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Sample records for blood donation reduces

  1. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  2. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  3. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Donating ... Red Cross, there's a 97% chance that someone you know will need a blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always ...

  4. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  6. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double red blood cell ... can be cured with apheresis. Directed or designated donation Family members or friends can donate blood specifically ...

  7. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood' every 56 days. Back to Top Platelet Apheresis Platelet donations are collected at select American Red ... about Platelet Apheresis Donations » Back to Top Plasma Apheresis Plasma is collected simultaneously with a platelet donation ...

  8. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  9. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  10. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types, such as platelets, red cells or plasma ( apheresis donations ) can take up to 2 hours. When ... Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App HS Leadership Program SleevesUp ...

  11. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  12. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...... active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families....

  13. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  14. [Blood donation: a marketing perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Silvia Terra; Rodrigues, Alziro César de Morais

    2005-01-01

    This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  15. FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... giving blood, you should tell your blood center. Donation centers try to ensure that donors who recently ...

  16. Blood donation and testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Yee, Benjamin; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Butler-Foster, Terrie; Hsia, Cyrus; Chin-Yee, Ian

    2017-03-01

    Polycythemia is the most common adverse effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and may predispose patients to adverse vascular events. Current Canadian guidelines recommend regular laboratory monitoring and discontinuing TRT or reducing the dose if the hematocrit exceeds 54% (hemoglobin ≥180 g/L). This threshold has been interpreted by some physicians and patients to indicate the need for phlebotomy or blood donation while on TRT. We reviewed all male blood donors in Southwestern Ontario at Canadian Blood Services from December 2013 to March 2016 who self-identified or were found on donor screening to be on TRT. Hemoglobin concentration was measured at the time of donation or clinic visit and with each subsequent appointment in repeat donors. We identified 39 patients on TRT who presented for blood donation over a 2-year period. The mean hemoglobin level at all clinic visits was 173 g/L (range, 134-205 g/L; n = 108). Hemoglobin concentrations of 180 g/L or more (calculated hematocrit, ≥54%) were measured at 25% of appointments. Of the 27 repeat donors, 12 (44%) had persistently elevated hemoglobin levels (≥180 g/L) at subsequent donations. Hemoglobin concentrations were elevated in donors on TRT, and significant numbers had hemoglobin levels above those recommended by current guidelines. These data also suggest that repeat blood donation was insufficient to maintain a hematocrit below 54%. Our findings raise concerns about the persistent risk of vascular events in these donors, particularly when coupled with the misperception by patients and health care providers that donation has reduced or eliminated the risks of TRT-induced polycythemia. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 112. Miller RD. Patient blood management: transfusion therapy. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia . ...

  18. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears.

  19. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Blood Donation in Rural Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakant G Shidam, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Suman Saurabh, Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Though the awareness regarding blood donation was high, the practice of voluntary blood donation was remarkably low. Education and motivation through various media is recommended to eliminate misbelieves and to reinforce positive attitudes towards blood donation."

  20. Free blood donation mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali; Pozo, José Rivera

    2015-05-01

    Blood donation (BD) is a noble act and mobile applications (apps) can help increase awareness about it. This paper analyzes and assesses the characteristics of free apps for BD as regards features and functionality. A search in Google Play, Apple Apps store, Blackberry App World and Windows Mobile App store was carried out to select 169 free BD apps from the 188 apps identified. The results presented in this paper show that the majority of the apps selected have been developed for the Android operating system. Moreover, most of the apps selected are available to help users search for donors. Few of the apps could not be installed and/or accessed. Of those that could be installed: half of them do not require any kind of authentication; a few of them are available in more than one language; half of them have a geographical restriction; around 60 % of them do not notify the user of BD events and requests; one, which is available for Android and iOS, can connect with a laboratory; around 45 % of them allow users to share information via social networks, and the majority of them do not provide BD recommendations. These results are used as a basis to provide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for better BD apps with more features in order to increase the number of volunteer donors.

  1. "The Tramp", a blood donation propagandist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-02-01

    The French pioneer for blood transfusion, who eventually organized the very early blood transfusion centers worldwide, went to imagine a scenario written in purpose for Charlie Chaplin, the unique character of "The Tramp" ("Charlot" in French). The movie Star was offered to feature a blood donation propagandist, and no longer the perpetual, well-known, "loser". This anecdote, besides being amusing, tells a lot on how Arnault Tzank encompassed all the difficulties in collecting blood enough to meet the demand, at all times; his proposal turns out to be extremely modern and questions nowadays marketing for blood donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Time course for the recovery of physical performance, blood hemoglobin, and ferritin content after blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Andreas K; Grand, Johannes; Stangerup, Ida;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that blood donation negatively affects endurance performance, but data on physical recovery after a standard blood donation are scarce. This study aimed to elucidate the temporary impact of blood donation on endurance performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO......2peak ) and time trial (TT) performance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: VO2peak , TT performance, blood, iron, and anthropometric variables were determined before (baseline) and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after blood donation in 19 healthy men. RESULTS: VO2peak was reduced by 6.5% from 49.7 ± 2 m......L/kg/min at baseline to 46.3 ± 2 mL/kg/min on Day 3 (p blood donation. Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined 7.9% from 9.3 ± 0.11 mmol...

