharges, leading to variations in astrocytic and CBF dynamics. In this study, we took advantage of these large variations in neuronal activity magnitude to test the capacity of our model to reproduce experimental data. We compared simulations from our model with isolated epileptiform events, which were obtained in vivo by simultaneous local field potential and laser Doppler recordings in rats after local bicuculline injection. We showed a predominant neuronal contribution for low level discharges and a significant astrocytic contribution for higher level discharges. Besides, neuronal contribution to CBF was linear while astrocytic contribution was nonlinear. Results thus indicate that the relationship between neuronal activity and CBF magnitudes can be nonlinear for isolated events and that this nonlinearity is due to astrocytic activity, highlighting the importance of astrocytes in

  3. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  4. High-resolution dynamic computer simulation analysis of the behavior of sample components with pI values outside the pH gradient established by carrier ampholyte CIEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Wolfgang; Kilár, Ferenc

    2013-03-01

    The behavior of sample components whose pI values are outside the pH gradient established by 101 hypothetical biprotic carrier ampholytes covering a pH 6-8 range was investigated by computer simulation under constant current conditions with concomitant constant electroosmosis toward the cathode. Data obtained with the sample being applied between zones of carrier ampholytes and on the anodic side of the carrier ampholytes were studied and found to evolve into zone structures comprising three regions between anolyte and catholyte. The focusing region with the pH gradient is bracketed by two isotachopheretic zone structures comprising selected sample and carrier components as isotachophoretic zones. The isotachophoretic structures electrophoretically migrate in opposite direction and their lengths increase with time due to the gradual isotachophoretic decay at the pH gradient edges. Due to electroosmosis, however, the overall pattern is being transported toward the cathode. Sample components whose pI values are outside the established pH gradient are demonstrated to form isotachophoretic zones behind the leading cation of the catholyte (components with pI values larger than 8) and the leading anion of the anolyte (components with pI values smaller than 6). Amphoteric compounds with appropriate pI values or nonamphoteric components can act as isotachophoretic spacer compounds between sample compounds or between the leader and the sample with the highest mobility. The simulation data obtained provide for the first time insight into the dynamics of amphoteric sample components that do not focus within the established pH gradient. PMID:23229109

  5. Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (DSPECT): Definition of a generally acceptable normal range and follow-up checks after extracranial bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography was evaluated in 50 volunteers with unobtrusive cerebral findings, who were to provide the relevant standard values. It was found that the values measured were easily reproducible. Measurements in patients showing cerebrovascular disease that were carried out before and after extracranial bypass surgery did mostly not suggest any perceivable improvement of cerebral blood flow. In isolated cases the cerebral reserve was influenced favourably, as judged from measurements after administration of acetazolamide. (MBC)

  6. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  7. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  8. Analysis of regional cerebral blood flow and distribution volume in Machado-Joseph disease by iodine-{sup 123}I IMP single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Tsunemi; Nakajima, Takashi; Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi [National Saigata Hospital, Ohagata, Niigata (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Its clinical features vary greatly in different generations of the same family. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and distribution volume (V{sub d}) in the pons, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex were measured in 12 patients with MJD by autoradiography (ARG) and the table look-up (TLU) method of iodine-123 IMP ({sup 123}I-IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Representative cases were as follows: A 46-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 38. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no atrophy in the pons or cerebellum, but rCBF measured by the {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT ARG method detected hypoperfusion in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. A 76-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 69. CT and MRI findings showed severe atrophy in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. Moreover, rCBF was decreased in the pons, whereas it was not decreased in the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. In the pons of patients with MJD, rCBF was markedly decreased regardless of disease severity. Because this SPECT finding for the pons looked like a 'dot', we have called it the 'pontine dot sign'. In the MJD group, rCBF was significantly decreased in the pons (Student's t test, p<0.01) and cerebellar vermis (p<0.05). The V{sub d} was also significantly decreased in the pons (p<0.005) in comparison with that for normal subjects. Pearson's correlation analysis yielded a significant relationship between the rCBF in the pons and age at onset (r=0.578, p<0.05). There was a strong correlation between the V{sub d} for the pons and age at onset (r=0.59, p<0.05). Person's correlation analysis also showed a significant relationship between the V{sub d} in the cerebellar hemispheres and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (r=0.644, p<0.05). The pontine rCBFs in patients with early onset MJD

  9. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  10. 76 FR 23824 - Guidance for Industry: “Computer Crossmatch” (Computerized Analysis of the Compatibility Between...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: `Computer Crossmatch' (Computerized Analysis of the Compatibility between the Donor's Cell Type and the Recipient's Serum or Plasma Type)'' dated April 2011. The guidance document provides blood establishments that perform compatibility testing using a computer crossmatch......

  11. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase Abnormalities of hemoglobin , the protein in ... sickle and Pappenheimer Red blood cells, target cells Formed elements of blood References Bain BJ. The peripheral ...

  12. 8岁以下儿童末梢血血红蛋白参考范围分析%Establishment of Reference Intervals for Peripheral Blood Hemoglobin Aiming at Children below 8 Years Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁有勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立≤8岁儿童末梢血血红蛋白的参考范围.方法 选择2010年5月-2011年10月在我院健康体检的≤8岁儿童1 514例,按年龄分组:3~12个月组429例,1~3岁组462例,4~8岁组623例.均经体检证明生长、发育正常,无慢性病史,无血红蛋白疾病史和贫血史,无血吸虫、钩虫、疟疾等寄生虫感染的贫血,无蚕豆病.检查前未接受过铁剂和输血治疗.结果 1 514个血红蛋白测定值,偏度系数为0.401,峰度系数为-0.117,呈近似正态分布.3~12个月组、1~3岁组、4~8岁组男童、女童及男女合计血红蛋白水平比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).3~12个月儿童血红蛋白参考范围为96~125 g/L,1~3岁儿童血红蛋白参考范围为100~129 g/L,4~8岁男童血红蛋白参考范围为101~137 g/L,4~8岁女童血红蛋白参考范围为103~131 g/L.结论 不同年龄段应采用不同的血红蛋白参考范围,不同实验室应建立适合自己的血红蛋白的参考范围.%Objective To determine the reference intervals for hemoglobin of peripheral blood aiming at children below 8 years old. Methods We selected 1 514 healthy children below 8, inclusive who came to our hospital for physical check -up from May 2010 to October 2011 and according to their ages divided them into three groups : 3 ~ 12 months group 429 cases, 1 ~ 3 year olds group 462 cases, 4 ~ 8 years old group 623 cases. All the subjects underwent physical examination and were con -firmed normal in their growth and development , without any chronic disease , hemoglobin disease , anemia, favism and anemia caused by schistosomiasis , hookworm, malaria and they didn 't receive iron supplements or any kind of transfusion therapy. Re-sults All subjects' hemoglobin level was approximately positively distributed with coefficient of skewness being 0. 401 and coeffi-cient of kurtosis being -0. 117. The differences between males , females, males and females together in the three

  13. Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in aged noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients with no history of cerebrovascular disease: evaluation by N-isopropyl- sup 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, M.; Nagamachi, S.; Inoue, K.; Morotomi, Y.; Nunoi, K.; Fujishima, M. (Higashi Hospital, (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured using N-isopropyl-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT) in 16 aged patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, average age 72.8 years, average fasting plasma glucose 7.7 mmol/L), and 12 nondiabetic subjects (71.6 years, 5.3 mmol/L). None had any history of a cerebrovascular accident. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not differ between groups. Areas of hypoperfusion were observed in 14 diabetic patients (12 patients had multiple lesions) and in 6 nondiabetic subjects (3 had multiple lesions). Areas where radioactivity was greater than or equal to 65% of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region with normal cerebral blood flow (region of interest A, ROI-A), and areas where the count was greater than or equal to 45% were defined as brain tissue regions other than ventricles (ROI-B). The average ROI-A/B ratio of 16 slices was used as a semiquantitative indicator of normal cerebral blood flow throughout the entire brain. Mean ROI-A/B ratio was 49.6 +/- 1.7% in the diabetic group, significantly lower than the 57.9 +/- 1.6% at the nondiabetic group (p less than 0.005). The ratio was inversely correlated with SBP (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05), total cholesterol (r = -0.51, p less than 0.05), and atherogenic index (r = -0.64, p less than 0.01), and was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.51, p less than 0.05) in the diabetic, but not the nondiabetic group. These observations suggest that the age-related reduction in cerebral blood flow may be accelerated by a combination of hyperglycemia plus other risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  14. Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in aged noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients with no history of cerebrovascular disease: evaluation by N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured using N-isopropyl-123I-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT) in 16 aged patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, average age 72.8 years, average fasting plasma glucose 7.7 mmol/L), and 12 nondiabetic subjects (71.6 years, 5.3 mmol/L). None had any history of a cerebrovascular accident. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not differ between groups. Areas of hypoperfusion were observed in 14 diabetic patients (12 patients had multiple lesions) and in 6 nondiabetic subjects (3 had multiple lesions). Areas where radioactivity was greater than or equal to 65% of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region with normal cerebral blood flow (region of interest A, ROI-A), and areas where the count was greater than or equal to 45% were defined as brain tissue regions other than ventricles (ROI-B). The average ROI-A/B ratio of 16 slices was used as a semiquantitative indicator of normal cerebral blood flow throughout the entire brain. Mean ROI-A/B ratio was 49.6 +/- 1.7% in the diabetic group, significantly lower than the 57.9 +/- 1.6% at the nondiabetic group (p less than 0.005). The ratio was inversely correlated with SBP (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05), total cholesterol (r = -0.51, p less than 0.05), and atherogenic index (r = -0.64, p less than 0.01), and was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.51, p less than 0.05) in the diabetic, but not the nondiabetic group. These observations suggest that the age-related reduction in cerebral blood flow may be accelerated by a combination of hyperglycemia plus other risk factors for atherosclerosis

