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Sample records for blood establishment computer

  1. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated April... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the...

  2. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  3. Adverse blood transfusion outcomes: establishing causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, James P; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Erhard, Jochen; Farmer, Shannon L; Hofmann, Axel

    2011-04-01

    The transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) and other blood components is ingrained in modern medical practice. The rationale for administering transfusions is based on key assumptions that efficacy is established and risks are acceptable and minimized. Despite the cliché that, "the blood supply is safer than ever," data about risks and lack of efficacy of RBC transfusions in several clinical settings have steadily accumulated. Frequentist statisticians and clinicians demand evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs); however, causation for the recognized serious hazards of allogeneic transfusion has never been established in this manner. On the other hand, the preponderance of evidence implicating RBC transfusions in adverse clinical outcomes related to immunomodulation and the storage lesion comes from observational studies, and a broad and critical analysis to evaluate causation is overdue. It is suggested in several circumstances that this cannot wait for the design, execution, and conduct of rigorous RCTs. We begin by examining the nature and definition of causation with relevant examples from transfusion medicine. Deductive deterministic methods may be applied to most of the well-accepted and understood serious hazards of transfusion, with modified Koch's postulates being fulfilled in most circumstances. On the other hand, when several possible interacting risk factors exist and RBC transfusions are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, establishing causation requires inferential probabilistic methodology. In the latter circumstances, the case for RBC transfusions being causal for adverse clinical outcomes can be strengthened by applying modified Bradford Hill criteria to the plethora of existing observational studies. This being the case, a greater precautionary approach to RBC transfusion is necessary and equipoise that justifying RCTs may become problematic. PMID:21345639

  4. China's High Performance Computer Standard Commission Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's High Performance Computer Standard Commission was established on March 28, 2007, under the guidance of the Science and Technology Bureau of the Ministry of Information Industry. It will prepare relevant professional standards on high performance computers to break through the monopoly in the field by foreign manufacturers and vendors.

  5. A rational framework for production decision making in blood establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoa, Augusto; Maia, Salomé; Lourenço, Anália

    2012-07-24

    SAD_BaSe is a blood bank data analysis software, created to assist in the management of blood donations and the blood production chain in blood establishments. In particular, the system keeps track of several collection and production indicators, enables the definition of collection and production strategies, and the measurement of quality indicators required by the Quality Management System regulating the general operation of blood establishments. This paper describes the general scenario of blood establishments and its main requirements in terms of data management and analysis. It presents the architecture of SAD_BaSe and identifies its main contributions. Specifically, it brings forward the generation of customized reports driven by decision making needs and the use of data mining techniques in the analysis of donor suspensions and donation discards.

  6. [How do I assess requirement of a blood bank and its kind for a healthcare establishment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafeuillade, B; Tixier, A; Bliem, C; Meyer, F

    2014-12-01

    Access to blood components is required for healthcare establishments, particularly for emergency situation and hospital blood bank was often a response to this requirement. However, the complexity of regulation and economic pressures lead healthcare establishment to review regularly their need for a blood bank. This assessment requires analysis of need for transfusions in terms of delay, quantity and clinical situations to which they must respond. When a blood bank is required, three kinds could be under consideration: emergency blood bank, intermediate blood bank and issuance blood bank. According to requirements, advantages and disadvantages of each kind, healthcare establishments would select the most suitable one.

  7. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 263a) and 42 CFR part 493... the profession of pharmacy including the business of dispensing and selling blood products at...

  8. Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava; Selb, Juliette; Farzam, Parisa; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Carp, Stefan A

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow rely on the sensitivity of the temporal autocorrelation function of diffusively scattered light to red blood cell (RBC) mean square displacement (MSD). For RBCs flowing with convective velocity [Formula: see text], the autocorrelation is expected to decay exponentially with [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the delay time. RBCs also experience shear-induced diffusion with a diffusion coefficient [Formula: see text] and an MSD of [Formula: see text]. Surprisingly, experimental data primarily reflect diffusive behavior. To provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of convective and diffusive movements, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering through tissue of varying vessel densities. We assumed laminar vessel flow profiles and accounted for shear-induced diffusion effects. In agreement with experimental data, we found that diffusive motion dominates the correlation decay for typical DCS measurement parameters. Furthermore, our model offers a quantitative relationship between the RBC diffusion coefficient and absolute tissue blood flow. We thus offer, for the first time, theoretical support for the empirically accepted ability of the DCS blood flow index ([Formula: see text]) to quantify tissue perfusion. We find [Formula: see text] to be linearly proportional to blood flow, but with a proportionality modulated by the hemoglobin concentration and the average blood vessel diameter.

  9. Establishment of outgrowth endothelial cells from peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ramirez, Javier; Hofman, Menno; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Hebbel, Robert P; Voorberg, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) are important tools when investigating diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for vascular disease. In this protocol, mononuclear cells are isolated from peripheral blood and plated on type I collagen at ∼135,000 cells per cm(2) in endothelial cell differentiation medium. On average, 0.34 colonies of endothelial cells per milliliter of blood can be obtained. Colonies of endothelial cells become visible after 14-28 d. Upon confluence, these rapidly expanding colonies can be passaged and have been shown to propagate up to 10(18)-fold. Isolated BOECs are phenotypically similar to vascular endothelial cells, as revealed by their cobblestone morphology, the presence of endothelial cell-specific Weibel-Palade bodies and the expression of endothelial cell markers such as VE-cadherin. The protocol presented here also provides a particularly useful tool for the ex vivo assessment of endothelial cell function from patients with different vascular abnormalities. PMID:22918388

  10. Pulmonary blood flow distribution measured by radionuclide computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributions of pulmonary blood flow per unit lung volume were measured in sitting patients with a radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) by intravenously administered Tc-99m macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). Four different types of distribution were distinguished, among which a group referred as type 2 had a three zonal blood flow distribution as previously reported (West and co-workers, 1964). The pulmonary arterial pressure (Pa) and the venous pressure (Pv) were determined in this group of distribution. These values showed satifactory agreements with the pulmonary artery pressure (Par) and the capillary wedged pressure (Pcw) measured by Swan-Ganz catheter in eighteen supine patients. Those good correlations enable to establish a noninvasive methodology for measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures

  11. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  12. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms... permit any blood bank or similar establishment to ship blood products in interstate commerce. (b)...

  13. Application of Computational Physics: Blood Vessel Constrictions and Medical Infuses

    CERN Document Server

    Suprijadi,; Subekti, Petrus; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Application of computation in many fields are growing fast in last two decades. Increasing on computation performance helps researchers to understand natural phenomena in many fields of science and technology including in life sciences. Computational fluid dynamic is one of numerical methods which is very popular used to describe those phenomena. In this paper we propose moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) and molecular dynamics (MD) to describe different phenomena in blood vessel. The effect of increasing the blood pressure on vessel wall will be calculate using MD methods, while the two fluid blending dynamics will be discussed using MPS. Result from the first phenomenon shows that around 80% of constriction on blood vessel make blood vessel increase and will start to leak on vessel wall, while from the second phenomenon the result shows the visualization of two fluids mixture (drugs and blood) influenced by ratio of drugs debit to blood debit. Keywords: molecular dynamic, blood vessel, fluid dynamic, movin...

  14. Establishing a group of endpoints in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.; Xue, Hanhong

    2016-02-02

    A parallel computer executes a number of tasks, each task includes a number of endpoints and the endpoints are configured to support collective operations. In such a parallel computer, establishing a group of endpoints receiving a user specification of a set of endpoints included in a global collection of endpoints, where the user specification defines the set in accordance with a predefined virtual representation of the endpoints, the predefined virtual representation is a data structure setting forth an organization of tasks and endpoints included in the global collection of endpoints and the user specification defines the set of endpoints without a user specification of a particular endpoint; and defining a group of endpoints in dependence upon the predefined virtual representation of the endpoints and the user specification.

  15. The value to blood establishments of supplier quality audit and of adopting a European Blood Alliance collaborative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Mark J.; Ceulemans, Jan; Ágoston, Stephanie; van Mourik, Peter; Marcou-Cherdel, Céline; Wickens, Betty; Johnstone, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of suppliers of critical goods and services to European blood establishments is a regulatory requirement proving difficult to resource. This study was to establish whether European Blood Alliance member blood services could collaborate to reduce the cost of auditing suppliers without diminishing standards. Materials and method Five blood services took part, each contributing a maximum of one qualified auditor per audit (rather than the usual two). Four audits were completed involving eight auditors in total to a European Blood Alliance agreed policy and process using an audit scope agreed with suppliers. Results Audits produced a total of 22 observations, the majority relating to good manufacturing practice and highlighted deficiencies in processes, procedures and quality records including complaints’ handling, product recall, equipment calibration, management of change, facilities’ maintenance and monitoring and business continuity. Auditors reported that audits had been useful to their service and all audits prompted a positive response from suppliers with satisfactory corrective action plans where applicable. Audit costs totalled € 3,438 (average € 860 per audit) which is no more than equivalent traditional audits. The four audit reports have been shared amongst the five participating blood establishments and benefitted 13 recipient departments in total. Previously, 13 separate audits would have been required by the five blood services. Discussion Collaborative supplier audit has proven an effective and efficient initiative that can reduce the resource requirements of both suppliers and individual blood service’s auditing costs. Collaborative supplier audit has since been established within routine European Blood Alliance management practice. PMID:24553596

  16. Computational Approach for Developing Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the computational approach to developing a ventricular assist device (VAD) which utilizes NASA aerospace technology. The VAD is used as a temporary support to sick ventricles for those who suffer from late stage congestive heart failure (CHF). The need for donor hearts is much greater than their availability, and the VAD is seen as a bridge-to-transplant. The computational issues confronting the design of a more advanced, reliable VAD include the modelling of viscous incompressible flow. A computational approach provides the possibility of quantifying the flow characteristics, which is especially valuable for analyzing compact design with highly sensitive operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and rocket engine technology has been applied to modify the design of a VAD which enabled human transplantation. The computing requirement for this project is still large, however, and the unsteady analysis of the entire system from natural heart to aorta involves several hundred revolutions of the impeller. Further study is needed to assess the impact of mechanical VADs on the human body

  17. The establishment of computed tomography diagnostic reference levels in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of Portuguese computed tomography (CT) examinations, identify protocol application and establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). CT departments (n5211) were surveyed nationally (June 2011-January 2012) and CT protocol information and dose data were collected, as were retrospective age-categorised paediatric CT data from three national paediatric centres. The proposed national CT DRLs (CTDIvol) for adults were 75, 18, 14, 18, 17, 36, 22, 27 and 16 mGy for head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, cervical, dorsal, lumbar and joints, respectively. The levels for paediatric head and chest examinations were as follows: 48 and 2 mGy (newborns), 50 and 6 mGy (5 y olds), 70 and 6 mGy (10 y olds) and 72 and 7 mGy (15 y olds). A limited number of current paediatric protocols aligned to recommended international age categorisations. Portuguese DRLs were generally higher than European recommendations, suggesting potential for optimisation. The need for greater standardisation of age-categorised paediatric protocols was identified. (authors)

  18. Xenon computed tomographic blood flow mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon CT flow information appears to be clinically useful in the diagnosis and management of a broad spectrum of clinical disorders. It also appears to be a useful tool for the experimental study of the cerebral circulation, with recent work also extending to application to the study of solid abdominal organs. The authors therefore found xenon CT CBF mapping to be a useful new blood flow methodology and are of the opinion that as CT technology improves, one will be able to obtain still better flow information with less accompanying radiation exposure and/or a reduction in the level of xenon inhalation required

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Based Design Optimization Method for Archimedes Screw Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Janiga, Gábor; Thévenin, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    An optimization method suitable for improving the performance of Archimedes screw axial rotary blood pumps is described in the present article. In order to achieve a more robust design and to save computational resources, this method combines the advantages of the established pump design theory with modern computer-aided, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based design optimization (CFD-O) relying on evolutionary algorithms and computational fluid dynamics. The main purposes of this project are to: (i) integrate pump design theory within the already existing CFD-based optimization; (ii) demonstrate that the resulting procedure is suitable for optimizing an Archimedes screw blood pump in terms of efficiency. Results obtained in this study demonstrate that the developed tool is able to meet both objectives. Finally, the resulting level of hemolysis can be numerically assessed for the optimal design, as hemolysis is an issue of overwhelming importance for blood pumps.

  20. Importance of monitoring family members in establishing sources and pathways of lead in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Howarth, D

    1996-10-11

    High precision lead isotope measurements were undertaken to establish the sources and pathways in blood and environmental samples of five families from the Broken Hill lead mining community, New South Wales, Australia. The five families were selected from 27 families investigated to illustrate the different sources and pathways of lead into blood and the importance of monitoring the whole family. The results illustrate that although the major source of lead is from the orebody, paint and petrol can be significant contributors to both house dust and blood leads. The results also show that the sources and pathways can be from the father's occupation and hence monitoring of families is important, especially in high risk locations. In two cases, the elevated blood leads in the children did not derive from their current residence but from other residences in the community.

  1. Computational modeling of red blood cells: A symplectic integration algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2010-03-01

    Red blood cells can undergo shape transformations that impact the rheological properties of blood. Computational models have to account for the deformability and red blood cells are often modeled as elastically deformable objects. We present a symplectic integration algorithm for deformable objects. The surface is represented by a set of marker points obtained by surface triangulation, along with a set of fiber vectors that describe the orientation of the material plane. The various elastic energies are formulated in terms of these variables and the equations of motion are obtained by exact differentiation of a discretized Hamiltonian. The integration algorithm preserves the Hamiltonian structure and leads to highly accurate energy conservation, hence he method is expected to be more stable than conventional finite element methods. We apply the algorithm to simulate the shape dynamics of red blood cells.

  2. Establishment of a molecular tool for blood meal identification in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernieenor Faraliana Che Lah; Mariana Ahamad; Mohd Subail Haron; Ho Tze Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique based on cytochrome b (cytb) gene of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) for blood meal identification. Methods: The PCR technique was established based on published information and validated using blood sample of laboratory animals of which their whole gene sequences are available in GenBank. PCR was next performed to compile gene sequences of different species of wild rodents. The primers used were complementary to the conserved region of the cytb gene of vertebrate’s mtDNA. A total of 100 blood samples, both from laboratory animals and wild rodents were collected and analyzed. The obtained unknown sequences were compared with those in the GenBank database using BLAST program to identify the vertebrate animal species. Results: Gene sequences of 11 species of wild animals caught in 9 localities of Peninsular Malaysia were compiled using the established PCR. The animals involved were Rattus (rattus) tanezumi, Rattus tiomanicus, Leopoldamys sabanus,Tupaia glis, Tupaia minor, Niviventor cremoriventor, Rhinosciurus laticaudatus, Callosciurus caniseps, Sundamys muelleri, Rattus rajah and Maxomys whiteheadi. The BLAST results confirmed the host with exact or nearly exact matches (>89% identity). Ten new gene sequences have been deposited in GenBank database since September 2010. Conclusions: This study indicates that the PCR direct sequencing system using universal primer sets for vertebrate cytb gene is a promising technique for blood meal identification.

  3. Establishing normal reference values in quantitative computed tomography of emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Benjamin M.; Barr, R Graham

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can provide reliable and valid measures of lung structure and volumes. Similar to lung function and volumes measured by spirometry, lung measures obtained by QCT vary by demographic and anthropomorphic factors including sex, race/ethnicity and height in asymptomatic non-smokers. Hence, some accounting for these factors is necessary to define abnormal from normal QCT values and disease severity. Similar to spirometry and cardiac volumes, prediction equati...

  4. A Computer Science Educational Program for Establishing an Entry Point into the Computing Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Bruria; Yehezkel, Cecile

    2008-01-01

    The rapid evolvement of the computing domain has posed challenges in attempting to bridge the gap between school and the contemporary world of computing, which is related to content, learning culture, and professional norms. We believe that the interaction of high-school students who major in computer science or software engineering with leading…

  5. Establishment and performance assessment of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; MA, CHUNYA; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; GUAN, XIAOZHEN; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Linfeng; Lin, Zilin; Pan, Jichun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, Deqing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and to optimize the preparation technology of whole blood internal quality control (IQC) products for blood transfusion compatibility testing. Several B-type RhD-negative blood samples collected from healthy donors were mixed. Two groups of whole blood IQC products, namely, the preservative solution group (PS group) and the saline group, were prepared. The agglutination intensity of IQC sample red cells and anti-B antibody, IgM anti-A antibody and revers...

  6. Nicholas Metropolis Award Talk for Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Work in Computational Physics: Computational biophysics and multiscale modeling of blood cells and blood flow in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry

    2011-03-01

    Computational biophysics is a large and rapidly growing area of computational physics. In this talk, we will focus on a number of biophysical problems related to blood cells and blood flow in health and disease. Blood flow plays a fundamental role in a wide range of physiological processes and pathologies in the organism. To understand and, if necessary, manipulate the course of these processes it is essential to investigate blood flow under realistic conditions including deformability of blood cells, their interactions, and behavior in the complex microvascular network. Using a multiscale cell model we are able to accurately capture red blood cell mechanics, rheology, and dynamics in agreement with a number of single cell experiments. Further, this validated model yields accurate predictions of the blood rheological properties, cell migration, cell-free layer, and hemodynamic resistance in microvessels. In addition, we investigate blood related changes in malaria, which include a considerable stiffening of red blood cells and their cytoadherence to endothelium. For these biophysical problems computational modeling is able to provide new physical insights and capabilities for quantitative predictions of blood flow in health and disease.

  7. Android Blood Donor Life Saving Application in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Hilda Jenipha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations, such as accidents, create an immediate, critical need for specific blood type. In addition to emergency requirements, advances in medicine have increased the need for blood in many on-going treatments and elective surgeries. Despite increasing requirements for blood, only about 5% of the Indian population donates blood. In this paper we propose a new and efficient way to overcome such scenarios with our project. We have to create a new idea, just touch the button. Donor will be prompted to enter an individual's details, like name, phone number, and blood type. After that your contact details will appear in alphabetical order on the screen; the urgent time of a blood requirement, you can quickly check for contacts matching a particular or related blood group and reach out to them via Phone Call/SMS through the Blood donor App. Blood Donor App provides list of donors in your city/area. Use this app in case of emergency. A large number of blood donors are attracted using an Android application. Cloud- based services can prove important in emergency blood delivery since they can enable central and immediate access to donors' data and location from anywhere. Since almost everyone carries a mobile phone with him, it ensures instant location tracking and communication. The location-based app, operational on android platform, will help users easily find donors of matching blood groups in their location and access their mobile numbers for instant help. Only a registered person, with willingness to donate blood, will be able to access the service.

  8. 77 FR 46096 - Statistical Process Controls for Blood Establishments; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Whole Blood and blood components; (2) statistical methods used for biologic product quality control; (3...: Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the monitoring, or quality control... monitors manufacturing procedures, validation summaries, and quality control data prior to licensure...

  9. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Avsenik Jernej; Bisdas Sotirios; Popovic Katarina Surlan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with patholog...

  10. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsenik Jernej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with pathologies such as acute stroke, tumors, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Establishment of long-term monocyte suspension cultures from normal human peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The long-term suspension growth of normal, immature myeloid cells from fresh human cord blood was recently reported and required cells separated on supplemented discontinuous Percoll gradients, growth in media containing hydrocortisone and vitamins D3, and gentle, continuous agitation (13). When normal adult bone marrow (six donors) or blood from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive donors (nine donors) was used as a source of fresh human leukocytes, only short-term proliferation of myeloid ...

  12. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a varie...

  13. Establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank for South Africa: an enquiry into public acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA.

  14. Establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank for South Africa: an enquiry into public acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA. PMID:23943126

  15. Hepatic blood perfusion estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Inger Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and the slope method can provide absolute measures of hepatic blood perfusion from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) at experimentally varied blood flow rates.......The aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and the slope method can provide absolute measures of hepatic blood perfusion from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) at experimentally varied blood flow rates....

  16. Computational Prediction of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Decision Tree Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Huwyler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability is essential to drug development, as a molecule cannot exhibit pharmacological activity within the brain parenchyma without first transiting this barrier. Understanding the process of permeation, however, is complicated by a combination of both limited passive diffusion and active transport. Our aim here was to establish predictive models for BBB drug permeation that include both active and passive transport. A database of 153 compounds was compiled using in vivo surface permeability product (logPS values in rats as a quantitative parameter for BBB permeability. The open source Chemical Development Kit (CDK was used to calculate physico-chemical properties and descriptors. Predictive computational models were implemented by machine learning paradigms (decision tree induction on both descriptor sets. Models with a corrected classification rate (CCR of 90% were established. Mechanistic insight into BBB transport was provided by an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO-based binary classifier analysis to identify the most predictive chemical substructures. Decision trees revealed descriptors of lipophilicity (aLogP and charge (polar surface area, which were also previously described in models of passive diffusion. However, measures of molecular geometry and connectivity were found to be related to an active drug transport component.

  17. Establishment of a new calibration method of pencil ionization chamber for dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pencil ionization chambers are used for beam dosimetry in computed tomography equipment (CT). In this study, a new calibration methodology was established, in order to make the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LCI) suitable to international metrological standards, dealing with specific procedures for calibration of these chambers used in CT. Firstly, the setup for the new RQT radiation qualities was mounted, in agreement with IEC61267 from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). After the establishment of these radiation qualities, a specific calibration methodology for pencil ionization chambers was set, according to Technical Report Series No. 457, from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which describes particularities of the procedure to be followed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDL's), concerning to collimation and positioning related to the radiation beam. Initially, PPV (kV) measurements and the determination of copper additional filtrations were carried out, measuring the half value layers (HVL) recommended by the IEC 61267 standard, after that the RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10 radiation quality references were established. For additional filters, aluminum and copper of high purity (around 99.9%) were used. RQT's in thickness of copper filters equivalent to the set 'RQR (Al) + Additional Filtration (Cu)' was directly found by an alternative methodology used to determine additional filtrations, which is a good option when RQR's have not the possibility of be setting up. With the establishment of this new methodology for the ionization pencil chambers calibration, the LCI is ready to calibrate these instruments according to the most recent international standards. Therefore, an improvement in calibration traceability, as well as in metrological services offered by IPEN to all Brazil is achieved. (author)

  18. Establishment of reference mandibular plane for anterior alveolar morphology evaluation using cone beam computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-yang WANG; Min HAN; Hong LIU; Chun-ling WANG; Hong-hong XIAN; Lei ZHANG; Shi-jie ZHANG; Dong-xu LIU

    2012-01-01

    To propose a method of establishing the reference mandibular plane (MP),which could be reestablished according to the coordinates of the reference points,and then facilitate the assessment of anterior alveolar morphology using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT),sixty patients with bimaxillary protrusion were randomly selected and CBCT scans were taken.The CBCT scans were transferred to Materialism's interactive medical image control system 10.01 (MIMICS 10.01),and three dimensional models of the entire jaws were constructed.Reference points determining the reference MP were positioned in the coronal,axial,sagittal windows,and the points were exactly located by recording their coordinates in the interfaces of software.The reference MP provided high intra-observer reliability (Pearson's r 0.992 to 0.999),and inter-observer reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)0.996 to 0.999).

  19. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  20. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resource countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. (authors)

  1. Relative value of computed tomography scanning and venous sampling in establishing the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative merits of the postural simulation test, adrenal computed tomography (CT) and venous sampling in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with primary hyperaldosteronism. The records of 20 patients presenting with primary hyperaldosteronism were reviewed retrospectively. There were 15 patients with a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), 4 patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) and 1 patient with primary adrenal hyperplasia (PAH). Bilateral venous sampling of adrenal veins was attempted in all patients and blood collected for aldosterone and cortisol assay. Plasma aldosterone concentration increased after 4 h of standing in all cases of hyperplasia, but was also demonstrated in 10/15 patients with a surgically-proven APA. CT scanning correctly identified all 15 cases of APA and also classified correctly the remaining 5 cases of hyperplasia. CT scanning may be used alone to confirm the cause of hyperaldosteronism where postural studies suggest an adrenal adenoma, and such patients may be considered for early surgery. 21 refs

  2. COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUE FOR FLOW IN BLOOD VESSELS WITH POROUS EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil Kumar; C.L.Varshney; G.C.Sharma

    2005-01-01

    A finite element solution for the Navier-Stokes equations for steady flow under the porosity effects through a double branched two-dimensional section of a threedimensional model of a canine aorta was obtained. The numerical solution involves transforming a physical coordinates to a curvilinear boundary fitted coordinate system. The steady flow, branch flow and shear stress under the porous effects were discussed in detail.The shear stress at the wall was calculated for Reynolds number of 1 000 with branch to main aortic flow rate ratio as a parameter. The results are compared with earlier works involving experimental data and it has been observed that our results are very close to the exact solutions. This work is in fact an improvement of the work of Sharma et al. (2001) in the sense that computational technique is economic and Reynolds number is large.

  3. Computational Simulation of Blood Flow through Bileaflet Heart Valve Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Timothy; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2001-11-01

    Non-physiologic flow patterns and levels of turbulence caused by contemporary bileaflet mechanical heart valve (MHV) designs are believed to be partially responsible for thromboembolic complications caused by these valves. Presently, computer-based flow assessment is not employed as a design tool. Rather, CFD is used to understand flow dynamics under highly-specialized circumstances after a design has been selected and tested experimentally. The absence of CFD from the design-screening process is most likely due to undeveloped tools specific to the heart valve problem. CFD tools for assessing MHV flow performance should be efficient at simulating the fluid-structure interaction and the resulting leaflet motion. As the first stage in the development of MHV simulation tools, a high-accuracy Chimera solver was developed and tested for laminar flow through two bileaflet MHV designs. Steady and time-dependent simulations were performed providing the highest resolution simulations of three-dimensional MHV flow fields to date. Flow structures and time-dependent flow phenomena were investigated and interpreted in the context of the clinical performance of each design studied.

  4. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF BLOOD FLOW IN ARTERIES AFFECTED BY MULTIPLE ANEURYSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. GIRIJA BAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is a numerical simulation of hemodynamics in blood vessels with multiple fusiform aneurysms. Dilation of 0.25 is considered. Using computational fluid dynamics, hemodynamic factors such as velocity and pressure are investigated. The problem is solved by finite volume method. Numerical simulation is prescribed using the CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. High pressure and low velocity is observed in the region of aneurysm. This is an indication to the interruption of blood flow. These techniques based on computer flow study are important for understanding the relationship between hemodynamic parameters and risk of rupture.

  5. Establishment and validation of computational model for MT1-MMP dependent ECM degradation and intervention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hoshino

    Full Text Available MT1-MMP is a potent invasion-promoting membrane protease employed by aggressive cancer cells. MT1-MMP localizes preferentially at membrane protrusions called invadopodia where it plays a central role in degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM. Previous reports suggested a role for a continuous supply of MT1-MMP in ECM degradation. However, the turnover rate of MT1-MMP and the extent to which the turnover contributes to the ECM degradation at invadopodia have not been clarified. To approach this problem, we first performed FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching experiments with fluorescence-tagged MT1-MMP focusing on a single invadopodium and found very rapid recovery in FRAP signals, approximated by double-exponential plots with time constants of 26 s and 259 s. The recovery depended primarily on vesicle transport, but negligibly on lateral diffusion. Next we constructed a computational model employing the observed kinetics of the FRAP experiments. The simulations successfully reproduced our FRAP experiments. Next we inhibited the vesicle transport both experimentally, and in simulation. Addition of drugs inhibiting vesicle transport blocked ECM degradation experimentally, and the simulation showed no appreciable ECM degradation under conditions inhibiting vesicle transport. In addition, the degree of the reduction in ECM degradation depended on the degree of the reduction in the MT1-MMP turnover. Thus, our experiments and simulations have established the role of the rapid turnover of MT1-MMP in ECM degradation at invadopodia. Furthermore, our simulations suggested synergetic contributions of proteolytic activity and the MT1-MMP turnover to ECM degradation because there was a nonlinear and marked reduction in ECM degradation if both factors were reduced simultaneously. Thus our computational model provides a new in silico tool to design and evaluate intervention strategies in cancer cell invasion.

  6. Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist. PMID:22256137

  7. Computational investigation on the photoacoustics of malaria infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan K Saha

    Full Text Available A computer simulation study on the possibility of using photoacoustic (PA technique to differentiate intraerythrocytic stages of malarial parasite is reported. This parasite during its development substantially converts hemoglobin into hemozoin. This conversion is expected to alter the cellular absorption leading to changes in the PA emission of a red blood cell (RBC at certain incident optical wavelengths. The PA signals from blood samples corresponding to ring, trophozoite and schizont stages were computed and compared with that of normal blood. A Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented generating random locations of RBCs in 3D to simulate blood samples. The average PA amplitude for wide bandwidth signals decreases for 434 nm incident radiation, but increases for 700 nm as the parasite matures. The spectral power at 7.5 MHz for the blood sample at the schizont stage compared to the normal blood is nearly reduced by 6 dB and enhanced by 22 dB at those incident wavelengths, respectively. Bandlimited signals for transducers of 15 and 50 MHz center frequencies were studied and found to exhibit similar characteristics. The presence of hemozoin inside the cells was examined and an excellent estimation was made. The simulation results suggest that intraerythrocytic stages of malarial parasite may be assessed using the PA technique.

  8. Study on Speciation of Pr(III) in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Speciation of Pr(III) in human blood plasma has been investigated by computer simulation. The speciation and distribution of Pr(III) has been obtained. It has been found that most of Pr(III) is bound to phosphate and to form precipitate. The results obtained are in accord with experimental observations.

  9. Particle image velocimetry experimental and computational investigation of a blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Gui, Xingmin; Huang, Hui; Shen, Yongbin; Yu, Ziwen; Zhang, Yan

    2012-06-01

    Blood pumps have been adopted to treat heart failure over the past decades. A novel blood pump adopting the rotor with splitter blades and tandem cascade stator was developed recently. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to verify the design of the blood pump based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and further analyze the flow properties in the rotor and stator. The original sized pump model with an acrylic housing and an experiment loop were constructed to perform the optical measurement. The PIV testing was carried out at the rotational speed of 6952±50 r/min with the flow rate of 3.1 l/min and at 8186±50 r/min with 3.5 l/min, respectively. The velocity and the Reynolds shear stress distributions were investigated by PIV and CFD, and the comparisons between them will be helpful for the future blood pump design.

  10. Brain blood flow studies with single photon emission computed tomography in patients with plateau waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied brain blood flow with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in two patients with plateau waves. The intracranial pressure and blood pressure were also monitored continuously in these patients. They included one patient with brain-tumor (rt. sphenoid ridge meningioma) and another with hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of lt. internal carotid aneurysm. The intracranial pressure was monitored through an indwelling ventricular catheter attached to a pressure transducer. The blood pressure was recorded through an intraarterial catheter placed in the dorsalis pedis artery. Brain blood flow was studied with Headtome SET-011 (manufactured by Shimazu Co., Ltd.). For this flow measurement study, an intravenous injection of Xenon-133 of about 30 mCi was given via an antecubital vein. The position of the slice for the SPECT was selected so as to obtain information not only from the cerebral hemisphere but also from the brain stem : a cross section 25 deg over the orbito-meatal line, passing through the inferior aspect of the frontal horn, the basal ganglia, the lower recessus of the third ventricle and the brain stem. The results indicated that, in the cerebral hemisphere, plateau waves were accompanied by a decrease in blood flow, whereas, in the brain stem, the blood flow showed little change during plateau waves as compared with the interval phase between two plateau waves. These observations may explain why there is no rise in the blood pressure and why patients are often alert during plateau waves. (author)

  11. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and hemolysis analysis of axial blood pumps with various impeller structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dongdong; ZHAO Chunzhang; ZHANG Xiwen; BAI Jing

    2006-01-01

    The flow fields in the blood pump were analyzed three-dimensionally using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).Hemolysis of the pump was calculated based on the changes in shear stress and related exposure times along the particle trace lines using a forward Euler approach. In this way, how different impeller structures and rotational speeds affect the hemolysis was particularly acquired. As a result, impeller with long-short alternant vanes behaved best in hemolysis property and can be utilized to axial blood pumps' development and design.