  3. Temporal distribution of blood donations in three Brazilian blood centers and its repercussion on the blood supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Liu, Emily Jing; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Loureiro, Paula; Wright, David; Custer, Brian; Gonçalez, Thelma Therezinha; Capuani, Ligia; Busch, Michael; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Seasonal distribution of blood donation hinders efforts to provide a safe and adequate blood supply leading to chronic and persistent shortages. This study examined whether holidays, geographical area and donation type (community versus replacement) has any impact on the fluctuation of donations. Methods The numbers of blood donations from 2007 through 2010 in three Brazilian Retrovirus Epidemiological Donor Study II (REDS-II) participating centers were analyzed according to the week of donation. The weeks were classified as holiday or non-holiday. To compare donations performed during holiday versus non-holiday weeks, tabulations and descriptive statistics for weekly donations by blood center were examined and time series analysis was conducted. Results The average weekly number of donations varied according to the blood center and type of week. The average number of donations decreased significantly during Carnival and Christmas and increased during the Brazilian National Donor Week. The fluctuation was more pronounced in Recife and Belo Horizonte when compared to São Paulo and higher among community donors. Conclusion National bank holidays affect the blood supply by reducing available blood donations. Blood banks should take into account these oscillations in order to plan local campaigns, aiming at maintaining the blood supply at acceptable levels. PMID:24106441

  4. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect.......BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...

  5. [Blood donation: mechanic solidarity versus organic solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereima, Rosane Suely May Rodrigues; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.

  6. Results of the 24 July blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2013-01-01

    "Bravo! A huge success! A big thanks to everyone involved for their valuable participation this summer," says Ms. Troillet, the nurse responsible for the Transfusion Centre (CTS) at HUG.   During the 24 July blood donation, blood was collected from 109 of the 150 people who attended (including 53 new donors). This excellent result is particularly noteworthy, since blood supplies are at their lowest levels in hospitals during the summer season. The CERN Medical Service joins CTS in thanking all donors for their generous gesture and Ms. Vuattaz, manager of the restaurant NOVAE No. 2 and her team, for their collaboration. Upcoming blood donations:           Wednesday 16 October 2013           Thursday 3 April 2014           Wednesday 23 July 23 2014

  7. [Marketing in the world of blood donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Public and non-profit organizations have long debated how marketing concepts and management styles apply to their sector of activity as they are largely derived from principles of consumerism and economic decision-making proper to the private sector. The arrival of marketing in the world of blood donation is no exception. The purpose of this article is to illustrate concretely how marketing techniques can contribute in achieving the objectives of a blood donation program: a marketing model that is adapted to the realities of blood donation in Quebec. Although types of marketing are as varied as the fields they are used in, the major marketing activities of this program fall under positioning, operational or relationship marketing. The process is presented in the form of a cycle that includes four major phases containing all marketing functions, that is, raising public awareness, acquiring a clientele, client retention and loyalty building, and establishing the relationship. Finally, the information and effective management of information are at the heart of the marketing process. In fact, research, understanding our customers and their expectations, and measuring our performance are essential for the success of any marketing initiative.

  8. Enhancing blood donation intentions using multimedia donor education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Wissel, Mary Ellen; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Bolinger, Elizabeth M; Huckins, Jamie L

    2011-08-01

    Prior research has shown that education materials that directly address prospective donor concerns and provide specific coping suggestions are particularly effective at enhancing donation attitudes and intentions to give blood. This study compared the effect of donor coping materials, provided in written and audiovisual formats, as potential tools to enhance recruitment of prospective blood donors. The role of initial attitudes toward blood donation on responses to these materials was also considered. Young adults (62% female; mean [SD] age=19.1 [1.4]; mean [range] prior blood donations=1.32 [0-13]) were randomly assigned to 1) read a brochure addressing common blood donor concerns and suggesting specific coping strategies, 2) view a video addressing blood donor concerns and illustrating coping techniques, 3) read the brochure and view the video, or 4) read a control brochure on healthy eating and exercise. Measures of blood donation attitudes, anxiety, confidence, and intentions to give blood were completed before and after the intervention. Relative to the control brochure, all the intervention groups showed larger reductions in anxiety, more positive changes in attitude, and greater increases in donation confidence and intentions. The combination of the brochure and video outperformed either intervention alone in further improving donation attitudes among participants with high initial donation attitudes. Blood donation coping materials, presented in either written or audiovisual formats, significantly enhance willingness to donate blood among young adults regardless of their initial attitudes toward blood donation. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. [How human sciences can help to understand blood donation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    In France, the necessity of managing sanitary risks associated with blood transfusion has induced a strong medicalization of blood collection. Practicing this activity of transfusion medicine confronts the professional with problems which the medical science is not sufficient to answer: curbs and motivations for donating, seasonal and geographic fluctuations in blood collection, sense of pre-donation interview, individual or collective contestings of guidelines for blood collection. From recent sociological works on donation in France, especially on blood donation, this paper suggests reporting the complexity of blood donation thought process and the necessity to refer to human and social sciences to approach it in a best way. Understanding the gift should help professionals to communicate not only on the promotion of blood donation, but also on the risk and its management.