  15. Postoperative blood loss reduction in computer-assisted surgery total knee replacement by low dose intra-articular tranexamic acid injection together with 2-hour clamp drain: a prospective triple-blinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-dose local tranexamic acid has been introduced in total knee arthroplasty for bleeding control. We are not sure about the systemic absorption and side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dosage of intra-articular tranexamic acid injection combined with 2-hour clamp drain in minimally bleeding computer-assisted surgery total knee replacement (CAS-TKR. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in a total of 48 patients underwent CAS-TKR. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either of a mixed intra-articular solution of tranexamic acid 250 mg with physiologic saline (TXA group, or physiologic saline (control group and then followed by clamp drain for 2 hours. Postoperative blood loss was measured by three different methods as drainage volume, total hemoglobin loss and calculated total blood loss. Transfusion requirement and postoperative complications were recorded. All patients were screened for deep vein thrombosis and the functional outcomes were evaluated at 6 months after surgery. The mean postoperative drainage volume, total hemoglobin loss and calculated total blood loss in TXA group were 308.8 mL, 2.1 g/dL and 206.3 mL compared to 529.0 mL, 3.0 g/dL and 385.1 mL in the control group (P=0.0003, 0.0005 and <0.0001 respectively. Allogenic blood transfusion was needed for one patient (4.2% in TXA group and for eight patients (33.3% in the control group. Postoperative knee scores were not significantly different between groups. No deep vein thrombosis, infection or wound complication was detected in both groups. In this study, low dose intra-articular tranexamic acid injection combined with 2-hour clamping drain was effective for reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirement in CAS-TKR without significant difference in postoperative complications or functional outcomes.

  16. Postoperative blood loss reduction in computer-assisted surgery total knee replacement by low dose intra-articular tranexamic acid injection together with 2-hour clamp drain: a prospective triple-blinded randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-ngasoongsong, Paphon; Channoom, Thanaphot; Kawinwonggowit, Viroj; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Wibulpolprasert, Bussanee; Wongsak, Siwadol; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Wechmongkolgorn, Supaporn; Lekpittaya, Nantaporn

    2011-01-01

    A high-dose local tranexamic acid has been introduced in total knee arthroplasty for bleeding control. We are not sure about the systemic absorption and side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dosage of intra-articular tranexamic acid injection combined with 2-hour clamp drain in minimally bleeding computer-assisted surgery total knee replacement (CAS-TKR). A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in a total of 48 patients underwent CAS-TKR. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either of a mixed intra-articular solution of tranexamic acid 250 mg with physiologic saline (TXA group), or physiologic saline (control group) and then followed by clamp drain for 2 hours. Postoperative blood loss was measured by three different methods as drainage volume, total hemoglobin loss and calculated total blood loss. Transfusion requirement and postoperative complications were recorded. All patients were screened for deep vein thrombosis and the functional outcomes were evaluated at 6 months after surgery. The mean postoperative drainage volume, total hemoglobin loss and calculated total blood loss in TXA group were 308.8 mL, 2.1 g/dL and 206.3 mL compared to 529.0 mL, 3.0 g/dL and 385.1 mL in the control group (P=0.0003, 0.0005 and <0.0001 respectively). Allogenic blood transfusion was needed for one patient (4.2%) in TXA group and for eight patients (33.3%) in the control group. Postoperative knee scores were not significantly different between groups. No deep vein thrombosis, infection or wound complication was detected in both groups. In this study, low dose intra-articular tranexamic acid injection combined with 2-hour clamping drain was effective for reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirement in CAS-TKR without significant difference in postoperative complications or functional outcomes. PMID:22053253

  17. Technical efficiency of blood component preparation in blood centres of 10 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Veihola, Marketta

    2008-01-01

    Various reasons, such as ethical issues in maintaining blood resources, growing costs, and strict requirements for safe blood, have increased the pressure for efficient use of resources in blood banking. The competence of blood establishments can be characterized by their ability to predict the volume of blood collection to be able to provide cellular blood components in a timely manner as dictated by hospital demand. The stochastically varying clinical need for platelets (PLTs) sets a specif...

  18. Blood presure measurement in LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pelikán, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to design and create a product for automated measurement of blood pressure by auscultatory method by using a computer. Thesis contains a description of the blood pressure, also there are explained ways of its monitoring, basic rules for its measurement and the methods by which it is possible to measure blood pressure. In the practical part is described measuring system serving to measuring blood pressure by auscultatory method using a computer. There is also shown a de...

  19. Xenon/CT blood flow mapping of the liver using multidetector-row computed tomography. Compensation of respiratory misregistration by volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For improvement in the accuracy of xenon/CT blood flow mapping of the liver, this study was conducted to assess whether volume-data obtained by multidetector-row helical CT could compensate for the slice misregistration caused by inconstant breath depth. Using imaging phantoms scanned on both multidetector-row and single-detector CT, suitable parameters were decided. In the phantom studies, axial scan with multidetector-row CT showed significantly greater variance of CT value than that of single detector row CT (SDCT). On multidetector-row CT, variances of the CT values maintained in low (80 kV) tube voltage, which is advantageous for detecting subtle enhancement of the liver. Images reconstructed with 10-mm thickness showed smaller variance than those of 5-mm thickness on low-pitch helical scan. Remarkable helical artifacts were seen on the high-pitch helical scan. Following the phantom studies, 7 examinees were scanned using xenon/CT with a predetermined scan protocol (80 kV, collimation 5 mm, thickness 10 mm, low-pitch helical scan). In all cases, slice compensation was necessary and was successfully performed. The number of pixels which constituted blood flow map increased after the compensation. No patients showed any significant adverse effects. In conclusion, multidetector-row helical CT has the potential for providing accurate quantification of xenon/CT blood flow mapping of liver by compensating for respiratory misregistration. (author)

  20. Blood / Money

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Marilyn Strathern has argued that "nature" in Euro-American culture has appeared as constraint; it has figured the givens of existence on which human artifice is seen to construct "society" or "culture."(5) Among those givens is the notion that human beings are naturally individuals. And blood, too, images individuality: "The very thought of blood, individual blood, touches the deepest feelings in man about life and death" ([RIchard Titmuss] 16.) Transfusion medicine, then, draws on a series ...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. 864.9700 Section 864.9700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood...

  2. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  3. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  4. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. The Relationship Between Baseline Blood Pressure and Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Stroke Data From the Tinzaparin in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Trial (TAIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sare, G.M.; Bath, P.M.W.; Gray, L.J.;

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-High blood pressure (BP) is present in approximate to 80% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. There are few data examining the relationship between admission BP and acute CT findings. Methods-TAIST was a randomized...... associated with baseline BP. Conclusion-Although high baseline BP is independently associated with a poor outcome after stroke, this was not shown to be through an association with increased hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral edema, or mass effect; trial design may be suboptimal to detect this. Higher SBP...

  6. Potentiometric and Blood Plasma Simulation Studies of Nickel(II Complexes of Poly(aminoamido Pentadentate Ligands: Computer Aided Metal-Based Drug Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebusi Odisitse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic equilibria of nickel(II with N,N′-di(aminoethylene-2,6-pyridinedicarbonylamine (L1, Bis-(N,N-dimethylethyl-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (L2, and N,N′-bis[2(2-pyridyl-methyl]pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (L3 have been studied at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.15 mol dm−3 by glass electrode potentiometry. The protonation and formation constants added to blood plasma model predict that Cu(II competes effectively against Ni(II, Zn(II, and Ca(II for these ligands in vivo.

  7. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  8. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  9. Quality Management, Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Blood Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbate, N

    2008-01-01

    Quality terms and the roots of the matter are analyzed according to European Committee’s recommendations. Essence of process and product quality control as well as essence of quality assurance is described. Quality system’s structure including quality control, quality assurance and management is justified in the article.

  10. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... And be sure to drink plenty of water, milk, or other liquids. Before donating, you'll need to answer some questions about your medical history, and have your temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and ...

  11. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  12. Amylase - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  13. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  15. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  16. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Print A A A ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  17. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  18. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  19. The influence of tube voltage and phantom size in computed tomography on the dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes after CT scans at tube voltages of 80 and 140 kV. Blood samples from a healthy donor placed in tissue equivalent abdomen phantoms of standard, pediatric and adipose sizes were exposed at dose levels up to 0.1 Gy using a 64-slice CT scanner. It was found that both the tube voltage and the phantom size significantly influenced the CT scan-induced linear dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Using the same phantom (standard abdomen), 80 kV CT x-rays were biologically more effective than 140 kV CT x-rays. However, it could also be determined that the applied phantom size had much more influence on the biological effectiveness. Obviously, the increasing slopes of the CT scan-induced dose response relationships of dicentrics in human lymphocytes obtained in a pediatric, a standard and an adipose abdomen have been induced by scattering effects of photons, which strongly increase with increasing phantom size.