  13. Pilot social feasibility study for the establishment of a public human umbilical cord blood stem cell bank in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Young, Wendy; Rangaka, Isabella; Lombaard, Hennie; Dhai, Ames; Tsotsi, Norma; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    There is a large unmet need in South Africa for bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of stem cells for the treatment of haematological and non-haematological diseases. Access to the two existing private umbilical cord blood stem cell banks (UCB SCBs) in South Africa is limited to individuals that can afford it, which further aggravates the ever increasing divide between families from different socio-economic classes. The problem is compounded by a severe global shortage of genetically compatible samples, representative of the South African demographics. Establishing a public human UCB SCB in South Africa would provide more South Africans with access to previously unavailable treatment in the form of affordable, genetically compatible stem cells for bone marrow transplantation. A public UCB SCB has many facets to consider, one of which is public preparedness and support for the bank. This was assessed in a social feasibility pilot study which is reported here. In addition to the findings of this social feasibility study, other important considerations for establishing a public human UCB SCB in SA include; (a) testing the samples for HIV and other infectious diseases (required for compliance with international regulatory standards); (b) flow cytometric analysis for enumeration of CD34+ UCB stem cells; (c) mapping of HLA genotypes/alleles; and (d) a study of the economic feasibility of this endeavour.The social feasibility study was conducted to gauge public preparedness and support for a public SCB through patient interviews and questionnaires. The process was dynamic due to its novel nature for interviewers and interviewees alike. Many obstacles were met and dealt with which lead to the compilation of results discussed here in the form of a pilot social feasibility study.In the South African context, we are faced with unique and rich challenges relating to cultural and religious differences that are further augmented by

  14. The Food and Drug Administration Is Now Preparing to Establish Tighter Performance Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Klonoff, David C.

    2010-01-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) ...

  15. Cerebral blood flow SPECT may be helpful in establishing the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 4 cases, which illustrate the usefulness of neuroimaging studies in atypical forms of Parkinsonism. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD) are rare neurodegenerative progressive disorders of the central nervous system of unknown cause. The clinical accuracy in this diagnosis is not very high even in centres specialising in movement disorders. Functional imaging can be helpful in diagnosing PSP and CBD. We present the results of cerebral blood flow (CBF) SPECT scanning in 2 patients with PSP and 2 patients with CBD. This was performed using a triple-head gammacamera and 99mTc-HMPAO. In PSP patients a diffuse frontal perfusion deficit was seen, eventually with striatal and occipital hypoperfusion. CT/MRI was either normal or showed a diffuse cortical-subcortical atrophy. In CBD patients left fronto-parieto-temporal cortex and a striatal hypoperfusion were shown. CT scanning was normal in one case and showed an asymmetrical temporo-parietal atrophy in second one. The pattern of diffuse frontal perfusions deficit in PSP and asymmetrical, contralateral to symptoms of CBD, cortico-subcortical hypoperfusion may be helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (author)

  16. Shape optimization of the diffuser blade of an axial blood pump by computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lailai; Zhang, Xiwen; Yao, Zhaohui

    2010-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been a viable and effective way to predict hydraulic performance, flow field, and shear stress distribution within a blood pump. We developed an axial blood pump with CFD and carried out a CFD-based shape optimization of the diffuser blade to enhance pressure output and diminish backflow in the impeller-diffuser connecting region at a fixed design point. Our optimization combined a computer-aided design package, a mesh generator, and a CFD solver in an automation environment with process integration and optimization software. A genetic optimization algorithm was employed to find the pareto-optimal designs from which we could make trade-off decisions. Finally, a set of representative designs was analyzed and compared on the basis of the energy equation. The role of the inlet angle of the diffuser blade was analyzed, accompanied by its relationship with pressure output and backflow in the impeller-diffuser connecting region. PMID:20447042

  17. Study and establishment of a computer program for radiotherapy treatment planning development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern radiotherapy requires the use of computers. In addition to their accuracy, computers involve an appreciable saving of time in the calculation of isodoses, permitting us to change several times a technique in order to choose the best dose distribution for each case of tumor. The aim of this work was to set a computer program calculating a suitable dose distribution for a given treatment. The algorithm of calculation of the depth dose used in our program permits us to calculate the dose distribution for all photon energies used in radiotherapy, whatever are the energy and modification of the field by the use of wedge filters or bolus

  18. Computational Prediction of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Decision Tree Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg Huwyler; Felix Hammann; Claudia Suenderhauf

    2012-01-01

    Predicting blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is essential to drug development, as a molecule cannot exhibit pharmacological activity within the brain parenchyma without first transiting this barrier. Understanding the process of permeation, however, is complicated by a combination of both limited passive diffusion and active transport. Our aim here was to establish predictive models for BBB drug permeation that include both active and passive transport. A database of 153 compounds was co...

  19. How to design and establish a computer bulletin board to support inventors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This booklet is a ``how-to handbook`` to demonstrate the development of an interactive electronic bulletin board as a support network for independent inventors and small business inventors. This will explain step-by-step, how Linking Alaskan Minds{trademark}, the Alaskan model of an interactive computer bulletin board system, was developed and designed to serve as a successfully working, interactive computer bulletin board that links and supports independent inventors in Alaska.

  20. How to design and establish a computer bulletin board to support inventors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This booklet is a how-to handbook'' to demonstrate the development of an interactive electronic bulletin board as a support network for independent inventors and small business inventors. This will explain step-by-step, how Linking Alaskan Minds{trademark}, the Alaskan model of an interactive computer bulletin board system, was developed and designed to serve as a successfully working, interactive computer bulletin board that links and supports independent inventors in Alaska.

  1. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  2. Establishing a Service Model of Private Elastic VPN for cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the concept of elastic VPN serviceswith Hypervisor on Cloud Computing. Under the CloudComputing mainly VPN is a IaaS cloud services which is createfor small unit business and medium size company which isbased on pay-as- much as used policy. Under this we proposed amethod through which we simply create an VPN network , andalso show the concept of Hypervisor which truly adjust theresources dynamically and the Load Balancing Algorithm isused which balanced the work load dynamically and also adjustthe resources by need and it also improve the scalability andavailability of the resources for the better performance of thenetwork.

  3. Establishment of a brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography database in children by statistical imaging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We made a 3-dimensional, 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) database in children by a statistical analysis. We selected 52 individuals between 1 and 15 years of age whose brain SPECT and brain MRI findings were normal, and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. By comparing databases obtained for each group, an age-dependent change of regional cerebral blood flow was investigated. The results showed that the relative blood flow increases in the frontal lobe and cerebeller hemisphere and decrease in the occipital lobe with increasing age, findings consistent with those of previous reports. This database enabled us to easily find 3-dimensional brain perfusion abnormality in individual patient by SPECT, and may help elucidate the pathophysiology of many brain disorders. (author)

  4. Establishment of a Computer Assisted Instructional Program to Teach Managerial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    1981-01-01

    The rapid growth of the health care industry demands that nurse managers be competent in decision making. The development of a computer assisted instructional package designed to meet this demand is described. Utilizing a branching technique, a decision model, written in FORTRAN, presents a user with decision junctures in selected scenarios. The model aids in teaching as well as evaluating managerial decision making.

  5. Established and Emerging Trends in Computational Drug Discovery in the Structural Genomics Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Baell, Jonathan B.; Fernández-Recio, Juan;

    2012-01-01

    Bioinformatics and chemoinformatics approaches contribute to hit discovery, hit-to-lead optimization, safety profiling, and target identification and enhance our overall understanding of the health and disease states. A vast repertoire of computational methods has been reported and increasingly c...

  6. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted. PMID:25967984

  7. Computational organic chemistry: bridging theory and experiment in establishing the mechanisms of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gui-Juan; Zhang, Xinhao; Chung, Lung Wa; Xu, Liping; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2015-02-11

    Understanding the mechanisms of chemical reactions, especially catalysis, has been an important and active area of computational organic chemistry, and close collaborations between experimentalists and theorists represent a growing trend. This Perspective provides examples of such productive collaborations. The understanding of various reaction mechanisms and the insight gained from these studies are emphasized. The applications of various experimental techniques in elucidation of reaction details as well as the development of various computational techniques to meet the demand of emerging synthetic methods, e.g., C-H activation, organocatalysis, and single electron transfer, are presented along with some conventional developments of mechanistic aspects. Examples of applications are selected to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of these techniques. Some challenges in the mechanistic studies and predictions of reactions are also analyzed.

  8. The food and drug administration is now preparing to establish tighter performance requirements for blood glucose monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C

    2010-05-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) Tight Glycemic Control. Many officials from the Center for Devices and Radiologic Health and the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices, which are the parts of FDA that regulate approval of blood glucose monitors, either spoke on the agenda or attended in the audience. Approximately 300 people attended; they were mostly clinicians (such as adult endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, internists, clinical chemists, intensivists, surgeons, nurses, and diabetes educators) or industry officials from companies involved in glucose monitoring, pharmaceutical products, data analysis, or regulatory consulting. PMID:20513313

  9. Numerical reconstruction of pulsatile blood flow from 4D computer tomography angiography data

    CERN Document Server

    Lovas, Attila; Csobo, Elek; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Sótonyi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel numerical algorithm developed to reconstuct pulsatile blood flow from ECG-gated CT angiography data. A block-based optimization method was constructed to solve the inverse problem corresponding to the Riccati-type ordinary differential equation that can be deduced from conservation principles and Hooke's law. Local flow rate for 5 patients was computed in 10cm long aorta segments that are located 1cm below the heart. The wave form of the local flow rate curves seems to be realistic. Our approach is suitable for estimating characteristics of pulsatile blood flow in aorta based on ECG gated CT scan thereby contributing to more accurate description of several cardiovascular lesions.

  10. Prediction of shear stress-related hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps by computational fluid dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fangqun; LI Lan; FENG Zhigang; QIAN Kunxi

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of shear stress-related hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps with different impeller designs has been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to track the shear stress history of the streamlines of red cells. The power law model of the relations among the hemolysis, shear stress and exposure time is used to evaluate the hemolysis in the pumps.Hemolysis tests are also conducted to verify the estimations. Both the estimations and experimentally measured hemolysis levels show that the hemolysis in the streamlined impeller pump developed by the authors is lower than the pump with straight-vane under the same boundary conditions. The approach is proved to be acceptable and practical to predict hemolysis levels of blood pumps.

  11. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Blood Values (Establishing hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges for wild Hawaiian Monk Seals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hematology and serum chemistry evaluations are essential to a patients comprehensive health exam by providing measures of organ function, blood cell volume and...

  12. Studies on Insoluble Species of Gd(Ⅲ) in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The insoluble species of Gd (Ⅲ) in human blood plasma were investigated by computer simulation. The distribution of the Gd (Ⅲ) species was obtained. It was found that most of the Gd (Ⅲ) ions were bound to phosphate to form precipitate GdPO4 at the concentration of 1. 000 ×10-7 mol/L and when the concentration of the Gd (Ⅲ) increased to 3. 750 × 10-4 mol/L, in excess of the concentration of phosphate, the Gd (Ⅲ) ions were bound to carbonate to form another kind of precipitate, Gd2 (CO3)3.

  13. Assessing regional cerebral blood flow in depression using 320-slice computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    Full Text Available While there is evidence that the development and course of major depressive disorder (MDD symptomatology is associated with vascular disease, and that there are changes in energy utilization in the disorder, the extent to which cerebral blood flow is changed in this condition is not clear. This study utilized a novel imaging technique previously used in coronary and stroke patients, 320-slice Computed-Tomography (CT, to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in those with MDD and examine the pattern of regional cerebral perfusion. Thirty nine participants with depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 24 (HAMD24 score > 20, and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS score > 53 and 41 healthy volunteers were studied. For all subjects, 3 ml of venous blood was collected to assess hematological parameters. Transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound was utilized to measure parameters of cerebral artery rCBFV and analyse the Pulsatility Index (PI. 16 subjects (8 =  MDD; 8 =  healthy also had rCBF measured in different cerebral artery regions using 320-slice CT. Differences among groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson's tests were employed in our statistical analyses. Compared with the control group, whole blood viscosity (including high\\middle\\low shear rateand hematocrit (HCT were significantly increased in the MDD group. PI values in different cerebral artery regions and parameters of rCBFV in the cerebral arteries were decreased in depressive participants, and there was a positive relationship between rCBFV and the corresponding vascular rCBF in both gray and white matter. rCBF of the left gray matter was lower than that of the right in MDD. Major depression is characterized by a wide range of CBF impairments and prominent changes in gray matter blood flow. 320-slice CT appears to be a valid and promising tool for measuring rCBF, and could thus be employed in psychiatric settings for biomarker and treatment response purposes.

  14. Validation of an axial flow blood pump: computational fluid dynamics results using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Boyang; Chua, Leok Poh; Wang, Xikun

    2012-04-01

    A magnetically suspended axial flow blood pump is studied experimentally in this article. The pump casing enclosed a three-blade straightener, a two-blade impeller shrouded by a permanent magnet-embedded cylinder, and a three-blade diffuser. The internal flow fields were simulated earlier using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the pump characteristic curves were determined. The simulation results showed that the internal flow field was basically streamlined, except the diffuser region. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of the 1:1 pump model was conducted to validate the CFD result. In order to ensure the optical access, an acrylic prototype was fabricated with the impeller driven by a servomotor instead, as the magnet is opaque. In addition to the transparent model, the blood analog fluid with the refractive index close to that of acrylic was used to avoid refraction. According to the CFD results, the axial flow blood pump could generate adequate pressure head at the rotating speed of 9500rpm and flow rate of 5L/min, and the same flow condition was applied during the PIV measurement. Through the comparisons, it was found that the experimental results were close to those obtained by CFD and had thus validated the CFD model, which could complement the limitation of the measurement in assessing the more detailed flow fields of the axial flow pump.

  15. Validation of an axial flow blood pump: computational fluid dynamics results using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Boyang; Chua, Leok Poh; Wang, Xikun

    2012-04-01

    A magnetically suspended axial flow blood pump is studied experimentally in this article. The pump casing enclosed a three-blade straightener, a two-blade impeller shrouded by a permanent magnet-embedded cylinder, and a three-blade diffuser. The internal flow fields were simulated earlier using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the pump characteristic curves were determined. The simulation results showed that the internal flow field was basically streamlined, except the diffuser region. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of the 1:1 pump model was conducted to validate the CFD result. In order to ensure the optical access, an acrylic prototype was fabricated with the impeller driven by a servomotor instead, as the magnet is opaque. In addition to the transparent model, the blood analog fluid with the refractive index close to that of acrylic was used to avoid refraction. According to the CFD results, the axial flow blood pump could generate adequate pressure head at the rotating speed of 9500rpm and flow rate of 5L/min, and the same flow condition was applied during the PIV measurement. Through the comparisons, it was found that the experimental results were close to those obtained by CFD and had thus validated the CFD model, which could complement the limitation of the measurement in assessing the more detailed flow fields of the axial flow pump. PMID:22040356

  16. Comparison of Myelography and computed tomography in establishing lumbar disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, M.K.J.; Thelander, U.E.

    The results of lumbar myelography and computed tomography (CT) were compared in 51 consecutive patients with clinically suggested lumbar disc herniation. A total of 100 intervertebral levels were examined. At 62 levels, either L4/L5 or L5/S1, myelography was normal. CT showed no pathologic changes at 55 levels. The results concurred between myelography and CT in 89% of the patients with normal findings. Four cases of disc herniation and one bulging disc, which had been missed at myelography because of a large epidural space at L5/S1, were picked up by CT. Two of these were verified by surgery and two were treated conservatively. There was one possible false negative case with CT as well. Abnormalities were shown at 38 intervertebral levels, 22 in the bulging and 16 in the herniated disc group. The pathologic changes concurred in 84% between the two investigations. For intervertebral disc herniation the true negative rate was, for myelography 88% and for CT 97%. The treatment strategy could have been based on CT alone at 37 out of 38 levels (97%), and on myelography alone at 34 out of 38 levels (89%). Furthermore, at CT the imaging of soft tissues and intervertebral joints was superior to that at myelography. It is concluded that CT should be the primary examination method of imaging for lumbar disc herniation. Myelography is, however, to be preferred where the level of the lesion is clinically unclear or when the entire lumbar region and thoraco-lumbar junction are to be examined. (orig.).

  17. ESTABLISHING A METHODOLOGY FOR BENCHMARKING SPEECH SYNTHESIS FOR COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zöe Handley

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the new possibilities that speech synthesis brings about, few Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL applications integrating speech synthesis have found their way onto the market. One potential reason is that the suitability and benefits of the use of speech synthesis in CALL have not been proven. One way to do this is through evaluation. Yet, very few formal evaluations of speech synthesis for CALL purposes have been conducted. One possible reason for the neglect of evaluation in this context is the fact that it is expensive in terms of time and resources. An important concern given that there are several levels of evaluation from which such applications would benefit. Benchmarking, the comparison of the score obtained by a system with that obtained by one which is known, to guarantee user satisfaction in a standard task or set of tasks, is introduced as a potential solution to this problem. In this article, we report on our progress towards the development of one of these benchmarks, namely a benchmark for determining the adequacy of speech synthesis systems for use in CALL. We do so by presenting the results of a case study which aimed to identify the criteria which determine the adequacy of the output of speech synthesis systems for use in its various roles in CALL with a view to the selection of benchmark tests which will address these criteria. These roles (reading machine, pronunciation model, and conversational partner are also discussed here. An agenda for further research and evaluation is proposed in the conclusion.

  18. Scientific and Organizational Problems Connected with the Establishment of Bone-Marrow and Blood-Component Banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the results of studies carried out with a view to devising rational means for the long-term preservation of bone-marrow and blood cells at ultra- low temperatures. Attention is especially directed to freezing conditions and cryoprotective agents. The paper stresses the significance of the apparatus that has been constructed for programmed freezing operations and analyses the data regarding bone-marrow donors. The present level of knowledge in regard to the preservation of bone-marrow and blood components makes it possible to organize banks for their long-term storage, thereby permitting more extensive clinical use of bone-marrow transplantation and haemotherapy. (author)

  19. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the pediatric tiny centrifugal blood pump (TinyPump).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Kazuyuki; Hoshi, Hideo; Watanabe, Nobuo; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Takatani, Setsuo

    2006-05-01

    We have developed a tiny rotary centrifugal blood pump for the purpose of supporting circulation of children and infants. The pump is designed to provide a flow of 0.1-4.0 L/min against a head pressure of 50-120 mm Hg. The diameter of the impeller is 30 mm with six straight vanes. The impeller is supported by a hydrodynamic bearing at its center and rotated with a radial coupled magnetic driver. The bearing that supports rotation of the impeller of the tiny centrifugal blood pump is very critical to achieve durability, and clot-free and antihemolytic performance. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to quantify the secondary flow through the hydrodynamic bearing at the center of the impeller and investigated the effects of bearing clearance on shear stress to optimize hemolytic performance of the pump. Two types of bearing clearance (0.1 and 0.2 mm) were studied. The wall shear stress of the 0.1-mm bearing clearance was lower than that of 0.2-mm bearing clearance at 2 L/min and 3000 rpm. This was because the axial component of the shear rate significantly decreased due to the narrower clearance even though the circumferential component of the shear rate increased. Hemolysis tests showed that the normalized index of hemolysis was reduced to 0.0076 g/100 L when the bearing clearance was reduced to 0.1 mm. It was found that the CFD prediction supported the experimental trend. The CFD is a useful tool for optimization of the hydrodynamic bearing design of the centrifugal rotary blood pump to optimize the performance of the pump in terms of mechanical effect on blood cell elements, durability of the bearing, and antithrombogenic performance.

  20. Establishment of a real-time PCR for quantifying transforming growth factor beta1 in blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background: The carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial, multistep and complex process. Its prognosis is poor and early detection is of the utmost importance. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) message RNA (mRNA) has been reported to be elevated in HCC patients using Northern blotting. However, little work has been done about the detection of TGF-β1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood of patients with HCC using the real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) method. Objective: To assess the prognostic value of quantitative levels of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with HCC, and to investigate the relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood and many diagnostic and pathological factors. Methods: We developed an optimized Taqman real-time PCR to quantify TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of 53 patients with HCC and 44 healthy volunteers. In addition, blood was collected from patients with HCC for measuring levels of total bilirubin (TBil), prealbumin, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), viral load and platelet counts. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software system (SPSS 10.0). Results: In real-time PCR, fluorescence was detectable in all blood specimens from patients with HCC and healthy volunteers. The levels of TGF-β1 mRNA expression in patients with HCC were significantly higher compared to that in healthy volunteers (P<0.000 1), suggesting an association of the activated TGF-β1 gene transcription with hepatocarcinogenesis. Patients with HCC were divided into 2 groups according to their TGF-β1 mRNA above (group A, n=28) or below (group B, n=25) the mean level. Statistical results demonstrated that TGF-β1 mRNA expression level was correlated with patients age, serum levels of CEA

  1. Computational modelling of blood-flow-induced changes in blood electrical conductivity and its contribution to the impedance cardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakic, A; Akhand, M; Wang, H; Mason, D; Liu, F; Wilson, S; Crozier, S

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that blood-flow-induced change in electrical conductivity is of equal importance in assessment of the impedance cardiogram (ICG) as are volumetric changes attributed to the motion of heart, lungs and blood vessels. To better understand the sole effect of time-varying blood conductivity on the spatiotemporal distribution of trans-thoracic electric fields (i.e. ICG), this paper presents a segmented high-resolution (1 mm(3)) thoracic cardiovascular system, in which the time-varying pressures, flows and electrical conductivities of blood in different vessels are evaluated using a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations, red blood cell orientation and cardiac cycle functions. Electric field and voltage simulations are performed using two and four electrode configurations delivering a small alternating electric current to an anatomically realistic and electrically accurate model of modelled human torso. The simulations provide a three-dimensional electric field distribution and show that the time-varying blood conductivity alters the voltage potential difference between the electrodes by a maximum of 0.28% for a cardiac output of about 5 L min(-1). As part of a larger study, it is hoped that this initial model will be useful in providing improved insights into blood-flow-related spatiotemporal electric field variations and assist in the optimal placement of electrodes in impedance cardiography experiments.

  2. A Framework for a Smart Social Blood Donation System Based on Mobile Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Almetwally M.; Youssef, Ahmed E.; Alshorbagy, Gamal

    2014-01-01

    Blood Donation and Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) are crucial for saving people lives. Recently, worldwide efforts have been undertaken to utilize social media and smartphone applications to make the blood donation process more convenient, offer additional services, and create communities around blood donation centers. Blood banks suffer frequent shortage of blood; hence, advertisements are frequently seen on social networks urging healthy individuals to donate blood for patients who urgent...

  3. Computed tomography and blood gas analysis of anesthetized bloodhounds with induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly severe degrees of pneumothorax were produced in 6 adult anesthetized bloodhounds. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed on each dog to evaluate the effects of pneumo thorax on thoracic and on pulmonary cross-sectional area (TA and PA). Arterial PO2 (PaO2) and PCO2 (PaCO2), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were determined and related to the severity of pneumothorax. Volumes of air equal to 1, 1.5 and 2 times functional residual capacity of the lung produced approximately 33%, 40%, and 50% reductions in pulmonary area respectively. These amounts of atelectasis correspond to a radiographically “moderate” degree of pneumothorax. As severity of pneumothorax increased, thoracic area consistently increased, PaO2 consistently decreased, and PaCO2 consistently increased, with all being statistically significant relationships (p0.2)

  4. Parallel Adaptive Computation of Blood Flow in a 3D ``Whole'' Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M.; Figueroa, C. A.; Taylor, C. A.; Sahni, O.; Jansen, K. E.

    2008-11-01

    Accurate numerical simulations of vascular trauma require the consideration of a larger portion of the vasculature than previously considered, due to the systemic nature of the human body's response. A patient-specific 3D model composed of 78 connected arterial branches extending from the neck to the lower legs is constructed to effectively represent the entire body. Recently developed outflow boundary conditions that appropriately represent the downstream vasculature bed which is not included in the 3D computational domain are applied at 78 outlets. In this work, the pulsatile blood flow simulations are started on a fairly uniform, unstructured mesh that is subsequently adapted using a solution-based approach to efficiently resolve the flow features. The adapted mesh contains non-uniform, anisotropic elements resulting in resolution that conforms with the physical length scales present in the problem. The effects of the mesh resolution on the flow field are studied, specifically on relevant quantities of pressure, velocity and wall shear stress.

  5. MalHaploFreq: A computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers, particularly those associated with drug resistance, are important surveillance tools that can inform policy choice. People infected with falciparum malaria often contain several genetically-distinct clones of the parasite; genotyping the patients' blood reveals whether or not the marker is present (i.e. its prevalence, but does not reveal its frequency. For example a person with four malaria clones may contain both mutant and wildtype forms of a marker but it is not possible to distinguish the relative frequencies of the mutant and wildtypes i.e. 1:3, 2:2 or 3:1. Methods An appropriate method for obtaining frequencies from prevalence data is by Maximum Likelihood analysis. A computer programme has been developed that allows the frequency of markers, and haplotypes defined by up to three codons, to be estimated from blood phenotype data. Results The programme has been fully documented [see Additional File 1] and provided with a user-friendly interface suitable for large scale analyses. It returns accurate frequencies and 95% confidence intervals from simulated dataset sets and has been extensively tested on field data sets. Additional File 1 User manual for MalHaploFreq. Click here for file Conclusion The programme is included [see Additional File 2] and/or may be freely downloaded from 1. It can then be used to extract molecular marker and haplotype frequencies from their prevalence in human blood samples. This should enhance the use of frequency data to inform antimalarial drug policy choice. Additional File 2 executable programme compiled for use on DOS or windows Click here for file

  6. Computational and in vitro studies of blast-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Del Razo, Mauricio J; Meabon, James S; Huber, B Russell; Peskind, Elaine R; Banks, William A; Mourad, Pierre D; Leveque, Randall J; Cook, David G

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern that blast-exposed individuals are at risk of developing neurological disorders later in life. Therefore, it is important to understand the dynamic properties of blast forces on brain cells, including the endothelial cells that maintain the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which regulates the passage of nutrients into the brain and protects it from toxins in the blood. To better understand the effect of shock waves on the BBB we have investigated an {\\em in vitro} model in which BBB endothelial cells are grown in transwell vessels and exposed in a shock tube, confirming that BBB integrity is directly related to shock wave intensity. It is difficult to directly measure the forces acting on these cells in the transwell container during the experiments, and so a computational tool has been developed and presented in this paper. Two-dimensional axisymmetric Euler equations with the Tammann equation of state were used to model the transwell materials, and a high-resolution finite volume method b...

  7. Computational Modelling of Blood Flow Development and Its Characteristics in Magnetic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Chandra Shit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of concern in this paper is an investigation of the entrance length behind singularities in cardiovascular hemodynamics under magnetic environment. In order to get better interpretation of scan MRI images, the characteristics of blood flow and electromagnetic field within the circulatory system have to be furthermore investigated. A 3D numerical model has been developed as an example of blood flowing through a straight circular tube. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluid flow are reduced to a nondimensional form, which are then characterized by four dimensionless parameters. With an aim to validate our numerical approach, the computational results are compared with those of the analytical solution available in the developed region far from the singularity. The hydraulic impedance by unit length within the developed flow region increases with the magnetic field. The time average entrance length with a greater precision on the unsteady case decreases with increasing magnetic field strength. The overall voltage characteristics do not depend on the developed flow field within the entry region.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban using a computer model for blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Burghaus

    Full Text Available Rivaroxaban is an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor approved in the European Union and several other countries for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery and is in advanced clinical development for the treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Its mechanism of action is antithrombin independent and differs from that of other anticoagulants, such as warfarin (a vitamin K antagonist, enoxaparin (an indirect thrombin/Factor Xa inhibitor and dabigatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor. A blood coagulation computer model has been developed, based on several published models and preclinical and clinical data. Unlike previous models, the current model takes into account both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade, and possesses some unique features, including a blood flow component and a portfolio of drug action mechanisms. This study aimed to use the model to compare the mechanism of action of rivaroxaban with that of warfarin, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different rivaroxaban doses with other anticoagulants included in the model. Rather than reproducing known standard clinical measurements, such as the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time clotting tests, the anticoagulant benchmarking was based on a simulation of physiologically plausible clotting scenarios. Compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban showed a favourable sensitivity for tissue factor concentration inducing clotting, and a steep concentration-effect relationship, rapidly flattening towards higher inhibitor concentrations, both suggesting a broad therapeutic window. The predicted dosing window is highly accordant with the final dose recommendation based upon extensive clinical studies.

  9. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: Implications for non-invasive monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Colleen E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); College of Charleston, Grice Marine Laboratory, 205 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States)], E-mail: colleen.bryan@nist.gov; Christopher, Steven J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, Florida 34236 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n = 51) and skin (n = 40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r = 0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  10. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: Implications for non-invasive monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n = 51) and skin (n = 40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r = 0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  11. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (pdolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends established in this study will serve as a benchmark for comparison and aid in sampling design for future monitoring of this population and other coastal bottlenose dolphin populations. PMID:17870146

  12. Computational modeling of non-Newtonian blood flow through stenosed arteries in the presence of magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshare, Aiman; Tashtoush, Bourhan; El-Khalil, Hossam H

    2013-11-01

    Steady flow simulations of blood flow in an axisymmetric stenosed artery, subjected to a static magnetic field, are performed to investigate the influence of artery size, magnetic field strength, and non-Newtonian behavior on artery wall shear stress and pressure drop in the stenosed section. It is found that wall shear stress and pressure drop increase by decreasing artery size, assuming non-Newtonian fluid, and increasing magnetic field strength. In the computations, the shear thinning behavior of blood is accounted for by the Carreau-Yasuda model. Computational results are compared and found to be inline with available experimental data. PMID:24061603

  13. In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Models-An Overview of Established Models and New Microfluidic Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Anette; Antfolk, Maria; Brodin, Birger;

    2015-01-01

    The societal need for new central nervous system (CNS) medicines is substantial, because of the global increase in life expectancy and the accompanying increase in age-related CNS diseases. Low blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability has been one of the major causes of failure for new CNS drug...... candidates. There has therefore been a great interest in cell models, which mimic BBB permeation properties. In this review, we present an overview of the performance of monocultured, cocultured, and triple-cultured primary cells and immortalized cell lines, including key parameters such as transendothelial......-of-the-art models and it was noted that, although they show great promise, these systems have not yet reached beyond the proof-of-concept stage. In general, it was found that there were large variations in experimental protocols, BBB phenotype markers, and paracellular flux markers used. It is the author's opinion...

  14. Computing the blood brain barrier (BBB) diffusion coefficient: A molecular dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Pedram, Maysam Z.; Heidari, Hossein; Alasty, Aria

    2016-07-01

    Various physical and biological aspects of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) structure still remain unfolded. Therefore, among the several mechanisms of drug delivery, only a few have succeeded in breaching this barrier, one of which is the use of Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs). However, a quantitative characterization of the BBB permeability is desirable to find an optimal magnetic force-field. In the present study, a molecular model of the BBB is introduced that precisely represents the interactions between MNPs and the membranes of Endothelial Cells (ECs) that form the BBB. Steered Molecular Dynamics (SMD) simulations of the BBB crossing phenomenon have been carried out. Mathematical modeling of the BBB as an input-output system has been considered from a system dynamics modeling viewpoint, enabling us to analyze the BBB behavior based on a robust model. From this model, the force profile required to overcome the barrier has been extracted for a single NP from the SMD simulations at a range of velocities. Using this data a transfer function model has been obtained and the diffusion coefficient is evaluated. This study is a novel approach to bridge the gap between nanoscale models and microscale models of the BBB. The characteristic diffusion coefficient has the nano-scale molecular effects inherent, furthermore reducing the computational costs of a nano-scale simulation model and enabling much more complex studies to be conducted.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the relationship between the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular dementia, eleven patients with vascular dementia and eight patients with non-demented infarction were studied and regional CBF were measured quantitatively with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. All cases were basal infarction and vascular dementia were diagnosed by less than 21.5 of the Hasegawa's dementia score and more than 7 of Hachinsk's ischemic score. The results of the present study were as follows: (1) Cerebrovascular dementia showed lower mean CBF value compared with non-demented group. (2) Regional CBF of bilateral frontal areas and affected basal ganglia were significantly reduced than occipital area in the dementia group. (3) A comparison of regional CBF and the Hasegawa's dementia score revealed a statistically significant correlation at the bilateral frontal areas in the dementia group. It is possible that measuring the regional CBF quantitatively by IMP-SPECT is useful for clinical analysis of vascular dementia. (author)

  16. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  17. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  18. Evaluation of Blood Flow Patterns of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules with Dynamic Multi-slice Spiral Computed Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShenjiang; XIAOXiangsheng; LIHuimin; LIUShiyuan; LIChengzhou; ZHANGChenshi; TAOZhiwei; YANGChunshan

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of dynamic multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for providing quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and differentiating solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Methods: 37 patients with SPNs (diameter0.01). SFN-to-aorta ratio in inflammatory SPNs (20.78%±4.14) was significantly higher than that in benign (2.00%±2.26) and malig nant (14.63%±6.22) SPNs (P0.01). Conclusion: MSCT provides quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and is applicable diagnostic method for differentiating SPNs.