  10. An end to lifetime blood donation ban in Israel for MSM would be a major step toward a science-based policy that reduces stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Wang, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, countries around the world have revised their blood donation policies regarding gay and bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). The United States lifted the lifetime ban on MSM from donating blood in 2015, replacing it with a 1 year deferral policy allowing MSM to donate if they abstain from sex for 12 months. Other countries followed suit, while Italy and Spain have implemented deferral policies based on individual risk assessments regardless of sexual orientation. If Israel were to adopt a one year deferral policy for MSM, as recommended by Drs. Ginsberg et al. in this issue, the increase in risk to the blood supply would be minimal. Moving to a 1 year deferral policy would be an important step forward, but it could still be seen as stigmatizing to gay and bisexual men. We recommend that Israel consider a deferral policy based on individual risk assessment rather than a blanket deferral for all MSM. MSM can engage in low- and high-risk sexual behaviors. Those who consistently engage in low-risk behaviors, such as using condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis consistently, pose little risk to the blood supply. An individual risk assessment policy would screen potential donors of all sexual orientations for low-, medium-, and high-risk behaviors. Potential donors identified as high-risk, such as injection drug users, would justifiably be subject to lengthy or permanent bans. MSM who engage in low-risk sexual behaviors would be allowed to donate without deferral. Medium-risk donors, such as men who have recently had unprotected anal sex with another man, would be subject to a deferral period of 1 month, which is in line with the window period of current HIV screening technology. Most fourth generation HIV tests can detect HIV within a month, and the nucleic acid test used to screen blood can detect HIV in just 9-11 days. Various studies have developed questions for ascertaining HIV risk among MSM which could be used in blood donor

  11. FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika Updated guidance provides further protection for U.S. blood ... entire blood supply be routinely screened for the Zika virus. In February, the FDA recommended testing of ...

  12. Attitudes and practices of health science students regarding blood donation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Monim Batiha; Mohammed ALBashtawy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood is fundamental to saving lives and is considered to be the force that sustains our bodies. Objective: To assess the attitudes and practices of health science students regarding blood donation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to assess the attitudes and practices of health science students regarding blood donation. 453 students (56.7% male) from the four health faculties (Pharmacy, Genetic engineering, Nursing, and Hospital administration) were surveyed...

  13. The knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among voluntary blood donors in chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Uma; R, Arun; P, Arumugam

    2013-06-01

    An integrated strategy for blood safety is required for the provision of safe and adequate blood. Recruiting a sufficient number of safe blood donors is an emerging challenge. The shortage of blood in India is due to an increase in the demand, with fewer voluntary blood donors. A study on the knowledge, attitude and the practice of donors may prove to be useful in the successful implementation of the blood donation programme. Our aim was to find the level of the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among voluntary blood donors. A structured questionnaire was given to 530 voluntary blood donors to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to blood donations. The statistical analyses were done by using the SPSS software. The associations between the demographic factors were analysed by using the Chi square test. Among the 530 donors, 436 (93%) were males and 36 (7%) were female donors. 273 (51.2%) donors knew about the interval of the donation and 421 (79.4%) donors knew about the age limit for the donation. 305 (57%) donors felt that creating an opportunity for the donation was an important factor for motivating the blood donation and 292 (55%) donors felt that the fear of pain was the main reason for the hesitation of the donors in coming forward to donate blood. A majority of the donors were willing to be regular donors. The donors showed positive effects like a sense of satisfaction after the donation. Creating an opportunity for blood donation by conducting many blood donation camps may increase the voluntary blood donations.

  14. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2015-11-30

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  15. Solving shortage in a priceless market: Insights from blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianshu; Lu, Susan Feng; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2016-07-01

    Shortage is common in many markets, such as those for human organs or blood, but the problem is often difficult to solve through price adjustment, given safety and ethical concerns. In this paper, we study two non-price methods that are often used to alleviate shortage for human blood. The first method is informing existing donors of a current shortage via a mobile message and encouraging them to donate voluntarily. The second method is asking the patient's family or friends to donate in a family replacement (FR) program at the time of shortage. Using 447,357 individual donation records across 8 years from a large Chinese blood bank, we show that both methods are effective in addressing blood shortage in the short run but have different implications for total blood supply in the long run. We compare the efficacy of these methods and discuss their applications under different scenarios to alleviate shortage.