  20. Computer simulation of MHD blood conveying gold nanoparticles as a third grade non-Newtonian nanofluid in a hollow porous vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, M; Hatami, J; Ganji, D D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, heat transfer and flow analysis for a non-Newtonian third grade nanofluid flow in porous medium of a hollow vessel in presence of magnetic field are simulated analytically and numerically. Blood is considered as the base third grade non-Newtonian fluid and gold (Au) as nanoparticles are added to it. The viscosity of nanofluid is considered a function of temperature as Vogel's model. Least Square Method (LSM), Galerkin method (GM) and fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method (NUM) are used to solve the present problem. The influences of the some physical parameters such as Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters on non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are considered. The results show that increasing the thermophoresis parameter (N(t)) caused an increase in temperature values in whole domain and an increase in nanoparticles concentration just near the inner wall of vessel. Furthermore by increasing the MHD parameter, velocity profiles decreased due to magnetic field effect. PMID:24286727

  1. Establishment of WTGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly outlines the reasons for establishing a wind turbine generator and the consequent disadvantages. Consideration is then given to the determining factors affecting the economics of wind turbine generators with special reference to Denmark. (UK)

  2. Blood flow-metabolic relationships are dependent on tumour size in non-small cell lung cancer: a study using quantitative contrast-enhanced computer tomography and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to undertake dual assessment of tumour blood flow and glucose metabolism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to assess how the relationships between these parameters vary with tumour size and stage. Tumour blood flow and glucose metabolism were assessed in 18 NSCLCs using quantitative CE-CT and FDG-PET respectively. Contrast enhancement and FDG uptake were both normalised to injected dose and patient weight to yield correspondingly the standardised perfusion value (SPV) and standardised uptake value (SUV). Tumour area was measured from conventional CT images. The ratio of SUV to SVP and the metabolic-flow difference (SUV-SVP) correlated with tumour size (r=0.56, p=0.015 and r=0.60 and p=0.008 respectively). A metabolic-flow difference of greater than 4 was more common amongst tumours of stages III and IV (odds ratio 10.5; 95% confidence limits 0.24-32.1). A significant correlation between SUV and SPV was found only for tumours smaller than 4.5 cm2 (r=0.85, p=0.03). Blood flow-metabolic relationships are not consistent in NSCLC but depend upon tumour size and stage. Quantitative CE-CT as an adjunct to an FDG study undertaken using integrated PET-CT offers an efficient way to augment the assessment of tumour biology with possible future application as part of clinical care. (orig.)

  3. AN INDIAN ENTREPRENEUR ESTABLISHING

    OpenAIRE

    Vaghela, Amit; Wang, Xiaoran

    2008-01-01

    Title: An Indian Entrepreneur Establishing Business in Europe Course: Master Thesis EFO705 in International Business and Entrepreneurship, Swedish credit points (15 ECTS) Authors: Xiaoran Wang and Amit Vaghela Tutor: Leif Linnskog Problem: How did Mr. Deepak Soni establish and develop his company Anora Pvt Ltd in Poland, a company operating in the branch of textile and clothing? From this research problem, the dissertation will be focused on the internationalization. Purpose: The aim of thesi...

  4. AUDIT OF BLOOD REQUISITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, P; Swarup, D; Singh, M M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 2793 requisition forms received by the blood banks of a Service zonal hospital, between June 1995 and December 1999, were analysed. 1697 (60.71%) forms were demand for single unit blood. Blood was collected against only 1099 forms (39.34%) out of which 713 (64.88%) were single unit issue. Urgency of requirement and blood group of patients was omitted in 56% cases. 104 forms were received without mention of the indications for transfusion. History of previous transfusion and pregnancy/HDN were omitted in 25.1% and 37.38% cases respectively. At an average 14.61% of the total collection was discarded. Of the 292 units discarded, 242 units were due to non utilisation. A transfusion committee should be established in all hospitals with a licensed blood bank. It should constitute definite objectives and conduct regular audits (prospective audit, concurrent review or retrospective review), in order to achieve utmost efficiency and numerous benefits, in terms of workload, cost, errors, risks of transfusion and ultimately increased customer satisfaction. It should strive to abolish single unit and inappropriate transfusion, and advocate autologous transfusion. PMID:27365575

  5. [Which place for physicians in blood supply?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danic, B; Pelletier, B

    2013-05-01

    Historically, blood transfusion has been divised, enhanced and organized by physicians. The special status of blood led to ensure that collection of blood and its components were placed under the supervision of a physician. Throughout its history, blood transfusion organization in France has established an exclusive exercise of the collection of blood and its components entrusted to doctors, thus creating the concept of "medicine of donation". This view is changing, and programmed exercise of this activity by nurses led to question about this profession perimeter, its necessary evolution, and finally about the place of physicians in blood supply. PMID:23537956

  6. Engineering Aspects in Blood Pump Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Leonard; Veres, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    NASA turbomachinery computer codes assisted in the design of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation's centrifugal bladed blood pump. The codes were originally developed for the aerospace industry, but are applicable to the blood pump because of a high degree of synergy with this application. Traditional turbomachinery design criteria were used in the design of the blood pump centrifugal impeller and volute casing. The fluid dynamic performance of the blood pump is meeting the engineering design goals of flow rate and pressure rise.

  7. Computer Simulation of Tb( Ⅲ )Speciation in Human Blood Plasma%人体血浆中Tb(Ⅲ)物种的计算机模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢兴; 张海元; 王进平; 王悦; 杨魁跃; 牛春吉; 倪嘉缵

    2003-01-01

    建立了人体血浆多相模型,研究了人体血浆体系中Tb(Ⅲ)物种的分布.结果表明,Tb(Ⅲ)的物种形式随着Tb(Ⅲ)的量浓度的变化而变化.当Tb(Ⅲ)的量浓度低于4.000×10-8mol/L时,大部分Tb(Ⅲ)物种以可溶态存在;当Tb(Ⅲ)的量浓度高于4.000×10-8mol/L而低于1.667×10-2mol/L时,沉淀物种(TbPO4和Tb2(CO3)3)成为Tb(Ⅲ)的主要物种.可溶的Tb(Ⅲ)在量浓度低于1.0×10-4mol/L时,主要与运铁蛋白键合,分布于[Tb(Tf)]中;当Tb(Ⅲ)的量浓度高于1.0×10-4mol/L时,运铁蛋白耗尽,可溶的Tb(Ⅲ)主要分布于[Tb(HSA)],[Tb2(Tf)],[Tb(Ox)]和[Tb(Cit)]等物种中.%A multi-phase model of human blood plasma was developed and the Tb( Ⅲ) specia-tion in this system was studied. The results show that the speciation of Tb( Ⅲ ) depends onthe concentration of Tb( Ⅲ ). When the concentration of Tb( Ⅲ ) is below 4. 000 × 10-8 mol/L,most of Tb ( Ⅲ ) exists as soluble species while the concentration of Tb ( Ⅲ ) is in between4. 000× 10-8 mol/L and 1. 667 × 10-2 mol/L, precipitates (TbPO4 and Tb2 (CO3)3) are thedominant species of Tb(Ⅲ). Among soluble Tb(Ⅲ) species, Tb( Ⅲ) is mostly bound to thetransferrin to form [Tb(Tf)] when the concentration of soluble Tb(Ⅲ) is below 1.0 × 10 4mol/L. The concentration of soluble Tb(Ⅲ) reaches 1.0 × 10-4mol/L, thus available trans-ferrin is exceeded, and soluble Tb(Ⅲ) ions mainly distribute in [Tb(HSA)], [Tb2 (Tf)],[Tb(Ox)] and [Tb(Cit)] etc.

  8. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to infections including those we develop from our vaccinations (such as poliovirus antibodies, which are made by ... the Transfusion Medicine Unit, Blood Bank, and Stem Cell Storage Facility University of Rochester Medical ... and health educators who are available by phone Monday through Friday, 9 am to 9 pm ( ...

  9. Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krga-Milanović Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

  10. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  11. Establishing a robotics program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, William D; LeBeau, Sam; Cardella, Joseph; Fulmer, Brant

    2004-11-01

    Establishing a successful robotics program requires consideration of several issues, including the surgical procedures to be performed, training and personnel, facilities, finance, and marketing. This article considers these factors from an academic health center standpoint and evaluates the benefits and risks of this new technology for urology departments. PMID:15474605

  12. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: ...

  13. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  14. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  15. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  16. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  17. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Transfusions Print A ... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood As blood moves throughout the body, it carries ...

  18. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Programs Newsroom facebook twitter youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda ... View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  1. Bacterial contamination of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, J

    2001-10-01

    Despite considerable advances in the safety of blood components, transfusion associated bacterial infection (TABI) remains an unresolved problem. As yet there are no perfect preventative, screening and/or detection methodologies for eliminating contaminated units. Until a practical, rapid, cost-effective and logistically acceptable test becomes available, we should be satisfied with the choice of various limited solutions that at least partially improve the bacterial safety of blood components. It is also necessary to establish standardised guidelines and agreed upon systematic procedures for the recognition and reporting of the laboratory and clinical evaluation of adverse reactions in recipients of contaminated blood components. PMID:11761277

  2. Classification of positive blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arpi, Magnus;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Information from blood cultures is utilized for infection control, public health surveillance, and clinical outcome research. This information can be enriched by physicians assessments of positive blood cultures, which are, however, often available from selected patient groups...... or pathogens only. The aim of this work was to determine whether patients with positive blood cultures can be classified effectively for outcome research in epidemiological studies by the use of administrative data and computer algorithms, taking physicians assessments as reference. METHODS: Physicians...... assessments of positive blood cultures were routinely recorded at two Danish hospitals from 2006 through 2008. The physicians assessments classified positive blood cultures as: a) contamination or bloodstream infection; b) bloodstream infection as mono- or polymicrobial; c) bloodstream infection as community...

  3. Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The basic ideas and principles of granular computing (GrC) have been studied explicitly or implicitly in many fields in isolation. With the recent renewed and fast growing interest, it is time to extract the commonality from a diversity of fields and to study systematically and formally the domain independent principles of granular computing in a unified model. A framework of granular computing can be established by applying its own principles. We examine such a framework from two perspectives,granular computing as structured thinking and structured problem solving. From the philosophical perspective or the conceptual level,granular computing focuses on structured thinking based on multiple levels of granularity. The implementation of such a philosophy in the application level deals with structured problem solving.