  19. SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY OF REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH HEMISPATIAL NEGLECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雅芙; 任艳; 李亚明

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To explore the correlations between the occurrence and severity of neglect and the region,range or extent of the decrease in regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF). Methods. Nineteen dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as unilateral stroke clinically and hemispatial neglect by a neglect test battery received single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) scans. Results. On images,the damages of patients with neglect were seen most frequently in the frontal cortex,and then in turn in the parietal cortex,occipital cortex,temporal cortex,basal ganglia and thalamus. Most patients with neglect had two or more regions damaged. The most significant region was temporal-parietal-occipi-tal(TPO)junction. The correlation coefficient between rCBF and the severity of neglect was -0.34(t=-1.5,P>0.05),and that between the decrease percentage of rCBF and the severity of neglect was 0.34(t=1.47,P>0.05). The correlation coefficients between the range,number of foci,the flow deficit size and the severity of neglect were 0.71(t=4.13,P<0.01),0.70(t=4.07,P<0.01)and 0.64(t=3.40, P<0.01),respectively. Conclusions. The severity of neglect correlates with rCBF and the decrease percentage of rCBF insignificantly,but correlates positively with the range,number of foci and the flow deficit size significantly. Hemispatial neglect is caused by the damage of multiple sites and combined damage results in more severe neglect.

  20. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla; Rudenick, Paula A.; Fatima Crispi; Monica Cruz-Lemini; Georgina Palau; Oscar Camara; Eduard Gratacos; Bijnens, Bart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding ...

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Pulsatile Blood Flow Behavior in Modelled Stenosed Vessels with Different Severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is governed by the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, the stenosis shape is cosine by using Tu and Devil model. Comparing the results obtained from three stenosed vessels with 30%, 50%, and 75% area severity, we find that higher percent-area severity of stenosis leads to higher extrapressure jumps and higher blood speeds around the stenosis site. Also, we observe that the size of the stenosis in stenosed vessels does influence the blood flow. A little change on the cross-sectional value makes vast change on the blood flow rate. This simulation helps the people working in the field of physiological fluid dynamics as well as the medical practitioners.

  2. A method for calculating regional cerebral blood flow from emission computed tomography of inert gas concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celsis, P; Goldman, T; Henriksen, L;

    1981-01-01

    of four 1 min pictures and using a fixed value for the brain:blood partition coefficient, lambda. The method is essentially based on the bolus distribution principle, and it allows the estimation of blood flow in ischemic areas. Application to positron emission tomography is discussed....

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  4. Establishment of the model of white blood cell membrane chromatography and screening of antagonizing TLR4 receptor component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Cuiqin; HE; Langchong

    2006-01-01

    A model of white blood cell membrane chromatography (WB-CMC) was established to screen active component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. The component can antagonize Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibit inflammatory reaction. In the model of WB-CMC, cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) was prepared by immobilizing the rabbit white blood cell membrane (WBCM) onto the surface of silica carrier and taxinol was used as a model molecule. The active component which can act on WBCM and its receptor (such as TLR4) as an effective target in A. macrocephala was determined by using a replacement experiment. The anti-inflammatory effects of the active component were tested by using pharmacological methods in vivo. The results indicated that the retention characteristics of atractylenolide I as active component was similar to that of taxinol in the model of WB-CMC. And so, atractylenolide I acted on the WBCM and TLR4 and its anti-inflammatory activity was related with antagonizing TLR4. Therefore, the interaction between the active component and WBCM and its receptor can be simulated by the model of WB-CMC in vitro. This model can be used to screen active components and to study effective characteristics for acting on definite targets.

  5. FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Brian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment. Results In an approximately 2 year-long experimental infection study, cats infected with a biological isolate of FIV clade C demonstrated undetectable plasma viral loads from 10 months post-infection onward. Viral DNA was detected in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from infected cats whereas viral RNA was not detected at multiple time points during the early chronic phase of infection. Viral transcription could be reactivated in latently infected CD4+ T cells ex vivo as demonstrated by detectable FIV gag RNA and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR circle junctions. Viral LTR and gag sequences amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during early and chronic stages of infection demonstrated minimal to no viral sequence variation. Conclusions Collectively, these findings are consistent with FIV latency in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells isolated from chronically infected cats. The ability to isolate latently FIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes from FIV-infected cats provides a platform for the study of in vivo mechanisms of lentiviral latency.

  6. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. METHODS: Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27 and uninfected controls (n = 20 were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls. From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for

  7. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  8. Study on Effect of Gd (III) Speciation on Ca (II) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ca (II) speciation and effect of Gd (III) speciation on Ca (II) speciation in human blood plasma were studied by computer simulation. [CaHCO3]+ is a predominant compound species of Ca (II). Gd (III) can compete with Ca (II) for biological molecules. The presence of Gd (III) results in a increase of concentration of free Ca (II) and a decrease of concentration of Ca (II) compounds.

  9. Automated computational framework of blood vessel quantification in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Hong, Jinsheng; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong

    2014-01-01

    Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay has been widely used for finding drugs targeting new blood vessel development in cancer research. In addition to the setup materials and protocols, laboratory findings depend on the quantification and analysis of microscopic blood vessel images. However, it is still a challenging problem because of the high complexity of blood vessel branching structures. We applied preprocessing on CAM microscopic images by keeping the integrity of minor branches in the vessel structure. We then proposed an efficient way to automatically extract blood vessel centerlines based on vector tracing starting from detected seed points. Finally, all branches were coded to construct an abstract model of the branching structure, which enabled more accurate modeling for in-depth analysis. The framework was applied in quantifying Icaritin (ICT) inhibition effects on angiogenesis in a CAM model. Experimental results showed the high accuracy in blood vessel quantification and modeling compared with semimanual measurements. Meanwhile, a set of blood vessel growth indicators were extracted to provide fully automated analysis for angiogenesis assays. Further analysis proved that ICT took effect in a dose-dependent manner which could be applied in suppressing tumor blood vessel growth. PMID:25277148

  10. Computational study of thermal effects of large blood vessels in human knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xu; He, Zhi Zhu; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to present a comprehensive investigation on the thermal effects of large blood vessels of human knee joint during topical cooling and fomentation treatment. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis by taking full use of the anatomical CAD model of human knee joint was developed to accurately simulate the treatment process. Based on the classical Pennes bio-heat transfer equation, the time evolution of knee joint's temperature distribution and heat flux from large blood vessels was obtained. In addition, we compared several influencing factors and obtained some key conclusions which cannot be easily acquired through clinical experiments. The results indicated that the thermal effects of large blood vessels could remarkably affect the temperature distribution of knee joint during treatment process. Fluctuations of blood flow velocity and metabolic heat production rate affect little on the thermal effects of large blood vessels. Changing the temperature of blood and regimes of treatment could effectively regulate this phenomenon, which is important for many physiological activities. These results provide a guideline to the basic and applied research for the thermally significant large blood vessels in the knee organism.

  11. N-13 ammonia for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial blood flow by positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics and characteristics of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia as an indicator of blood flow in the myocardium were evaluated in open-chest dogs. Its utility as an imaging agent was tested in animals and man

  12. Margination of white blood cells - a computational approach by a hydrodynamic phase field model

    CERN Document Server

    Marth, Wieland

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate margination of white blood cells and demonstrate the dependency on a number of conditions including hematocrit, the deformability of the cells and the Reynolds number. A detailed mesoscopic hydrodynamic Helfrich-type model is derived, validated and used for the simulations to provides a quantitative description of the margination of white blood cells. Previous simulation results, obtained with less detailed models, could be confirmed, e.g. the largest probability of margination of white blood cells at an intermediate range of hematocrit values and a decreasing tendency with increasing deformability. The consideration of inertia effects, which become of relevance in small vessels, also shows a dependency and leads to less pronounced margination of white blood cells with increasing Reynolds number.

  13. Computational Modelling of Blood Flow Development and Its Characteristics in Magnetic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Chandra Shit

    2013-01-01

    Of concern in this paper is an investigation of the entrance length behind singularities in cardiovascular hemodynamics under magnetic environment. In order to get better interpretation of scan MRI images, the characteristics of blood flow and electromagnetic field within the circulatory system have to be furthermore investigated. A 3D numerical model has been developed as an example of blood flowing through a straight circular tube. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of m...

  14. Comparision of blood loss between computer assisted and conventional total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Kumar Mohanlal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that there is no significant difference in blood loss in CAS TKA and conventional TKA. This study also highlights the heterogeneity of methods used in studies related to CAS TKA. We believe that there is a need for a large multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to be performed before a consensus can be reached on the influence of CAS techniques on blood loss during primary TKA.

  15. Establishment of blood glucose fluctuation diabetic rats model%大鼠糖尿病血糖波动模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖洁; 雷闽湘; 胡维

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨利用胰岛素建立大鼠糖尿病血糖波动模型.方法 取60只SD大鼠随机分成正常组(n=20)和模型组(n=40),高糖高脂饲料喂养模型组SD大鼠6周后用小剂量链尿佐菌素(STZ)30 mg/KS腹腔注射诱导建立糖尿病模型,模型成功后将其随机分成持续高糖组(n=20)和血糖波动组(n=20).血糖波动组大鼠每日2次皮下注射普通胰岛素诱导血糖波动,从而建立糖尿病大鼠血糖波动模型.观察大鼠"三多一少"症状,血糖变化情况.结果 (1)血糖波动组和持续组的"三多一少"症状明显.(2)血糖波动组的SDBG,LAGE明显高于正常组[(8.56 ±0.49)mmol/L vs (0.69 ±0.05)mmol/L,(23.15±2.51)mmol/L vs(2.14±0.52)mmol/L]及持续组[(8.56±0.49)mmol/L vs(3.25±0.26)mmol/L,(23.15±2.51)mmol/L vs(9.45±2.46)mmol/L],持续组的MBG(24.66±3.32)mmol/L高于正常组(6.10±0.75)mmol/L及波动组(18.16±8.91)mmoL/L.(3)持续组和波动组的24 h尿蛋白均较普通组明显增加[(100.38±7.99)mg/24 h vs(18.13±1.41)mg/24h,(123.71±11.23)mg/24 h vg(18.13±1.41)mg/24 h],差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),波动组较持续组增加[(123.71±11.23)mg/24 h ys(100.38±7.99)mg/24 h],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 使用每日皮下注射两次胰岛素的方法能成功制作出糖尿病大鼠血糖波动模型,并可作为研究血糖波动及其并发症的理想动物模型.%Objective To establish the blood glucose fluctuation diabetic rat model by subcutaneous injecting insulin. Method The male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into two groups, normal group ( n =20) and model group ( n =40). Normal group rats were fed with normal diet, model group rats were fed with a high-sucrose-high-fat diet. After 6 weeks, a low dose of streptozotocin ( STZ ,30mg/kg) was injected to induce hyperglycemia in model group rats. And then the model group rats were ran-dom divided into two subgroups, diabetic group ( n = 20) and blood glucose fluctuation group ( n = 20

  16. Choice of blood rheology model has minor impact on computational assessment of shear stress mediated vascular risk

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, Miguel O; Groen, Derek; Carver, Hywel B; Hetherington, James; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations to the homeostatic distribution of mechanical forces exerted by blood on the endothelial layer have been correlated with vascular pathologies including intracranial aneurysms and atherosclerosis. Recent computational work suggests that in order to correctly characterise such forces, the shear-thinning properties of blood must be taken into account. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been compared against experimentally observed pathological thresholds. In the current work, we apply the three-band diagram (TBD) analysis due to Gizzi et al. to assess the impact of the choice of blood rheology model on a computational model of the right middle cerebral artery. Our results show that the differences between the wall shear stress predicted by a Newtonian model and the well known Carreau-Yasuda generalized Newtonian model are only significant if the vascular pathology under study is associated with a pathological threshold in the range 0.94 Pa to 1.56 Pa, where the results of the T...

  17. Computational micro-scale model of control of extravascular water and capillary perfusion in the air blood barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Enrico; Aliverti, Andrea; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    A computational model of a morphologically-based alveolar capillary unit (ACU) in the rabbit is developed to relate lung fluid balance to mechanical forces between capillary surface and interstitium during development of interstitial edema. We hypothesize that positive values of interstitial liquid pressure Pliq impact on capillary transmural pressure and on blood flow. ACU blood flow, capillary recruitment and filtration are computed by modulating vascular and interstitial pressures. Model results are compared with experimental data of Pliq increasing from ~-10 (control) up to ~4cmH2O in two conditions, hypoxia and collagenase injection. For hypoxia exposure, fitting data requires a linear increase in hydraulic conductivity Lp and capillary pressure PC, that fulfils the need of increase in oxygen delivery. For severe fragmentation of capillary endothelial barrier (collagenase injection), fitting requires a rapid increase in both hydraulic and protein permeability, causing ACU de-recruitment, followed by an increase in PC as a late response to restore blood flow. In conclusion, the model allows to describe the lung adaptive response to edemagenic perturbations; the increase in Pliq, related to the low interstitial compliance, provides an efficient control of extravascular water, by limiting microvascular filtration.

  18. Computational micro-scale model of control of extravascular water and capillary perfusion in the air blood barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Enrico; Aliverti, Andrea; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    A computational model of a morphologically-based alveolar capillary unit (ACU) in the rabbit is developed to relate lung fluid balance to mechanical forces between capillary surface and interstitium during development of interstitial edema. We hypothesize that positive values of interstitial liquid pressure Pliq impact on capillary transmural pressure and on blood flow. ACU blood flow, capillary recruitment and filtration are computed by modulating vascular and interstitial pressures. Model results are compared with experimental data of Pliq increasing from ~-10 (control) up to ~4cmH2O in two conditions, hypoxia and collagenase injection. For hypoxia exposure, fitting data requires a linear increase in hydraulic conductivity Lp and capillary pressure PC, that fulfils the need of increase in oxygen delivery. For severe fragmentation of capillary endothelial barrier (collagenase injection), fitting requires a rapid increase in both hydraulic and protein permeability, causing ACU de-recruitment, followed by an increase in PC as a late response to restore blood flow. In conclusion, the model allows to describe the lung adaptive response to edemagenic perturbations; the increase in Pliq, related to the low interstitial compliance, provides an efficient control of extravascular water, by limiting microvascular filtration. PMID:27059893

  19. Computational Dynamics of Arterial Blood Flow in the Presence of Magnetic Field and Thermal Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinyoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a numerical study to determine the influence of magnetic field and thermal radiation on both velocity and temperature distributions in a single blood vessel. The model here assumes that blood is a Newtonian incompressible conducting fluid with radially varying viscosity due to hematocrit variation. The transient equations of momentum and energy transport governing the flow in an axisymmetric configuration are solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Results are presented graphically and discussed both qualitatively and quantitatively from the physiological point of view. The results of this work may enhance current understanding of the factors that determine the effects of hyperthermia treatment on tumor tissues.

  20. Comparison of Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Cerebral Perfusion Computed Tomography in Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Alexey O; Kalentiev, George; Voennov, Oleg; Grigoryeva, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and cerebral blood volume in patients with traumatic brain injury. Perfusion computed tomography of the brain was performed in 25 patients with traumatic brain injury together with simultaneous SctO2 level measurement using cerebral near-infrared oxymetry. The mean age of the injured persons was 34.5±15.6 years (range 15-65); 14 men, 11 women. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) values were 44.4±9.7 (range 25-81). The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) mean value before the study was 10.6±2.1 (range 5-13). SctO2 ranged from 51 to 89%, mean 62±8.2%. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) values were 2.1±0.67 ml/100 g (min 1.1; max 4.3 ml/100 g). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 31.99±13.6 ml/100 g×min. Mean transit time (MTT) values were 5.7±4.5 s (min 2.8; max 34.3 s). The time to peak (TTP) was 22.2±3.1 s. A statistically significant correlation was found between SctO2 level and cerebral blood volume (CBV) level (R=0.9; pperfusion.

  1. Computational blood flow and vessel wall modeling in a CT-based thoracic aorta after stent-graft implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazer, Dilana; Stoll, Markus; Schmidt, Eduard; Richter, Goetz-M.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2010-03-01

    Abnormal blood flow conditions and structural fatigue within stented vessels may lead to undesired failure causing death to the patient. Image-based computational modeling provides a physical and realistic insight into the patientspecific biomechanics and enables accurate predictive simulations of development, growth and failure of cardiovascular diseases as well as associated risks. Controlling the efficiency of an endovascular treatment is necessary for the evaluation of potential complications and predictions on the assessment of the pathological state. In this paper we investigate the effects of stent-graft implantation on the biomechanics in a patient-specific thoracic aortic model. The patient geometry and the implanted stent-graft are obtained from morphological data based on a CT scan performed during a controlling routine. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structure mechanics (CSM) simulations are conducted based on the finite volume method (FVM) and on the finite element method (FEM) to compute the hemodynamics and the elastomechanics within the aortic model, respectively. Physiological data based on transient pressure and velocity profiles are used to set the necessary boundary conditions. Further, the effects of various boundary conditions and definition of contact interactions on the numerical stability of the blood flow and the vessel wall simulation results are also investigated. The quantification of the hemodynamics and the elastomechanics post endovascular intervention provides a realistic controlling of the state of the stented vessel and of the efficiency of the therapy. Consequently, computational modeling would help in evaluating individual therapies and optimal treatment strategies in the field of minimally invasive endovascular surgery.

  2. Linkage analysis of systolic blood pressure: a score statistic and computer implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Yingwei; Wang Kai

    2003-01-01

    Abstract A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted on systolic blood pressure using a score statistic. The randomly selected Replicate 34 of the simulated data was used. The score statistic was applied to the sibships derived from the general pedigrees. An add-on R program to GENEHUNTER was developed for this analysis and is freely available.

  3. The necessity of the use of social networks as an ingredient of computer-integrated marketing communications for advancement of higher educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostiuk Mariia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The volume of demand and supply on educational services constantly grows and education becomes the perspective sphere of the Ukrainian economy. In the conditions of the permanent increased competition between educational establishments, it is impossible to do without marketing, namely - to marketing of educational services. The article substantiates the necessity of the use of computer-integrated marketing communications in advancement of higher educational establishment. It considers questions of advancement of higher educational establishments and educational services in Internet, analyses indexes of advancement of higher educational establishment in «VKontakte» social network. The recommendations for the promotion of universities in social networks were formulated on the basis of the study results.

  4. Cine Computed Tomography Angiography Evaluation of Blood Flow for Full Face Transplant Surgical Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Sisk, Geoffroy C; Kanako K Kumamaru; Schultz, Kurt; Bueno, Ericka M.; Diaz-Siso, J. Rodrigo; GEORGE, Elizabeth; Redjaee, Marta M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Michael L Steigner; Pomahac, Bohdan; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Screening for full face transplantation candidates includes computed tomographic vascular mapping of the external carotid distribution for potential arterial and venous anastomoses. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of cine computed tomographic imaging for preoperative vascular mapping compared with best arterial and venous phase static images. Methods: Two image data sets were retrospectively created and compared for diagnostic findings. The fir...

  5. Establishing an Empirical Link between Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and SLA: A Meta-Analysis of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interactionist and socio-cultural theories, tools provided in computer-mediated communication (CMC) environments have long been considered able to create an environment that shares many communicative features with face-to-face communication. Over the past two decades, researchers have employed a variety of strategies to examine the…

  6. Significance of Establishment of Cord Blood Bank and Its Information Networking Management on Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation%脐带血库的建立及其信息网络化管理对脐带血干细胞移植的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨如何建立脐带血(UCB)库、UCB库信息网络化管理策略及对UCB干细胞移植的意义.方法:通过建立UCB库及UCB库的信息网络化管理,使UCB库在UCB干细胞移植中发挥尽可能大的作用.结果:建立起来的血库切实可行,UCB库信息网络化管理最大限度地发挥了UCB在UCB干细胞移植中的作用.结论:UCB库的建立及其信息网络化管理对UCB干细胞移植意义重大,可最大限度地发挥UCB库的作用.%[ Objective ] To explore how to establish a cord blood bank, information networking management strategies of cord blood bank and its significance on cord blood stem cell transplantation. [ Methods ] In order to make the cord blood bank plays its full role in cord blood stem cell transplantation, the cord blood bank was established and the information networking management was carried out. [ Results]The blood bank is feasible, and umbilical cord blood gets the maximum use in cord blood stem cell transplantation by implementation of information networking management of cord blood bank. [ Conclusion] The establishment of cord blood bank and its information networking management has a great significance on cord blood stem cell transplantation, which can get a maximum effect of cord blood bank.

  7. Establishment of ANSI N13.11 X-ray radiation fields for personal dosimetry performance test by computation and experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J L; Kim, B. H.(Seoul National University, 151-742, Seoul, South Korea); Chang, S Y; J. K. Lee

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes establishment by computational and experimental methods of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N13.11 X-ray radiation fields by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These fields were used in the standard irradiations of various personal dosimeters for the personal dosimetry performance test program performed by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea in the autumn of 1995. Theoretical X-ray spectra produced from two KAERI X-ray generator...

  8. Establishment of Elevated Serum Levels of IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as Potential Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Tubercular Lymphadenitis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhimanyu; Bose, Mridula; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Jain, Ashima; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Tiwari, Pradeep Kumar; Agrawal, Anurag; Banavaliker, Jayant Nagesh; Bhowmick, Kumar Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubercular lymphadenitis (TL) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) consisting about 15–20% of all TB cases. The currently available diagnostic modalities for (TL), are invasive and involve a high index of suspicion, having limited accuracy. We hypothesized that TL would have a distinct cytokine signature that would distinguish it from pulmonary TB (PTB), peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (LNTB), healthy controls (HC), other lymphadenopathies (LAP) and cancerous LAP. To assess this twelve cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)—α, Interferon (IFN) -γ, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4, IL-1Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8 and TNF-β, which have a role in pathogenesis of tuberculosis, were tested as potential peripheral blood biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of TL when routine investigations prove to be of limited value. Methods and Findings A prospective observational cohort study carried out during 2010–2013. This was a multi-center study with three participating hospitals in Delhi, India where through random sampling cohorts were established. The subjects were above 15 years of age, HIV-negative with no predisposing ailments to TB (n = 338). The discovery cohort (n = 218) had LNTB (n = 50), PTB (n = 84) and HC (n = 84). The independent validation cohort (n = 120) composed of patients with cancerous LAP (n = 35), other LAP (n = 20) as well as with independent PTB (n = 30), LNTB (n = 15) and HC (n = 20). Eight out of twelve cytokines achieved statistical relevance upon evaluation by pairwise and ROC analysis. Further, variable selection using random forest backward elimination revealed six serum biosignatures including IL-12, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as optimal for classifying the LNTB status of an individual. For the sake of clinical applicability we further selected a three analyte panel (IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-β) which was subjected to multinomial modeling in the independent

  9. A novel blood-brain barrier co-culture system for drug targeting of Alzheimer's disease: establishment by using acitretin as a model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Christian; Reinhardt, Sven; Hefner, Gudrun; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James; Endres, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in the brain is impaired. The expression of the competing proteases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) and BACE-1 (beta site APP cleaving enzyme 1) is shifted in favor of the A-beta generating enzyme BACE-1. Acitretin--a synthetic retinoid-e.g., has been shown to increase ADAM10 gene expression, resulting in a decreased level of A-beta peptides within the brain of AD model mice and thus is of possible value for AD therapy. A striking challenge in evaluating novel therapeutically applicable drugs is the analysis of their potential to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for central nervous system targeting. In this study, we established a novel cell-based bio-assay model to test ADAM10-inducing drugs for their ability to cross the BBB. We therefore used primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with an ADAM10-promoter luciferase reporter vector in an indirect co-culture system. Acitretin served as a model substance that crosses the BBB and induces ADAM10 expression. We ensured that ADAM10-dependent constitutive APP metabolism in the neuronal cells was unaffected under co-cultivation conditions. Barrier properties established by PBECs were augmented by co-cultivation with SH-SY5Y cells and they remained stable during the treatment with acitretin as demonstrated by electrical resistance measurement and permeability-coefficient determination. As a consequence of transcellular acitretin transport measured by HPLC, the activity of the ADAM10-promoter reporter gene was significantly increased in co-cultured neuronal cells as compared to vehicle-treated controls. In the present study, we provide a new bio-assay system relevant for the study of drug targeting of AD. This bio-assay can easily be adapted to analyze other Alzheimer- or CNS disease-relevant targets in neuronal cells, as their

  10. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L

    2008-02-04

    To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating

  11. Removal of malaria-infected red blood cells using magnetic cell separators: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongho; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F; Gandini, Alberto

    2012-02-15

    High gradient magnetic field separators have been widely used in a variety of biological applications. Recently, the use of magnetic separators to remove malaria-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) from blood circulation in patients with severe malaria has been proposed in a dialysis-like treatment. The capture efficiency of this process depends on many interrelated design variables and constraints such as magnetic pole array pitch, chamber height, and flow rate. In this paper, we model the malaria-infected RBCs (pRBCs) as paramagnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. Trajectories of the infected cells are numerically calculated inside a micro-channel exposed to a periodic magnetic field gradient. First-order stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the trajectory of particles under periodic magnetic fields due to an array of wires are solved numerically using the 1(st) -5(th) order adaptive step Runge-Kutta solver. The numerical experiments show that in order to achieve a capture efficiency of 99% for the pRBCs it is required to have a longer length than 80 mm; this implies that in principle, using optimization techniques the length could be adjusted, i.e., shortened to achieve 99% capture efficiency of the pRBCs. PMID:22345827

  12. Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flow Through 3D-Models of the Human Aortic Arch, Vessels of Simple Geometry and a Bifurcated Artery: Investigation of Blood Viscosity and Turbulent Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sultanov, Renat A

    2008-01-01

    We report computational results of blood flow through a model of the human aortic arch and a vessel of actual diameter and length. On the top of the aortic arch the branching of the %%three arteries are included: the subclavian and jugular. A realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Calculations for bifurcation type vessels are also carried out and presented. Different mathematical methods for numerical solution of the fluid dynamics equations have been considered. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated together with turbulence effects. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of three different geometries are presented: for pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and the widely used method in the literature: a simple Newtonian approximati...

  13. Computer-assisted spatial reconstruction of cerebral blood vessels and intracranial aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Igor M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Today, many medical procedures are based on image analysis with the aim of providing accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. The goal of this report was to present clinical implications of computer-assisted geometric design of carotid aneurysms. Material and methods. In this study, the three-dimensional reconstruction was based on the approximation power of the parametric spline function, which achieves interpolation and surface fitting of the arterial information obtained by ...

  14. Tb(Ⅲ) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-phase model was developed and Tb(Ⅲ) speciation in human blood plasma was studied. At a concentration below 3.744×10-4mol/L (or at the concentration), Tb(Ⅲ) is mostly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of TbPO4. As the concentration of Tb(Ⅲ) increases,phosphate is exceeded and another kind of precipitate of Tb2(CO3)3 appears. Among soluble Tb(Ⅲ) species, Tb(Ⅲ) mainly distribute in [Tb (Tf)] at low concentration and in [Tb (HSA)], [Tb2(Tf], [Tb (IgG)], [Tb (Lactate)]2+, [Tb (CitArgH)] and free Tb(Ⅲ) at high concentration.

  15. Leg mechanics contribute to establishing swing phase trajectories during memory-guided stepping movements in walking cats: a computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keir Gordon Pearson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When quadrupeds stop walking after stepping over a barrier with their forelegs, the memory of barrier height and location is retained for many minutes. This memory is subsequently used to guide hind leg movements over the barrier when walking is resumed. The upslope of the initial trajectory of hind leg paw movements is strongly dependent on the initial location of the paw relative to the barrier. In this study, we have attempted to determine whether mechanical factors contribute significantly in establishing the slope of the paw trajectories by creating a 4-link biomechanical model of a cat hind leg and driving this model with a variety of joint-torque profiles, including average torques for a range on initial paw positions relative to the barrier. Torque profiles for individual steps were determined by an inverse dynamic analysis of leg movements in three normal cats. Our study demonstrates that limb mechanics can contribute to establishing the dependency of trajectory slope on the initial position of the paw relative to the barrier. However, an additional contribution of neuronal motor commands was indicated by the fact that the simulated slopes of paw trajectories were significantly less that the observed slopes. A neuronal contribution to the modification of paw trajectories was also revealed by our observations that both the magnitudes of knee flexor muscle EMG bursts and the initial knee flexion torques depended on initial paw position. Previous studies have shown that a shift in paw position prior to stepping over a barrier changes the paw trajectory to be appropriate for the new paw position. Our data indicate that both mechanical and neuronal factors contribute to this updating process, and that any shift in leg position during the delay period modifies the working memory of barrier location.

  16. Survey of computed tomography doses and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuzhyk, S A; Matskevich, S A; Filjustin, A E; Bogushevich, E V; Ugolkova, S A

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was measured on eight CT scanners at seven public hospitals in the Republic of Belarus. The effective dose was calculated using normalised values of effective dose per dose-length product (DLP) over various body regions. Considerable variations of the dose values were observed. Mean effective doses amounted to 1.4 +/- 0.4 mSv for brain, 2.6 +/- 1.0 mSv for neck, 6.9 +/- 2.2 mSv for thorax, 7.0 +/- 2.3 mSv for abdomen and 8.8 +/- 3.2 mSv for pelvis. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed by calculating the third quartiles of dose value distributions (body region/volume CTDI, mGy/DLP, mGy cm): brain/60/730, neck/55/640, thorax/20/500, abdomen/25/600 and pelvis/25/490. It is evident that the protocols need to be optimised on some of the CT scanners, in view of the fact that these are the first formulated DRLs for the Republic of Belarus.

  17. Do distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows? A computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinetics of inhaled agents are often described by physiological models. However, many pharmacokinetic concepts, such as context-sensitive half-times, have been developed for drugs described by classical compartmental models. We derived classical compartmental models that describe the course of the alveolar concentrations (FA generated by the physiological uptake and distribution models used by the Gas Man® program, and describe how distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows. Methods Gas Man® was used to generate FA vs. time curves during the wash-in and wash-out period of 115 min each with a high fresh gas flow (8 L.min-1, a constant alveolar minute ventilation (4 L.min-1, and a constant inspired concentration (FI of halothane (0.75%, isoflurane (1.15%, sevoflurane (2%, or desflurane (6%. With each of these FI, simulations were ran for a 70 kg patient with 5 different cardiac outputs (CO (2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 L.min-1 and for 5 patients with different weights (40, 55, 70, 85, and 100 kg but the same CO (5 L.min-1. Two and three compartmental models were fitted to FA of the individual 9 runs using NONMEM. After testing for parsimony, goodness of fit was evaluated using median prediction error (MDPE and median absolute prediction error (MDAPE. The model was tested prospectively for a virtual 62 kg patient with a cardiac output of 4.5 L.min-1 for three different durations (wash-in and wash-out period of 10, 60, and 180 min each with an FI of 1.5% halothane, 1.5% isoflurane, sevoflurane 4%, or desflurane 12%. Results A three-compartment model fitted the data best (MDPE = 0% and MDAPE ≤ 0.074% and performed equally well when tested prospectively (MDPE ≤ 0.51% and MDAPE ≤ 1.51%. The relationship between CO and body weight and the distribution volumes and clearances is complex. Conclusion The kinetics of anesthetic gases can be adequately described e by a mammilary compartmental model. Therefore

  18. Computer-assisted spatial reconstruction of cerebral blood vessels and intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Igor M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today, many medical procedures are based on image analysis with the aim of providing accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. The goal of this report was to present clinical implications of computer-assisted geometric design of carotid aneurysms. Material and methods. In this study, the three-dimensional reconstruction was based on the approximation power of the parametric spline function, which achieves interpolation and surface fitting of the arterial information obtained by conventional angiography. Two views of conventional angiograms (anterioposterior and lateral views were used with a personal computer and commercial software. Results. This method of three-dimensional generated images was applied in 45 cases of cerebral aneurysms in carotid bifurcation. 3D reconstructions were made in approximately 20 minutes. They contributed to assessing vascular structures, and it was possible to rotate the three-dimensional image in different angles. Conclusion. Three-dimensional reconstruction of cerebral vessels is very useful for discussing surgical strategies preoperatively. Furthermore, it could also be used in endovascular procedures. .

  19. Computational model of cerebral blood flow redistribution during cortical spreading depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verisokin, Andrey Y.; Verveyko, Darya V.; Postnov, Dmitry E.