  16. Effect of autologous blood donation on the central venous pressure, blood loss and blood transfusion during living donor left hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno Jawan; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-Chi Tseng; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung-Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng; Po-Ping Liu; King-Wah Chiu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Autologous blood donation (ABD) is mainly used to reduce the use of banked blood. In fact, ABD can be regarded as acute blood loss. Would ABD 2-3 d before operation affect the CVP level and subsequently result in less blood loss during liver resection was to be determined.METHODS: Eighty-four patients undergoing living donor left hepatectomy were retrospectively divided as group Ⅰ (GⅠ)and group Ⅱ (GⅡ) according to have donated 250-300 mL blood 2-3 d before living donor hepatectomy or not. The changes of the intraoperative CVP, surgical blood loss,blood products used and the changes of perioperative hemoglobin (Hb) between groups were analyzed and compared by using Mann-Whitney Utest.RESULTS: The results show that the intraoperative CVP changes between GⅠ (n = 35) and GⅡ (n = 49) up to graft procurement were the same, subsequently the blood loss,but ABD resulted in significantly lower perioperative Hb levels in GⅠ.CONCLUSION: Since none of the patients required any blood products perioperatively, all the predonated bloods were discarded after the patients were discharged from the hospital, It indicates that ABD in current series had no any beneficial effects, in term of cost, lowering the CVP, blood loss and reduce the use of banked blood products, but resulted in significant lower Hb in perioperative period.

  17. [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing before and after blood donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellweg, D; Siemon, K; Mahler, F; Appelhans, P; Klauke, M; Köhler, D

    2008-06-01

    The link between haemoglobin and physical performance was established a long time ago and is the underlying principle of blood doping. Blood loss on the other hand decreases physical capacity. The aim of this study is to evaluate physical performance loss and underlying mechanisms following voluntary blood donation. Eleven voluntary subjects (four female) completed a symptom-limiting cardio-pulmonary exercise test before and after blood donation (500 mL blood). The haemoglobin value decreased by 1.2 mg/dL (9%, p blood donation, respectively (p = 0.001). Subjects who practise recreational endurance sports appear to be more effected by endurance loss. The haemoglobin value was the only significant predictor of maximal oxygen uptake in regression analysis (p blood donation. Haemoglobin decline accounts for the decreased oxygen uptake. As a consequence thereof the anaerobic transition occurs earlier. Subjects not engaged in regular sports activity did not experience a decline in their capacity. Inclusion of the haemoglobin value into equations predicting maximal oxygen uptake could improve prediction precision.

  18. Effect of preoperative autologous blood donation on patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, A Y; Seo, K S; Lee, G E; Kim, H J

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) was evaluated according to preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) values. The records of 295 patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery between July 2007 and August 2008 were reviewed. The records for autologous blood donation, intraoperative transfusion, and related laboratory studies were also evaluated. The transfusion trigger used during this period was Hb bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, particularly in patients with a preoperative Hb < 14 g/dl. PABD could be used to reduce the frequency of intraoperative allogeneic blood transfusion in these patients. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  20. Effect of blood donation on maximal oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, L; Dahl, T; Boone, T

    2006-12-01

    This study determined the effect of donating one unit of blood on various physiological parameters associated with a VO2(max) test. Ten healthy, male subjects (23+/-4 years, 178+/-7.6 cm, 74.4+/-12.3 kg) completed a VO2(max) test 24 h before donating one unit of blood (~500 mL) and 24 h after donating blood. The Bruce protocol was used to determine the subjects' VO2(max). Physiological responses were measured at the end of the VO2(max) test. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine if there were significant (Pblood donation. Significant differences were found in VO2(max) (mean+/-SD, 3.18+/-0.74 vs 2.87+/-0.53 L.min(-1)), cardiac output (Q, 25+/-5 vs 22.5+/-3.3 L.min(-1)), stroke volume (SV, 134+/-37 vs 121+/-22 mL.beat(-1)), delivery of oxygen (DO(2), 5+/-.87 vs 3.97+/-.68 L.min(-1)), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb, 153+/-12 vs 135+/-16 gm.L(-1)). No significant changes were observed for heart rate (HR); arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO(2) diff), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). These findings indicate that donating one unit of blood decreased VO2(max) due to the decrease in Q, which resulted from the decrease in SV since HR was unchanged. The lower VO2(max) along with the decrease in DO(2) would be expected to have a negative effect on athletic performance.

  1. Incentivizing Blood Donation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Test Titmuss’ Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Titmuss hypothesized that paying blood donors would reduce the quality of the blood donated and would be economically inefficient. We report here the first systematic review to test these hypotheses, reporting on both financial and nonfinancial incentives. Method: Studies deemed eligible for inclusion were peer-reviewed, experimental studies that presented data on the quantity (as a proxy for efficiency) and quality of blood donated in at least two groups: those donating blood when offered an incentive, and those donating blood with no offer of an incentive. The following were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO using OVID SP, CINAHL via EBSCO and CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, Econlit via EBSCO, JSTOR Health and General Science Collection, and Google. Results: The initial search yielded 1100 abstracts, which resulted in 89 full papers being assessed for eligibility, of which seven studies, reported in six papers, met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 93,328 participants. Incentives had no impact on the likelihood of donation (OR = 1.22 CI 95% 0.91–1.63; p = .19). There was no difference between financial and nonfinancial incentives in the quantity of blood donated. Of the two studies that assessed quality of blood, one found no effect and the other found an adverse effect from the offer of a free cholesterol test (β = 0.011 p < .05). Conclusion: The limited evidence suggests that Titmuss’ hypothesis of the economic inefficiency of incentives is correct. There is insufficient evidence to assess their likely impact on the quality of the blood provided. PMID:24001244