  4. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  5. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuoka, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the int...

  6. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Alireza; Charjouei Moghadam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Buerger’s disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger’s disease. Methods: In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger’s disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew arte...

  7. Computer-assisted ex vivo, normothermic small bowel perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Stangl, M.J.; Krapp, J.; Theodorou, D; Eder, M.; Hammer, C; Land, W.; Schildberg, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2000-01-01

    Background: In the present study, a technique for computer-assisted, normothermic, oxygenated, ex vivo, recirculating small bowel perfusion was established as a tool to investigate organ pretreatment protocols and ischemia/reperfusion phenomena. A prerequisite for the desired setup was an organ chamber for ex vivo perfusion and the use of syngeneic whole blood as perfusate. Methods: The entire small bowel was harvested from Lewis rats and perfused in an organ chamber ex vivo for at least 2 h....

  8. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Neurotherapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Devous, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a powerful clinical and research tool. There are several clinical applications now documented, a substantial number under active investigation, and a larger number yet to be studied. Standards regarding patient imaging environment and image presentation are becoming established. This article reviews key aspects of SPECT functional brain imaging in clinical practice, with a ...

  9. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  10. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. PMID:26907148

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 6, 2016, San Diego, CA Abstracts Registration Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Detectives Find a ...

  12. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  13. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  14. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Collections Submit to Blood View ... Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood: How I Treat A ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connected Home » High Blood Pressure Heath and Aging High Blood Pressure What Is Blood Pressure? Do ... high blood pressure increases as you get older. Gender. Before age 55, men have a greater chance ...

  17. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features ... vessels. Several sources of blood are described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  18. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions Print A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  19. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... choose to use a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which you later receive if you need a transfusion during or after surgery. You can have blood ...

  20. High blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood ... of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  3. Computer identification of white blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Neurath, P W; Selles, W D; Gelsema, E S; Powell, B W; Gallus, G; Vastola, E

    1973-01-01

    The hardware and software problems for an effective image processing system are described, with a real time high speed system solution as the goal. The discriminating power of the algorithms has been tested in a simulation made on the PIQUANT film scanner and is between 67 and 92% depending on the definition of accuracy. The results are expected to be of value to firms designing and building commercial equipment and to prospective purchasers of it.

  4. The accuracy of integrate digital dental models established with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images%三维整合牙颌模型的精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敏; 郭宏铭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of the integrate dental models based on cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and laser-scanned dental models. Methods Ten patients with malocclusion were scanned by CBCT,and the silicon models scanned by laser, which then created the 3-dimensional dental and maxillary models. The digital dental models were established by integration of these models. The integration accuracy was evaluated by both manual register and auto register methods. The statistical difference between the two register methods was assessed. Results The mean distance of the maxilla and mandible was 0. 159 ±0. 0265mm and 0. t51 ±0. 0337 mm in manual register method,and 0. 145 ±0. 0294 mm and 0. 134 ±0. 0309 mm in auto register method. There were significant difference between the two methods ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Both manual register and auto register could establish accurate integrated 3-dimensional dental and maxillary models, with the former being better than the latter.%目的:将基于锥形束计算机断层扫描(CBCT)的牙颌模型和激光扫描的牙冠模型整合建立三维整合牙颌模型,研究三维整合牙颌模型的整合精度.方法:选择10例需要接受CBCT检查的错(牙合)患者,对每例患者头颅进行CBCT扫描,采取牙列硅橡胶印模进行激光扫描,分别重建获得三维CBCT图像和激光扫描三维图像,将三维CBCT图像和激光扫描图像进行手动配准和自动配准,对两种配准方法所得整合模型用Rapid form 2006软件进行全局偏差检测.采用配对t检验评价手动配准方法和自动配准方法的差异.结果:手动配准上下颌平均距离分别是0.159±0.0265mm,0.151±0.0337mm,自动配准上下颌平均距离分别是0.145±0.0294mm,0.134±0.0309mm,两者间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:自动配准方法优于手动配准方法,两种配准方法均能建立精确的三维整合模型,这为今后三维整合牙颌模型的应用提供了依据.

  5. Blood safety in the world updated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvano Wandel

    2010-01-01

    @@ Blood safety is of paramount importance in any medical context, given that it represents one of the most impor-tant supportive procedures in medicine. Nearly all medical fields that lead with very critical patients will depend on blood products as part of supporting medical strategies (both clinical and surgical). Thus, it is im-portant that every country in the world relies on a well established national blood program.

  6. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Blood Transfusion » Types of Blood Transfusions Explore Blood Transfusion What Is... ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood ( ...

  7. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( ... means you have a blood infection (septicemia). High levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the cord blood may be found ...

  8. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Process Risks and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron Info. for All Donors Iron Info. for ... Donation Student Donors Donation Process Eligibility Blood FAQs Blood Donor ... of Blood Transfusion Hosting a Blood Drive What to Expect Hosting ...

  9. The flow of red blood cells in stenosed microvessels and the influence of red blood cells on wall-bounded rolling motion of microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2015-11-01

    In the first part of this work, we consider a 3D computational study of the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. We observe that the apparent viscosity of blood increases by several folds, and the rate of increase with increasing vessel diameter is also higher than that in non-stenosed vessels, implying an enhancement of the well-known Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. The flow of the red blood cells causes time-dependent fluctuations in the blood flow rate. The RMS of the flow rate oscillations in the stenosed vessel is observed to be significantly higher than that in the non-stenosed vessel. Furthermore, several folds increase in the Eulerian velocity fluctuations and a transient flow reversal upstream the stenosed region are also observed, which would not occur in absence of the cells. In the second part, we consider the adhesive rolling motion of wall-bounded microparticles in presence of flowing red blood cells in microvessels. We observe two contradictory role of the red blood cells: On one hand, the cells facilitate the establishment of the particle-wall contact, and, thereby, initiation of adhesion. On the other hand, they augment the rolling velocity of the particles. Implications of these results on the optimal design of drug carriers are discussed.

  10. Blood sugar monitoring with laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diode. The in-vivo experiments were carried out using laser diodes with wavelength 1625nm and 1650nm. Several volunteers were tested before and after drinking glucose solution. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diode system. The signal voltage was processed by using a computer and blood absorption was obtained. The results show that blood sugar level and blood absorption have similar trends before and after drinking glucose solution. We also compared the trends of drinking glucose solution and pure water and the results show that the difference of blood absorption is obvious. From the results we can see that laser diode is suitable for blood glucose monitoring.

  11. Autologous blood donation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2004-01-01

    Although preoperative autologous blood donation is employed in elective surgery, this is declining because of the increasingly safe allogeneic blood supply. However, it continues to be used because of the public's perception of allogeneic blood risks and increasing blood shortages. Patients may donate a unit of blood (450 ± 45 ml) as often as twice weekly, up to 72 hours before surgery. Preoperative autologous blood is most beneficial in procedures that cause significant blood loss. It has be...

  12. Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: an experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, T; Jensen, L T; Schytz, H W; Wienecke, Troels; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Selb, J; Boas, D A; Ashina, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is important to find a reliable and bedside method, which can estimate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) of patients in clinical settings. Estimation of CBF by calculating a blood flow index (BFI) using continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) and indocyanine...... green (ICG) as an i.v. tracer has been proposed to be a feasible and promising method. To validate if the BFI method can detect relative changes in CBF we compared data with the established method (133)Xenon single photon emission computer tomography ((133)Xe-SPECT). METHODS: Ten healthy subjects were...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  14. Correlation of Red Blood Cell Aggregate Size with Transmitted Light Intensity Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.

    1998-11-01

    Under sufficiently low shear rates, such as those encountered in the microcirculation, human red blood cells are known to form aggregate structures (`rouleaux'). These aggregates may range in size from a simple chain containing only a few cells to complex three-dimensional structures containing tens of cells. Previous studies have attempted to characterize the aggregate size by examining the spatial distribution of transmitted light intensity resulting from transillumination of the blood flow. For experiments performed in vitro and in vivo, spectral analysis of the transmitted light intensities has shown that the presence of aggregates in the flow can linked with an increase in the spectral power at small wavenumbers. The magnitudes of the affected wavenumbers correspond to structures considerably larger than individual cells. A precise numerical correlation, however, is difficult to establish. In this work, computer simulations of aggregating blood flow are used along with statistical considerations in an attempt to better correlate the observed spectral trends with actual aggregate size.

  15. Medications and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  16. Alternatives to Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Blood Transfusion and Donation + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » TOPICS Document ... Possible risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To learn more References Previous ...

  17. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  18. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments. PMID:25578550

  19. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, Sanford [Purdue University

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  20. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  1. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  2. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots (thrombophlebitis) is increased for about 6 to 8 weeks after delivery (see Thromboembolic Disorders During Pregnancy ). Typically, blood clots occur in the deep veins ...

  3. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  4. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  5. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  6. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Member Blood Centers Our Partners What is blood? PUBLICATIONS EDUCATION PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  7. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  8. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  9. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  10. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000086.htm Managing your blood sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... way your doctor or nurse recommends. Check your Blood Sugar Often Checking your blood sugar levels often and ...

  11. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000332.htm High blood sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... later when energy is needed. Symptoms of High Blood Sugar Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being ...

  12. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with ... you think you have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  17. Computer Supported Collaborative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hinze-Hoare, Vita

    2009-01-01

    Although the areas of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) are now relatively well established, the related field of Computer Supported Collaborative Research (CSCR) is newly proposed here. An analysis of the principles and issues behind CSCR is performed leading to a full definition and specification of the CSCR domain is provided with a view to setting up an e-laboratory designed to support...

  18. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis. PMID:21069481

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ...