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades modelling studies on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and migraine waves successfully contributed to formation of modern view on these fundamental phenomena of brain physiology. However, due to the extreme complexity of object under study (brain cortex) and the diversity of involved physiological pathways, the development of new mathematical models of CSD is still a very relevant and challenging research problem. In our study we follow the functional modelling approach aimed to map the action of known physiological pathways to the specific nonlinear mechanisms that govern formation and evolution of CSD wave patterns. Specifically, we address the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) redistribution that is caused by excessive neuronal activity by means of neurovascular coupling and mediates a spatial pattern of oxygen and glucose delivery. This in turn changes the local metabolic status of neural tissue. To build the model we simplify the web of known cell-to-cell interactions within a neurovascular unit by selecting the most relevant ones, such as local neuron-induced elevation of extracellular potassium concentration and biphasic response of arteriole radius. We propose the lumped description of distance-dependent hemodynamic coupling that fits the most recent experimental findings.

  20. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of blade tip clearances on hemodynamic performance and blood damage in a centrifugal ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingchun; Paden, Bradley E; Borovetz, Harvey S; Antaki, James F

    2010-05-01

    An important challenge facing the design of turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (VADs) intended for long-term support is the optimization of the flow path geometry to maximize hydraulic performance while minimizing shear-stress-induced hemolysis and thrombosis. For unshrouded centrifugal, mixed-flow and axial-flow blood pumps, the complex flow patterns within the blade tip clearance between the lengthwise upper surface of the rotating impeller blades and the stationary pump housing have a dramatic effect on both the hydrodynamic performance and the blood damage production. Detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed in this study to investigate such flow behavior in blade tip clearance region for a centrifugal blood pump representing a scaled-up version of a prototype pediatric VAD. Nominal flow conditions were analyzed at a flow rate of 2.5 L/min and rotor speed of 3000 rpm with three blade tip clearances of 50, 100, and 200 microm. CFD simulations predicted a decrease in the averaged tip leakage flow rate and an increase in pump head and axial thrust with decreasing blade tip clearances from 200 to 50 microm. The predicted hemolysis, however, exhibited a unimodal relationship, having a minimum at 100 microm compared to 50 microm and 200 microm. Experimental data corroborate these predictions. Detailed flow patterns observed in this study revealed interesting fluid dynamic features associated with the blade tip clearances, such as the generation and dissipation of tip leakage vortex and its interaction with the primary flow in the blade-blade passages. Quantitative calculations suggested the existence of an optimal blade tip clearance by which hydraulic efficiency can be maximized and hemolysis minimized. PMID:19832736

  1. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used clinically for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular flow and function, as it is capable of providing directly-measured 3D velocity maps. Alternatively, vascular flow can be estimated from model-based computation fluid...... approach in regularizing 3D flow fields is evaluated. METHODS: The proposed algorithm incorporates both a Newtonian fluid physics model and a linear PC-MRI signal model. The model equations are solved numerically using a modified CFD algorithm. The numerical solution corresponds to the optimal solution of...... dynamics (CFD) calculations. CFD provides arbitrarily high resolution, but its accuracy hinges on model assumptions, while velocity fields measured with PC-MRI generally do not satisfy the equations of fluid dynamics, provide limited resolution, and suffer from partial volume effects. The purpose of this...

  2. The location of midfacial landmarks according to the method of establishing the midsagittal reference plane in three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of facial asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheock; Yoon, Suk Ja [Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, In Ja [Dept. of Nursing, Kwangju Women' s University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of methods of establishing the midsagittal reference plane (MRP) on the locations of midfacial landmarks in the three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis of facial asymmetry. A total of 24 patients (12 male and 12 female; mean age, 22.5 years; age range, 18.2-29.7 years) with facial asymmetry were included in this study. The MRP was established using two different methods on each patient's CT image. The x-coordinates of four midfacial landmarks (the menton, nasion, upper incisor, and lower incisor) were obtained by measuring the distance and direction of the landmarks from the MRP, and the two methods were compared statistically. The direction of deviation and the severity of asymmetry found using each method were also compared. The x-coordinates of the four anatomic landmarks all showed a statistically significant difference between the two methods of establishing the MRP. For the nasion and lower incisor, six patients (25.0%) showed a change in the direction of deviation. The severity of asymmetry also changed in 16 patients (66.7%). The results of this study suggest that the locations of midfacial landmarks change significantly according to the method used to establish the MRP.

  3. Serum Albumin Domain Structures in Human Blood Serum by Mass Spectrometry and Computational Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8Å (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 Å (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692.

  4. Abnormalities in rCBF [regional cerebral blood flow] and computed tomography in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of abnormal distribution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracer 99m-technetium-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcm-HMPAO) was investigated in 14 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) who subsequently had post-mortem confirmation, and also in 14 elderly control subjects. These abnormalities were compared with computed tomography (CT) scans to investigate the degree to which the focal SPECT deficits were due to atrophy. Results show that SPECT imaging with 99Tcm-HMPAO and CT scanning both have a higher incidence of abnormality in AD patients than in controls and that the difference between patients and controls is greater with SPECT than with CT. Frontal SPECT and CT abnormalities in moderate/severe Alzheimer's disease occur as frequently as temporal/occipital abnormalities but the latter are rare in control subjects. Around 50% of SPECT deficits occur in CT normal brain regions, showing that atrophy is not the sole cause of SPECT deficits. (author)

  5. To Establish Bank of Rare Blood Type to Protect Blood Demand for Clinical Use%建立稀有血型库保障临床用血需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青成

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposed several practice suggestions: taking suspension red blood cell bank as emergency use, taking frozen red blood cells bank as main usage, and taking floating blood donors bank as supplement, which was an effective method to protect the timely, adequate and safe supply of rare blood type.%总结了建立以悬浮红细胞库为应急、以冰冻红细胞库为主力、以流动献血者库为补充的稀有血型库的实践,认为此举是保障稀有血型血液的及时、足量、安全供应的有效方法.

  6. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to regional pulmonary flow (RPF) in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean ± standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 ± 0.4, 1.1 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 for A, M and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0--41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man

  7. The Evolving Mcart Multimodal Imaging Core: Establishing a Protocol for Computed Tomography and Echocardiography in the Rhesus Macaque to Perform Longitudinal Analysis of Radiation-Induced Organ Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Eduardo B; Barrow, Kory R; Ruehle, Bradley T; Parker, Jordan T; Swartz, Elisa; Taylor-Howell, Cheryl; Kieta, Kaitlyn M; Lees, Cynthia J; Sleeper, Meg M; Dobbin, Travis; Baron, Adam D; Mohindra, Pranshu; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) and Echocardiography (EC) are two imaging modalities that produce critical longitudinal data that can be analyzed for radiation-induced organ-specific injury to the lung and heart. The Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium has a well established animal model research platform that includes nonhuman primate (NHP) models of the acute radiation syndrome and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. These models call for a definition of the latency, incidence, severity, duration, and resolution of different organ-specific radiation-induced subsyndromes. The pulmonary subsyndromes and cardiac effects are a pair of interdependent syndromes impacted by exposure to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Establishing a connection between these will reveal important information about their interaction and progression of injury and recovery. Herein, the authors demonstrate the use of CT and EC data in the rhesus macaque models to define delayed organ injury, thereby establishing: a) consistent and reliable methodology to assess radiation-induced damage to the lung and heart; b) an extensive database in normal age-matched NHP for key primary and secondary endpoints; c) identified problematic variables in imaging techniques and proposed solutions to maintain data integrity; and d) initiated longitudinal analysis of potentially lethal radiation-induced damage to the lung and heart.

  8. Computer-aided method for automated selection of optimal imaging plane for measurement of total cerebral blood flow by MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Pang-yu; Bagci, Ahmet Murat; Alperin, Noam

    2009-02-01

    A computer-aided method for finding an optimal imaging plane for simultaneous measurement of the arterial blood inflow through the 4 vessels leading blood to the brain by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The method performance is compared with manual selection by two observers. The skeletons of the 4 vessels for which centerlines are generated are first extracted. Then, a global direction of the relatively less curved internal carotid arteries is calculated to determine the main flow direction. This is then used as a reference direction to identify segments of the vertebral arteries that strongly deviates from the main flow direction. These segments are then used to identify anatomical landmarks for improved consistency of the imaging plane selection. An optimal imaging plane is then identified by finding a plane with the smallest error value, which is defined as the sum of the angles between the plane's normal and the vessel centerline's direction at the location of the intersections. Error values obtained using the automated and the manual methods were then compared using 9 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets. The automated method considerably outperformed the manual selection. The mean error value with the automated method was significantly lower than the manual method, 0.09+/-0.07 vs. 0.53+/-0.45, respectively (p<.0001, Student's t-test). Reproducibility of repeated measurements was analyzed using Bland and Altman's test, the mean 95% limits of agreements for the automated and manual method were 0.01~0.02 and 0.43~0.55 respectively.

  9. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient’s identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient’s identification and sample errors were collec...

  10. Development and application of a volume penalization immersed boundary method for the computation of blood flow and shear stresses in cerebral vessels and aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhal, Julia; Geurts, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    A volume-penalizing immersed boundary method is presented for the simulation of laminar incompressible flow inside geometrically complex blood vessels in the human brain. We concentrate on cerebral aneurysms and compute flow in curved brain vessels with and without spherical aneurysm cavities attach

  11. Uteroplacental blood flow in pre-eclampsia measurements with /sup 113 m/In and a computer-linked gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uteroplacental blood flow was measured with a computer-linked gamma camera after intravenous injection of 1 mCi 113In. Results of the measurements from 32 pre-eclamptic pregnancies and 37 normal controls are compared. The uteroplacental blood flow was measured as an index calculated from the rise time and maximum activity of the isotope accumulation curve. The uteroplacental blood flow was reduced with 50% in pre-eclampsia. In severe pre-eclampsia it was more compromised than in mild pre-eclampsia. A diminished uteroplacental blood flow was found in pre-eclampsia even in the absence of intrauterine growth retardation. The maternal placental circulation in the supine position was reduced with one third compared to that in the left lateral recumbent position

  12. Intracranial blood flow measured with single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) during transient -6 degrees head-down tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, H; Konishi, T; Kawashima, T; Matsunami, K; Uno, T; Imai, S; Yamada, H; Hirakawa, C

    1994-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during a transient head-down tilt of -6 degrees (-6 degrees HDT) was measured with single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT). CBF was measured and averaged for both sides of the brain areas; e.g., the bilateral anterior cerebral artery (bACA) area, the middle cerebral artery (bMCA) area, the posterior cerebral artery (bPCA) area, bilateral basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. Among these areas, a significant increase in CBF was observed in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum during -6 degrees HDT compared to pre-HDT. When CBF was measured separately in the left or right brain area, these significances disappeared, although a trend of increase or decrease was still observable. A trend of increase was observed in the left anterior cerebral artery (IACA) area, the right middle cerebral artery (rMCA) area, the right posterior cerebral artery (rPCA) area, the left and right basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. In rACA, IMCA and IPCA areas, a slight decrease in CBF was observed. At the same time, cardiac parameters were measured. Heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) did not change significantly, although SV slightly increased and HR slightly decreased during -6 degrees HDT.

  13. Assessment of Blood Flow in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Correlations of Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging and Circulating Angiogenic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Pin Chou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a highly vascular tumor through the process of angiogenesis. To evaluate more non-invasive techniques for assessment of blood flow (BF in HCC, this study examined the relationships between BF of HCC measured by computer tomography (CT perfusion imaging and four circulating angiogenic factors in HCC patients. Interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF in plasma were measured using Bio-Plex multiplex immunoassay in 21 HCC patients and eight healthy controls. Circulating IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF showed higher concentrations in HCC patients than in controls (p < 0.05, and predicted HCC occurrence better than chance (p < 0.01. Twenty-one patients with HCC received 21-phase liver imaging using a 64-slice CT. Total BF, arterial BF, portal BF, arterial fraction (arterial BF/total BF of the HCC and surrounding liver parenchyma, and HCC-parenchyma ratio were measured using a dual-vessel model. After analyzing the correlations between BF in HCC and four circulating angiogenic factors, we found that the HCC-parenchyma ratio of arterial BF showed a significantly positive correlation with the level of circulating IL-8 (p < 0.05. This circulating biomarker, IL-8, provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of BF in HCC.

  14. Establishment of computer aided bracket positioning system%计算机辅助托槽定位系统的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰泽栋; 周丽淑

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立基于3D扫描、打印架构下的计算机辅助托槽定位系统(computer aided bracket placement system,CABPS).方法 通过3D扫描获取3D数字化牙颌模型,利用正畸计算机辅助设计(orthodontics computer aided design,Ortho CAD)技术对数字化模型进行牙齿分离,按照正常咬合六项标准进行牙齿排列;基于临床冠中心法和托槽槽沟平直化原则做计算机辅助托槽定位,计算机对已附带托槽定位标尺的牙齿进行原态模型复位,3D打印,压制托槽定位模板,在模拟(牙合)架上进行托槽间接粘接后模拟矫治,验证矫治效果.结果 在3D扫描、打印架构下,基于Ortho CAD技术建立了CABPS.结论 CABPS可提高托槽定位精度,实现了矫治效果可预期、可视.%Objective The aim of this study was to present a computer aided orthodontic bracket positioning system,which was based on 3D scanning,3D printing and orthodontic computer aided design (Ortho CAD).Methods Digital dental model was obtained by 3D scanning.By the aid of Ortho CAD,digital teeth were separated from virtual model and realigned based on the rule of Andrew's Six Keys.The positions of orthodontic brackets were calculated on individual digital tooth in the center of clinical crown with the diriction according to slot straighthening principle.The virtual teeth were then aligned back to their original position,and created a new dental model with bracket positioning marker by 3D printer.Based on the new dental model,an individual stent was produced for indirect bonding.To test the accuracy of the system,a simulated orthodontic treatment was performed through Typodont procedures.Results the Computer Aided Bracket Positioning System (CABPS) was established based on Ortho CAD,3D scanning and 3D printing.Conclusions CABPS could increase the accuracy of bracket placement and predictability of orthodontic treatment.

  15. Establishment of ANSI N13.11 X-ray radiation fields for personal dosimetry performance test by computation and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J L; Kim, B H; Chang, S Y; Lee, J K

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes establishment by computational and experimental methods of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N13.11 X-ray radiation fields by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These fields were used in the standard irradiations of various personal dosimeters for the personal dosimetry performance test program performed by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea in the autumn of 1995. Theoretical X-ray spectra produced from two KAERI X-ray generators were estimated using a modified Kramers' theory with target attenuation and backscatter correction and their spectral distributions experimentally measured by a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector through proper corrections for measured pulse height distributions with photopeak efficiency, Compton fraction, and K-escape fraction. The average energies and conversion coefficients obtained from the computation and experimental methods, when compared with ANSI N13.11 and the recently published National Institute of Standards and Technology X-ray beams, appeared to be in good agreement--(+/-)3% between corresponding values--and thus, could be satisfactorily applied in the performance test of personal dosimeters. PMID:9467054

  16. Establishment of ANSI N13.11 X-ray radiation fields for personal dosimetry performance test by computation and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J L; Kim, B H; Chang, S Y; Lee, J K

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes establishment by computational and experimental methods of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N13.11 X-ray radiation fields by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These fields were used in the standard irradiations of various personal dosimeters for the personal dosimetry performance test program performed by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea in the autumn of 1995. Theoretical X-ray spectra produced from two KAERI X-ray generators were estimated using a modified Kramers' theory with target attenuation and backscatter correction and their spectral distributions experimentally measured by a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector through proper corrections for measured pulse height distributions with photopeak efficiency, Compton fraction, and K-escape fraction. The average energies and conversion coefficients obtained from the computation and experimental methods, when compared with ANSI N13.11 and the recently published National Institute of Standards and Technology X-ray beams, appeared to be in good agreement--(+/-)3% between corresponding values--and thus, could be satisfactorily applied in the performance test of personal dosimeters. PMID:9467054

  17. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan.

  18. Hybrid方法建立肺血减少型先天性心脏病幼猪动物模型%Establishment of a porcine model of congenital heart defect with decreased pulmonary blood flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学刚; 施超; 王康武; 刘以尧; 段贵新; 李晓红; 宋伟; 张俊祥

    2011-01-01

    奠定了坚实的实验基础.%Objective To establish an animal model of congenital heart defect with decreased pulmonary blood flow for better understanding the pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular development and related regulatory mechanisms of congenital heart defect with decreased pulmonary blood flow. Method One to two months old pigs were randomly divided into three groups: control group(group C, n = 6)with right chest small incisions induced transient pulmonary blood reduction;light-moderate stenosis groups (group T1, n = 7):artificial atrial septum defect(ASD)plus controlled pulmonary artery banding to generate a systolic pressure gradient of 20-30 mm Hg(1 mm Hg = 0. 133 kPa);severe stenosis groups (group T2, n = 7): similar surgical procedures as group T1, and controlled pulmonary artery banding to generate a systolic pressure gradient ≥ 30 ~50 mm Hg. 64-slice computed tomography scanning was performed at one month post operation. Arterial blood gas analysis, hemoglobin value, pulmonary vessel,ASD and banding ring diameters and trans-pulmonary artery banding pressure(Trans-PABP)were determined at two months post operation. Results One pig died due to tracheal intubation accident in the C group, one pig died due to bowel obstruction in the T, group and two pigs died due to acute right heart failure and chronic heart failure respectively in T2 group. 64-slice CT angiography results showed that aortic diameter of T1 group was significantly lower than that of C group and banding diameter was significantly lower than aortic diameter in the T1 and T2 groups at one month post operation. Two months after operation, the size of ASD were(8.0 ± 0. 5)mm and(8.9 ± 1.4)mm(P > 0. 05)respectively in the T1 and T2 groups after operation. The Trans-PABP was significantly higher in the T1 and T2 groups than in C group(P <0. 01), and the Trans-PABP was significantly higher in the T2 group than in T1 group(P <0. 01). PaO2 and SaO2 in the T1 and T2 groups were

  19. Restrained cerebral hyperperfusion in response to superimposed acute hypoxemia in growth-restricted human fetuses with established brain-sparing blood flow.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Jing; Olofsson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral circulatory response to superimposed acute hypoxemia in growth-restricted fetuses with established brain-sparing flow (BSF) during basal conditions. Material and methods: 76 term fetuses suspected of growth restriction were exposed to Doppler velocimetry in the umbitical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA), and in 38-39 cases also in Galen's vein (GV), straight sinus (SS), and transverse sinus (TS), before and during an oxytocin challenge te...

  20. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  1. Comparison of uteroplacental blood flow in normal and pre-eclamptic patients measurement with technetium-99m and a computer-linked gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uteroplacental blood flow studies in preeclampsia are of special interest since the vascular changes reported in this disease might constitute a structural basis for a reduction of blood flow. Evidence has also been given for a decreased uteroplacental blood flow in preeclampsia. Among the various methods to estimate the maternal placental blood flow, the one most frequently reported in the literature during the last years has been the time activity analysis of short lived radiotracer such as technetium-99m or indium-113m injected intravenously. Only few studies with the above mentioned technique comparing normal and preeclampsia cases have been undertaken. In clinical practice we frequently experience difficuly in finding the optimal time to get the delivery in preeclampsia patients. The aim of this study was first to measure uteroplacental blood flow in preeclamptic pregnancies using a computer-linked gamma camera method for the time-activity analysis of technetium-99m and second to discuss the possibility of clinical application of these measurements for determination of fetal well-being and the timing of the delivery in these patients. Uteroplacental blood flow was measured from 13 preeclamptic patients and 19 pregnancies without any complication after 35 completed weeks of gestation from Jan. 1983 to Sep. 1983 at Obstetrics department of Hanyang University Hospital. (Author)

  2. Comparison of uteroplacental blood flow in normal and pre-eclamptic patients measurement with technetium-99m and a computer-linked gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.H.; Moon, H.; Kim, D.S.; Cho, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    Uteroplacental blood flow studies in preeclampsia are of special interest since the vascular changes reported in this disease might constitute a structural basis for a reduction of blood flow. Evidence has also been given for a decreased uteroplacental blood flow in preeclampsia. Among the various methods to estimate the maternal placental blood flow, the one most frequently reported in the literature during the last years has been the time activity analysis of short lived radiotracer such as technetium-99m or indium-113m injected intravenously. Only few studies with the above mentioned technique comparing normal and preeclampsia cases have been undertaken. In clinical practice we frequently experience difficuly in finding the optimal time to get the delivery in preeclampsia patients. The aim of this study was first to measure uteroplacental blood flow in preeclamptic pregnancies using a computer-linked gamma camera method for the time-activity analysis of technetium-99m and second to discuss the possibility of clinical application of these measurements for determination of fetal well-being and the timing of the delivery in these patients. Uteroplacental blood flow was measured from 13 preeclamptic patients and 19 pregnancies without any complication after 35 completed weeks of gestation from Jan. 1983 to Sep. 1983 at Obstetrics department of Hanyang University Hospital. (Author).

  3. Establishment of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid detection of Brucella spp. and application to milk and blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liuyan; Li, Juntao; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Xunde; Chen, Shouyi

    2012-09-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that infect humans and animals. In this study, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was used to detect the Brucella-specific gene omp25. Reaction conditions were optimized as temperature 65°C, reaction time 60 min, Mg(2+) concentration 8.0 mmol/L, polymerase content Bst DNA, 0.5 μL, deoxyribonucleotide concentration 1.6 mmol/L, and inner/outer primer ratio 1:8. The LAMP method was evaluated with 4 Brucella species and 29 non-Brucella bacteria species. Positive reactions were observed on all the 4 Brucella species but not on any non-Brucella species. The limit of detection of the LAMP method was 3.81 CFU Brucella spp. Using the LAMP method, 7 of 110 raw milk samples and 5 of 59 sheep blood samples were detected positive of Brucella spp. Results indicated that LAMP is a fast, specific, sensitive, inexpensive, and suitable method for diagnosis of Brucella spp. infection.

  4. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient's identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient's identification and sample errors were collected daily. The average scores of 8 items users' perceived ease of use was 25.21(3.72), 9 items users' perceived usefulness was 28.53(5.00), and 14 items task-technology fit was 52.24(7.09), the rate of patient identification error and samples with order cancelled were down to zero, however, new errors were generated after the new system deployed; which were the position of barcode stickers on the sample tubes. Overall, more than half of nurses (62.5%) were willing to use the new system. PMID:24199057

  5. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.;

    2016-01-01

    BCT app. The study was designed to achieve a high degree of realism as participants carried out a scenario representing the context of use for the MuxBCT app. As the MuxBCT was under development, the scenario involved the use of molecular blood culture tests similar to the MuxBCT for identification...... through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... and to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the design...

  6. 基于云计算的计算机基础教学平台的建立%The Establishment of Computer Basic Teaching Platform Based on Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛惠; 王素英; 赵悦品

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is leading the IT industry third waves of revolution has quietly entered the people ’s work and life and learning.in the aspect of teaching,through the cloud computing education teaching platform established can effectively im-prove the educational mode and the original method of education of cultivating students ’autonomous learning ability and im-prove the teaching quality.%“云计算”作为了引领IT产业的第三次革命浪潮,已经悄无声息进入了人们的工作、生活和学习中,在教学方面,通过“云计算”建立的教育教学平台可以有效地改善原有的教育模式和教育方法,培养学生的自主学习能力,提高教学质量。

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  10. ACL-TOP700血凝仪凝血4项正常参考区间的建立%Establishment of normal reference interval for four items of blood coagulation on ACL-TOP Automatic coagulation analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 鲁燕飞; 周志兰; 姚振国; 陈国强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish normal reference interval for four items of blood coagulation on ACL‐TOP Automatic coagu‐lation analyzer .Methods The fasting anti‐coagulation blood samples were collected from 1 268 inpatients and people conducted physical examination ,all subjects without liver disease ,history of blood disease and coagulation disfunction .The prothrombin time (PT) ,activated partical prothrombin time(APTT) ,thrombin time(TT) and serum levels of fibrinogen(FIB) were determined by u‐sing ACL‐TOP automatic coagulation analyzer which was producted by America IL company .And data of determination results were used to establish the normal reference intervals of indexes in this laboratory .Results The precision and accuracy of this analy‐zer was good .There were differences of normal reference intervals between which established in this laboratory and which provided by the manufacturer .Conclusion Each laboratory should establish its own normal reference interval ,not blindly refer to reference interval provided by regents manual .%目的:建立ACL‐TOP700全自动血凝分析仪本实验室凝血4项的正常参考区间。方法筛选1268住院患者及门诊体检者,均无肝病、血液病史及出凝血功能障碍,空腹采集其静脉抗凝血。采用美国IL公司生产的ACL‐TOP700全自动血凝分析仪进行凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血酶原时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)测定,建立本实验室 PT、APTT、TT、FIB的正常参考区间。结果该仪器精密度、正确度均良好,各参考区间与厂家提供的参考区间有一定的差异。结论各个实验室应建立自己的参考区间,不可盲目引用厂家试剂说明书上提供的正常参考区间。

  11. Establishment and application of viral inactivation/removal technology for blood products%血液制品病毒灭活/去除技术平台的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹惠琼; 王蕊; 朱凤宣; 王建国; 章金刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish viral inactivation/removal techniques for blood products , and apply them to inacti-vation/removal process validation of blood products .Methods Enveloped and non-enveloped model viruses were propaga-ted.Viral inactivation/removal techniques for blood products ,including solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment, low pH incuba-tion, dry heat method, pasteurization,and nanofiltration, were established.The virus titer was evaluated using cytopathic effects ( CPE) and Spearman and Karber method .The viral inactivation/removal techniques were believed to be effective when LRV≥4.These techniques were used in viral inactivation /removal validation of blood products .Results Enveloped model viruses were inactivated through S/D treatment and the low pH incubation method .Enveloped and non-enveloped model viruses were inactivated through dry heat and pasteurization .Within a certain range of filtration capacity , PPV was removed through nanofiltration .Conclusion The established viral inactivation/removal techniques can be used in viral inactivation/removal process validation of blood products , which can improve viral safety of blood products .%目的:建立血液制品病毒灭活/去除技术并应用于血液制品的病毒灭活/去除工艺验证。方法建立指示病毒库以及S/D处理法、低pH孵放法、干热法、巴氏消毒法、纳米膜过滤法等血液制品病毒灭活/去除技术,采用细胞病变法测定病毒滴度,Spearman和Karber法计算病毒滴度,病毒滴度降低量( LRV)≥4判为有效,对企业的血液制品样品进行病毒灭活/去除验证。结果 S/D处理法和低pH孵放法可有效灭活有包膜指示病毒,干热法和巴氏消毒法可有效灭活有、无包膜指示病毒,纳米膜过滤法可在一定过滤量范围内去除PPV指示病毒。结论所建立的血液制品病毒灭活/去除技术可用于血液制品的病毒灭活/去除工艺验证,以提高血液制品的病毒安全性。

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  13. Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The pixelated rectangle we spend most of our day staring at in silence is not the television as many long feared, but the computer-the ubiquitous portal of work and personal lives. At this point, the computer is almost so common we don't notice it in our view. It's difficult to envision that not that long ago it was a gigantic, room-sized structure only to be accessed by a few inspiring as much awe and respect as fear and mystery. Now that the machine has decreased in size and increased in popular use, the computer has become a prosaic appliance, little-more noted than a toaster. These dramati

  14. [The comparative role of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of extracapsular spread of malignant lymphomatous masses invading blood vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskiene, Laima; Griniûtë, Rasa

    2003-01-01

    Aim of the study was to search for an optimal method an of investigation in diagnosis of extracapsular spread of the malignant lymphomas and invading the blood vessels. In the period of 1998 to 2002, 81 patients with malignant lymphomas with coverage of neck and body areas were examined in the Department of Tomography of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital. It was performed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with or without iv. application of contrast media. The data were processed with SPSS 10.1 (Statistical package for Social Sciences 10.1 for Windows), including application of chi(2), t-test. Specificity, sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI methods were calculated and compared according to recommendations by Gefland D. W. and Ott D. J., 1985. Diagnosis of extracapsular spread of the lymphomatous tissue and invading the blood vessels was best performed by MR method (specificity, sensitivity, accuracy in this case 91-95%). Bolus CT angiography because of low resolution in the range of soft tissues, insufficient opacification of blood vessels with contrast medium and differences in blood flow was not informative enough (specificity, sensitivity, accuracy in this case 80-85%).

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  17. Comprehensive validation of computational fluid dynamics simulationsof in-vivo blood flow in patient-specific cerebral aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Q.; Groth, A.; Aach, T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, image-based computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been proposed to investigate the local hemodynamics inside human cerebral aneurysms. It is suggested that the knowledge ofthe computed three-dimensional flow fields can be used to assist clinical risk assessment and tr

  18. Analysis the Necessity of Establishing Computer Overall Supervise Systemn Telecommunication Enterprise%电信企业建立计算机全面管理系统必要性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芸

    2000-01-01

    分析了天津电信现有计算机综合业务服务系统存在的问题及建立计算机全面管理系统的必要性,介绍了计算机全面管理系统的功能等等。关键词:%The paper analysis the problems in existing computer integrated business service system and the necessity of establish computer overall supervise system in Tianjin telecommunication and describes the function of computer overall supervise system.

  19. 建立POCT血糖检测质量管理体系的实践与思考%Practice and reflection on establishing the quality management system of POCT blood glucose measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马钰香; 张莉; 顾民; 马建锋; 陈妍; 吴建国

    2014-01-01

    使用便携式血糖仪可实现对患者血糖水平的随时监测,为临床医师制定和调整治疗方案提供了客观依据。POCT血糖检测的优势和局限都很明显,其检测质量直接影响着临床诊疗质量,医院对POCT血糖检测的质量管理尚有许多困难,探索建立血糖检测质量管理体系,旨在保证血糖检测结果的准确和可靠,同时为其它即时检验项目的质量管理提供借鉴和启示。%The blood glucose levels of patients can be monitored at any time by using a portable blood glucose meter, which provides an objective basis for developing and adjusting the treatment plan for clinicians. The advantages and limitations of POCT glucose measurement are obvious, and the detection quality directly influences the quality of clinical diagnosis and treatment. In addition, hospitals still encounter many difficulties in quality management of POCT glucose measurement. The exploration and establishment of quality management system aim to ensure the accuracy and reliability of blood glucose test results, as well as to provide reference and inspiration for the quality management of other instant test projects.

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  7. Computer simulation of metal ion equilibria in biofluids. IV. Plutonium speciation in human blood plasma and chelation therapy using polyaminopolycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, J.R.; May, P.M.; Williams, D.R.

    1984-03-01

    An investigation by computer simulation into the nature of Pu(IV) binding to low-molecular ligands in human blood plasma is described. Particular consideration is given to the interactions of various chelating agents which have been or might be used for treating plutonium intoxication. Formation constants of EDTA and DTPA with Cu(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) have been measured under biologic conditions of temperature and background electrolyte. The relative ability of these and other chelating agents to cause excretion of plutonium and the concomitant loss of certain essential trace metals has thus been assessed.

  8. C-arm computed tomography parenchymal blood volume measurement in evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma before transarterial chemoembolization with drug eluting beads

    OpenAIRE

    Syha, Roland; Grözinger, Gerd; Grosse, Ulrich; Maurer, Michael; Zender, Lars; Horger, Marius; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Ketelsen, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Background C-arm computed tomography (CT) guided intervention is an increasingly applied technique in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to analyse the value of parenchymal blood volume (PBV) maps acquired during C-arm CT acquisition, for pre-treatment evaluation and planning of TACE in HCC patients. Methods A total of 64 HCC lesions in 29 patients (median age, 73 years, range, 62–77 years) were included in this retrospective st...

  9. Biodegradable radiopaque microspheres for the evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution using electron-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Michael J.; Tajik, Jehangir K.; Robinson, Miguel T.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution is of interest both as a research and diagnostic tool. Measurements of regional pulmonary perfusion via x-ray CT offer the possibility of detecting perfusion deficits due to pulmonary embolus while maintaining a high degree of anatomic detail. Use of bolus injection of conventional radiopaque contrast with associated short mean transit times (5 - 7 seconds), requires a high degree of temporal resolution offered clinically only by electron beam x-ray CT (Imatron). The present study was intended to characterize biodegradable radiopaque microspheres as an alternative contrast agent which would allow for measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow with scanning times associated with conventional or spiral thin slice, volumetric x-ray CT protocols. To test this, a dog was scanned at 6 slice levels and 13 time points with image acquisition gated to the cardiac cycle. Lung volumes were maintained at functional residual capacity.