  2. Incentivizing blood donation: systematic review and meta-analysis to test Titmuss' hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niza, Claudia; Tung, Burcu; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    Titmuss hypothesized that paying blood donors would reduce the quality of the blood donated and would be economically inefficient. We report here the first systematic review to test these hypotheses, reporting on both financial and nonfinancial incentives. Studies deemed eligible for inclusion were peer-reviewed, experimental studies that presented data on the quantity (as a proxy for efficiency) and quality of blood donated in at least two groups: those donating blood when offered an incentive, and those donating blood with no offer of an incentive. The following were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO using OVID SP, CINAHL via EBSCO and CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, Econlit via EBSCO, JSTOR Health and General Science Collection, and Google. The initial search yielded 1100 abstracts, which resulted in 89 full papers being assessed for eligibility, of which seven studies, reported in six papers, met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 93,328 participants. Incentives had no impact on the likelihood of donation (OR = 1.22 CI 95% 0.91-1.63; p = .19). There was no difference between financial and nonfinancial incentives in the quantity of blood donated. Of the two studies that assessed quality of blood, one found no effect and the other found an adverse effect from the offer of a free cholesterol test (β = 0.011 p < .05). The limited evidence suggests that Titmuss' hypothesis of the economic inefficiency of incentives is correct. There is insufficient evidence to assess their likely impact on the quality of the blood provided. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Background Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Materials and methods Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. Results The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Discussion Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia. PMID:26674813

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations towards blood donations among blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, M A; Alakija, W; Ajala, A; Olatunji, R O

    2004-02-01

    Summary. interviewed with questionnaires on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations about blood donations. It was found that a large number of them (92.9%) donated because of the benefits they will obtain from the hospital. Such benefits include antenatal registration (67.1%) and saving the lives of relations (25.8%). Even though many of the donors are educated (98.9%), majority of whom have university degrees (36.1%) and have heard about blood donation before, 52.4% of them believe they can contact human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis infection from blood donation. A good number (47.0%) are afraid of what they regard as side effects, such as weight loss (23.8%), sexual failure (5.9%), high blood pressure (5.2%), sudden death (3.3%), and convulsion (1.47%). About 41.0% prefers certificates as an incentive for donation, whereas 13.6% prefers money; less than 3% will like their names announced or published on the media and 2.58% will donate for nothing. It is recommended that an intensive blood donation campaign should be maintained. This will allow people to be well informed, turning the positive attitude of saving life through blood donation to a regular practice.

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Factors Associated with Voluntary Blood Donation among University Students in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Elionora; Philemon, Rune N.; Damian, Damian J.; Msuya, Sia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Understanding the knowledge and awareness of blood donation among potential blood donors in the population, like young people, and the associated attitudes and practices is important. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study whereby a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the consenting participants. Results. A total of 422 participants were enrolled. Their mean age was 24.2 (SD 3.6) years. Of the 422, 30% have ever donated blood. 55% of those who had ever donated were repeated blood donors. Majority of the participants (93%) had positive attitudes towards blood donation and 88% were willing to donate in the future. Factors that were significantly associated with ever donating blood were male gender, knowing a person who has donated blood, knowledge of the amount of blood donated, willingness to donate in the future, and not expecting any postdonation reward. Discussion. High awareness, positive attitude, and high intention to donate in the future should be used to underscore the need to educate the young people on the value of blood donation in saving lives and to give them correct information on overall requirements for blood donation. PMID:28070449

  6. Procedure for action in the donation of umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera Gómez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are candidates for donation and transplantation in certain diseases, such as treatment of choice. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are of particular interest as a gift, for many reasons. It should be noted that the umbilical cord blood is a single, limited source of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and the eventual success of a transplant, cellular viability and retained sample are critical, so the extraction process transport and cryopreservation must be performed under strict quality control criteria. Objective: To describe the procedure extacción umbilical cord blood to be carried out in units of delivery, to ensure quality results.

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfouzan, Najd

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31-50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najd Alfouzan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC. Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%, no time for donation (45%, and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%. Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%, mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%, token gifts (31.5%, and finally paying money (18.9%. Conclusion. People in the age group 31–50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  9. Nonanemic Patients Do Not Benefit from Autologous Blood Donation Before Total Knee Replacement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Stephen; Altneu, Eric; Monsef, Jad Bou; King, Elizabeth A; Sculco, Thomas P; Boettner, Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    ...) all donated one unit of autologous blood and patients in group B (92 patients) did not donate. Within both groups, patients were further divided by preoperative hemoglobin level as either anemic or non-anemic...