  20. 脑微血管内皮细胞与周细胞共培养构建体外血脑屏障模型%Establishment of an in vitro blood-brain harrier modal by coculturing brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿文葆; 秦伟伟; 张秋菊; 李宏伟; 刘淑英; 修瑞娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用原代培养的大鼠脑微血管内皮细胞(brain microvascular endothelial cell,BMVEC)与脑周细胞共培养建立可模拟在体状态的稳定体外血脑屏障(blood-brain barrier,BBB)模型.方法 原代分离、纯化培养大鼠BMVEC和周细胞,通过免疫细胞化学染色方法鉴定分离的细胞,应用Transwell插槽(孔径0.4μm)共培养构建体外BBB模型,经4h渗漏试验、紧密连接蛋白鉴定、跨内皮电阻检测以及通透性试验评价其屏障功能,比较共培养模型与单纯BMVEC模型膜两侧电阻值差异以及对小分子荧光素钠(sodium fluorescein,Na-F)通透性的差异.结果 融合的BMVEC单层呈现典型的鹅卵石样外观,脑周细胞呈典型的不规则外形并具有重叠生长等特性.免疫双标法鉴定显示,脑周细胞阳性表达α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-smooth muscle actin,α-SMA)和神经元-胶质抗原2(neuron-glial antigen2,NG2);共培养模型内皮细胞融合后,液面渗漏试验呈阳性;免疫细胞化学染色显示,内皮细胞间形成连续而致密的紧密连接;与BMVEC模型相比,共培养模型跨内皮细胞电阻[( 190.762±10.326)Ω/cm2对(96.503±8.012)Ω/cm2;t=- 24.489,P<0.01]显著增高,通透性显著降低(为单内皮模型的56.149% ±3.572%;t=19.330,P<0.01).结论 原代分离大鼠BMVEC 和周细胞共培养体外模型的形态、结构及屏障功能具备BBB的基本特征,为研究BBB提供了一种有用工具.%Objective To establish a stable in vitro model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) simulating in vivo state using the primary-cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) and pericytes.Methods The primary rat BMVECs and pericytes were isolated,purified and cultured.The isolated cells were identified by immunocytochemical staining method.An in vitro model of BBB was constructed using Transwell inserts (pore size 0.4 μm) coculture.Its barrier function was evaluated by the 4-hour leakage test,tight junction

  1. Cloud Computing and Grid Computing 360-Degree Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ian; Zhao, Yong; Raicu, Ioan; Lu, Shiyong

    2008-01-01

    Cloud Computing has become another buzzword after Web 2.0. However, there are dozens of different definitions for Cloud Computing and there seems to be no consensus on what a Cloud is. On the other hand, Cloud Computing is not a completely new concept; it has intricate connection to the relatively new but thirteen-year established Grid Computing paradigm, and other relevant technologies such as utility computing, cluster computing, and distributed systems in general. This paper strives to com...

  2. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should b...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  4. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  5. Introduction to Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization and Blood Safety in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abolghasemi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nCurrently, in Iran blood transfusion is an integral part of the national health system and blood donation is voluntary and non­remu­nerated and blood and its components may not be a source of profit. In 1974 and following establishment of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO all blood transfusion activities from donor recruitment to production of blood com­po­nents and delivery of blood and blood products were centralized. The activities of IBTO are followed the laws and regu­la­tions of Ministry of Health and criteria of Iran National Regulatory Authority. In order to meet the country's demand in 2007 IBTO collected about 1.7 millions units of blood from the population of 70 millions. In 1979 coincided with the Is­lamic revolution the number of  blood units collected throughout the country were 124,000 units or 3.4 unit per 1000 popu­la­tion whereas after about 30 years this increased to about 25 unit per 1000 population. With improving the pool of vol­un­tary donors, IBTO has been successful in excluding "family replacement" donation since 2007 and reached to 100% volun­tary and nonremunerated blood donation. Currently more than 92% of blood donors in Iran are male and contribution of fe­male in blood donation is less than 8%. Although all donated blood in Iran screened for HBsAg since 1974, screening of blood units for HIV and HCV started since 1989 and 1996, respectively. The frequency of HBV infection in blood do­nors showed a significant decline from 1.79% in 1998 to 0.4% in 2007. The overall frequency of HCV and HIV infection are 0.13% and 0.004% respectively.

  6. From human monocytes to genome-wide binding sites--a protocol for small amounts of blood: monocyte isolation/ChIP-protocol/library amplification/genome wide computational data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weiterer

    Full Text Available Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with a genome-wide analysis via high-throughput sequencing is the state of the art method to gain genome-wide representation of histone modification or transcription factor binding profiles. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in the context of human experimental samples is limited, especially in the case of blood cells. The typically extremely low yields of precipitated DNA are usually not compatible with library amplification for next generation sequencing. We developed a highly reproducible protocol to present a guideline from the first step of isolating monocytes from a blood sample to analyse the distribution of histone modifications in a genome-wide manner.The protocol describes the whole work flow from isolating monocytes from human blood samples followed by a high-sensitivity and small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with guidance for generating libraries compatible with next generation sequencing from small amounts of immunoprecipitated DNA.

  7. 慢性心力衰竭心气虚兼血瘀水肿证大鼠模型的建立与整合判定%Establishment of Chronic Heart Failure Rat Model of Xin-qi Deficiency Complicated Blood Stasis and Edema Syndrome and Judgment of Diagnosis Information Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家茂; 郭伟星; 王营; 刘颖; 李亚茹; 李珩; 周杰

    2014-01-01

    血瘀水肿证的SD大鼠模型.%Objective To establish and evaluate chronic heart failure (CHF) rat model of Xin-qi deficiency complicated blood stasis and edema syndrome (XQD-BSES).Methods Totally 40 SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group (Control),the propylthiouracil (PTU) group,the adriamycin (ADR),and the ADR + PTU group.Normal saline was used as equivalent solvent of each group.Rats in the Control group were intragastrically and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline.Rats in the PTU group were intragastrically injected with PTU suspension and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline.Rats in the ADR group were intragastrically injected with ADR solution and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline.And rats in the ADR + PTU group were intragastrically injected with PTU suspension and intraperitoneally injected with ADR solution.The dose of PTU was 0.2% of daily forage weight,once daily.The dose of ADR was 3.5 mg/kg,once per week.The modeling lasted for 6 weeks.Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF),left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS),brain natriuretic peptide (BNP),heart rate (HR),respiratory rate (RR),urine output,ear temperature,exhaustive swimming test (EST),Tri-iodothyronine (T3),tetra-iodothyronine (T4),thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as heart,lung,liver weight indices and their pathological sections were integrated and compared.Results Compared with the Control group,LVEF,LVFS,BNP,HR,RR,heart,lung,liver weight indices,urine output,ear temperature,EST,and T3,T4,and TSH changed significantly in the ADR group,the PTU group,and the ADR + PTU group with statistical significance (P <0.05),and pathological changes of heart failure occurred in pathological sections of heart,lung,and liver.Compared with the ADR group,LVEF,LVFS,BNP,and lung,liver weight indices,urine output,ear temperature,T3,T4,and TSH changed significantly in the ADR + PTU group with statistical significance (P < 0.05),and

  8. Computational Biology, Advanced Scientific Computing, and Emerging Computational Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-27

    This CRADA was established at the start of FY02 with $200 K from IBM and matching funds from DOE to support post-doctoral fellows in collaborative research between International Business Machines and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to explore effective use of emerging petascale computational architectures for the solution of computational biology problems. 'No cost' extensions of the CRADA were negotiated with IBM for FY03 and FY04.

  9. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Alireza; Charjouei Moghadam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Buerger’s disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger’s disease. Methods: In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger’s disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew artery of a patient diagnosed with the Buerger’s disease. The blood properties are the same as the actual blood properties of the patient. The blood flow rate is taken from the available experimental data in the literature. Results: The local velocity patterns, pressure and kinematic viscosity distributions in different segments of the corkscrew collateral artery was demonstrated and discussed for the first time for this kind of artery. The effects of non-Newtonian consideration for the blood viscosity behavior were investigated in different segments of the artery. Moreover, the variations of the blood flow patterns along the artery were investigated in details for each segment. Conclusion: It was found that the flow patterns were affected by the complex geometry of this artery in such a way that it could lead to the presence of sites that were prone to the accumulation of the flowing particles in blood like nicotine. Furthermore, due to the existence of many successive bends in this artery, the variations of kinematic viscosity along this artery were significant, therefore the non-Newtonian behavior of the blood viscosity must be considered. PMID:27340623

  10. Establishment of FMEA risk management procedures for blood coagulation tests in clinical laboratories%临床实验室按照 FM EA 模式构建凝血功能检测项目的风险管理程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛广华; 高玉洁; 崔百慧

    2016-01-01

    使用FMEA模型确定检验医学中心风险管理工作流程和关键环节。根据IS015189认可准则、CAP实验室认可检查条款等的相关标准,识别出实验室凝血功能检测工作流程中关键环节的风险。针对凝血功能检测的评价活动,采取积极的纠正措施,通过监测系统周期性地审核性能数据,可以对凝血功能检测的质量持续改进。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:13-17)%Definiting the workflow and key link of the risk management in medical laboratory by FMEA.Identifying risk factors of the workflow and key link of blood coagulation test by the criteria for laboratory accreditation , such as ISO15189 recognition criteria and CAP laboratory accreditation inspection . Through the evaluation of the blood coagulation test , effective corrective actions and examining performance data periodically , the quality of the blood coagulation test can be improved continuously.