  10. Tumour blood flow and partition coefficients: correlation with grade of cerebral gliomas using xenon-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to underestimate the grade of nonenhancing cerebral tumours on conventional contrast-enhanced MRI or CT. Differentiation of high- and low-grade gliomas by measurement of the brain-blood partition coefficient lambda (Tλ) with Xe-enhanced CT (XeCT) has been reported. We assessed the practical applications of XeCT in suspected low-grade astrocytomas. We examined 15 patients with tumours which showed no contrast enhancement on conventional MRI and CT, using XeCT. Tumour blood flow (TBF) and Tλ were calculated. Fourteen patients underwent surgery, one patient had a biopsy. We recognised three histological groups. While Tλ differed significantly between them, TBF did not. Group 1 contained grade II-III astrocytomas and Tλ was 0.77; group 2 contained grade I-II astrocytomas with Tλ 1.14, and group 3 four oligodendrogliomas in which a Tλ of 1.50 was found. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Computational approaches to the prediction of blood-brain barrier permeability: A comparative analysis of central nervous system drugs versus secretase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishton, Gilbert M; LaBonte, Kristen; Williams, Antony J; Kassam, Karim; Kolovanov, Eduard

    2006-05-01

    This review summarizes progress made in the development of fully computational approaches to the prediction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of small molecules, with a focus on rapid computational methods suitable for the analysis of large compound sets and virtual screening. A comparative analysis using the recently developed Advanced Chemistry Development (ACD/Labs) Inc BBB permeability algorithm for the calculation of logBB values for known Alzheimer's disease medicines, selected central nervous system drugs and new secretase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease, is presented. The trends in logBB values and the associated physiochemical properties of these agents as they relate to the potential for BBB permeability are also discussed. PMID:16729726

  12. Blood Damage Through a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve: A Quantitative Computational Study Using a Multiscale Suspension Flow Solver

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yun, B.; Aidun, Cyrus K.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2014-01-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are among the most popular prostheses to replace defective native valves. However, complex flow phenomena caused by the prosthesis are thought to induce serious thromboembolic complications. This study aims at employing a novel multiscale numerical method that models realistic sized suspended platelets for assessing blood damage potential in flow through BMHVs. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow th...

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Blade Tip Clearances on Hemodynamic Performance and Blood Damage in a Centrifugal Ventricular Assist Device

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jingchun; Paden, Bradley E.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Antaki, James F.

    2009-01-01

    An important challenge facing the design of turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (VADs) intended for long-term support is the optimization of the flow path geometry to maximize hydraulic performance while minimizing shear-stress-induced hemolysis and thrombosis. For unshrouded centrifugal, mixed-flow and axial-flow blood pumps, the complex flow patterns within the blade tip clearance between the lengthwise upper surface of the rotating impeller blades and the stationary pump housing have a...

  14. Blood damage through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve: a quantitative computational study using a multiscale suspension flow solver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Yun, B; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-10-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are among the most popular prostheses to replace defective native valves. However, complex flow phenomena caused by the prosthesis are thought to induce serious thromboembolic complications. This study aims at employing a novel multiscale numerical method that models realistic sized suspended platelets for assessing blood damage potential in flow through BMHVs. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow through a 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent™ valve in the aortic position at very high spatiotemporal resolution with the presence of thousands of suspended platelets. Platelet damage is modeled for both the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. No platelets exceed activation thresholds for any of the simulations. Platelet damage is determined to be particularly high for suspended elements trapped in recirculation zones, which suggests a shift of focus in blood damage studies away from instantaneous flow fields and toward high flow mixing regions. In the diastolic phase, leakage flow through the b-datum gap is shown to cause highest damage to platelets. This multiscale numerical method may be used as a generic solver for evaluating blood damage in other cardiovascular flows and devices. PMID:25070372

  15. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Sawai, Fuyuki; Yamamoto, Yuta [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)] [and others

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans` ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI ({Delta}CHI), iCMI ({Delta}iCMI), and ER ({Delta}ER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year ({Delta}BF) were also determined. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly correlated with {Delta}BF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  16. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans' ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI (ΔCHI), iCMI (ΔiCMI), and ER (ΔER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year (ΔBF) were also determined. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly correlated with ΔBF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  4. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  6. Computational Simulations of Flow Dynamics and Blood Damage Through a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Scaled to Pediatric Size and Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, B. Min; McElhinney, Doff B.; Arjunon, Shiva; Mirabella, Lucia; Aidun, Cyrus K.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite pressing needs, there are currently no FDA approved prosthetic valves available for use in the pediatric population. This study is performed for predictive assessment of blood damage in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) with pediatric sizing and flow conditions. A model of an adult-sized 23mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent™ valve is selected for use in simulations, which is scaled in size for a 5-year old child and 6-month old infant. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann me...

  7. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Course on Laboratory Detection of Malarial Parasites in Human Blood. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzel, Harold E.

    In cooperation with the United States Navy, this project was undertaken to examine the feasibility of computer assisted instruction in clinical malaria recognition, to train a small group of Naval personnel in techniques of creating and presenting such material, and to evaluate the course by giving it to a representative sample of Naval medical…

  8. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Chun On Tsang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents.

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  10. Optimal Magnetic Field for Crossing Super-Para-Magnetic Nanoparticles through the Brain Blood Barrier: A Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysam Z. Pedram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes the magnetic field effect to deliver the superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNs through the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB. Herein we study the interaction between the nanoparticle (NP and BBB membrane using Molecular Dynamic (MD techniques. The MD model is used to enhance our understanding of the dynamic behavior of SPMNs crossing the endothelial cells in the presence of a gradient magnetic field. Actuation of NPs under weak magnetic field offers the great advantage of a non-invasive drug delivery without the risk of causing injury to the brain. Furthermore, a weak magnetic portable stimulator can be developed using low complexity prototyping techniques. Based on MD simulation results in this paper, SPMNs can cross the cell membrane while experiencing very weak mechanical forces in the range of pN. This study also derives guidelines for the design of the SPMNs dedicated to crossing the BBB using external magnetic fields.

  11. Establishment and verification of blood cell analysis review criteria in women and children specialized hospital%妇儿专科医院血液分析复检规则的建立及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月芳; 江咏梅; 张鸽; 杜泽丽; 陈岚; 叶蕾; 陈琪

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立适合妇女儿童专科医院的血常规复检规则.方法 以“XE-2100血细胞分析复检标准制定协作组”制定的XE-2100血液分析仪复检规则为评估基础,根据妇女儿童专科医院自己独特的病种特点及儿童白细胞(WBC)分类存在生理性交叉现象完善相应规则.Sysmex XE-2100全自动血液分析仪检测1 120例标本,以涂片镜检为金标准,进行临床复检工作并进行规则优化.结果 初始复检规则复检率65.98%,根据妇儿医院特点,通过调整WBC、血小板(PLT)计数、WBC分类百分比进行第1次优化后,假阳性率40.71%;将未成熟粒细胞(IG)与WBC≥10×109/L组合、幼稚细胞(Blast)与WBC≤4×109/L或≥10×109/L组合、变异淋巴细胞(Atypical/Variant)与淋巴细胞(Lymph)%>50%组合进行第2次优化后,假阳性率为17.53%,假阴性率4.49%,造成假阴性的主要项目为Atypical/Variant Lymph(< 5%)、PLT >70×109/L,验证通过.最终制定出符合妇女儿童专科医院的专有复检规则.结论 血涂片复检规则在临床应用过程中,应注意收集、整理发现问题,及时根据自身医院特点对复检规则进行修改、完善,以提高血细胞分析质量和工作效率.%Objective To establish proper review criteria for blood cell analysis in women and children specialized hospital. Methods Based on the review criteria from the cooperation group of formulation for blood cell analysis by Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer, as the women and children specialized hospital with the own unique disease characteristics and children white blood cell ( WBC ) physiological characteristics, the review criteria was optimized. The total 1120 samples were detected by Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer, blood smear determination was as the golden standard, and the new review criteria was evaluated and optimized. Results The review rate of initial review criteria was 65.98%. According to the women and children

  12. FIGHTING THE CLASSICAL CRIME-SCENE ASSUMPTIONS. CRITICAL ASPECTS IN ESTABLISHING THE CRIME-SCENE PERIMETER IN COMPUTER-BASED EVIDENCE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina DRIGĂ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical-world forensic investigation has the luxury of being tied to the sciences governing the investigated space, hence some assumptions can be made with some degree of certainty when investigating a crime. Cyberspace on the other hand, has a dual nature comprising both a physical layer susceptible of scientific analysis, and a virtual layer governed entirely by the conventions established between the various actors involved at a certain moment in time, defining the actual digital landscape and being the layer where the actual facts relevant from the legal point of view occur. This distinct nature renders unusable many of the assumptions which the legal professionals and the courts of law are used to operate with. The article intends to identify the most important features of cyberspace having immediate legal consequences, with the purpose to establish new and safe assumptions from the legal professional's perspective when cross-examining facts that occurred in cyberspace.

  13. Establishment of a Rapid Method for Extracting Human Genomic DNA from Peripheral Clotted Blood%一种快速、经济提取外周凝血基因组DNA方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽娟; 马骁; 王洋阳; 王静; 潘晴; 刘梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rapid, economical method for extracting genotnic DNA from peripheral clotted blood. Methods: Explore a optimum homogenate condition, homogenate the clotted blood, extracting the genomic DNA by KI method. Use agarose gel electrophoresis, single PCR and multiplex PCR detect the genomic DNA extraction yield and quality. And compared with the traditional extraction methods, Proteinase K digestion method and KI method which extract DNA from anti-coagulated blood. Results: The optimum homogenate condition is 39000 rmp and 15 seconds. The genomic DNA was extracted under this condition has good integrity. There is no significant difference of purity and yield between this method and Proteinase K digestion and KI method. Single PCR and multiplex PCR also obtained good amplification results. Conclusion: Compared with traditional extraction methods (Proteinase K digestion method),this method can save time and cost, which can extract DNA rapidly,economical and effectively,and can be used in clinical and research analysis, and can solve the blood genomic DNA sources of some of the research institutions.%目的:建立一种经济、快速且高质量提取人体外周凝血DNA的方法.方法:摸索最佳的匀浆条件,对外周凝血块进行匀浆,采用KI法对匀浆液进行基因组DNA的提取,通过凝胶电泳、单重PCR和多重PCR检测凝血基因组DNA的提取产量和质量,并分别与常规的凝血基因组DNA提取方法,即蛋白酶K消化法,以及提取抗凝血基因组DNA的KI法进行比较分析.结果:最佳的匀浆条件为:39000 rmp,15秒.在此条件下提取的基因组DNA完整性好,纯度和产量与蛋白酶K消化法提取凝血DNA和KI法提取抗凝血DNA的结果相比,没有统计学差异.单重PCR和多重PCR也获得了理想的扩增结果.结论:与常规的外周凝血提取方法相比(蛋白酶K消化法),本方法节省了时间和成本,能快速、经济、有效地提取外周凝血基因组DNA,可

  14. Absolute quantification of cerebral blood flow in neurologically normal volunteers: dynamic-susceptibility contrast MRI-perfusion compared with computed tomography (CT)-perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelitz, Doerthe; Starck, Göran; Mikkelsen, Irene K; Tullberg, Mats; Edsbagge, Mikael; Wikkelsö, Carsten; Forssell-Aronson, Eva; Holtås, Stig; Knutsson, Linda

    2009-07-01

    To improve the reproducibility of arterial input function (AIF) registration and absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification in dynamic-susceptibility MRI-perfusion (MRP) at 1.5T, we rescaled the AIF by use of a venous output function (VOF). We compared CBF estimates of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, obtained by computed tomography (CT)-perfusion (CTP) and MRP on two consecutive days. MRP, calculated without the AIF correction, did not result in any significant correlation with CTP. The rescaled MRP showed fair to moderate correlation with CTP for the central gray matter (GM) and the whole brain. Our results indicate that the method used for correction of partial volume effects (PVEs) improves MRP experiments by reducing AIF-introduced variance at 1.5T. PMID:19253361

  15. MR vascular fingerprinting: A new approach to compute cerebral blood volume, mean vessel radius, and oxygenation maps in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, T; Pannetier, N A; Ni, W W; Qiu, D; Moseley, M E; Schuff, N; Zaharchuk, G

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we describe a fingerprinting approach to analyze the time evolution of the MR signal and retrieve quantitative information about the microvascular network. We used a Gradient Echo Sampling of the Free Induction Decay and Spin Echo (GESFIDE) sequence and defined a fingerprint as the ratio of signals acquired pre- and post-injection of an iron-based contrast agent. We then simulated the same experiment with an advanced numerical tool that takes a virtual voxel containing blood vessels as input, then computes microscopic magnetic fields and water diffusion effects, and eventually derives the expected MR signal evolution. The parameter inputs of the simulations (cerebral blood volume [CBV], mean vessel radius [R], and blood oxygen saturation [SO2]) were varied to obtain a dictionary of all possible signal evolutions. The best fit between the observed fingerprint and the dictionary was then determined by using least square minimization. This approach was evaluated in 5 normal subjects and the results were compared to those obtained by using more conventional MR methods, steady-state contrast imaging for CBV and R and a global measure of oxygenation obtained from the superior sagittal sinus for SO2. The fingerprinting method enabled the creation of high-resolution parametric maps of the microvascular network showing expected contrast and fine details. Numerical values in gray matter (CBV=3.1±0.7%, R=12.6±2.4μm, SO2=59.5±4.7%) are consistent with literature reports and correlated with conventional MR approaches. SO2 values in white matter (53.0±4.0%) were slightly lower than expected. Numerous improvements can easily be made and the method should be useful to study brain pathologies. PMID:24321559

  16. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  17. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  18. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.wagner@kgu.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Kyriakou, Yiannis, E-mail: yiannis.kyriakou@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Health Care Sector (Germany); Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du, E-mail: mesnil@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Singer, Oliver C., E-mail: o.singer@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Department of Neurology (Germany); Berkefeld, Joachim, E-mail: berkefeld@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy.

  19. Estimating the measurement uncertainty in forensic blood alcohol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G

    2012-04-01

    For many reasons, forensic toxicologists are being asked to determine and report their measurement uncertainty in blood alcohol analysis. While understood conceptually, the elements and computations involved in determining measurement uncertainty are generally foreign to most forensic toxicologists. Several established and well-documented methods are available to determine and report the uncertainty in blood alcohol measurement. A straightforward bottom-up approach is presented that includes: (1) specifying the measurand, (2) identifying the major components of uncertainty, (3) quantifying the components, (4) statistically combining the components and (5) reporting the results. A hypothetical example is presented that employs reasonable estimates for forensic blood alcohol analysis assuming headspace gas chromatography. These computations are easily employed in spreadsheet programs as well. Determining and reporting measurement uncertainty is an important element in establishing fitness-for-purpose. Indeed, the demand for such computations and information from the forensic toxicologist will continue to increase.

  20. Computational simulations of flow dynamics and blood damage through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve scaled to pediatric size and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B Min; McElhinney, Doff B; Arjunon, Shiva; Mirabella, Lucia; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-09-22

    Despite pressing needs, there are currently no FDA approved prosthetic valves available for use in the pediatric population. This study is performed for predictive assessment of blood damage in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) with pediatric sizing and flow conditions. A model of an adult-sized 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent(™) valve is selected for use in simulations, which is scaled in size for a 5-year old child and 6-month old infant. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow with thousands of suspended platelets for cases of adult, child, and infant BMHV flows. Adult BMHV flows demonstrate more disorganized small-scale flow features, but pediatric flows are associated with higher fluid shear stresses. Platelet damage in the pediatric cases is higher than in adult flow, highlighting thrombus complication dangers of pediatric BMHV flows. This does not necessarily suggest clinically important differences in thromboembolic potential. Highly damaged platelets in pediatric flows are primarily found far downstream of the valve, as there is less flow recirculation in pediatric flows. In addition, damage levels are well below expected thresholds for platelet activation. The extent of differences here documented between the pediatric and adult cases is of concern, demanding particular attention when pediatric valves are designed and manufactured. However, the differences between the pediatric and adult cases are not such that development of pediatric sized valves is untenable. This study may push for eventual approval of prosthetic valves resized for the pediatric population. Further studies will be necessary to determine the validity and potential thrombotic and clinical implications of these findings. PMID:25011622

  1. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each...... of the N distinct parameter values x_i of the at least one input parameter x, while keeping all other input parameters fixed, constructed a Vandermonde matrix VM using the set of N parameter values x_i of the at least one input parameter x, and computed the model W for emulating the physical quantity P...... based on the Vandermonde matrix and the first measured physical quantity according to the equation W=(VMT*VM)-1*VMT*Pm1. The model is iteratively refined so as to obtained a desired emulation precision.; The model can later be used to emulate the physical quantity based on input parameters or logs taken...

  2. Estimation of changes in dynamic hydraulic force in a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with transient computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump.

  3. Minimal-flow xenon and semiclosed circuit anesthesia for computed tomographic measurement of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of decreasing the volume of expensive xenon, anesthesia with minimal-flow xenon and semiclosed circuit were induced for computed tomographic LCBF measurement. Eighteen patients with ischemic cerebral disease were studied. Xenon inhalation programs were subdivided into three groups, each of them consisted of 6 patients. The formula for calculating fresh gas flow for low flow semiclosed circuit was introduced according to Shimoji's which was based on the original formula of Foldes. O2 concentration in circuit was predicted to be 25%. Mean xenon uptake for initial 20 minutes was predicted to be125 ml/min. or 360 ml/min. The first group started xenon inhalation during pure xenon inflow into semic losed circuit for two minutes and followed by about 68% xenon in O2 inhalation for 23 munites. FXe and VXe were fixed at 700 ml/min and 360 ml/min respectively. The second group was set at the same conditions as the first group except FXe and VXe as shown in Fig.2. The third group inhaled about 63% xenon-oxygen mixture affer four minutes pure xenon inflow. Xenon concentrations in trachea, carotid artery and jugular vein were estimated from the conversion into equivalent enhancement in CT units for every four minutes on line. Fig. 3 shows the O2 concentration change in semiclosed circuit, endtidal CO2 tension and percent change of mean arterial pressure. After 20 minutes xenon inhalation O2 concentration in each group closed to 25% which was predicted O2 concentration of the third group closed more rapidly to 25% than other groups. Normocarbia and stable hemodynamics could be confirmed throughout the procedures in each group. Fig. 5 shows xenon washin curves in trachea and xenon concentration change in carotid artery and jugular vein during xenon inhalation. The washin curves in trachea are quite different in each group. (J.P.N.)

  4. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  5. Establishing Cephalometric Landmarks for the Translational Study of Le Fort-based Facial Transplantation in Swine: Enhanced applications using computer-assisted surgery and custom cutting guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Gabriel F.; Susarla, Srinivas M.; Al Rakan, Mohammed; Coon, Devin; Rada, Erin M.; Sarhane, Karim; Shores, Jamie T.; Bonawitz, Steven C.; Cooney, Damon; Sacks, Justin; Murphy, Ryan J.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Brandacher, Gerald; Lee, WP Andrew; Liacouras, Peter; Grant, Gerald; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Le Fort-based, maxillofacial allotransplantation is a reconstructive alternative gaining clinical acceptance. However, the vast majority of single-jaw transplant recipients demonstrate less-than-ideal skeletal and dental relationships with suboptimal aesthetic harmony. The purpose of this study was to investigate reproducible cephalometric landmarks in a large animal model, where refinement of computer-assisted planning, intra-operative navigational guidance, translational bone osteotomies, and comparative surgical techniques could be performed. Methods Cephalometric landmarks that could be translated into the human craniomaxillofacial skeleton, and would remain reliable following maxillofacial osteotomies with mid-facial alloflap inset, were sought on six miniature swine. Le Fort I-and Le Fort III-based alloflaps were harvested in swine with osteotomies, and all alloflaps were either auto-replanted or transplanted. Cephalometric analyses were performed on lateral cephalograms pre- and post-operatively. Critical cephalometric data sets were identified with the assistance of surgical planning and virtual prediction software, and evaluated for reliability and translational predictability. Results Several pertinent landmarks and human analogues were identified including pronasale (PRN), zygion (Zy), parietale (PA), gonion (GO), gnathion (GN), lower incisior base (LIB), and alveolare (ALV). PA-PRN-ALV and PA-PRN-LIB were found to be reliable correlates of SNA and SNB measurements in humans, respectively. Conclusions There is a set of reliable cephalometric landmarks and measurement angles pertinent for utilization within a translational large animal model. These craniomaxillofacial landmarks will allow us to develop novel navigational software technology, improve our cutting guide designs, and explore new avenues for investigation and collaboration. Level of Evidence N/A (Large Animal Study) PMID:24445879

  6. Computer-assisted system for diagnosing degenerative dementia using cerebral blood flow SPECT and 3D-SSP. A multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with dementia, more physicians who do not specialize in brain nuclear medicine are being asked to interpret SPECT images of cerebral blood flow. We conducted a multicenter study to determine whether a computer-assisted diagnostic system Z-score summation analysis method (ZSAM) using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) can differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD)/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and non-AD/DLB in institutions using various types of gamma cameras. We determined the normal thresholds of Z-sum (summed Z-score) within a template region of interest for each single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) device and then compared them with the Z-sums of patients and calculated the accuracy of the differential diagnosis by ZSAM. We compared the diagnostic accuracy between ZSAM and visual assessment. We enrolled 202 patients with AD (mean age, 76.8 years), 40 with DLB (mean age 76.3 years) and 36 with non-AD/DLB (progressive supranuclear palsy, n=10; frontotemporal dementia, n=20; slowly progressive aphasia, n=2 and one each with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease) who underwent N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow SPECT imaging at each participating institution. The ZSAM sensitivity to differentiate between AD/DLB and non-AD/DLB in all patients, as well as those with mini-mental state examination scores of ≥24 and 20-23 points were 88.0, 78.0 and 88.4%, respectively, with specificity of 50.0, 44.4 and 60.0%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy rates were 83.1, 72.9 and 84.2%, respectively. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves for visual inspection by four expert raters were 0.74-0.84, 0.66-0.85 and 0.81-0.93, respectively, in the same patient groups. The diagnostic accuracy rates were 70.9-89.2%, 50.9-84.8% and 76.2-93.1%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy

  7. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  8. Analysis of regional cerebral blood flow and distribution volume in Machado-Joseph disease by iodine-123I IMP single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Its clinical features vary greatly in different generations of the same family. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and distribution volume (Vd) in the pons, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex were measured in 12 patients with MJD by autoradiography (ARG) and the table look-up (TLU) method of iodine-123 IMP (123I-IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Representative cases were as follows: A 46-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 38. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no atrophy in the pons or cerebellum, but rCBF measured by the 123I-IMP SPECT ARG method detected hypoperfusion in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. A 76-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 69. CT and MRI findings showed severe atrophy in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. Moreover, rCBF was decreased in the pons, whereas it was not decreased in the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. In the pons of patients with MJD, rCBF was markedly decreased regardless of disease severity. Because this SPECT finding for the pons looked like a 'dot', we have called it the 'pontine dot sign'. In the MJD group, rCBF was significantly decreased in the pons (Student's t test, pd was also significantly decreased in the pons (pd for the pons and age at onset (r=0.59, pd in the cerebellar hemispheres and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (r=0.644, pd obtained by 123I-IMP SPECT for patients with MJD identified by gene analysis. Our study shows that SPECT measurement of rCBF and Vd is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of MJD. (author)

  9. Have You Given Blood Lately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing: After donation, blood establishments are required to test each unit of donated blood for the following infectious disease agents: · Hepatitis B · Hepatitis C · Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) 1 and ...

  10. Simultaneous in vivo synchrotron radiation computed tomography of regional ventilation and blood volume in rabbit lung using combined K-edge and temporal subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhonen, H [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Porra, L [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Bayat, S [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Faculte de Medecine, PERITOX (EA-INI RIS) and Cardiologie et Pneumo-Allerglogie Pediatriques, CHU Amiens (France); Sovijaervi, A R A [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Suortti, P [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-02-07

    In K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging with synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT), two images are taken simultaneously using energies above and below the K-absorption edge of a contrast agent. A logarithmic difference image reveals the contrast agent concentration with good accuracy. Similarly, in temporal subtraction imaging (TSI) the reference image is taken before the introduction of the contrast agent. Quantitative comparisons of in vivo images of rabbit lung indicated that similar results for concentrations of iodine in blood vessels and xenon in airways are obtained by KES and TSI, but the level of noise and artifacts was higher in the latter. A linear fit showed that in the lung parenchyma {rho}{sub TSI} = (0.97 {+-} 0.03){rho}{sub KES} + (0.00 {+-} 0.05) for xenon and {rho}{sub TSI} = (1.21 {+-} 0.15){rho}{sub KES} + (0.0 {+-} 0.1) for iodine. For xenon the calculation of time constant of ventilation gave compatible values for both of the methods. The two methods are combined for the simultaneous determination of the xenon concentration (by KES) and the iodine concentration (by TSI) in lung imaging, which will allow simultaneous in vivo determination of ventilation and perfusion.

  11. Comparison of cerebral blood flow data obtained by computed tomography (CT) perfusion with that obtained by xenon CT using 320-row CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Kimura, Hiroaki; Akaji, Kazunori; Kano, Tadashige; Suzuki, Kentaro; Takayama, Youhei; Kanzawa, Takao; Shidoh, Satoka; Nakazawa, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Mihara, Ban

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) data obtained by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging have been shown to be qualitative data rather than quantitative, in contrast with data obtained by other imaging methods, such as xenon CT (XeCT) imaging. Thus, interpatient comparisons of CBF values themselves obtained by CTP may be inaccurate. In this study, we have compared CBF ratios as well as CBF values obtained from CTP-CBF data to those obtained from XeCT-CBF data for the same patients to determine CTP-CBF parameters that can be used for interpatient comparisons. The data used in the present study were obtained as volume data using 320-row CT. The volume data were applied to an automated region of interest-determining software (3DSRT, version 3.5.2 ) and converted to 59 slices of 2 mm interval standardized images. In the present study, we reviewed 10 patients with occlusive cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) undergoing both CTP and XeCT in the same period. Our study shows that ratios of CBF measurements, such as hemodynamic stress distribution (perforator-to-cortical flow ratio of middle cerebral artery [MCA] region) or the left/right ratio for the region of the MCA, calculated using CTP data have been shown to correlate well with the same ratios calculated using XeCT data. These results suggest that such CBF ratios could be useful for generating interpatient comparisons of CTP-CBF data obtained by 320-row CT among patients with occlusive CVD.

  12. Evaluation of Hepatic Tissue Blood Flow Using Xenon Computed Tomography with Fibrosis Progression in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Shigefuku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study evaluated the utility of xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure for the measurement of hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or chronic hepatitis C (CH-C. Methods: Xe-CT was performed in 93 patients with NAFLD and in 109 patients with CH-C. Subjects were classified into one of three groups, based on fibrosis stage: group 1, no bridging fibrosis; group 2, bridging fibrosis; and group 3, liver cirrhosis. Correlations between hepatic TBFs in each fibrosis stage were examined. Results: In group 1, portal venous TBF (PVTBF, hepatic arterial (HATBF, and total hepatic TBF (THTBF were significantly lower in patients with in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH than in those with CH-C (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively. In group 2, PVTBF and THTBF were significantly lower in patients with in NASH than in those with CH-C (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively. In group 3, hepatic TBFs were not significantly different when comparing patients with NASH and those with CH-C. Conclusions: PVTBF decreased due to fat infiltration. Therefore, hemodynamic changes occur relatively earlier in NAFLD than in CH-C. Patients with NASH should be monitored carefully for portal hypertensive complications in the early fibrosis stage.

  13. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  14. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  15. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  16. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  17. Computer dynamics to evaluate blood flow through the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt Estudo computadorizado do escoamento de sangue em modelo da anastomose de Blalock-Taussig modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo M. Sant'Anna

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of geometric factors upon the function of modified Blalock-Taussig anastomoses (mBT using a computational dynamic code based upon the method of finite elements. METHODS: The mBT operation, performed in 10 patients, was graphically reconstructed to create a parametric 3-dimensional geometric model. Using Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin approximations, blood flow and distribution were evaluated in different diameters of subclavian arteries and polytetrafluoroethylene grafts (PTFE and angles of proximal anastomoses. RESULTS: The percentage of blood flow derived through the PTFE grows as its diameter increases in relation to subclavian artery diameter. Variations in the PTFE diameter do not interfere with pulmonary artery flow distribution. An angle of 110º in proximal anastomoses results in a high percentage of blood derivation to the graft, while angles of 30º, 60ºand 90º present with almost similar flow rates. However, angles of 30º and 110º produce an excessive flow to one of the pulmonary arteries, in detriment of the other. Peak pressure in the PTFE is affected by the proximal angle of anastomosis, with 30º resulting in higher and 110º in lower values. As the angle increases, the region of higher pressure shifts from the PTFE to subclavian artery. CONCLUSION: In the experimental model, percentage of flow derived in the PTFE is directly related to the diameter of the graft. The ratio between the diameters of subclavian artery and graft is an important regulator of flow deviation to the anastomosis. Angles of the anastomosis between the subclavian artery and the PTFE of 60º to 90º result in favorable pulmonary artery flow distribution and the location of the peak pressure.OBJETIVO: Dinâmica computacional foi utilizada para avaliar a influência de fatores geométricos no funcionamento de modelo da cirurgia de Blalock-Taussig modificada (BTm, ou interposição de enxerto de politetrafluoretileno

  18. A New Computational Model for Neuro-Glio-Vascular Coupling: Astrocyte Activation Can Explain Cerebral Blood Flow Nonlinear Response to Interictal Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Solenna; Saillet, Sandrine; Ivanov, Anton; Benquet, Pascal; Bénar, Christian-George; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Benali, Habib; Wendling, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) response and neuronal activity is of significant importance because CBF increase is essential to the health of neurons, for instance through oxygen supply. This relationship can be investigated by analyzing multimodal (fMRI, PET, laser Doppler…) recordings. However, the important number of intermediate (non-observable) variables involved in the underlying neurovascular coupling makes the discovery of mechanisms all the more difficult from the sole multimodal data. We present a new computational model developed at the population scale (voxel) with physiologically relevant but simple equations to facilitate the interpretation of regional multimodal recordings. This model links neuronal activity to regional CBF dynamics through neuro-glio-vascular coupling. This coupling involves a population of glial cells called astrocytes via their role in neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA) recycling and their impact on neighboring vessels. In epilepsy, neuronal networks generate epileptiform discharges, leading to variations in astrocytic and CBF dynamics. In this study, we took advantage of these large variations in neuronal activity magnitude to test the capacity of our model to reproduce experimental data. We compared simulations from our model with isolated epileptiform events, which were obtained in vivo by simultaneous local field potential and laser Doppler recordings in rats after local bicuculline injection. We showed a predominant neuronal contribution for low level discharges and a significant astrocytic contribution for higher level discharges. Besides, neuronal contribution to CBF was linear while astrocytic contribution was nonlinear. Results thus indicate that the relationship between neuronal activity and CBF magnitudes can be nonlinear for isolated events and that this nonlinearity is due to astrocytic activity, highlighting the importance of astrocytes in the

  19. A New Computational Model for Neuro-Glio-Vascular Coupling: Astrocyte Activation Can Explain Cerebral Blood Flow Nonlinear Response to Interictal Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solenna Blanchard

    Full Text Available Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF response and neuronal activity is of significant importance because CBF increase is essential to the health of neurons, for instance through oxygen supply. This relationship can be investigated by analyzing multimodal (fMRI, PET, laser Doppler… recordings. However, the important number of intermediate (non-observable variables involved in the underlying neurovascular coupling makes the discovery of mechanisms all the more difficult from the sole multimodal data. We present a new computational model developed at the population scale (voxel with physiologically relevant but simple equations to facilitate the interpretation of regional multimodal recordings. This model links neuronal activity to regional CBF dynamics through neuro-glio-vascular coupling. This coupling involves a population of glial cells called astrocytes via their role in neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA recycling and their impact on neighboring vessels. In epilepsy, neuronal networks generate epileptiform discharges, leading to variations in astrocytic and CBF dynamics. In this study, we took advantage of these large variations in neuronal activity magnitude to test the capacity of our model to reproduce experimental data. We compared simulations from our model with isolated epileptiform events, which were obtained in vivo by simultaneous local field potential and laser Doppler recordings in rats after local bicuculline injection. We showed a predominant neuronal contribution for low level discharges and a significant astrocytic contribution for higher level discharges. Besides, neuronal contribution to CBF was linear while astrocytic contribution was nonlinear. Results thus indicate that the relationship between neuronal activity and CBF magnitudes can be nonlinear for isolated events and that this nonlinearity is due to astrocytic activity, highlighting the importance of astrocytes in

  20. Effect of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells: computational and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, swine flu (H1N1) had spread significantly to levels that threatened pandemic influenza. There have been many treatments that have arisen for patients since the WHO first reported the disease. Although some progress in controlling influenza has taken place during the last few years, the disease is not yet under control. The development of new and less expensive anti-influenza drugs is still needed. Here, we show that sesamin from the seeds of the Thai medicinal plant Sesamum indicum has anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1. In this study, the combinatorial screening method combined with the computational approach was applied to investigate the new molecular binding structures of sesamin against the 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1 (p09N1) crystallized structure. Experimental methods were applied to propose the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from H1N1-induced human PBMC model. The molecular dynamics simulation of sesamin binding with the p09N1 crystallized structure showed new molecular binding structures at ARG118, ILE222, ARG224, and TYR406, and it has been proposed that sesamin could potentially be used to produce anti-H1N1 compounds. Furthermore, the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced PBMCs by ELISA and signaling transduction showed that sesamin exhibits the ability to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and to enhance the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2 via downregulating the phosphorylated JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. This information might very well be useful in the prevention and treatment of immune-induced inflammatory disorders. PMID:26424131

  1. Effect of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells: computational and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, swine flu (H1N1) had spread significantly to levels that threatened pandemic influenza. There have been many treatments that have arisen for patients since the WHO first reported the disease. Although some progress in controlling influenza has taken place during the last few years, the disease is not yet under control. The development of new and less expensive anti-influenza drugs is still needed. Here, we show that sesamin from the seeds of the Thai medicinal plant Sesamum indicum has anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1. In this study, the combinatorial screening method combined with the computational approach was applied to investigate the new molecular binding structures of sesamin against the 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1 (p09N1) crystallized structure. Experimental methods were applied to propose the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from H1N1-induced human PBMC model. The molecular dynamics simulation of sesamin binding with the p09N1 crystallized structure showed new molecular binding structures at ARG118, ILE222, ARG224, and TYR406, and it has been proposed that sesamin could potentially be used to produce anti-H1N1 compounds. Furthermore, the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced PBMCs by ELISA and signaling transduction showed that sesamin exhibits the ability to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and to enhance the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2 via downregulating the phosphorylated JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. This information might very well be useful in the prevention and treatment of immune-induced inflammatory disorders.