  10. Blood hero: An application for encouraging the blood donation by applying gamification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Daniela C L; Lima, Luis F S G; Messias, Thiago F; Feijo, Jose V L; Diniz, Anthony A R; Soares, Heliana B

    2016-08-01

    There is a strong need for actions to supply the blood demand in the World. Based on this fact, it was designed an application, named `Blood Hero', by applying the `gamification' concept, which allows users to be rewarded by social acts related to the blood donation. It takes advantage of the application of mobile devices, implementing a specific social network, to attract and retain blood donators. This application makes possible an interaction between users and blood centers, and is being tested aiming at evaluating its acceptance and impact in bloodstocks.

  11. Factors associated with positive attitude towards blood donation among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Maric, Gorica; Kurtagic, Ilma; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess attitudes and practice of blood donation among medical students. Medical students were recruited at Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Serbia. Of 973 students, 38.4% of freshmen and 41.4% of final year students have donated blood (χ(2) = 0.918, p = 0.186). Blood donors had significantly more positive attitude towards some aspects of blood donation. Being female, residing in a city other than the capital and previous blood donation experience were independent predictors of positive attitude towards being a blood donor to an unknown person. Efforts are required to augment blood donor pool among future physicians.

  12. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  13. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  14. The ethics of blood donation: does altruism suffice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alastair V; Tan, Cecilia; Boujaoude, F Elias

    2012-05-01

    Is the recommendation of the WHO, endorsed by all member states, that all blood donations should be voluntary and non-compensated ethically coherent and realizable in practice? In a recent paper, Farrugia et al have argued for a plurality of both compensated and non-compensated systems, claiming that, from both an ethical and practical perspective, the classical concept of the 'the gift relationship', advocated over 40 years ago by Richard Titmuss, is unnecessary and inadequate. This paper focuses on the ethical aspects of this debate, considering the concepts of altruism, reciprocity and social solidarity as they apply to the procurement of blood and blood products, as well as evidence regarding safety of different sources of blood and the motivations of regular donors. It concludes with a discussion of the view summarized in a recent publication by Campbell (2009), that, although the body may be monetized, doing so would result in a loss of human value.

  15. Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, L P; Tetali, S

    2007-03-01

    The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality.

  16. 77 FR 35408 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... donation in the U.S. with respect to men who have sex with men (MSM) is that any man who discloses having... publication targeted to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community reported donating blood at... donation for the MSM population as in the U.S.; this study was conducted in 2009 and 2010 and...

  17. A Jurisprudential Study on Blood and Organ Donation after Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Mohaghegh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation and blood donation are the only way of life for many patients. They are considered as philanthropic methods and important indices for social obligation and participation. The issue of blood and organ donation of a person sentenced to death has close relation with the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. It is a lawful act for a Muslim to transplant by using his organs or the organs of animals and alive corpse of non-Muslim (provided that his life will not be in danger or he is satisfied in order to treat himself or to keep his life. But it is not a lawful act to use corpse of a Muslim except in emergencies so that it can save the life of another Muslim. According to religious and legal regulations, amputation of an alive human in order to transplant the amputated organ to his body or another persons` body is a lawful act provided that the donor of organ is satisfied or it is impossible to prepare an organ from other sources or transplantation is done wisely without any possibility of general breakdown or death. Execution of death penalty through organ donation is a new but influential issue to keep human life and health. Legitimacy of using this method requires exploring among jurisprudential decisions and thoughts. Famous Shi`as jurists believe that the method of execution of death penalty is not relevant and it should be done so that the least amount of suffering imposed on the body of malefactor. On the contrary, some other jurists believe that equivalence and resemblance in method of executing the judgment is depended on the committed crimes. These jurists believe that corporal integrity of the murderer will be fully authorized in the hands of blood avengers after commission of crime and they are fully authorized in execution of death penalty with regards to characteristics of committed crime. By accepting the viewpoint of these famous jurists, the necessity of equivalence and resemblance in circumstances of punishment

  18. Geographical differences in blood donation and philanthropy in the Netherlands : what role for social capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Veldhuizen, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    The key question addressed in this paper is whether geographical differences in blood donation and philanthropy reflect differences in social capital. We do find considerable spatial variation in blood donation and philanthropy between municipalities in the Netherlands. But we do not find that blood

  19. "They don't want our blood": social inclusion and blood donation among African migrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Michael Jay; Brijnath, Bianca; Renzaho, André M N

    2011-07-01

    The current study examines how feelings of social inclusion influence migrant communities' predisposition to donate blood, focusing specifically on Sub-Saharan African communities in Australia. We begin by explicating the theoretical links between social inclusion, citizenship and blood donation before discussing local and international perspectives of blood donation among African migrant communities. Using qualitative methods comprising nine focus group discussions, held between March and April 2010, we argue that blood donation intentions are mediated by whether or not individuals feel included in their new host society. Real and perceived discrimination experienced by African migrants in their everyday social interactions or in institutional settings can act as a barrier to blood donation. We conclude that removing such barriers, thereby increasing rates of donation in migrant communities, will help to build social capital and inclusion. Strategies for how this can be achieved are outlined.