  11. 大鼠高血流性肺动脉高压模型建立及病理生理改变%Establishment and pathophysiological changes of a rat model of increased blood flow-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by anastomosis of the left common carotid artery to left external jugular vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵科研; 李红岩; 王辉山; 佟昌慈; 张玉彪; 施琳; 侯明晓

    2015-01-01

    test using SPSS 16.0.Results There was no significant difference in body weight gains between the groups .The patency rate of shunt was 84.6%.The heart was enlarged in the group shunt .Cardiac output increased significantly in the shunt group than that in the other two groups [(309.8 ±33.1) mL/min・kg vs.(245.6 ±31.9) mL/min・kg, (240.8 ±30.9)mL/min・kg, respectively, P<0.05].In the shunt group Qp/Qs was 2.16 ±0.38 and RVSP increased to (35.8 ±4.9) mmHg, RVHI was 0.3263 ± 0.0342, significantly higher than that of the other groups .The pulmonary arteriolar wall was evidently thickened in contrast to that in the sham group [ ( 22.3 ±1.7 )% vs.( 10.6 ±1.7 )%, P <0.05 ) .Conclusions Anastomosis of the left common carotid artery to left external jugular vein can successfully establish pulmonary arterial hypertension model induced by high blood flow in rats .

  12. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2005-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.

  13. Cancer diagnosis by autofluorescence of blood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, V. E-mail: masilamaniv@yahoo.com; Al-Zhrani, K.; Al-Salhi, M.; Al-Diab, A.; Al-Ageily, M

    2004-09-01

    The autofluorescence of blood components of healthy volunteers and cancer patients of different etiology were analyzed using a steady-state spectrofluorometer. A significant contrast between healthy and diseased blood could be established. Blood components of patients of gastric cancer, breast cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma showed distinct and enhanced fluorescence band (around 630 nm) due to the porphyrin fluorophore. From the ratio fluorometry, a correlation to the stages of cancer could be also brought forth. We could indicate reasonably well the features of early stages and the growth rate of a few cancers and benign tumors.

  14. Effect of perioperative blood transfusions on long term graft outcomes in renal transplant patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Frank J

    2012-06-01

    It is established that blood transfusions will promote sensitization to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antigens, increase time spent waiting for transplantation and may lead to higher rates of rejection. Less is known about how perioperative blood transfusion influence patient and graft outcome. This study aims to establish if there is an association between perioperative blood transfusion and graft or patient survival.

  15. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ... visibility of certain tissues or blood vessels. A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line ...

  17. Computability and dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buescu, Jorge; Graça, Daniel; Zhong, Ning

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore results that establish a link between dynamical systems and computability theory (not numerical analysis). In the last few decades, computers have increasingly been used as simulation tools for gaining insight into dynamical behavior. However, due to the presence of errors inherent in such numerical simulations, with few exceptions, computers have not been used for the nobler task of proving mathematical results. Nevertheless, there have been some recen...

  18. Volumetric liquid flow measurement through thermography to simulate blood flow in an artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Mora, Carlos; Rabell-Montiel, Adela; González-Vega, Arturo; Gutierrez-Juarez, Gerardo

    2015-09-01

    Encouraged to improve the procedure to measure the blood flow in cases with peripheral artery disease using thermography, that allows to evaluate several arteries simultaneously, it was developed an alternative to measure the volumetric flow through a conduit, it was studied the variation of the thermal energy computed from thermal images due to changes in flow at different temperatures, and it was observed that the measurement is not strongly influenced by the emissivity of the conduit, the ambient temperature and humidity, but that is necessary to establish an adequate calibration of the camera to can use it as measurement instrument.

  19. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  20. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the field Hematology 2015 A collection of articles from the 2015 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research ...

  3. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Donation Process Printable Version Donation Process View Video Getting Ready for Your Donation The ... worry about. Make a Donation Appointment The Donation Process Step by Step Donating blood is a simple ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ...

  6. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  9. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... San Diego, CA Abstracts Registration Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue ... clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or ...

  11. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperglycemia) can be a sign of the disease diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar levels can eventually damage ... treated with the same medications used to treat diabetes. There is no simple blood test for insulin ...

  12. America's Blood Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or less. Please donate now! Full Stoplight Report America's Blood Centers is... FEATURED TODAY Support the Foundation ... purchase will be donated to the Foundation for America's Blood Centers! Simply Click Here! "We Are" This ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  14. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  17. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... Blood Disorders Bone Marrow Examination Blood disorders can cause various symptoms in almost any area of the ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ... Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hematologist Clinical Trials Talking with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders ... a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups ...

  20. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult to grow in culture, and additional blood cultures using special nutrient media may be done to try to grow and identify the pathogen . Viruses cannot be detected using blood culture bottles designed to grow bacteria. If the health ...

  1. National Blood Clot Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Home About Us Mission & Vision Board of Directors and Officers Medical & Scientific Advisory Board (MASAB) NBCA Operations Programs & Services About Clots Know Your Risk for Blood Clots Signs and Symptoms of Blood ...

  2. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. Some people need to check it ...

  3. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum ferritin level ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron is important for red blood cell production. Your doctor ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles that have been updated to reflect the most ... Sixth Edition Hematology 2015 A collection of review articles from the Education Program at the 2015 ASH ...

  5. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The best test for diagnosing anthrax is a culture of affected tissue or blood. Alternative Names Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis Images Blood test Bacillus anthracis References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  7. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in direct contact with the external environment, the circulatory system acts as a transport system for these cells. Two distinct fluids move through the circulatory system: blood and lymph. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patients Resources for Industry Professionals View all Guidelines & Quality Care Resources to help practitioners improve patient care ... Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood: How I Treat A compendium ...

  10. Blood groups systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranadhir Mitra; Nitasha Mishra; Girija Prasad Rath

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importa...

  11. Blood Donation Management System

    OpenAIRE

    K M Akkas Ali; Israt Jahan; Md. Ariful Islam; Md. Shafa-at Parvez

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood) and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this app...

  12. The determination of chromium-50 in human blood and its utilization for blood volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible relationships between insufficient blood volume increases during pregnancy and infant mortality could be established with an adequate measurement procedure. An accurate and precise technique for blood volume measurements has been found in the isotope dilution technique using chromium-51 as a label for red blood cells. However, in a study involving pregnant women, only stable isotopes can be used for labeling. Stable chromium-50 can be determined in total blood samples before and after dilution experiments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) or mass spectrometry. However, both techniques may be affected by insufficient sensitivity and contamination problems at the inherently low natural chromium concentrations to be measured in the blood. NAA procedures involving irradiations with highly thermalized neutrons at a fluence rate of 2x1013 n/cm2xs and low background gamma spectrometry are applied to the analysis of total blood. Natural levels of chromium-50 in human and animal blood have been found to be <0.1 ng/mL; i.e., total chromium levels of <3 ng/mL. Based on the NAA procedure, a new approach to the blood volume measurement via chromium-50 isotope dilution has been developed which utilizes the ratio of the induced activities of chromium-51 to the iron-59 in three blood samples taken from each individual, namely blank, labeled and diluted labeled blood. (author)

  13. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  14. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  15. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  18. Examining blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent specification relates to an invention concerned with improvements in or relating to the examination of blood vessels of interest. Particles of dimensions not greater than 8 microns capable of providing detectable signals, are introduced into the blood for examination of a blood vessel. The particles may be sources of radiation, e.g. Ga68. (author)

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  20. The influence of x-ray contrast agents in computed tomography on the induction of dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes of human blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, G.; Golfier, S.; Pietsch, H.; Lengsfeld, P.; Voth, M.; Schmid, T. E.; Eckardt-Schupp, F.; Schmid, E.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify two biomarkers for radiation exposure (dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci) in human lymphocytes after CT scans in the presence of an iodinated contrast agent. Blood samples from a healthy donor were exposed to CT scans in the absence or presence of iotrolan 300 at iodine concentrations of 5 or 50 mg ml-1 blood. The samples were exposed to 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 Gy in a tissue equivalent body phantom. Chromosome aberration scoring and automated microscopic analysis of γ-H2AX foci were performed in parts of the same samples. The theoretical physical dose enhancement factor (DEF) was calculated on the basis of the mass energy-absorption coefficients of iodine and blood and the photon energy spectrum of the CT tube. No significant differences in the yields of dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci were observed in the absence or presence of 5 mg iodine ml-1 blood up to 0.1 Gy, whereas at 1 Gy the yields were elevated for both biomarkers. At an iodine concentration of 50 mg ml-1 serving as a positive control, a biological DEF of 9.5 ± 1.4 and 2.3 ± 0.5 was determined for dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci, respectively. A physical DEF of 1.56 and 6.30 was calculated for 5 and 50 mg iodine ml-1, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that in the diagnostic dose range (radiation and contrast dose), no relevant biological dose-enhancing effect could be detected, whereas a clear biological dose-enhancing effect could be found for a contrast dose well outside the diagnostic CT range for the complete radiation dose range with both methods.

  1. What Is a Blood Transfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see "What Are the Risks of a Blood Transfusion?" ) Blood bank staff also screen each blood donation to find out whether it's type A, B, AB, or O and whether it's Rh-positive or Rh-negative. Getting a blood type that ... blood for a transfusion, some blood banks remove white blood cells. This ...

  2. Medical Computing: Another Basic Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1980-01-01

    Medical computing is frequently viewed as the application of established computer science techniques in medical domains. However, it is the thesis of this paper that many clinical computing tasks demand techniques that are as yet undeveloped. As a result, medical computing research should logically be closely tied to basic research in computer science. Failure to recognize that this developing discipline often requires fundamental investigation has tended to foster unrealistic expectations of...