  2. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  3. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  4. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  5. Analysis of regional cerebral blood flow and distribution volume in Machado-Joseph disease by iodine-{sup 123}I IMP single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Tsunemi; Nakajima, Takashi; Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi [National Saigata Hospital, Ohagata, Niigata (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Its clinical features vary greatly in different generations of the same family. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and distribution volume (V{sub d}) in the pons, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex were measured in 12 patients with MJD by autoradiography (ARG) and the table look-up (TLU) method of iodine-123 IMP ({sup 123}I-IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Representative cases were as follows: A 46-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 38. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no atrophy in the pons or cerebellum, but rCBF measured by the {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT ARG method detected hypoperfusion in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. A 76-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 69. CT and MRI findings showed severe atrophy in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. Moreover, rCBF was decreased in the pons, whereas it was not decreased in the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. In the pons of patients with MJD, rCBF was markedly decreased regardless of disease severity. Because this SPECT finding for the pons looked like a 'dot', we have called it the 'pontine dot sign'. In the MJD group, rCBF was significantly decreased in the pons (Student's t test, p<0.01) and cerebellar vermis (p<0.05). The V{sub d} was also significantly decreased in the pons (p<0.005) in comparison with that for normal subjects. Pearson's correlation analysis yielded a significant relationship between the rCBF in the pons and age at onset (r=0.578, p<0.05). There was a strong correlation between the V{sub d} for the pons and age at onset (r=0.59, p<0.05). Person's correlation analysis also showed a significant relationship between the V{sub d} in the cerebellar hemispheres and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (r=0.644, p<0.05). The pontine rCBFs in patients with early onset MJD

  6. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  7. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...... active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families....

  8. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  9. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  10. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget). PMID:25457752

  11. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget).

  12. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase Abnormalities of hemoglobin , the protein in ... sickle and Pappenheimer Red blood cells, target cells Formed elements of blood References Bain BJ. The peripheral ...

  13. Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in aged noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients with no history of cerebrovascular disease: evaluation by N-isopropyl- sup 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, M.; Nagamachi, S.; Inoue, K.; Morotomi, Y.; Nunoi, K.; Fujishima, M. (Higashi Hospital, (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured using N-isopropyl-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT) in 16 aged patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, average age 72.8 years, average fasting plasma glucose 7.7 mmol/L), and 12 nondiabetic subjects (71.6 years, 5.3 mmol/L). None had any history of a cerebrovascular accident. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not differ between groups. Areas of hypoperfusion were observed in 14 diabetic patients (12 patients had multiple lesions) and in 6 nondiabetic subjects (3 had multiple lesions). Areas where radioactivity was greater than or equal to 65% of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region with normal cerebral blood flow (region of interest A, ROI-A), and areas where the count was greater than or equal to 45% were defined as brain tissue regions other than ventricles (ROI-B). The average ROI-A/B ratio of 16 slices was used as a semiquantitative indicator of normal cerebral blood flow throughout the entire brain. Mean ROI-A/B ratio was 49.6 +/- 1.7% in the diabetic group, significantly lower than the 57.9 +/- 1.6% at the nondiabetic group (p less than 0.005). The ratio was inversely correlated with SBP (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05), total cholesterol (r = -0.51, p less than 0.05), and atherogenic index (r = -0.64, p less than 0.01), and was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.51, p less than 0.05) in the diabetic, but not the nondiabetic group. These observations suggest that the age-related reduction in cerebral blood flow may be accelerated by a combination of hyperglycemia plus other risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  14. Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in aged noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients with no history of cerebrovascular disease: evaluation by N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured using N-isopropyl-123I-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT) in 16 aged patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, average age 72.8 years, average fasting plasma glucose 7.7 mmol/L), and 12 nondiabetic subjects (71.6 years, 5.3 mmol/L). None had any history of a cerebrovascular accident. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not differ between groups. Areas of hypoperfusion were observed in 14 diabetic patients (12 patients had multiple lesions) and in 6 nondiabetic subjects (3 had multiple lesions). Areas where radioactivity was greater than or equal to 65% of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region with normal cerebral blood flow (region of interest A, ROI-A), and areas where the count was greater than or equal to 45% were defined as brain tissue regions other than ventricles (ROI-B). The average ROI-A/B ratio of 16 slices was used as a semiquantitative indicator of normal cerebral blood flow throughout the entire brain. Mean ROI-A/B ratio was 49.6 +/- 1.7% in the diabetic group, significantly lower than the 57.9 +/- 1.6% at the nondiabetic group (p less than 0.005). The ratio was inversely correlated with SBP (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05), total cholesterol (r = -0.51, p less than 0.05), and atherogenic index (r = -0.64, p less than 0.01), and was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.51, p less than 0.05) in the diabetic, but not the nondiabetic group. These observations suggest that the age-related reduction in cerebral blood flow may be accelerated by a combination of hyperglycemia plus other risk factors for atherosclerosis

  15. 基于PC机上颅颌面虚拟手术仿真平台的建立及应用%Establishment and application of virtual craniofacial surgical platform based on personal computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵刚; 曾兵; 谷方; 沈若武; 夏玉军; 崔益群

    2009-01-01

    Anatomic structure in craniofacial region is very complicated and orthognathic surgery is difficultly performed.Therefore,it is necessary to generate virtual surgical model from CT scan data before operation on personal computer in order to make surgery more accurate.This technique has been increasingly interested in the field of orthognathic surgery both at home and abroad.The sample was scanned with thin-layer CT.CT image data (336 layer,1.0 mm slice thickness) were analyzed with the Mimics software.Simultaneously,three-dimensional model and virtual surgery of the facial cranium were established.The digitized virtual surgical platform of facial cranium was preliminarily created,and three common surgical methods in maxillofacial surgery,i.e.,LeFort Ⅰ osteotomy,mandibular angle osteotomy,and genioplasty,for maxillofacial surgery were simulated.The results showed that the digitized virtual surgical platform of facial cranium could be generated with the Mimics software on personal computer,which provides convenient and quick methods for research,teaching,and clinical surgery.More importantly,it creates theoretical basis for virtual surgical platform which can be widely used on personal computer.%颅颌面解剖结构复杂使得外科手术难度较大,因此十分必要进行术前模拟以保证手术成功,颅颌面结构的三维重建与手术仿真是目前国内外研究的热点.应用薄层CT扫描数据集,利用Mimics软件对336层,层厚为1.0 mm的CT二维图像数据进行分析处理,并进行颅颌面的三维重建研究与虚拟手术设计.初步建立了数字化可视颅颌面虚拟手术仿真平台,并精确地模拟了颌面外科常见的3种手术方式,即Lefort Ⅰ截骨术、下颌角截骨术和颏成形术.结果提示在普通计算机上应用Mimics软件可以建立数字化可视颅颌面虚拟手术仿真平台,并对其应用进行了探讨,为科研、教学及临床手术规划提供了方便、快捷、直观的方法,并

  16. Xenon/CT blood flow mapping of the liver using multidetector-row computed tomography. Compensation of respiratory misregistration by volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For improvement in the accuracy of xenon/CT blood flow mapping of the liver, this study was conducted to assess whether volume-data obtained by multidetector-row helical CT could compensate for the slice misregistration caused by inconstant breath depth. Using imaging phantoms scanned on both multidetector-row and single-detector CT, suitable parameters were decided. In the phantom studies, axial scan with multidetector-row CT showed significantly greater variance of CT value than that of single detector row CT (SDCT). On multidetector-row CT, variances of the CT values maintained in low (80 kV) tube voltage, which is advantageous for detecting subtle enhancement of the liver. Images reconstructed with 10-mm thickness showed smaller variance than those of 5-mm thickness on low-pitch helical scan. Remarkable helical artifacts were seen on the high-pitch helical scan. Following the phantom studies, 7 examinees were scanned using xenon/CT with a predetermined scan protocol (80 kV, collimation 5 mm, thickness 10 mm, low-pitch helical scan). In all cases, slice compensation was necessary and was successfully performed. The number of pixels which constituted blood flow map increased after the compensation. No patients showed any significant adverse effects. In conclusion, multidetector-row helical CT has the potential for providing accurate quantification of xenon/CT blood flow mapping of liver by compensating for respiratory misregistration. (author)

  17. 新疆石河子地区奶牛血液生化指标正常参考值范围的建立%Establishment of the Normal Reference Range of Blood Biochemical Parameters for Dairy Cow in Shihezi Area of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新萍; 陶岳; 张孝恩; 林为民; 史文军; 陈红; 叶丹; 王宏伟

    2011-01-01

    为建立符合石河子地区奶牛血液生化特点的正常参考值范围,随机抽取石河子地区莫索湾、安集海、下野地等地犊牛及成年奶牛血清共计933份(其中成年奶牛818份、犊牛115份)进行23项生化指标检测。用SPSS软件进行统计分析,确立生化指标正常参考值范围。结果显示,石河子地区奶牛血液生化指标正常值参考范围存在年龄间差异,与国外提供的参考值相比各指标有一定的差异。%To establish a reference range of blood biochemical parameters for Shihezi dairy cow, 933 blood samples(818 adult cows and 115 calves)were collected from Mosuowan, Anjihai and Xiayedi in Shihezi to detect 23 kinds of biochemical parameters. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. The resuhs showed that the normal reference range of blood biochemical for dairy cow in Shihezi had differences among ages. Compared with the abroad reference values, there were also some differences.

  18. 8岁以下儿童末梢血血红蛋白参考范围分析%Establishment of Reference Intervals for Peripheral Blood Hemoglobin Aiming at Children below 8 Years Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁有勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立≤8岁儿童末梢血血红蛋白的参考范围.方法 选择2010年5月-2011年10月在我院健康体检的≤8岁儿童1 514例,按年龄分组:3~12个月组429例,1~3岁组462例,4~8岁组623例.均经体检证明生长、发育正常,无慢性病史,无血红蛋白疾病史和贫血史,无血吸虫、钩虫、疟疾等寄生虫感染的贫血,无蚕豆病.检查前未接受过铁剂和输血治疗.结果 1 514个血红蛋白测定值,偏度系数为0.401,峰度系数为-0.117,呈近似正态分布.3~12个月组、1~3岁组、4~8岁组男童、女童及男女合计血红蛋白水平比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).3~12个月儿童血红蛋白参考范围为96~125 g/L,1~3岁儿童血红蛋白参考范围为100~129 g/L,4~8岁男童血红蛋白参考范围为101~137 g/L,4~8岁女童血红蛋白参考范围为103~131 g/L.结论 不同年龄段应采用不同的血红蛋白参考范围,不同实验室应建立适合自己的血红蛋白的参考范围.%Objective To determine the reference intervals for hemoglobin of peripheral blood aiming at children below 8 years old. Methods We selected 1 514 healthy children below 8, inclusive who came to our hospital for physical check -up from May 2010 to October 2011 and according to their ages divided them into three groups : 3 ~ 12 months group 429 cases, 1 ~ 3 year olds group 462 cases, 4 ~ 8 years old group 623 cases. All the subjects underwent physical examination and were con -firmed normal in their growth and development , without any chronic disease , hemoglobin disease , anemia, favism and anemia caused by schistosomiasis , hookworm, malaria and they didn 't receive iron supplements or any kind of transfusion therapy. Re-sults All subjects' hemoglobin level was approximately positively distributed with coefficient of skewness being 0. 401 and coeffi-cient of kurtosis being -0. 117. The differences between males , females, males and females together in the three

  19. The Relationship Between Baseline Blood Pressure and Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Stroke Data From the Tinzaparin in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Trial (TAIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sare, G.M.; Bath, P.M.W.; Gray, L.J.;

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-High blood pressure (BP) is present in approximate to 80% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. There are few data examining the relationship between admission BP and acute CT findings. Methods-TAIST was a randomized...... associated with baseline BP. Conclusion-Although high baseline BP is independently associated with a poor outcome after stroke, this was not shown to be through an association with increased hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral edema, or mass effect; trial design may be suboptimal to detect this. Higher SBP...

  20. Potentiometric and Blood Plasma Simulation Studies of Nickel(II Complexes of Poly(aminoamido Pentadentate Ligands: Computer Aided Metal-Based Drug Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebusi Odisitse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic equilibria of nickel(II with N,N′-di(aminoethylene-2,6-pyridinedicarbonylamine (L1, Bis-(N,N-dimethylethyl-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (L2, and N,N′-bis[2(2-pyridyl-methyl]pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (L3 have been studied at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.15 mol dm−3 by glass electrode potentiometry. The protonation and formation constants added to blood plasma model predict that Cu(II competes effectively against Ni(II, Zn(II, and Ca(II for these ligands in vivo.

  1. Blood / Money

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Marilyn Strathern has argued that "nature" in Euro-American culture has appeared as constraint; it has figured the givens of existence on which human artifice is seen to construct "society" or "culture."(5) Among those givens is the notion that human beings are naturally individuals. And blood, too, images individuality: "The very thought of blood, individual blood, touches the deepest feelings in man about life and death" ([RIchard Titmuss] 16.) Transfusion medicine, then, draws on a series ...

  2. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  3. Flow characteristics in Sarns centrifugal blood pump based on computational fluid dynamics technology%基于CFD技术的Sarns离心式血泵流动特性分析北京生物医学工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云章; 朱莉花; 张伟国

    2012-01-01

    目的应用专业计算流体动力学(computational fluid dynamics,CFD)分析软件FLUENT,对一种具有长短叶片的Sarns离心式血泵的内部流场进行三维数值模拟.方法 利用Solidworks软件对Sarns型血泵进行三维建模,然后对所建模型网格处理,通过选取标准κ-ε湍流模型和SIMPLE算法,具体分析了内部流动状态、压力分布、壁面剪切力等流场特性.结果 结果表明,该离心泵内部流场分布较不匀,叶片及血泵出口处有回流和旋涡现象,剪切力大小基本处于致红细胞破碎的临界状态之下,高转速下剪切力最大,主要分布在叶轮区域,但暴露时间极短,基本满足血液生理要求.结论 该研究为Sarns血泵的进一步优化提供了理论基础.%Objective To simulate the three-dimensional internal flow field of a Sarns blood centrifugal pump with long and short blades by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. Methods We used the software Solidworks to build a three-dimensional model and selected the standard κ-ε turbulence model and the SIMPLE algorithm to analyze the flow characteristics of the internal flow status, pressure distribution and wall shear force. Results The analysis result demonstrated that there were several deficiencies in this pump, such as uneven velocity distribution, partial backflow and whirlpool between the blades and near the outlet of the pump. The shear stress distribution was under the critical state of breaking red blood cells and the maximum value of shear stress appeared in the impeller area under high-rotational speed. As the exposure time was short, the shear stress distribution could basically meet the physiological requirements of blood. Conclusions This research offered a theoretic basis for the further optimization of Sarns blood pump.

  4. Establishment of Rabbit Model of Sick Sinus Syndrome Combined with Heart-yang Deficiency and Blood Stasis Syndrome%慢性病态窦房结综合征与心阳虚血瘀病证结合模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汇博; 刘如秀; 王妮娜; 暴美静; 汪艳丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility to establish a rabbit model of sick sinus syndrome combined with heart-yang deficiency and blood stasis syndrome (short as combined model) via surgery.Methods The TCM syndrome model was established by the method of ice wetting, cold stimulation and subcutaneous injection with adrenaline hydrochloride, and the combined model was established by damaging the sinoatrial node with 20% formaldehyde. The general state, body temperature, respiratory frequency, heart rate and rhythm, swimming distance and speed in 6 min, and hemorheology indexes were observed before and after the model of each group established. The TCM syndrome characteristics of the two models were compared according to the clinical diagnostic standard of yang deficiency and blood stasis syndrome. Results After the modle established, rabbits of both groups had lower temperature, higher respiratory frequency and heart rate, lower swimming distance and speed, and higher hemorheology indexes. There were no difference between the two groups in the indexes as mentioned except the heart rate, swimming distance and speed. Conclusion The combined model established by surgery has no difference with the TCM syndrome model in syndrome featrues, and it conforms to the clinical diagnostic standard of yang deficiency and blood stasis syndrome.%目的 探讨手术方法建立病态窦房结综合征(以下简称"病窦综合征")与心阳虚血瘀病证结合模型的可行性.方法 采取冰敷、置于寒冷环境、皮下注射肾上腺素的方法制备非疾病阳虚血瘀证候模型;以2 0%甲醛注射浸润窦房结区建立慢性病窦综合征阳虚血瘀病证结合模型,观察2组兔造模前后一般情况、体温、呼吸频率、心率、心律、6 min游泳时间及速率、血液流变学(全血黏度、血浆黏度、红细胞聚集指数)等指标,根据中医临床阳虚血瘀证的诊断标准,对2种模型的中医证候特点进行比较.结果 2组免造

  5. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  6. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  7. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  8. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  9. The influence of tube voltage and phantom size in computed tomography on the dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes after CT scans at tube voltages of 80 and 140 kV. Blood samples from a healthy donor placed in tissue equivalent abdomen phantoms of standard, pediatric and adipose sizes were exposed at dose levels up to 0.1 Gy using a 64-slice CT scanner. It was found that both the tube voltage and the phantom size significantly influenced the CT scan-induced linear dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Using the same phantom (standard abdomen), 80 kV CT x-rays were biologically more effective than 140 kV CT x-rays. However, it could also be determined that the applied phantom size had much more influence on the biological effectiveness. Obviously, the increasing slopes of the CT scan-induced dose response relationships of dicentrics in human lymphocytes obtained in a pediatric, a standard and an adipose abdomen have been induced by scattering effects of photons, which strongly increase with increasing phantom size.

  10. Computer simulation of MHD blood conveying gold nanoparticles as a third grade non-Newtonian nanofluid in a hollow porous vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, M; Hatami, J; Ganji, D D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, heat transfer and flow analysis for a non-Newtonian third grade nanofluid flow in porous medium of a hollow vessel in presence of magnetic field are simulated analytically and numerically. Blood is considered as the base third grade non-Newtonian fluid and gold (Au) as nanoparticles are added to it. The viscosity of nanofluid is considered a function of temperature as Vogel's model. Least Square Method (LSM), Galerkin method (GM) and fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method (NUM) are used to solve the present problem. The influences of the some physical parameters such as Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters on non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are considered. The results show that increasing the thermophoresis parameter (N(t)) caused an increase in temperature values in whole domain and an increase in nanoparticles concentration just near the inner wall of vessel. Furthermore by increasing the MHD parameter, velocity profiles decreased due to magnetic field effect. PMID:24286727

  11. Quality Management, Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Blood Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbate, N

    2008-01-01

    Quality terms and the roots of the matter are analyzed according to European Committee’s recommendations. Essence of process and product quality control as well as essence of quality assurance is described. Quality system’s structure including quality control, quality assurance and management is justified in the article.

  12. Normal regional distribution of cerebral blood flow in dogs: comparison between (99m) Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer and (99m) Tc- hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Waelbers, Tim; Vandermeulen, Eva; Dobbeleir, André; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging provides important insights into canine brain pathologies such as behavioral problems. Two (99m) Tc-labeled single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracers-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-are commonly used in human medicine and have been used previously in dogs but intrasubject comparison of both tracers in dogs is lacking. Therefore, this study investigated whether regional distribution differences between both tracers occur in dogs as is reported in humans. Eight beagles underwent two SPECT examinations first with (99m) Tc-ECD and followed by (99m) Tc-HMPAO. SPECT scanning was performed with a triple head gamma camera equipped with ultrahigh resolution parallel hole collimators. Images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with a Butterworth filter. Emission data were fitted to a template permitting semiquantification using predefined regions or volumes of interest (VOIs). For each VOI, perfusion indices were calculated by normalizing the regional counts per voxel to total brain counts per voxel. The obtained perfusion indices for each region for both tracers were compared with a paired Student's T-test. Significant (P < 0.05) regional differences were seen in the subcortical region and the cerebellum. Both tracers can be used to visualize regional cerebral blood flow in dogs, however, due to the observed regional differences, they are not entirely interchangeable.

  13. Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The basic ideas and principles of granular computing (GrC) have been studied explicitly or implicitly in many fields in isolation. With the recent renewed and fast growing interest, it is time to extract the commonality from a diversity of fields and to study systematically and formally the domain independent principles of granular computing in a unified model. A framework of granular computing can be established by applying its own principles. We examine such a framework from two perspectives,granular computing as structured thinking and structured problem solving. From the philosophical perspective or the conceptual level,granular computing focuses on structured thinking based on multiple levels of granularity. The implementation of such a philosophy in the application level deals with structured problem solving.

  14. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  15. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  16. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  17. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of donor blood. Many communities have a blood bank where healthy people can donate blood. This blood ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  19. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  20. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Print A A A ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  1. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  2. Performance Driven Design and Design Information Exchange: Establishing a computational design methodology for parametric and performance-driven design of structures via topology optimization for rough structurally informed design models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Morales Beltran, M.G.; Biloria, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a performance driven computational design methodology through introducing a case on parametric structural design. The paper describes the process of design technology development and frames a design methodology through which engineering, -in this case structural- aspects of archi

  3. Computer Simulation of Tb( Ⅲ )Speciation in Human Blood Plasma%人体血浆中Tb(Ⅲ)物种的计算机模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢兴; 张海元; 王进平; 王悦; 杨魁跃; 牛春吉; 倪嘉缵

    2003-01-01

    建立了人体血浆多相模型,研究了人体血浆体系中Tb(Ⅲ)物种的分布.结果表明,Tb(Ⅲ)的物种形式随着Tb(Ⅲ)的量浓度的变化而变化.当Tb(Ⅲ)的量浓度低于4.000×10-8mol/L时,大部分Tb(Ⅲ)物种以可溶态存在;当Tb(Ⅲ)的量浓度高于4.000×10-8mol/L而低于1.667×10-2mol/L时,沉淀物种(TbPO4和Tb2(CO3)3)成为Tb(Ⅲ)的主要物种.可溶的Tb(Ⅲ)在量浓度低于1.0×10-4mol/L时,主要与运铁蛋白键合,分布于[Tb(Tf)]中;当Tb(Ⅲ)的量浓度高于1.0×10-4mol/L时,运铁蛋白耗尽,可溶的Tb(Ⅲ)主要分布于[Tb(HSA)],[Tb2(Tf)],[Tb(Ox)]和[Tb(Cit)]等物种中.%A multi-phase model of human blood plasma was developed and the Tb( Ⅲ) specia-tion in this system was studied. The results show that the speciation of Tb( Ⅲ ) depends onthe concentration of Tb( Ⅲ ). When the concentration of Tb( Ⅲ ) is below 4. 000 × 10-8 mol/L,most of Tb ( Ⅲ ) exists as soluble species while the concentration of Tb ( Ⅲ ) is in between4. 000× 10-8 mol/L and 1. 667 × 10-2 mol/L, precipitates (TbPO4 and Tb2 (CO3)3) are thedominant species of Tb(Ⅲ). Among soluble Tb(Ⅲ) species, Tb( Ⅲ) is mostly bound to thetransferrin to form [Tb(Tf)] when the concentration of soluble Tb(Ⅲ) is below 1.0 × 10 4mol/L. The concentration of soluble Tb(Ⅲ) reaches 1.0 × 10-4mol/L, thus available trans-ferrin is exceeded, and soluble Tb(Ⅲ) ions mainly distribute in [Tb(HSA)], [Tb2 (Tf)],[Tb(Ox)] and [Tb(Cit)] etc.

  4. Establishment of WTGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly outlines the reasons for establishing a wind turbine generator and the consequent disadvantages. Consideration is then given to the determining factors affecting the economics of wind turbine generators with special reference to Denmark. (UK)

  5. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  6. Blood and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2010-09-01

    In 1894 Ulsterman and pathologist Almroth Wright described the citation of blood. Twenty-one years later it was introduced into wartime and clinical practice. Harvard Medical School had a large part in providing Colonel Andrew Fullerton, later Professor of Surgery, Queen's Belfast, with the intellectual and practical help for the Allies to deploy blood on the post-Somme Western Front and in Salonika. The key investigators and clinicians were Americans and Canadians who with Fullerton and Wright instructed the Allies. The key enablers were two Harvard-trained surgeons surnamed Robertson-Oswald H. ("Robby") and L. Bruce (no relation). Physician Roger I. Lee of Harvard, surgeon George W Crile of Cleveland, Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute and Richard Lewisohn of Mount Sinai Hospital, both located in the Upper East Side of New York City, played key roles.By Armistice in 1918, indirect citrated nutrient-enhanced blood transfusion was widely used by the Allies. Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele. Professor "Robby" Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking.

  7. AUDIT OF BLOOD REQUISITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, P; Swarup, D; Singh, M M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 2793 requisition forms received by the blood banks of a Service zonal hospital, between June 1995 and December 1999, were analysed. 1697 (60.71%) forms were demand for single unit blood. Blood was collected against only 1099 forms (39.34%) out of which 713 (64.88%) were single unit issue. Urgency of requirement and blood group of patients was omitted in 56% cases. 104 forms were received without mention of the indications for transfusion. History of previous transfusion and pregnancy/HDN were omitted in 25.1% and 37.38% cases respectively. At an average 14.61% of the total collection was discarded. Of the 292 units discarded, 242 units were due to non utilisation. A transfusion committee should be established in all hospitals with a licensed blood bank. It should constitute definite objectives and conduct regular audits (prospective audit, concurrent review or retrospective review), in order to achieve utmost efficiency and numerous benefits, in terms of workload, cost, errors, risks of transfusion and ultimately increased customer satisfaction. It should strive to abolish single unit and inappropriate transfusion, and advocate autologous transfusion. PMID:27365575

  8. Engineering Aspects in Blood Pump Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Leonard; Veres, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    NASA turbomachinery computer codes assisted in the design of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation's centrifugal bladed blood pump. The codes were originally developed for the aerospace industry, but are applicable to the blood pump because of a high degree of synergy with this application. Traditional turbomachinery design criteria were used in the design of the blood pump centrifugal impeller and volute casing. The fluid dynamic performance of the blood pump is meeting the engineering design goals of flow rate and pressure rise.

  9. [Which place for physicians in blood supply?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danic, B; Pelletier, B

    2013-05-01

    Historically, blood transfusion has been divised, enhanced and organized by physicians. The special status of blood led to ensure that collection of blood and its components were placed under the supervision of a physician. Throughout its history, blood transfusion organization in France has established an exclusive exercise of the collection of blood and its components entrusted to doctors, thus creating the concept of "medicine of donation". This view is changing, and programmed exercise of this activity by nurses led to question about this profession perimeter, its necessary evolution, and finally about the place of physicians in blood supply. PMID:23537956

  10. Computer-assisted ex vivo, normothermic small bowel perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Stangl, M.J.; Krapp, J.; Theodorou, D; Eder, M.; Hammer, C; Land, W.; Schildberg, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2000-01-01

    Background: In the present study, a technique for computer-assisted, normothermic, oxygenated, ex vivo, recirculating small bowel perfusion was established as a tool to investigate organ pretreatment protocols and ischemia/reperfusion phenomena. A prerequisite for the desired setup was an organ chamber for ex vivo perfusion and the use of syngeneic whole blood as perfusate. Methods: The entire small bowel was harvested from Lewis rats and perfused in an organ chamber ex vivo for at least 2 h....

  11. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to infections including those we develop from our vaccinations (such as poliovirus antibodies, which are made by ... the Transfusion Medicine Unit, Blood Bank, and Stem Cell Storage Facility University of Rochester Medical ... and health educators who are available by phone Monday through Friday, 9 am to 9 pm ( ...

  12. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  13. Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krga-Milanović Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

  14. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Alireza; Charjouei Moghadam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Buerger’s disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger’s disease. Methods: In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger’s disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew arte...

  15. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  17. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  18. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  19. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Transfusions Print A ... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood As blood moves throughout the body, it carries ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  1. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  2. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  3. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuoka, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the int...

  4. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five......The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...

  5. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    nurses’ experiences of caring for older hospital patients. The study was based on Benner and Wrubel’s phenomenological notion that caring as a special kind of involvement, a grasp of a situation in terms of its meaning, is primary in nursing. A qualitative secondary analysis of data from an interview...... study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...

  6. The accuracy of integrate digital dental models established with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images%三维整合牙颌模型的精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敏; 郭宏铭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of the integrate dental models based on cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and laser-scanned dental models. Methods Ten patients with malocclusion were scanned by CBCT,and the silicon models scanned by laser, which then created the 3-dimensional dental and maxillary models. The digital dental models were established by integration of these models. The integration accuracy was evaluated by both manual register and auto register methods. The statistical difference between the two register methods was assessed. Results The mean distance of the maxilla and mandible was 0. 159 ±0. 0265mm and 0. t51 ±0. 0337 mm in manual register method,and 0. 145 ±0. 0294 mm and 0. 134 ±0. 0309 mm in auto register method. There were significant difference between the two methods ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Both manual register and auto register could establish accurate integrated 3-dimensional dental and maxillary models, with the former being better than the latter.%目的:将基于锥形束计算机断层扫描(CBCT)的牙颌模型和激光扫描的牙冠模型整合建立三维整合牙颌模型,研究三维整合牙颌模型的整合精度.方法:选择10例需要接受CBCT检查的错(牙合)患者,对每例患者头颅进行CBCT扫描,采取牙列硅橡胶印模进行激光扫描,分别重建获得三维CBCT图像和激光扫描三维图像,将三维CBCT图像和激光扫描图像进行手动配准和自动配准,对两种配准方法所得整合模型用Rapid form 2006软件进行全局偏差检测.采用配对t检验评价手动配准方法和自动配准方法的差异.结果:手动配准上下颌平均距离分别是0.159±0.0265mm,0.151±0.0337mm,自动配准上下颌平均距离分别是0.145±0.0294mm,0.134±0.0309mm,两者间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:自动配准方法优于手动配准方法,两种配准方法均能建立精确的三维整合模型,这为今后三维整合牙颌模型的应用提供了依据.

  7. Forensic Computing (Dagstuhl Seminar 11401)

    OpenAIRE

    Freiling, Felix C.; Heckmann, Dirk; Polcák, Radim; Posegga, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Forensic computing (sometimes also called digital forensics, computer forensics or IT forensics) is a branch of forensic science pertaining to digital evidence, i.e., any legal evidence that is processed by digital computer systems or stored on digital storage media. Forensic computing is a new discipline evolving within the intersection of several established research areas such as computer science, computer engineering and law. Forensic computing is rapidly gaining importance since th...

  8. Forensic Computing (Dagstuhl Seminar 13482)

    OpenAIRE

    Freiling, Felix C.; Hornung, Gerrit; Polcák, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Forensic computing} (sometimes also called digital forensics, computer forensics or IT forensics) is a branch of forensic science pertaining to digital evidence, i.e., any legal evidence that is processed by digital computer systems or stored on digital storage media. Forensic computing is a new discipline evolving within the intersection of several established research areas such as computer science, computer engineering and law. Forensic computing is rapidly gaining importance since the...