  20. Modulation of cardiac autonomic tone in non-hypotensive hypovolemia during blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Singh, Akanksha; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Coshic, Poonam; Chatterjee, Kabita; Deepak, K K

    2016-08-02

    Non-hypotensive hypovolemia, observed during mild haemorrhage or blood donation leads to reflex readjustment of the cardiac autonomic tone. In the present study, the cardiac autonomic tone was quantified using heart rate and blood pressure variability during and after non-hypotensive hypovolemia of blood donation. 86 voluntary healthy male blood donors were recruited for the study (age 35 ± 9 years; weight 78 ± 12 kg; height 174 ± 6 cms). Continuous lead II ECG and beat-to-beat blood pressure was recorded before, during and after blood donation followed by offline time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and BPV. The overall heart rate variability (SDNN and total power) did not change during or after blood donation. However, there was a decrease in indices that represent the parasympathetic component (pNN50 %, SDSD and HF) while an increase was observed in sympathetic component (LF) along with an increase in sympathovagal balance (LF:HF ratio) during blood donation. These changes were sustained for the period immediately following blood donation. No fall of blood pressure was observed during the period of study. The blood pressure variability showed an increase in the SDNN, CoV and RMSSD time domain measures in the post donation period. These results suggest that mild hypovolemia produced by blood donation is non-hypotensive but is associated with significant changes in the autonomic tone. The increased blood pressure variability and heart rate changes that are seen only in the later part of donation period could be because of the progressive hypovolemia associated parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation that manifest during the course of blood donation.

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem K; Ahuja, Alok; Kalra, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors) and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials) who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. The sample population consisted of mostly men (67%) in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most prominent. This study illustrates how increasing awareness and

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. Aim: To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. Result: The sample population consisted of mostly men (67% in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most

  3. Influence of blood donation on oxygen uptake kinetics during moderate and heavy intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D; Marshall, K; Connell, A; Barnes, R J

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a reduced whole body blood volume on the kinetic response of VO(2) during moderate and heavy intensity exercise. Six males and four females (age, 21+/-2 yrs; height, 175.2+/-5.1 cm; weight, 66.4+/-2.8 kg; VO(2)max, 53.0+/-4.1 ml x kg (-1) x min(-1)), completed a square-wave cycling ramp test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO(2max). Kinetics trials were completed 24 h pre and post donation of 450 cm (3) of blood. The kinetics trials were moderate intensity (80%VT) and heavy intensity (Delta50% VT - VO(2max)). Breath-by-breath gas exchange, heart rate, blood pressure, haemoglobin O(2) saturation, and blood [lactate] were measured throughout the trials. Post-donation haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte count were all significantly reduced (por= 0.05), or in the amplitude of the slow component. The capacity of the cardiovascular system to meet the metabolic demands of skeletal muscle at the onset of exercise does not limit the oxygen uptake.

  4. 77 FR 10756 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... U.S. with respect to men who have sex with men (MSM) is that any man who discloses having had sex... targeted to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community reported donating blood at least... donation for the MSM population as in the U.S.; this ] study was conducted in 2009 and 2010 and...

  5. Road blocks in achieving a 100% voluntary blood donation rate in the South Asian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodfield Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary blood donation rates are not high in the South Asian region, except in a few countries. The reasons for this are outlined and the roadblocks for improvement of the situation noted. The need for increased planning, both regionally and nationally, is emphasized and some factors that inhibit voluntary blood donation are mentioned. There is a real need to move from a system of reliance on ′replacement′ donors to a fully nonremunerated voluntary blood donation system, and the examples and lessons from successful countries should be carefully studied.

  6. Compliance of blood donation apps with mobile OS usability guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Pozo, José Rivera; Bajta, Manal El; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to employ the guidelines of Android, iOS, Blackberry and Windows Phone to analyze the usability compliance of free blood donation (BD) apps. An analysis process based on a systematic review protocol is used to select free BD apps. An assessment is conducted using a questionnaire composed of 13 questions concerning the compliance of free BD apps with Android, Blackberry, iOS and Windows Phone usability guidelines. A total of 133 free BD apps have been selected from the 188 BD apps identified. Around 63% of the free BD apps selected have a good compliance with mobile OS usability recommendations. Around 72% of Android, 57% of Windows Phone, 33% of iOS and 33% of Blackberry BD apps have a high usability score. The aspect of BD app behavior should be improved along with some style components: the use of pictures to explain ideas and the adaptation of the app to both horizontal and vertical orientations. Structure patterns should also be used to improve the structure aspect of a BD app. Usability is a quality aspect that should be improved in current BD apps. Our study provides smartphone users with a list of usable free BD apps and BD app developers with recommendations.