  3. Cord blood transplantation: can we make it better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland eMetheny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood is an established source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. It enjoys several advantages over bone marrow or peripheral blood, including increased tolerance for Human Leukocyte Antigen mismatches, decreased incidence of graft-versus-host disease, and easy availability. Unrelated cord blood does have limitations, however, especially in the treatment of adults. In the 24 years since the first umbilical cord blood transplant was performed, significant progress has been made, but delayed hematopoietic engraftment and increased treatment related mortality remain obstacles to widespread use. Here we summarize the latest results of unrelated cord blood transplants, and review strategies under investigation to improve clinical outcomes.

  4. Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill [Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate concerns the authorisation of payment of the money required to reorganise the atomic weapons establishment in the United Kingdom provided for in the Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill in progress through Parliament. In the Bill the contractorisation of the establishment is recommended and some sort of Government owned company operated scheme set up. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. The issues raised concerned the actual sums likely to be incurred in the formation of a Company to carry out the designated activities of the Bill. These are connected with the research, development, production or maintenance of nuclear devices and the premises needed. The government spokesman suggested the sums required to support the Bill would not be large and the resolution was agreed to without a vote. (UK)

  5. Modeling of blood flow in arterial trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anor, Tomer; Grinberg, Leopold; Baek, Hyoungsu; Madsen, Joseph R; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Karniadakis, George E

    2010-01-01

    Advances in computational methods and medical imaging techniques have enabled accurate simulations of subject-specific blood flows at the level of individual blood cell and in complex arterial networks. While in the past, we were limited to simulations with one arterial bifurcation, the current state-of-the-art is simulations of arterial networks consisting of hundreds of arteries. In this paper, we review the advances in methods for vascular flow simulations in large arterial trees. We discuss alternative approaches and validity of various assumptions often made to simplify the modeling. To highlight the similarities and discrepancies of data computed with different models, computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) and inexpensive one-dimensional (1D) flow simulations in very large arterial networks are employed. Finally, we discuss the possibilities, challenges, and limitations of the computational methods for predicting outcomes of therapeutic interventions for individual patients. PMID:20836052

  6. Blood Component Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products i...

  7. BLOOD SERVICE IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    TASHTEMIROV K.K.; LATVALA E.; IMANGAZINOV S.B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the post is to summarize the experience of blood service in Finland by the result of the business move and examination of the service activities at the point.The research materials indicate that the blood service in Finland is a non-profit organization and is an independent part of the Finnish Red Cross (FRC). All expenses and development of Blood Service are covered by the sale of blood and blood products and expert services in the Finnish health care system. It is responsible fo...

  8. Methods to establish flaw tolerances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three conventional methods used to establish flaw tolerances are compared with new approaches using fracture mechanics. The conventional methods are those based on (a) non-destructive testing methods; (b) fabrication and quality assurance experience; and (c) service and damage experience. Pre-requisites of fracture mechanics methods are outlined, and summaries given of linear elastic mechanics (LEFM) and elastoplastic fracture mechanics (EPFM). The latter includes discussion of C.O.D.(crack opening displacement), the J-integral and equivalent energy. Proposals are made for establishing flaw tolerances. (U.K.)

  9. Blood Donation Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Akkas Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this application. The mobile application always updates the location of a donor. As a result, the system can automatically find a registered donor wherever he/she goes. Visitors can search blood donors from the home page by blood group and the place where blood is needed. The system will show the available donors along with their phone number, email address and mailing address through arranging them by nearest place and blood donation expire date. Visitors can send message to all donors through email but a member can send message using email and mobile phone. An appointment will be created only whenever a donor confirms that he/she will donate blood. Then the system will alert the donor before 12 hours of donation. Blood donors can also be searched from the mobile application, but this is only accessible for registered members. The goal of this paper is to reduce the complexity of the system to find blood donors in an emergency situation.

  10. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  11. Blood groups systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  12. Quantification of facial contamination with blood during orthopaedic procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, D

    2012-02-03

    Operative surgery exposes the surgeon to possible blood-borne infections. Risks include pen-etrating injuries and conjunctival contact with infected blood. Visor masks worn during orthopaedic trauma procedures were assessed for blood contamination using computer analysis. This was found to be present on 86% of masks, of which only 15% was recognized by the surgeon intraoperatively. Of the blood splashes 80% were less than 0.6mm in diameter. We conclude that power instrumentation produces a blood particulate mist causing considerable microscopic, facial contamination which is a significant risk to the surgeon.

  13. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  14. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  15. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  16. A well-established profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2011-01-01

    It was during the economic boom of the 1960s that the demand for landscape architects began to explode in Denmark as the expanding welfare state brought about rapid physical changes. At this time the country’s first specific education for landscape architects was established and 2010 marked the 5...

  17. Statins improve the resolution of established murine venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessinger, Chase W; Kim, Jin Won; Henke, Peter K;

    2015-01-01

    significantly reduced stasis venous thrombus burden by 25% without affecting lipid levels, blood coagulation parameters, or blood cell counts. Statin-driven reductions in VT burden (thrombus mass for stasis thrombi, intravital microscopy thrombus area for non-stasis thrombi) compared similarly to the......-lipid-lowering agents with anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties-in decreasing thrombus burden and decreasing vein wall injury, mediators of PTS, in established murine stasis and non-stasis chemical-induced venous thrombosis (N = 282 mice). Treatment of mice with daily atorvastatin or rosuvastatin...... therapeutic anticoagulant effects of low molecular weight heparin. Blood from statin-treated mice showed significant reductions in platelet aggregation and clot stability. Statins additionally reduced thrombus plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil...

  18. Use of blood and blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E; Wood, B

    1999-11-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice, are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20% to 25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7% to 12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five percent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10 to 20 mL/kg recipient weight is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10 to 15 mL of blood/kg body weight at 2- to 4-week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood cross-matching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 mL of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria

  19. Ancestry informative markers and complete blood count parameters in Brazilian blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela E. S. Felix; Kiyoko Abe-Sandes; Taísa M. Bonfim; Maria T. Bendicho; Patrícia Cisneiros; Rosalina Guedes; Cláudio J. F. Brandão; Alex J. L. Torres; Carlos Brites; Eduardo M. Netto; Roberto Meyer; Songeli M. Freire

    2010-01-01

    A complete blood count is very useful in clinical diagnoses when reference ranges are well established for the population. Complete blood counts and allele frequencies of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) were analyzed in Brazilians with the aim of characterizing the hematological values of an admixed population. Positive associations were observed between gender and neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and platelet counts. No significant diff...

  20. A new donor system for the patients with thalassemia: "Blood mother and blood father"

    OpenAIRE

    Canatan Duran; Ozsancak Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Background : Donor recruitment programs differ in countries depending on local conditions and causes. Regularly voluntary blood donation rate should be 5% of the population but it is extremely low in Turkey. In 1998, "Thalassemia flowers don′t fade" campaigning was started to get regular voluntary blood for patients with thalassemia. We would like to present results of our campaigning. Materials and Methods: The Thalassemia center was established in Antalya on the 1 st June 1994...

  1. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  2. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is healthy for you. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: ... Alternative Names Controlling hypertension Images Taking your blood pressure at home Blood pressure check Low sodium diet References American Diabetes ...

  3. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also known as blood vessels and capillaries. The pressure --- blood pressure --- is the result of two forces. The ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  4. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...

  5. A new donor system for the patients with thalassemia: "Blood mother and blood father"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canatan Duran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Donor recruitment programs differ in countries depending on local conditions and causes. Regularly voluntary blood donation rate should be 5% of the population but it is extremely low in Turkey. In 1998, "Thalassemia flowers don′t fade" campaigning was started to get regular voluntary blood for patients with thalassemia. We would like to present results of our campaigning. Materials and Methods: The Thalassemia center was established in Antalya on the 1 st June 1994 by Ministry of Health, Turkey, because the incidence of thalassemia is very high in the Antalya region. A total of 388 patients with thalassemia were followed up regularly in the center. The annually blood requirement was approximately 5000 units per year. In 1998, a new program of blood donation for patients with thalassemia called "BLOOD MOTHER and BLOOD FATHER" was started with the support of Governor of Antalya and health management system in Antalya. Results : Between year 1998 and 2006, a total 3000 voluntary blood donors between age 18 and 65 years, of which 2160 males (72% and 840 were females (28%, had participated in this program. Conclusion: "Blood Mother and Blood Father" campaign was successful donor recruitment program for thalassemic care. After 2006, this program is now adopted and run by Turkish Red Crescent and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey for all thalassemics in Turkey.

  6. Blood donation and risk of polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Nyrén, Olof; Hultcrantz, Malin; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Pedersen, Ole B V; Björkholm, Magnus; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that blood donors could have an increased risk of polycythemia vera (PV). However, no study has assessed whether frequent donors have a higher PV risk than less frequent donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2......) database, we established a cohort of blood donors who had donated whole blood at least once between 1980 and 2012. Within this cohort we first assessed the risk of PV, comparing the donors to the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs......). To assess the association between frequency of blood donation and risk of PV we then conducted a case-control study nested within the cohort, where we compared prior donation activity among donors who were diagnosed with PV and matched controls. Here odds ratios (ORs) were used as measures of...

  7. Blood porphyrin luminescence and tumor growth correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Bellini, Maria Helena; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Schor, Nestor; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Fluorescence technique appears very important for the diagnosis of cancer. Fluorescence detection has advantages over other light-based investigation methods: high sensitivity, high speed, and safety. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of new cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Unfortunately many RCC masses remain asymptomatic and nonpalpable until they are advanced. Diagnosis and localization of early carcinoma play an important role in the prevention and curative treatment of RCC. Certain drugs or chemicals such as porphyrin derivatives accumulate substantially more in tumors than normal tissues. The autofluorescence of blood porphyrin of healthy and tumor induced male SCID mice was analyzed using fluorescence and excitation spectroscopy. A significant contrast between normal and tumor blood could be established. Blood porphyrin fluorophore showed enhanced fluorescence band (around 630 nm) in function of the tumor growth. This indicates that either the autofluorescence intensity of the blood fluorescence may provide a good parameter for the "first approximation" characterization of the tumor stage.