  9. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  10. 实时荧光定量PCR技术快速评价恒河猴外周血SIV病毒储存库的方法学建立%Establishment of a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR for the rapid detection of viral reservoir in the peripheral blood of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽妍; 范雪营; 谢喆; 沈弢; 邵一鸣

    2016-01-01

    目的:实时荧光定量PCR( real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR)技术快速评估恒河猴外周血细胞中的猴免疫缺陷病毒( SIV)病毒储存库的方法学及初步应用。方法以SIVmac239毒株序列为标准,在gag保守区设计1对引物和TaqMan探针,用于实时定量PCR扩增。 EcoRⅠ和SpeⅠ酶切含有SIVmac239毒株5′端长片段(含SIV-gag区)的质粒p239SpSp5,得到长度为2090 bp的SIV-gag区保守片段,纯化后定量系列标准品以绘制标准曲线。测定SIVmac239毒株感染恒河猴急性期和慢性期的外周血单个核细胞中SIV DNA拷贝数以反映病毒储存库水平,并分析该水平在不同感染状态中的病毒学特征。结果标准品浓度在10~1010拷贝/μl之间与Ct值呈线性正相关。 SIV急性期感染14~22 d可测出高水平的SIV病毒DNA,急性期病毒DNA水平高于慢性期1~2个log水平。相同动物样本的每106个细胞中的病毒DNA水平较其血清中病毒载量低将近1个log左右。 SIV病毒DNA水平与病毒载量比值( DNA/RNA)在慢性感染期显著高于急性期。结论本研究制备的SIV病毒DNA荧光探针定量RT-PCR方法特异性、敏感性高,线性范围广,可用于评估猴免疫缺陷病毒潜伏的病毒储存库水平。higher than those in the acute phase. Conclusion The established TaqMan probe-based real-time fluores-cent quantitative PCR was a highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of SIV DNA with an advan-tage of wide linear range. It could be used for the quantitative evaluation of latent reservoirs of SIV.%Objective To establish a TaqMan probe-based real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR ( real-time PCR) for the quantitative and rapid detection of viral reservoir in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from rhesus monkeys with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and to evaluate its preliminary application. Methods A pair of primers and one TaqMan probe were designed ac-cording to the

  11. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  12. Computer Supported Collaborative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hinze-Hoare, Vita

    2009-01-01

    Although the areas of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) are now relatively well established, the related field of Computer Supported Collaborative Research (CSCR) is newly proposed here. An analysis of the principles and issues behind CSCR is performed leading to a full definition and specification of the CSCR domain is provided with a view to setting up an e-laboratory designed to support...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 6, 2016, San Diego, CA Abstracts Registration Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Detectives Find a ...

  14. Where to Donate Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... zip code using the Blood Bank Locator below: Blood Bank Locator City: State/Province: ZIP Code: Country: Show ... safety and care. The Association sets standards for blood banks and transfusion services, and accredits member blood banks ...

  15. High blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...

  16. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  17. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  18. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  19. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or parts of blood ... liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  20. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions Print A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  1. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  3. Blood safety in the world updated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvano Wandel

    2010-01-01

    @@ Blood safety is of paramount importance in any medical context, given that it represents one of the most impor-tant supportive procedures in medicine. Nearly all medical fields that lead with very critical patients will depend on blood products as part of supporting medical strategies (both clinical and surgical). Thus, it is im-portant that every country in the world relies on a well established national blood program.

  4. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Blood Transfusion » Types of Blood Transfusions Explore Blood Transfusion What Is... ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood ( ...

  5. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( ... means you have a blood infection (septicemia). High levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the cord blood may be found ...

  6. 建立我国HIV阳转血浆盘并评价HIV酶免血筛试剂窗口期%Evaluation of HIV diagnosis kits used for blood screening with NIFDC-established HIV-1 seroconver-sion panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维金; 宋爱京; 许四宏; 王佑春

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立我国HIV系列阳转血清盘并用其评价HIV酶免血筛诊断试剂的窗口期。方法收集HIV感染者的系列血清,利用Western blot确认试剂、HIV抗原定量检测试剂、核酸定量检测试剂等检测系列样品,RT-PCR的方法扩增HIV env序列并测序和分型,以确认HIV感染。对国内外5种第四代和14种第三代酶免HIV血液筛查诊断试剂的检测窗口期进行评价。结果共收集确认8套HIV感染者的阳转系列血浆,AE亚型6套,B亚型1套,未分型1套,共含有36份样品。用HIV系列阳转血清盘评价发现四代抗原抗体联合检测试剂较三代抗体检测试剂具有更早的窗口期检测能力,前者评分9.4分,后者3.6分,差异具有统计学意义(t=8.547,P<0.01);部分国产四代试剂质量已经达到进口试剂的水平;核酸试剂的窗口期检测能力高于酶免试剂,在3套血清盘中至少提高2周以上;确认试剂的灵敏度低于血筛试剂的灵敏度;4/5四代试剂在检测感染早期样品时会出现检测信号值/界值( S/CO)下降的情况,存在第二窗口期漏检风险。结论本研究建立了8套我国的HIV系列阳转血清盘,评价发现我国HIV血液筛查酶免诊断试剂窗口期检测能力存在差异。%Objective To establish HIV-1 seroconversion panels with the samples collected by National Institutes for Food and Drug Control ( NIFDC) and to evaluate the window periods of HIV enzyme immunoassay ( EIA) diagnostic kits used for blood screening with them. Methods Serum specimens were collected from different plasma donation stations in China. All suspected HIV infection specimens were screened for HIV by using the nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT), Western blot confirmatory assay and P24 quantitative detection assay. The HIV env gene sequences were amplified by RT-PCR for further confirmation of HIV infection. The PCR products were sequenced and genotyped. The confirmed seroconver-sion panels were used to

  7. Establishment of an in vitro blood-brain barrier model by co-culturing rat brain microvascular endothelial cells,pericytes and astrocytes%大鼠脑微血管内皮细胞与周细胞、星形胶质细胞共培养建立体外血脑屏障模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查雨锋; 傅晓钟; 张顺; 罗敏; 欧瑜; 董永喜; 王爱民; 王永林

    2015-01-01

    目的:应用原代培养的大鼠脑微血管内皮细胞(brain-microvessel endothelial cells,BMECs )与脑微血管周细胞(brain-microvessel pericytes,BMPC )、星形胶质细胞(astro-cytes,AS)共培养建立可模拟在体状态的体外血脑屏障(blood-brain barrier,BBB)模型。方法原代分离、纯化和培养大鼠BMECs、BMPC和AS,通过细胞形态学和免疫细胞化学染色方法鉴定原代培养的细胞,应用Millicell细胞培养插(孔径0.4μm)建立5种不同类型的体外BBB模型,经跨内皮电阻值(transendothelial electrical resistance,TEER)、荧光素钠通透性(sodium fluorescent,Na-FLU )、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)和γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(γ-GT1)的表达测定以及阳性药在体内和体外BBB通透量的相似性,比较评价其屏障功能。结果原代培养的BMECs呈典型的铺路卵石样结构,BMPC胞体较大且呈分枝状,AS 有细长突触,胞质较浅;免疫细胞化学染色证实原代细胞为目标细胞;BMECs与BMPC、AS共培养后TEER值可达(478±25)Ω·cm2,Na-FLU 的表观渗透系数为[(8.23±0.78)×10-6]cm·s-1,AKP和γ-GT1表达分别为(6.90±0.27)金氏单位· g-1 Pro,(4.39±0.32)μg·g-1 Pro;阳性药在体外BBB的表观渗透系数(apparent permeability coefficient,Papp )与在体数据具有较好的相关性(R2=0.92)。结论原代培养的大鼠BMECs与BMPC、AS共培养建立的体外BBB模型在形态、结构及屏障功能方面具备BBB的基本特征,为研究BBB的生理学、病理学以及筛选化合物提供了一种有用工具。%Aim To establish in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model with characteristics of simulation of in vivo BBB by primi-tive co-culture of brain-microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) with brain-microvessel pericytes (BMPC)and astrocytes (AS). Methods BMECs,BMPC and AS from SD rats were primitively isolated,purified and cultured,and then

  8. Cloud Computing and Grid Computing 360-Degree Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ian; Zhao, Yong; Raicu, Ioan; Lu, Shiyong

    2008-01-01

    Cloud Computing has become another buzzword after Web 2.0. However, there are dozens of different definitions for Cloud Computing and there seems to be no consensus on what a Cloud is. On the other hand, Cloud Computing is not a completely new concept; it has intricate connection to the relatively new but thirteen-year established Grid Computing paradigm, and other relevant technologies such as utility computing, cluster computing, and distributed systems in general. This paper strives to com...

  9. Blood sugar monitoring with laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diode. The in-vivo experiments were carried out using laser diodes with wavelength 1625nm and 1650nm. Several volunteers were tested before and after drinking glucose solution. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diode system. The signal voltage was processed by using a computer and blood absorption was obtained. The results show that blood sugar level and blood absorption have similar trends before and after drinking glucose solution. We also compared the trends of drinking glucose solution and pure water and the results show that the difference of blood absorption is obvious. From the results we can see that laser diode is suitable for blood glucose monitoring.

  10. Autologous blood donation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2004-01-01

    Although preoperative autologous blood donation is employed in elective surgery, this is declining because of the increasingly safe allogeneic blood supply. However, it continues to be used because of the public's perception of allogeneic blood risks and increasing blood shortages. Patients may donate a unit of blood (450 ± 45 ml) as often as twice weekly, up to 72 hours before surgery. Preoperative autologous blood is most beneficial in procedures that cause significant blood loss. It has be...

  11. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, Sanford [Purdue University

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  12. Computational Biology, Advanced Scientific Computing, and Emerging Computational Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-27

    This CRADA was established at the start of FY02 with $200 K from IBM and matching funds from DOE to support post-doctoral fellows in collaborative research between International Business Machines and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to explore effective use of emerging petascale computational architectures for the solution of computational biology problems. 'No cost' extensions of the CRADA were negotiated with IBM for FY03 and FY04.

  13. Medications and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  14. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  15. Trust Based Pervasive Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shiqun; Shane Balfe; ZHOU Jianying; CHEN Kefei

    2006-01-01

    Pervasive computing environment is a distributed and mobile space. Trust relationship must be established and ensured between devices and the systems in the pervasive computing environment. The trusted computing (TC) technology introduced by trusted computing group is a distributed-system-wide approach to the provisions of integrity protection of resources. The TC' notion of trust and security can be described as conformed system behaviors of a platform environment such that the conformation can be attested to a remote challenger. In this paper the trust requirements in a pervasive/ubiquitous environment are analyzed. Then security schemes for the pervasive computing are proposed using primitives offered by TC technology.

  16. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2005-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.

  17. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zaproudina

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology.

  18. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  19. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments.

  20. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments. PMID:25578550

  1. Computability and dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buescu, Jorge; Graça, Daniel; Zhong, Ning

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore results that establish a link between dynamical systems and computability theory (not numerical analysis). In the last few decades, computers have increasingly been used as simulation tools for gaining insight into dynamical behavior. However, due to the presence of errors inherent in such numerical simulations, with few exceptions, computers have not been used for the nobler task of proving mathematical results. Nevertheless, there have been some recen...

  2. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  3. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple ...

  5. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  6. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  7. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  9. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  10. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  11. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Member Blood Centers Our Partners What is blood? PUBLICATIONS EDUCATION PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  12. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with ... you think you have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  16. 脑微血管内皮细胞与周细胞共培养构建体外血脑屏障模型%Establishment of an in vitro blood-brain harrier modal by coculturing brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿文葆; 秦伟伟; 张秋菊; 李宏伟; 刘淑英; 修瑞娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用原代培养的大鼠脑微血管内皮细胞(brain microvascular endothelial cell,BMVEC)与脑周细胞共培养建立可模拟在体状态的稳定体外血脑屏障(blood-brain barrier,BBB)模型.方法 原代分离、纯化培养大鼠BMVEC和周细胞,通过免疫细胞化学染色方法鉴定分离的细胞,应用Transwell插槽(孔径0.4μm)共培养构建体外BBB模型,经4h渗漏试验、紧密连接蛋白鉴定、跨内皮电阻检测以及通透性试验评价其屏障功能,比较共培养模型与单纯BMVEC模型膜两侧电阻值差异以及对小分子荧光素钠(sodium fluorescein,Na-F)通透性的差异.结果 融合的BMVEC单层呈现典型的鹅卵石样外观,脑周细胞呈典型的不规则外形并具有重叠生长等特性.免疫双标法鉴定显示,脑周细胞阳性表达α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-smooth muscle actin,α-SMA)和神经元-胶质抗原2(neuron-glial antigen2,NG2);共培养模型内皮细胞融合后,液面渗漏试验呈阳性;免疫细胞化学染色显示,内皮细胞间形成连续而致密的紧密连接;与BMVEC模型相比,共培养模型跨内皮细胞电阻[( 190.762±10.326)Ω/cm2对(96.503±8.012)Ω/cm2;t=- 24.489,P<0.01]显著增高,通透性显著降低(为单内皮模型的56.149% ±3.572%;t=19.330,P<0.01).结论 原代分离大鼠BMVEC 和周细胞共培养体外模型的形态、结构及屏障功能具备BBB的基本特征,为研究BBB提供了一种有用工具.%Objective To establish a stable in vitro model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) simulating in vivo state using the primary-cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) and pericytes.Methods The primary rat BMVECs and pericytes were isolated,purified and cultured.The isolated cells were identified by immunocytochemical staining method.An in vitro model of BBB was constructed using Transwell inserts (pore size 0.4 μm) coculture.Its barrier function was evaluated by the 4-hour leakage test,tight junction

  17. Qualitative analysis fingertip patterns in ABO blood group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. KShirsagar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance of the dermatoglyphic patterns is polygenic. The genetic basis of the blood group is well established. The correlation between the dermatoglyphic patterns and the ABO blood group is studied by some workers in different populations. In the present study, the correlation between dermatoglyphics and ABO blood group is studied in the Marathwada Region of Maharashtra. The qualitative data included fingertip patterns and three indices. It was observed that, the Arch pattern is more common in blood group O both in male and female. Ulnar loop is most common in the blood group AB. Simple whorl and double loop whorl patterns are less frequent in blood group AB. Accidentals were not recorded in blood group A while blood group O show highest percentage of accidentals. Dankmeijer’s index was highest in blood group AB and lowest in blood group B.

  18. 抑郁症患者局部脑血流灌注变化研究%Detection of cerebral blood flow with single emission computed tomography in depressive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余俊丽; 焦举; 许杰华; 程木华; 张峰; 张勇

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析抑郁症患者单光子发射型计算机断层显像(SPECT)局部脑血流(SCBF)灌注变化的特点,并初步探讨rCBF显像在抑郁症患者中的诊断价值. 方法 对10例正常人及临床诊断为抑郁症的32例患者分别进行SPECT局部脑血流灌注显像,利用感兴趣区(ROI)法观察rCBF情况;11例患者同期行MRI普通扫描.结果 32例抑郁症患者中31例发现rCBF显像异常,共检出71个病灶,分别位于双侧额叶、颞叶、基底节、海马、扣带回及左侧岛叶,其中57个病灶位于颞叶、海马、扣带回及岛叶,即边缘系统,9个病灶位于额叶,5个病灶位于基底节;基底节区病灶局部脑血流灌注均增高,其他部位病灶均降低;双侧大脑半球rCBF病灶构成比差异无统计学意义(χ~2=409,P=0.790).11例患者同期做MRI扫描,3例发现异常(2例轻度脑萎缩,1例海马萎缩),而此11例患者rCBF显像均发现异常.1例正常人rCBF未发现异常显像.结论 大多数抑郁症患者存在脑边缘系统rCBF降低,部分患者存在基底节区rCBF增高.SPECT能敏感地发现抑郁症患者rCBF灌注的变化,对抑郁症的诊断具有一定的价值.%Objective To analyze the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with SPECT in depressive patients, and explore the diagnosis value of rCBF imaging for depression. Methods The rCBF imaging was detected by single emission computed tomography (SPECT) on 32 depressive patients and 10 normal subjects, and the characteristics of rCBF changes were assessed with a region-of-interest (ROI) technique. Normal MRI scans were conducted on 11 patients at the same stage. Results Abnormal rCBF was showed in 31 patients with 71 focuses that were located in the bilateral frontal lobe (9), the basal ganglia (5) and the limbic system (57), including the temporal lobe, the hippocampus, the cingulated gyms and the left insular cortex. All abnormalities presented a decreased rCBF except the basal ganglia. No

  19. From human monocytes to genome-wide binding sites--a protocol for small amounts of blood: monocyte isolation/ChIP-protocol/library amplification/genome wide computational data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weiterer

    Full Text Available Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with a genome-wide analysis via high-throughput sequencing is the state of the art method to gain genome-wide representation of histone modification or transcription factor binding profiles. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in the context of human experimental samples is limited, especially in the case of blood cells. The typically extremely low yields of precipitated DNA are usually not compatible with library amplification for next generation sequencing. We developed a highly reproducible protocol to present a guideline from the first step of isolating monocytes from a blood sample to analyse the distribution of histone modifications in a genome-wide manner.The protocol describes the whole work flow from isolating monocytes from human blood samples followed by a high-sensitivity and small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with guidance for generating libraries compatible with next generation sequencing from small amounts of immunoprecipitated DNA.

  20. Medical Computing: Another Basic Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1980-01-01

    Medical computing is frequently viewed as the application of established computer science techniques in medical domains. However, it is the thesis of this paper that many clinical computing tasks demand techniques that are as yet undeveloped. As a result, medical computing research should logically be closely tied to basic research in computer science. Failure to recognize that this developing discipline often requires fundamental investigation has tended to foster unrealistic expectations of...

  1. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should b...

  2. 75 FR 36060 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Blood and Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Collection; Blood and Tissue Collection at Slaughtering and Rendering Establishments AGENCY: Animal and Plant... collection associated with regulations for blood and tissue collection at slaughtering and rendering... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for blood and tissue collection...

  3. Evaluation of Amount of Blood in Dry Blood Spots: Ring-Disk Electrode Conductometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadjo, Akinde F; Stamos, Brian N; Shelor, C Phillip; Berg, Jordan M; Blount, Benjamin C; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2016-06-21

    A fixed area punch in dried blood spot (DBS) analysis is assumed to contain a fixed amount of blood, but the amount actually depends on a number of factors. The presently preferred approach is to normalize the measurement with respect to the sodium level, measured by atomic spectrometry. Instead of sodium levels, we propose electrical conductivity of the extract as an equivalent nondestructive measure. A dip-type small diameter ring-disk electrode (RDE) is ideal for very small volumes. However, the conductance (G) measured by an RDE depends on the depth (D) of the liquid below the probe. There is no established way of computing the specific conductance (σ) of the solution from G. Using a COMSOL Multiphysics model, we were able to obtain excellent agreement between the measured and the model predicted conductance as a function of D. Using simulations over a large range of dimensions, we provide a spreadsheet-based calculator where the RDE dimensions are the input parameters and the procedure determines the 99% of the infinite depth conductance (G99) and the depth D99 at which this is reached. For typical small diameter probes (outer electrode diameter ∼ <2 mm), D99 is small enough for dip-type measurements in extract volumes of ∼100 μL. We demonstrate the use of such probes with DBS extracts. In a small group of 12 volunteers (age 20-66), the specific conductance of 100 μL aqueous extracts of 2 μL of spotted blood showed a variance of 17.9%. For a given subject, methanol extracts of DBS spots nominally containing 8 and 4 μL of blood differed by a factor of 1.8-1.9 in the chromatographically determined values of sulfate and chloride (a minor and major constituent, respectively). The values normalized with respect to the conductance of the extracts differed by ∼1%. For serum associated analytes, normalization of the analyte value by the extract conductance can thus greatly reduce errors from variations in the spotted blood volume/unit area. PMID:27226021

  4. Capillary pericytes regulate cerebral blood flow in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Catherine N; Reynell, Clare; Gesslein, Bodil;

    2014-01-01

    Increases in brain blood flow, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and form the basis of BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional imaging. Whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes, is controversial. We demonstrate...... blood flow, capillaries dilate before arterioles and are estimated to produce 84% of the blood flow increase. In pathology, ischaemia evokes capillary constriction by pericytes. We show that this is followed by pericyte death in rigor, which may irreversibly constrict capillaries and damage the blood-brain...

  5. Glial and neuronal control of brain blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwell, David; Buchan, Alastair M; Charpak, Serge;

    2010-01-01

    Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now...... recognized that neurotransmitter-mediated signalling has a key role in regulating cerebral blood flow, that much of this control is mediated by astrocytes, that oxygen modulates blood flow regulation, and that blood flow may be controlled by capillaries as well as by arterioles. These conceptual shifts...... in our understanding of cerebral blood flow control have important implications for the development of new therapeutic approaches....

  6. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  8. Introduction to Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization and Blood Safety in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abolghasemi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nCurrently, in Iran blood transfusion is an integral part of the national health system and blood donation is voluntary and non­remu­nerated and blood and its components may not be a source of profit. In 1974 and following establishment of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO all blood transfusion activities from donor recruitment to production of blood com­po­nents and delivery of blood and blood products were centralized. The activities of IBTO are followed the laws and regu­la­tions of Ministry of Health and criteria of Iran National Regulatory Authority. In order to meet the country's demand in 2007 IBTO collected about 1.7 millions units of blood from the population of 70 millions. In 1979 coincided with the Is­lamic revolution the number of  blood units collected throughout the country were 124,000 units or 3.4 unit per 1000 popu­la­tion whereas after about 30 years this increased to about 25 unit per 1000 population. With improving the pool of vol­un­tary donors, IBTO has been successful in excluding "family replacement" donation since 2007 and reached to 100% volun­tary and nonremunerated blood donation. Currently more than 92% of blood donors in Iran are male and contribution of fe­male in blood donation is less than 8%. Although all donated blood in Iran screened for HBsAg since 1974, screening of blood units for HIV and HCV started since 1989 and 1996, respectively. The frequency of HBV infection in blood do­nors showed a significant decline from 1.79% in 1998 to 0.4% in 2007. The overall frequency of HCV and HIV infection are 0.13% and 0.004% respectively.

  9. 慢性心力衰竭心气虚兼血瘀水肿证大鼠模型的建立与整合判定%Establishment of Chronic Heart Failure Rat Model of Xin-qi Deficiency Complicated Blood Stasis and Edema Syndrome and Judgment of Diagnosis Information Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家茂; 郭伟星; 王营; 刘颖; 李亚茹; 李珩; 周杰

    2014-01-01

    血瘀水肿证的SD大鼠模型.%Objective To establish and evaluate chronic heart failure (CHF) rat model of Xin-qi deficiency complicated blood stasis and edema syndrome (XQD-BSES).Methods Totally 40 SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group (Control),the propylthiouracil (PTU) group,the adriamycin (ADR),and the ADR + PTU group.Normal saline was used as equivalent solvent of each group.Rats in the Control group were intragastrically and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline.Rats in the PTU group were intragastrically injected with PTU suspension and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline.Rats in the ADR group were intragastrically injected with ADR solution and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline.And rats in the ADR + PTU group were intragastrically injected with PTU suspension and intraperitoneally injected with ADR solution.The dose of PTU was 0.2% of daily forage weight,once daily.The dose of ADR was 3.5 mg/kg,once per week.The modeling lasted for 6 weeks.Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF),left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS),brain natriuretic peptide (BNP),heart rate (HR),respiratory rate (RR),urine output,ear temperature,exhaustive swimming test (EST),Tri-iodothyronine (T3),tetra-iodothyronine (T4),thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as heart,lung,liver weight indices and their pathological sections were integrated and compared.Results Compared with the Control group,LVEF,LVFS,BNP,HR,RR,heart,lung,liver weight indices,urine output,ear temperature,EST,and T3,T4,and TSH changed significantly in the ADR group,the PTU group,and the ADR + PTU group with statistical significance (P <0.05),and pathological changes of heart failure occurred in pathological sections of heart,lung,and liver.Compared with the ADR group,LVEF,LVFS,BNP,and lung,liver weight indices,urine output,ear temperature,T3,T4,and TSH changed significantly in the ADR + PTU group with statistical significance (P < 0.05),and

  10. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Alireza; Charjouei Moghadam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Buerger’s disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger’s disease. Methods: In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger’s disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew artery of a patient diagnosed with the Buerger’s disease. The blood properties are the same as the actual blood properties of the patient. The blood flow rate is taken from the available experimental data in the literature. Results: The local velocity patterns, pressure and kinematic viscosity distributions in different segments of the corkscrew collateral artery was demonstrated and discussed for the first time for this kind of artery. The effects of non-Newtonian consideration for the blood viscosity behavior were investigated in different segments of the artery. Moreover, the variations of the blood flow patterns along the artery were investigated in details for each segment. Conclusion: It was found that the flow patterns were affected by the complex geometry of this artery in such a way that it could lead to the presence of sites that were prone to the accumulation of the flowing particles in blood like nicotine. Furthermore, due to the existence of many successive bends in this artery, the variations of kinematic viscosity along this artery were significant, therefore the non-Newtonian behavior of the blood viscosity must be considered. PMID:27340623

  11. 大鼠高血流性肺动脉高压模型建立及病理生理改变%Establishment and pathophysiological changes of a rat model of increased blood flow-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by anastomosis of the left common carotid artery to left external jugular vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵科研; 李红岩; 王辉山; 佟昌慈; 张玉彪; 施琳; 侯明晓

    2015-01-01

    test using SPSS 16.0.Results There was no significant difference in body weight gains between the groups .The patency rate of shunt was 84.6%.The heart was enlarged in the group shunt .Cardiac output increased significantly in the shunt group than that in the other two groups [(309.8 ±33.1) mL/min・kg vs.(245.6 ±31.9) mL/min・kg, (240.8 ±30.9)mL/min・kg, respectively, P<0.05].In the shunt group Qp/Qs was 2.16 ±0.38 and RVSP increased to (35.8 ±4.9) mmHg, RVHI was 0.3263 ± 0.0342, significantly higher than that of the other groups .The pulmonary arteriolar wall was evidently thickened in contrast to that in the sham group [ ( 22.3 ±1.7 )% vs.( 10.6 ±1.7 )%, P <0.05 ) .Conclusions Anastomosis of the left common carotid artery to left external jugular vein can successfully establish pulmonary arterial hypertension model induced by high blood flow in rats .

  12. Establishment of FMEA risk management procedures for blood coagulation tests in clinical laboratories%临床实验室按照 FM EA 模式构建凝血功能检测项目的风险管理程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛广华; 高玉洁; 崔百慧

    2016-01-01

    使用FMEA模型确定检验医学中心风险管理工作流程和关键环节。根据IS015189认可准则、CAP实验室认可检查条款等的相关标准,识别出实验室凝血功能检测工作流程中关键环节的风险。针对凝血功能检测的评价活动,采取积极的纠正措施,通过监测系统周期性地审核性能数据,可以对凝血功能检测的质量持续改进。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:13-17)%Definiting the workflow and key link of the risk management in medical laboratory by FMEA.Identifying risk factors of the workflow and key link of blood coagulation test by the criteria for laboratory accreditation , such as ISO15189 recognition criteria and CAP laboratory accreditation inspection . Through the evaluation of the blood coagulation test , effective corrective actions and examining performance data periodically , the quality of the blood coagulation test can be improved continuously.

  13. [Solid phase techniques in blood group serology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthemann, H; Sturmfels, L; Lenhard, V

    1993-06-01

    As alternatives to hemagglutination, solid-phase red blood cell adherence assays are of increasing importance. The adaptation of the new techniques to microplates offers several advantages over hemagglutination. Using microplates the assays may be processed semiautomatically, and the results can be read spectrophotometrically and interpreted by a personal computer. In this paper, different red blood cell adherence assays for AB0 grouping, Rh typing, Rh phenotyping, antibody screening and identification, as well as crossmatching will be described.

  14. Cloud Computing Vs. Grid Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi; Amid Khatibi Bardsiri

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing emerges as one of the hottest topic in field of information technology. Cloud computing is based on several other computing research areas such as HPC, virtualization, utility computing and grid computing. In order to make clear the essential of cloud computing, we propose the characteristics of this area which make cloud computing being cloud computing and distinguish it from other research areas. The service oriented, loose coupling, strong fault tolerant, business model and...

  15. The influence of x-ray contrast agents in computed tomography on the induction of dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes of human blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, G.; Golfier, S.; Pietsch, H.; Lengsfeld, P.; Voth, M.; Schmid, T. E.; Eckardt-Schupp, F.; Schmid, E.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify two biomarkers for radiation exposure (dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci) in human lymphocytes after CT scans in the presence of an iodinated contrast agent. Blood samples from a healthy donor were exposed to CT scans in the absence or presence of iotrolan 300 at iodine concentrations of 5 or 50 mg ml-1 blood. The samples were exposed to 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 Gy in a tissue equivalent body phantom. Chromosome aberration scoring and automated microscopic analysis of γ-H2AX foci were performed in parts of the same samples. The theoretical physical dose enhancement factor (DEF) was calculated on the basis of the mass energy-absorption coefficients of iodine and blood and the photon energy spectrum of the CT tube. No significant differences in the yields of dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci were observed in the absence or presence of 5 mg iodine ml-1 blood up to 0.1 Gy, whereas at 1 Gy the yields were elevated for both biomarkers. At an iodine concentration of 50 mg ml-1 serving as a positive control, a biological DEF of 9.5 ± 1.4 and 2.3 ± 0.5 was determined for dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci, respectively. A physical DEF of 1.56 and 6.30 was calculated for 5 and 50 mg iodine ml-1, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that in the diagnostic dose range (radiation and contrast dose), no relevant biological dose-enhancing effect could be detected, whereas a clear biological dose-enhancing effect could be found for a contrast dose well outside the diagnostic CT range for the complete radiation dose range with both methods.

  16. Simulation of blood flow within the abdominal aorta. Computational fluid dynamics in abdominal aortic aneurysms before and after interventions; Simulation des Blutflusses in der abdominellen Aorta. Die numerische Simulation des Blutflusses in abdominellen Aortenaneurysmen vor und nach Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenfelder, T.; Alkadhi, H.; Marincek, B.; Schertler, T. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zuerich (Switzerland); Boutsianis, E. [ETH Zuerich, Labor fuer Computerwissenschaften und Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-11-15

    The goal of numeric analysis of aortic blood flow is to evaluate the mechanisms leading to an aortic aneurysm with regard to the risk of a rupture and to describe the effect of interventional therapy. Numeric analysis is based on virtual models of vascular structures and the physical characteristics of the vessel wall, of blood as fluidum, and the blood flow. Using this information, numeric analysis solves the appropriate equations. The results can be displayed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results of numeric flow simulation show that in abdominal aortic aneurysms the wall pressure, which is of vital importance for the risk of rupture, depends on several factors, one being the location of the intraluminal thrombus. In models of aneurysms after stent grafting, numeric analysis can be used to evaluate factors leading to stent migration. Although numeric analysis of aortic blood flow still has several limitations, recent studies have shown that this method has the potential for improved estimation of the rupture risk of aortic aneurysms in the near future. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel der numerischen Simulation des Blutflusses in der Aorta ist, die Mechanik der Entstehung von Aortenaneurysmen im Hinblick auf das Rupturrisiko zu untersuchen und die Wirkungen interventioneller Massnahmen zu beschreiben. Die Grundlage der numerischen Simulation sind virtuelle Modelle von Gefaessen und die physikalischen Eigenschaften der Gefaessbestandteile, des Blutes und der Stroemung. Basierend auf diesen Angaben werden mit Hilfe numerischer Methoden die stroemungsmechanischen Probleme des Blutflusses naeherungsweise geloest. Die Ergebnisse koennen dann quantitativ und qualitativ dargestellt werden. Die Ergebnisse der numerischen Flusssimulation zeigen, dass in abdominellen Aortenaneurysmen die Hoehe des Wanddrucks, der von entscheidender Bedeutung fuer das Rupturrisiko ist, von verschiedenen Faktoren, wie z. B. der Lage des Wandthrombus, abhaengt. In Modellen mit Stentgrafts

  17. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  18. Potential Blood-based Biomarkers for Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Mounting research in the field of sports concussion biomarkers has led to a greater understanding of the effects of brain injury from sports. A recent systematic review of clinical studies examining biomarkers of brain injury following sports-related concussion established that almost all studies have been published either in or after the year 2000. In an effort to prevent chronic traumatic encephalopathy and long-term consequences of concussion, early diagnostic and prognostic tools are becoming increasingly important; particularly in sports and in military personnel, where concussions are common occurrences. Early and tailored management of athletes following a concussion with biomarkers could provide them with the best opportunity to avoid further injury. Should blood-based biomarkers for concussion be validated and become widely available, they could have many roles. For instance, a point-of-care test could be used on the field by trained sport medicine professionals to help detect a concussion. In the clinic or hospital setting, it could be used by clinicians to determine the severity of concussion and be used to screen players for neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) and further neuropsychological testing. Furthermore, biomarkers could have a role in monitoring progression of injury and recovery and in managing patients at high risk of repeated injury by being incorporated into guidelines for return to duty, work, or sports activities. There may even be a role for biomarkers as surrogate measures of efficacy in the assessment of new treatments and therapies for concussion. PMID:27482776

  19. Cancer diagnosis by autofluorescence of blood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, V. E-mail: masilamaniv@yahoo.com; Al-Zhrani, K.; Al-Salhi, M.; Al-Diab, A.; Al-Ageily, M

    2004-09-01

    The autofluorescence of blood components of healthy volunteers and cancer patients of different etiology were analyzed using a steady-state spectrofluorometer. A significant contrast between healthy and diseased blood could be established. Blood components of patients of gastric cancer, breast cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma showed distinct and enhanced fluorescence band (around 630 nm) due to the porphyrin fluorophore. From the ratio fluorometry, a correlation to the stages of cancer could be also brought forth. We could indicate reasonably well the features of early stages and the growth rate of a few cancers and benign tumors.