  8. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  9. The effects of blood pressure reduction and of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events according to baseline blood pressure : meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichow, Sebastien; Zanchetti, Alberto; Turnbull, Fiona; Barzi, Federica; Ninomiya, Toshiaru; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, Hisatomi; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background The benefits of reducing blood pressure are well established, but there remains uncertainty about whether the magnitude of the effect varies with the initial blood pressure level. The objective was to compare the risk reductions achieved by different blood pressure-lowering regimens among

  10. Establishment of ITER: Relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Geneva Summit Meeting in November, 1985, a proposal was made by the Soviet Union to build a next-generation tokamak experiment on a collaborative basis involving the world's four major fusion blocks. In October, 1986, after consulting with Japan and the European Community, the United States responded with a proposal on how to implement such an activity. Ensuing diplomatic and technical discussions resulted in the establishment, under the auspices of the IAEA, of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Conceptual Design Activities. This tome represents a collection of all documents relating to the establishment of ITER, beginning with the initial meeting of the ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee in Vienna on 15-16 March, 1987, through the meeting of the Provisional ITER Council, also in Vienna, on 8-9 February, 1988

  11. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as ≥ 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was ≤ 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of ≥ 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions

  12. Cloud Computing Vs. Grid Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi; Amid Khatibi Bardsiri

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing emerges as one of the hottest topic in field of information technology. Cloud computing is based on several other computing research areas such as HPC, virtualization, utility computing and grid computing. In order to make clear the essential of cloud computing, we propose the characteristics of this area which make cloud computing being cloud computing and distinguish it from other research areas. The service oriented, loose coupling, strong fault tolerant, business model and...

  13. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B & hepatitis C virus infections in potential blood donors in rural Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Viet, Le; Le, Van Viet; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Lan; Ty, Phung Xuan; Bjørkvoll, Bjørn; Hoel, Hedda B; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Husebekk, Anne; Larsen,Stig; Skjerve, Eystein; Husum, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Safe blood and blood products should be offered to all patients in need for blood transfusion. The objectives of the present study were to establish prevalence estimates for hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in rural Vietnam, and to check the accuracy of the laboratory analysis used for hepatitis testing of blood donors in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural communities in Quang Tri...

  15. Model 1: Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because most radiopharmaceuticals are introduced into the body via the vascular system and may remain in the circulation for prolonged periods of time, it is useful to have a model of the blood as an aid in the estimation of radiation dose. It is extremely difficult to devise a precise blood model; the geometry is complex and distribution of blood may vary with position, physiological state and disease process. Estimates of blood volume distribution vary among investigators. Furthermore, the regional hematocrit varies throughout the body, thus affecting distribution of the labeled material according to whether it is attached to cellular elements or in the plasma. The size of the blood pool volumes range from the heart to the capillaries. Variable amounts of non-penetrating radiation contributions to organs depend on the volume of blood in the various sized vessels and the energy of the electrons which may penetrate into tissue from the blood vessel. The present model represents an advance in that it takes into account to some extent the distribution of significant blood pools in the body. Further refinement of the macro-geometry is possible with data which can now be obtained from modern radionuclide imaging equipment. A more difficult problem is definging the micro-geometry relative to the distribution of blood in capillaries and sinusoids, and their relationship to one another

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ...

  18. Numerical Simulation of the Coagulation Dynamics of Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnár, T.; Sequeira, A.

    2008-01-01

    The process of platelet activation and blood coagulation is quite complex and not yet completely understood. Recently, a phenomenological meaningful model of blood coagulation and clot formation in flowing blood that extends existing models to integrate biochemical, physiological and rheological factors, has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present results from a computational study of a simplified version of this coupled fluid-biochemistry model. A generalized Newtonian model with...

  19. Glial and neuronal control of brain blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwell, David; Buchan, Alastair M; Charpak, Serge;

    2010-01-01

    Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now...

  20. Establishment of Glycosaminoglycan Assays for Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Tomatsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzymes essential for catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Accumulation of undegraded GAGs results in dysfunction of multiple organs, resulting in distinct clinical manifestations. A range of methods have been developed to measure specific GAGs in various human samples to investigate diagnosis, prognosis, pathogenesis, GAG interaction with other molecules, and monitoring therapeutic efficacy. We established ELISA, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, and an automated high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS system (RapidFire to identify epitopes (ELISA or disaccharides (MS/MS derived from different GAGs (dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and/or chondroitin sulfate. These methods have a high sensitivity and specificity in GAG analysis, applicable to the analysis of blood, urine, tissues, and cells. ELISA is feasible, sensitive, and reproducible with the standard equipment. HT-MS/MS yields higher throughput than conventional LC-MS/MS-based methods while the HT-MS/MS system does not have a chromatographic step and cannot distinguish GAGs with identical molecular weights, leading to a limitation of measurements for some specific GAGs. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of these methods for measuring GAG levels in biological specimens. We also describe an unexpected secondary elevation of keratan sulfate in patients with MPS that is an indirect consequence of disruption of catabolism of other GAGs.

  1. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating...

  2. Hospitals and health care establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These guidelines have been drown up to assist all those involved in the management and maintenance of hospitals and health care establishments. Compliance with this guidance should minimise the risk of pollution occurring. The guidelines are jointly produced by the Environment Agency for England and Wales, the Scottish Environment Protection Agency and the Environment and Heritage Service for Northern Ireland, referred to as the Agency or Agencies. It includes guidelines on site drainage, sewage and waste water disposal, treatment of surface water drainage and waste management

  3. Parallel Computation Is ESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Nabarun; Ghosh, Partha P.

    2013-01-01

    There are enormous amount of examples of Computation in nature, exemplified across multiple species in biology. One crucial aim for these computations across all life forms their ability to learn and thereby increase the chance of their survival. In the current paper a formal definition of autonomous learning is proposed. From that definition we establish a Turing Machine model for learning, where rule tables can be added or deleted, but can not be modified. Sequential and parallel implementa...

  4. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion: Military and Civilian Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Carl W; Tranberg, John W; Boyer, Phillip; Silvestri, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage and exsanguination are the leading cause of preventable death, and resuscitative therapy is a critical component for survival. In various combinations, fresh whole blood, blood components, colloids, and crystalloids have all been staples of trauma care. The use of fresh whole blood is a well-established military practice that has saved the lives of thousands of American and coalition military personnel. Civilian use of fresh whole blood is far less established owing to the wide availability of individual blood components. However, this highly tailored blood supply is vulnerable to both natural and man-made disasters. In the event of such disruption, such as a major hurricane, it may be necessary for civilian hospitals to rapidly enact a fresh whole blood program. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current use of blood therapy for trauma resuscitation, the US military's approach to fresh whole blood, and how maintaining a civilian capacity for fresh whole blood collection in the event of future man-made and natural disasters is key to promoting survival from trauma. PMID:27252101

  5. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  6. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  7. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  8. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  9. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  10. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational content The Hematologist Features Diffusion President's Column ASH Clinical News Society News Clinical News Features ASH Self- ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Myths vs. Facts Blood Detectives Find a Hematologist Clinical Trials Talking with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy ... on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment ... Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Hematology Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  14. 5 CFR 530.304 - Establishing or increasing special rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... special rate schedule that covers only law enforcement officers, OPM may compute the special rate... REGULATIONS PAY RATES AND SYSTEMS (GENERAL) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General.... When OPM establishes a minimum special rate under this authority, corresponding increases also may...

  15. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...

  16. Postoperative blood loss reduction in computer-assisted surgery total knee replacement by low dose intra-articular tranexamic acid injection together with 2-hour clamp drain: a prospective triple-blinded randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong; Thanaphot Channoom; Viroj Kawinwonggowit; Patarawan Woratanarat; Pongsthorn Chanplakorn; Bussanee Wibulpolprasert; Siwadol Wongsak; Umaporn Udomsubpayakul; Supaporn Wechmongkolgorn; Nantaporn Lekpittaya

    2011-01-01

    A high-dose local tranexamic acid has been introduced in total knee arthroplasty for bleeding control. We are not sure about the systemic absorption and side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dosage of intra-articular tranexamic acid injection combined with 2-hour clamp drain in minimally bleeding computer-assisted surgery total knee replacement (CAS-TKR). A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in a total of 48 patients underwent CAS-TKR. The pa...

  17. Quality of transfusion products in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Turdo, Rosalia; Glingani, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    The primary goal in transfusion medicine and cellular therapies is to promote high standards of quality and produce ever safer and more efficacious products. The establishment of a transfusion service quality management system, which includes several organizational structures, responsibilities, policies, processes, procedures, and resources, is now mandatory and widely regulated worldwide. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the quality system in transfusion medicine as applied to the production of blood components, including red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. PMID:24474089

  18. Rethinking Computations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří; van Leeuwen, J.

    Exeter: AISB, 2013 - (Bishop, M.; Erden, Y.), s. 6-10 ISBN 978-1-908187-31-4. [AISB Symposium on Computing and Philosophy: The Scandal of Computation - What is Computation? /6./. Exeter (GB), 03.04.2013-05.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : computation * epistemology * philosophy of computing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavana Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is such a type of computing environment, where business owners outsource their computing needs including application software services to a third party and when they need to use the computing power or employees need to use the application resources like database, emails etc., they access the resources via Internet. Cloud computing the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a (typically the Internet).

  20. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).