  20. Effect of perioperative blood transfusions on long term graft outcomes in renal transplant patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Frank J

    2012-06-01

    It is established that blood transfusions will promote sensitization to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antigens, increase time spent waiting for transplantation and may lead to higher rates of rejection. Less is known about how perioperative blood transfusion influence patient and graft outcome. This study aims to establish if there is an association between perioperative blood transfusion and graft or patient survival.

  1. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperglycemia) can be a sign of the disease diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar levels can eventually damage ... treated with the same medications used to treat diabetes. There is no simple blood test for insulin ...

  2. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  3. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  5. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum ferritin level ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron is important for red blood cell production. Your doctor ...

  6. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... and kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... San Diego, CA Abstracts Registration Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue ... clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  11. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must be confirmed with another ... were seen in your blood sample. If the ELISA test is negative, usually no other testing is needed. ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  13. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The best test for diagnosing anthrax is a culture of affected tissue or blood. Alternative Names Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis Images Blood test Bacillus anthracis References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ... Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the field Hematology 2015 A collection of articles from the 2015 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ...

  19. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult to grow in culture, and additional blood cultures using special nutrient media may be done to try to grow and identify the pathogen . Viruses cannot be detected using blood culture bottles designed to grow bacteria. If the health ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ...

  1. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  2. Modeling of blood flow in arterial trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anor, Tomer; Grinberg, Leopold; Baek, Hyoungsu; Madsen, Joseph R; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Karniadakis, George E

    2010-01-01

    Advances in computational methods and medical imaging techniques have enabled accurate simulations of subject-specific blood flows at the level of individual blood cell and in complex arterial networks. While in the past, we were limited to simulations with one arterial bifurcation, the current state-of-the-art is simulations of arterial networks consisting of hundreds of arteries. In this paper, we review the advances in methods for vascular flow simulations in large arterial trees. We discuss alternative approaches and validity of various assumptions often made to simplify the modeling. To highlight the similarities and discrepancies of data computed with different models, computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) and inexpensive one-dimensional (1D) flow simulations in very large arterial networks are employed. Finally, we discuss the possibilities, challenges, and limitations of the computational methods for predicting outcomes of therapeutic interventions for individual patients. PMID:20836052

  3. Blood groups systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranadhir Mitra; Nitasha Mishra; Girija Prasad Rath

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importa...

  4. Blood Donation Management System

    OpenAIRE

    K M Akkas Ali; Israt Jahan; Md. Ariful Islam; Md. Shafa-at Parvez

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood) and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this app...

  5. Examining blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent specification relates to an invention concerned with improvements in or relating to the examination of blood vessels of interest. Particles of dimensions not greater than 8 microns capable of providing detectable signals, are introduced into the blood for examination of a blood vessel. The particles may be sources of radiation, e.g. Ga68. (author)

  6. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  7. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  8. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  10. Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavana Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is such a type of computing environment, where business owners outsource their computing needs including application software services to a third party and when they need to use the computing power or employees need to use the application resources like database, emails etc., they access the resources via Internet. Cloud computing the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a (typically the Internet).

  11. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  12. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.). Although most people would think that analog synthesizers and electronic music substantially predate the use of computers in music, many experiments and complete computer music systems were being constructed and used as early as the 1950s.

  13. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  14. Quantification of facial contamination with blood during orthopaedic procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, D

    2012-02-03

    Operative surgery exposes the surgeon to possible blood-borne infections. Risks include pen-etrating injuries and conjunctival contact with infected blood. Visor masks worn during orthopaedic trauma procedures were assessed for blood contamination using computer analysis. This was found to be present on 86% of masks, of which only 15% was recognized by the surgeon intraoperatively. Of the blood splashes 80% were less than 0.6mm in diameter. We conclude that power instrumentation produces a blood particulate mist causing considerable microscopic, facial contamination which is a significant risk to the surgeon.

  15. Cord blood transplantation: can we make it better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland eMetheny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood is an established source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. It enjoys several advantages over bone marrow or peripheral blood, including increased tolerance for Human Leukocyte Antigen mismatches, decreased incidence of graft-versus-host disease, and easy availability. Unrelated cord blood does have limitations, however, especially in the treatment of adults. In the 24 years since the first umbilical cord blood transplant was performed, significant progress has been made, but delayed hematopoietic engraftment and increased treatment related mortality remain obstacles to widespread use. Here we summarize the latest results of unrelated cord blood transplants, and review strategies under investigation to improve clinical outcomes.

  16. [Autologous blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencher, N; Conseiller, C

    2001-06-30

    Autologous blood transfusion techniques are the principal means of reducing allogeneic blood exposure. Those techniques were developed in order to prevent the risk of contamination by viruses, mainly HVB, HCV and HIV. However that risk has become so small that all studies show an exorbitant cost/efficiency ratio. Autologous blood transfusion would therefore be of no interest in terms of public health but a recent experimental study suggested a possible transmission of the BSE agent through blood. Until the matter is settled, the precaution principle means we should prefer alternative techniques to allogeneic blood whenever possible, hence a renewed interest in autologous transfusion. PMID:11503506

  17. BLOOD SERVICE IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    TASHTEMIROV K.K.; LATVALA E.; IMANGAZINOV S.B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the post is to summarize the experience of blood service in Finland by the result of the business move and examination of the service activities at the point.The research materials indicate that the blood service in Finland is a non-profit organization and is an independent part of the Finnish Red Cross (FRC). All expenses and development of Blood Service are covered by the sale of blood and blood products and expert services in the Finnish health care system. It is responsible fo...

  18. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  19. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  20. Blood Donation Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Akkas Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this application. The mobile application always updates the location of a donor. As a result, the system can automatically find a registered donor wherever he/she goes. Visitors can search blood donors from the home page by blood group and the place where blood is needed. The system will show the available donors along with their phone number, email address and mailing address through arranging them by nearest place and blood donation expire date. Visitors can send message to all donors through email but a member can send message using email and mobile phone. An appointment will be created only whenever a donor confirms that he/she will donate blood. Then the system will alert the donor before 12 hours of donation. Blood donors can also be searched from the mobile application, but this is only accessible for registered members. The goal of this paper is to reduce the complexity of the system to find blood donors in an emergency situation.

  1. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  2. Blood groups systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  3. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  4. Blood pressure circadian rhythm and obesity: Blood pressure variations and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The association between obesity and arterial hypertension has been established in a great number of studies. Our objective was to investigate whether circadian rhythm of blood pressure is disturbed among obese people. Material and methods In this cross-sectional, randomized study, Schiller BR-102 device was used for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred and twenty outpatients were divided into three randomized groups: obese body mass index 30 kg/m2 (52 patients, overweight (28 patients, with body mass index 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 and normal weight (control group (48 patients, with body mass index 18,5-24,9 kg/m2. In all patients we investigated the following blood pressure parameters: average blood pressure (total, day-time and night-time, maximal blood pressure and dipping or non-dipping blood pressure pattern during night (for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Results In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2 only systolic blood pressure parameters were significantly higher - average blood pressure - during daytime (P=0.034 and during night (P=0.014; maximal blood pressure (P=0.001. In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2, absence of normal blood pressure during night was significantly more often registered (P=0.007. Discussion and Conclusion The non-dipping blood pressure pattern and increase of systolic blood pressure only reveal hyper activation of sympathetic nervous system as a leading pathophysiological mechanism causing arterial hypertension in obese patients.

  5. Statins improve the resolution of established murine venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessinger, Chase W; Kim, Jin Won; Henke, Peter K;

    2015-01-01

    significantly reduced stasis venous thrombus burden by 25% without affecting lipid levels, blood coagulation parameters, or blood cell counts. Statin-driven reductions in VT burden (thrombus mass for stasis thrombi, intravital microscopy thrombus area for non-stasis thrombi) compared similarly to the......-lipid-lowering agents with anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties-in decreasing thrombus burden and decreasing vein wall injury, mediators of PTS, in established murine stasis and non-stasis chemical-induced venous thrombosis (N = 282 mice). Treatment of mice with daily atorvastatin or rosuvastatin...... therapeutic anticoagulant effects of low molecular weight heparin. Blood from statin-treated mice showed significant reductions in platelet aggregation and clot stability. Statins additionally reduced thrombus plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil...

  6. Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavana Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is such a type of computing environment, where business owners outsource their computing needs including application software services to a third party and when they need to use the computing power or employees need to use the application resources like database, emails etc., they access the resources via Internet

  7. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振桥

    2002-01-01

    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  8. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-05-01

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers on demand. In this article,we describe the grid computing model and enumerate themajor differences between grid and cloud computing.

  9. Use of blood and blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E; Wood, B

    1999-11-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice, are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20% to 25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7% to 12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five percent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10 to 20 mL/kg recipient weight is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10 to 15 mL of blood/kg body weight at 2- to 4-week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood cross-matching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 mL of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria

  10. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  11. Computational composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Redström, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Computational composite is introduced as a new type of composite material. Arguing that this is not just a metaphorical maneuver, we provide an analysis of computational technology as material in design, which shows how computers share important characteristics with other materials used in design...... and architecture. We argue that the notion of computational composites provides a precise understanding of the computer as material, and of how computations need to be combined with other materials to come to expression as material. Besides working as an analysis of computers from a designer’s point of view...

  12. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Truhlar, Donald G.; McKoy, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  13. Establishment of ITER: Relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Geneva Summit Meeting in November, 1985, a proposal was made by the Soviet Union to build a next-generation tokamak experiment on a collaborative basis involving the world's four major fusion blocks. In October, 1986, after consulting with Japan and the European Community, the United States responded with a proposal on how to implement such an activity. Ensuing diplomatic and technical discussions resulted in the establishment, under the auspices of the IAEA, of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Conceptual Design Activities. This tome represents a collection of all documents relating to the establishment of ITER, beginning with the initial meeting of the ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee in Vienna on 15-16 March, 1987, through the meeting of the Provisional ITER Council, also in Vienna, on 8-9 February, 1988

  14. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  15. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is healthy for you. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: ... Alternative Names Controlling hypertension Images Taking your blood pressure at home Blood pressure check Low sodium diet References American Diabetes ...

  16. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also known as blood vessels and capillaries. The pressure --- blood pressure --- is the result of two forces. The ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  17. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...

  18. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Coagulation Dynamics of Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnár, T.; Sequeira, A.

    2008-01-01

    The process of platelet activation and blood coagulation is quite complex and not yet completely understood. Recently, a phenomenological meaningful model of blood coagulation and clot formation in flowing blood that extends existing models to integrate biochemical, physiological and rheological factors, has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present results from a computational study of a simplified version of this coupled fluid-biochemistry model. A generalized Newtonian model with...

  20. The effects of blood pressure reduction and of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events according to baseline blood pressure : meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichow, Sebastien; Zanchetti, Alberto; Turnbull, Fiona; Barzi, Federica; Ninomiya, Toshiaru; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, Hisatomi; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background The benefits of reducing blood pressure are well established, but there remains uncertainty about whether the magnitude of the effect varies with the initial blood pressure level. The objective was to compare the risk reductions achieved by different blood pressure-lowering regimens among

  1. Glial and neuronal control of brain blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwell, David; Buchan, Alastair M; Charpak, Serge;

    2010-01-01

    Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now...

  2. Duality Computing in Quantum Computers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Gui-Lu; LIU Yang

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a duality computing mode, which resembles particle-wave duality property when a quantum system such as a quantum computer passes through a double-slit. In this mode, computing operations are not necessarily unitary. The duality mode provides a natural link between classical computing and quantum computing. In addition, the duality mode provides a new tool for quantum algorithm design.

  3. Computational manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for computational manufacturing. The methodology of computational manufacturing aims at integrating computational geometry, machining principle, sensor information fusion, optimization, computational intelligence and virtual prototyping to solve problems of the modeling, reasoning, control, planning and scheduling of manufacturing processes and systems. There are three typical problems in computational manufacturing, i.e., scheduling (time-domain), geometric reasoning (space-domain) and decision- making (interaction between time-domain and space-domain). Some theoretical fundamentals of computational manufacturing are also discussed.

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis B & hepatitis C virus infections in potential blood donors in rural Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Viet, Le; Le, Van Viet; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Lan; Ty, Phung Xuan; Bjørkvoll, Bjørn; Hoel, Hedda B; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Husebekk, Anne; Larsen,Stig; Skjerve, Eystein; Husum, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Safe blood and blood products should be offered to all patients in need for blood transfusion. The objectives of the present study were to establish prevalence estimates for hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in rural Vietnam, and to check the accuracy of the laboratory analysis used for hepatitis testing of blood donors in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural communities in Quang Tri...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ...

  7. Drying drops of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  8. 5 CFR 530.304 - Establishing or increasing special rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... special rate schedule that covers only law enforcement officers, OPM may compute the special rate... REGULATIONS PAY RATES AND SYSTEMS (GENERAL) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General.... When OPM establishes a minimum special rate under this authority, corresponding increases also may...

  9. A well-established profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2011-01-01

    It was during the economic boom of the 1960s that the demand for landscape architects began to explode in Denmark as the expanding welfare state brought about rapid physical changes. At this time the country’s first specific education for landscape architects was established and 2010 marked the 5......th anniversary of landscape architecture teaching, at the Faculty of Life Science – the University of Copenhagen(KU-Life). It’s origins can be traced further back but, then as now, the essence of the education is that of creating a dynamic synergy of the sciences and the arts....

  10. Hospitals and health care establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These guidelines have been drown up to assist all those involved in the management and maintenance of hospitals and health care establishments. Compliance with this guidance should minimise the risk of pollution occurring. The guidelines are jointly produced by the Environment Agency for England and Wales, the Scottish Environment Protection Agency and the Environment and Heritage Service for Northern Ireland, referred to as the Agency or Agencies. It includes guidelines on site drainage, sewage and waste water disposal, treatment of surface water drainage and waste management

  11. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2006-11-01

    Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to

  12. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 3,2015 What is Computerized Tomography (CT)? CT is a noninvasive test that uses ...

  13. Computational physics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, A M

    2002-06-15

    Computing comprises three distinct strands: hardware, software and the ways they are used in real or imagined worlds. Its use in research is more than writing or running code. Having something significant to compute and deploying judgement in what is attempted and achieved are especially challenging. In science or engineering, one must define a central problem in computable form, run such software as is appropriate and, last but by no means least, convince others that the results are both valid and useful. These several strands are highly interdependent. A major scientific development can transform disparate aspects of information and computer technologies. Computers affect the way we do science, as well as changing our personal worlds. Access to information is being transformed, with consequences beyond research or even science. Creativity in research is usually considered uniquely human, with inspiration a central factor. Scientific and technological needs are major forces in innovation, and these include hardware and software opportunities. One can try to define the scientific needs for established technologies (atomic energy, the early semiconductor industry), for rapidly developing technologies (advanced materials, microelectronics) and for emerging technologies (nanotechnology, novel information technologies). Did these needs define new computing, or was science diverted into applications of then-available codes? Regarding credibility, why is it that engineers accept computer realizations when designing engineered structures, whereas predictive modelling of materials has yet to achieve industrial confidence outside very special cases? The tensions between computing and traditional science are complex, unpredictable and potentially powerful.

  14. Contextual Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Porzel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the latest in knowledge representation and human-computer interaction to address the problem of contextual computing in artificial intelligence. It uses high-level context to solve some challenging problems in natural language understanding.

  15. Stream Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kak, Subhash

    2008-01-01

    Stream computing is the use of multiple autonomic and parallel modules together with integrative processors at a higher level of abstraction to embody "intelligent" processing. The biological basis of this computing is sketched and the matter of learning is examined.

  16. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  17. Computational dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  18. Computer Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelle, Richard; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes the nature and use of computer algebra and its applications to various physical sciences. Includes diagrams illustrating, among others, a computer algebra system and flow chart of operation of the Euclidean algorithm. (SK)

  19. Towards a computational transportation science

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Winter; Monika Sester; Ouri Wolfson; Glenn Geers

    2011-01-01

    This report of a community activity, a Dagstuhl Seminar earlier in 2010, postulates the need for a computational transportation science, as the science behind intelligent transportation systems. In addition to the argument for establishing a discipline, we present a first research agenda for computational transportation science.

  20. Cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kodera, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with cloud computing in Czech Republic, specifically providers of cloud services. In theoretical part there will be explained what is cloud computing, different kinds of cloud computing, virtualization necessary for cloud computing, main concerns about cloud security and also, where cloud is physically stored. In practical part author choose the best solution for company from selected cloud providers in the Czech Republic by using mathematical methods, then author compare th...

  1. Computable models

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are al

  2. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion: Military and Civilian Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Carl W; Tranberg, John W; Boyer, Phillip; Silvestri, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage and exsanguination are the leading cause of preventable death, and resuscitative therapy is a critical component for survival. In various combinations, fresh whole blood, blood components, colloids, and crystalloids have all been staples of trauma care. The use of fresh whole blood is a well-established military practice that has saved the lives of thousands of American and coalition military personnel. Civilian use of fresh whole blood is far less established owing to the wide availability of individual blood components. However, this highly tailored blood supply is vulnerable to both natural and man-made disasters. In the event of such disruption, such as a major hurricane, it may be necessary for civilian hospitals to rapidly enact a fresh whole blood program. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current use of blood therapy for trauma resuscitation, the US military's approach to fresh whole blood, and how maintaining a civilian capacity for fresh whole blood collection in the event of future man-made and natural disasters is key to promoting survival from trauma. PMID:27252101

  3. Computing fundamentals introduction to computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    The absolute beginner's guide to learning basic computer skills Computing Fundamentals, Introduction to Computers gets you up to speed on basic computing skills, showing you everything you need to know to conquer entry-level computing courses. Written by a Microsoft Office Master Instructor, this useful guide walks you step-by-step through the most important concepts and skills you need to be proficient on the computer, using nontechnical, easy-to-understand language. You'll start at the very beginning, getting acquainted with the actual, physical machine, then progress through the most common

  4. Quantum Computing for Computer Architects

    CERN Document Server

    Metodi, Tzvetan

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore

  5. Computer Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This manual designed to provide the teacher with methods of understanding the computer and its potential in the classroom includes four units with exercises and an answer sheet. Unit 1 covers computer fundamentals, the mini computer, programming languages, an introduction to BASIC, and control instructions. Variable names and constants described…

  6. Computational Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    of the new microprocessors and network technologies. However, the understanding of the computer represented within this program poses a challenge for the intentions of the program. The computer is understood as a multitude of invisible intelligent information devices which confines the computer as a tool...

  7. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Blood Flow through Capillary Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Pozrikidis, C

    2011-08-01

    A numerical method is implemented for computing unsteady blood flow through a branching capillary network. The evolution of the discharge hematocrit along each capillary segment is computed by integrating in time a one-dimensional convection equation using a finite-difference method. The convection velocity is determined by the local and instantaneous effective capillary blood viscosity, while the tube to discharge hematocrit ratio is deduced from available correlations. Boundary conditions for the discharge hematocrit at divergent bifurcations arise from the partitioning law proposed by Klitzman and Johnson involving a dimensionless exponent, q≥1. When q=1, the cells are partitioned in proportion to the flow rate; as q tends to infinity, the cells are channeled into the branch with the highest flow rate. Simulations are performed for a tree-like, perfectly symmetric or randomly perturbed capillary network with m generations. When the tree involves more than a few generations, a supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs at a critical value of q, yielding spontaneous self-sustained oscillations in the absence of external forcing. A phase diagram in the m-q plane is presented to establish conditions for unsteady flow, and the effect of various geometrical and physical parameters is examined. For a given network tree order, m, oscillations can be induced for a sufficiently high value of q by increasing the apparent intrinsic viscosity, decreasing the ratio of the vessel diameter from one generation to the next, or by decreasing the diameter of the terminal vessels. With other parameters fixed, oscillations are inhibited by increasing m. The results of the continuum model are in excellent agreement with the predictions of a discrete model where the motion of individual cells is followed from inlet to outlet.

  8. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  9. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  10. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  14. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational content The Hematologist Features Diffusion President's Column ASH Clinical News Society News Clinical News Features ASH Self- ...

  16. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  17. Mathematical structures for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Janke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive exploration of the mathematics behind the modeling and rendering of computer graphics scenes Mathematical Structures for Computer Graphics presents an accessible and intuitive approach to the mathematical ideas and techniques necessary for two- and three-dimensional computer graphics. Focusing on the significant mathematical results, the book establishes key algorithms used to build complex graphics scenes. Written for readers with various levels of mathematical background, the book develops a solid foundation for graphics techniques and fills in relevant grap

  18. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...

  19. Computing Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Braxton, Donald M.; Upal, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    The computational approach has become an invaluable tool in many fields that are directly relevant to research in religious phenomena. Yet the use of computational tools is almost absent in the study of religion. Given that religion is a cluster of interrelated phenomena and that research...... concerning these phenomena should strive for multilevel analysis, this article argues that the computational approach offers new methodological and theoretical opportunities to the study of religion. We argue that the computational approach offers 1.) an intermediary step between any theoretical construct...... general computational issues, and finally applications that model behavior in religious contexts....

  20. Computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Edward K

    2011-01-01

    Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It focuses on the deeper aspects of the two recognized subdivisions of Computer Science, Software and Hardware. These subdivisions are shown to be closely interrelated as a result of the stored-program concept. Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It includes certain classical theoretical computer science topics such as Unsolvability (e.g. the halting problem) and Undecidability (e.g. Godel's incompleteness theorem) that treat problems that exist under the Church-Turing thesis of computation. These problem topics explain in

  1. Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mirashe, Shivaji P.; Kalyankar, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    Computing as you know it is about to change, your applications and documents are going to move from the desktop into the cloud. I'm talking about cloud computing, where applications and files are hosted on a "cloud" consisting of thousands of computers and servers, all linked together and accessible via the Internet. With cloud computing, everything you do is now web based instead of being desktop based. You can access all your programs and documents from any computer that's connected to the ...

  2. Human Computation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  3. Parallel computations

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    Parallel Computations focuses on parallel computation, with emphasis on algorithms used in a variety of numerical and physical applications and for many different types of parallel computers. Topics covered range from vectorization of fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) algorithm on the Cray-1 to calculation of table lookups and piecewise functions. Single tridiagonal linear systems and vectorized computation of reactive flow are also discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins by classifying parallel computers and describing techn

  4. AWRE: Atomic Weapons Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reviews the work of AWRE at Aldermaston and Foulness. The main programme is nuclear and is concerned with the design and development of warheads for strategic and tactical nuclear weapons for the British nuclear deterrent, including those for the Royal Navy's missile carrying submarine fleet. The work is described grouped as design physics, development and materials. Services to these groups and to the whole establishment are provided by Engineering, Safety and Administration. The work ranges from long-term fundamental research, the development of technology, design, prototype development to the environmental testing of engineered products. In materials research the emphasis is on plutonium, uranium and beryllium, on high explosives and a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. The physics of the earth's crust is studied to aid detection of underground nuclear explosions. Reactor research facilities include the two reactors, Herald and Viper. (U.K.)

  5. Sociological establishment of 'normative facts'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Every science is searching for 'it's facts', it's concept and categorical decree, and by this defines specific subject of it's science researching. Here, the researching is steered on identification of ontological contents of 'normative fact' in the aim of comprehension of it's categorical entity and conceptual disposition.'The normative fact' refers to importance, significance and sense which norm has, in other words, which is attributed to the norm by man and society, and which in the air of importance influence on it's behavior. Exclusive term of sociological science is 'normative fact' as behavior of an individual, groups, institutions and society with regard to establishment, application and changes of social norms.

  6. Quality of transfusion products in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Turdo, Rosalia; Glingani, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    The primary goal in transfusion medicine and cellular therapies is to promote high standards of quality and produce ever safer and more efficacious products. The establishment of a transfusion service quality management system, which includes several organizational structures, responsibilities, policies, processes, procedures, and resources, is now mandatory and widely regulated worldwide. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the quality system in transfusion medicine as applied to the production of blood components, including red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. PMID:24474089

  7. Computer Science Research: Computation Directorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, M.J. (ed.); Grupe, K.F. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains short papers in the following areas: large-scale scientific computation; parallel computing; general-purpose numerical algorithms; distributed operating systems and networks; knowledge-based systems; and technology information systems.

  8. Establishment of a nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation model in mice and its related study%非清髓同种异基因小鼠外周血造血干细胞移植模型的建立及其相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琰; 孙宁; 汤唯艳; 朱华云; 刘雅恬; 赵刚; 吴剑秋

    2011-01-01

    . CD4 + CD25 + obviously declined in IV - PBSCT - DLI group while rose in the IBM - PBSCT or IBM - PBSCT - DLI group. Conclusion Mixed - chimerism can be achieved by using a nonmyeloabla-tive TBI and CTX - based conditioning regimen in combination with infusion of peripheral blood stem cells mobilized by rhG - CSF in fully H - 2 - mismatched recipient mice. DLI evidently pro motes the donor chimers and the incidence of GVHD is reduced remarkably. Additionally, the mechanism involved in this process is probably associated with the changes of T-cell sub-group.

  9. 干血滤纸片和白细胞酸性α-葡萄糖苷酶活性测定平台的建立及临床应用%Establishment and clinical application of dried blood spots and mixed leukocytes for determination of acid α-glucosidase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱文娟; 王霞; 王瑜; 叶军; 韩连书; 张惠文; 顾学范

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立干血滤纸片和门细胞酸性α-葡萄糖苷酶(GAA)活性测定方法 及正常参考值,用于糖原累积病Ⅱ型(GSD Ⅱ)患者的酶学诊断.方法 利用GAA特异性水解荧光底物4-MUG的原理,采用阿卡波糖抑制其同工酶,建立干血滤纸片(DBS)和白细胞测定GAA活性方法 .取700例DBS样本和100例白细胞样本作为正常对照建立DBS和白细胞测定GAA活性正常参考值,并对临床疑诊4例患者及其父母进行GAA活性测定.结果 DBS法具有良好的精密度,室温或低于室温保存至少4周时DBS GAA活性无明显影响.正常新生儿和儿童-成人DBS的GAA参考范围分别为8.92~60.03 pmol/(punch·h)和8.00~37.43 pmol/(punch·h);正常人白细胞GAA参考范围:12.56~50.26 nmol/(mg蛋白·h),共检出4例GSD Ⅱ型患者.结论 DBS法测定GAA活性具有敏感、快速、高通量等特点,适于GSD Ⅱ型高危人群筛查和诊断;白细胞法测定GAA活性也具有快速、特异性高等特点,适于患者的确诊.%Objective Glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ(GSD Ⅱ,Pompe disease)is caused by the deficiency of acid α-glucosidase(GAA)that leads to lysosomal glycogen accumulation.Early diagnosis and treatment of GSD Ⅱ are considered to be critical for maximum efficacy of the enzyme replacement therapy.The aim of this study was to introduce two reliable methods and to generate the reference range of GAA activitv.Method The assay of GAA activity was performed in dried blood spots(DBS)and mixed leukocytes with acarbose to eliminate isoenzyme interference and to generate the reference range.GAA activitv was assayed in 700 specimens for DBS from normal subjects and 100 specimens for mixed leukocytes from normal subjects to set up reference range.GAA activity in the samples of 4 patients who were clinically suspected of GSD Ⅱ and their parents were also assayed.Result The intra-run and inter-run precision of the DBS method wag less than 10%.GAA activity tested by DBS was

  10. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  11. Pharmacology Experiments on the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A computer program that replaces a set of pharmacology and physiology laboratory experiments on live animals or isolated organs is described and illustrated. Five experiments are simulated: dose-effect relationships on smooth muscle, blood pressure and catecholamines, neuromuscular signal transmission, acetylcholine and the circulation, and…

  12. Pulmonary Testing Laboratory Computer Application

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Martin E.

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer application reporting patient pulmonary function data has been developed by Washington, D.C. VA Medical Center staff. A permanent on-line data base of patient demographics, lung capacity, flows, diffusion, arterial blood gases and physician interpretation is maintained by a minicomputer at the hospital.

  13. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeremy E.; Faraj, Ahmad A.

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  14. 基于EP-17 A2的胶体金法检测粪便隐血的空白限、检出限及定量限的建立及评价%Establishment and Evaluation of Blank Limit,Detection Limint and Quantitation Limit of Fecal Occult Blood Tests with Colloidal Gold Method Based on the Document of EP-1 7A2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭绪晓; 柏淑美; 张春来; 袁长金; 李金星

    2015-01-01

    目的:参考美国临床实验室标准化委员会(CLSI)发布的《临床实验室检验程序检测能力评价指南(第二版)》(EP-17A2)文件,探讨粪便隐血(FOB)胶体金法检测能力,建立该实验室的空白限(LOB)、检出限(LOD)及定量限(LOQ),减少弱阳性标本漏检率,并为胶体金法的检测限提供定量评价方法。方法使用人游离血红蛋白(f-Hb)ELISA试剂盒检测新鲜全血制备的系列低浓度的血红蛋白溶液,制定校准曲线,将粪便隐血的空白样本及一系列的血红蛋白低浓度样本使用胶体金试纸条进行检测,利用 Nato Checker710对显色带进行定量检测,并对定量结果进行统计分析,建立胶体金法检测粪便隐血的空白限、检出限及定量限。结果空白限为99.01 ng/ml,检出限为340.48 ng/ml,定量限为354.9 ng/ml。结论参考CLSI EP17-A2文件建立的检测限比常规方法建立的检测限科学合理,优于肉眼判断结果,更能满足临床实验室的质量要求和临床早期诊疗的需求;为提高实验室质量管理水平,每批次粪便隐血应根据此方法建立检测限,以及应用于其它项目胶体金法检出限的建立。%Objective To explore colloidal gold method used to detect fecal occult blood tests(FOB)detection capability and establish the laboratory standard operation of detecting FOB limit of blank(LOB),limit of detection (LOD)and quantifica-tion limit (LOQ)according to the CLSI document《Evaluation of Detection Capability for Clinical Laboratory Measurement Procedures;Approved Guideline-Second Edition》(EP17-A2),in order to reduce the false negative rate of the weakly positive samples,and to provide a way of quantitative detection for qualitative detection of colloidal gold method.Methods Detected series of solution of hemoglobin made of dissolved fresh whole blood with the ELISA kit of human free hemoglobin,and es-tablished the

  15. Complete blood count and retinal vessel calibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Liew

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992-4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. RESULTS: All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p = 0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively, while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all. Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1-2 µm wider venular caliber. CONCLUSIONS: These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation.

  16. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  17. A VARIATIONAL MODEL FOR 2-D MICROPOLAR BLOOD FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ji-huan

    2003-01-01

    The micropolar fluid model is an essential generalization of the well-established Navier-Stokes model in the sense that it takes into account the microstructure of the fluid.This paper is devolted to establishing a variational principle for 2-D incompressible micropolar blood flow.

  18. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  19. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  20. Computer programming and computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hassitt, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    Computer Programming and Computer Systems imparts a "reading knowledge? of computer systems.This book describes the aspects of machine-language programming, monitor systems, computer hardware, and advanced programming that every thorough programmer should be acquainted with. This text discusses the automatic electronic digital computers, symbolic language, Reverse Polish Notation, and Fortran into assembly language. The routine for reading blocked tapes, dimension statements in subroutines, general-purpose input routine, and efficient use of memory are also elaborated.This publication is inten