  7. A study on attitude towards blood donation among people in a rural district, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2000-09-01

    Blood and blood components are important in many situations. At present, there is only a donation system for blood banks to get blood in Thailand. Although the blood bank process has been founded in Thailand for many years, there is still an insufficient amount of blood for use. There are misguided attitudes on blood donation among the people in the rural areas. This study has been designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study to study attitude towards blood donation among the people in Bang Sapan District, Prachuab Kiri Khan Province, Thailand. Data from self-administered questionnaires were collected and statistical analysis was performed. We found that people in that area had a rather good attitude but this was still found in less than 50%. We found the attitude of the subjects only significantly correlated with the level of education. We concluded that improving the people's attitude on blood donation is important. We suggest that every blood bank should design a program for providing knowledge in order to improve the attitude of the people in that area. We also suggest that knowledge on blood donation should be repeatedly taught at any education level including the school system. This study can provided preliminary results for other studies.

  8. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    for cancers of the liver, lung, colon, stomach, and esophagus, which are thought to be promoted by iron overload (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 0.84), but only among men and only with a latency of 3-7 years. The risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was higher among frequent......BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose...... = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were...

  9. West Nile Virus Positive Blood Donation and Subsequent Entomological Investigation, Austria, 2014: e0126381

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolanta Kolodziejek; Bernhard Seidel; Christof Jungbauer; Katharina Dimmel; Michael Kolodziejek; Ivo Rudolf; Zdenek Hubálek; Franz Allerberger; Norbert Nowotny

    2015-01-01

      The detection of West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in a blood donation from Vienna, Austria, as well as in Culex pipiens pupae and egg rafts, sampled close to the donor's residence, is reported...

  10. [Social marketing of blood donation: an analysis of new donors' predisposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Stephanie Ingrid Souza; Costa, Francisco José da

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to understand the motivational factors that influence individuals to donate blood, in order to support the social marketing measures for recruiting new donors. Based on theoretical research, a structural model was developed to analyze influences and interactions of constructs in individuals' intentions to donate blood. A field survey used a structured questionnaire with a sample of 346 individuals. The analysis included descriptive analysis, evaluation of psychometric consistency, and structural equation modeling with partial least squares estimation. Fear showed a negative influence and the reference group a positive influence on individual predisposition to donate blood. This indicated that social marketing for blood donation can be more effective in encouraging new donors if it remains focused on these two factors.

  11. Tax policy as a lifeline: encouraging blood and organ donation through tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamon, Joseph B

    2008-01-01

    This article, the second concerning the organ donation crisis, proposes the use of tax policy to encourage blood and organ donation. After critiquing the ethical and logistical problems posed by other commercial and non-commercial solutions, the author demonstrates how tax credits can be used as an effective and ethical solution to address the shortage of donors. The author also offers two model statutes that provide guidance as to how a nonrefundable tax credit for blood and organ donation might operate in the tax code.

  12. Whole blood and apheresis donors in Quebec, Canada: Demographic differences and motivations to donate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to compare demographics and donation motivations among plasma/platelet donors (PPDs) and whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and non-remunerated context. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Comparison of WBDs and PPDs under chi-square tests showed that 17 out of 23 motivators were statistically different according to various demographic variables. These results demonstrate the existence of specific donor profiles both for WBDs and PPDs. Agencies should develop new recruitment strategies tailored to these donors, especially if they wish to convince WBDs to convert to apheresis donation.

  13. Changes in hematological indices and lymphocyte subsets in response to whole blood donation in healthy male donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borai, Anwar; Livingstone, Callum; Alsobhi, Enaam; Al Sofyani, Abeer; Balgoon, Dalal; Farzal, Anwar; Almohammadi, Mohammed; Al-Amri, Abdulafattah; Bahijri, Suhad; Alrowaili, Daad; Bassiuni, Wafaa; Saleh, Ayman; Alrowaili, Norah; Abdelaal, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Whole blood donation has immunomodulatory effects, and most of these have been observed at short intervals following blood donation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of whole blood donation on lymphocyte subsets over a typical inter-donation interval. Healthy male subjects were recruited to study changes in complete blood count (CBC) (n = 42) and lymphocyte subsets (n = 16) before and at four intervals up to 106 days following blood donation. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare quantitative variables between different visits. Following blood donation, changes in CBC and erythropoietin were as expected. The neutrophil count increased by 11.3% at 8 days (p donation, there are transient changes in lymphocyte subsets. The effect of BMI on lymphocyte subsets and the effect of this immunomodulation on the immune response merit further investigation.

  14. Exploring the dynamics of the theory of planned behavior in the context of blood donation: does donation experience make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Ferguson, Eamonn; de Kort, Wim; Donders, Rogier; Atsma, Femke

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the influence of different variables from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on intention within multiple donation categories, covering the entire range of lifetime number of donations (LND). Does the same set of variables predict intention equally strong throughout the donor career? Measures of intention, self-efficacy, cognitive and affective attitude, and subjective and moral norms were assessed within a sample of 11,480 whole blood donors. Donors were categorized into 65 donation classes using their LND; for example, all donors with one donation (n = 483) in the first donation class, all donors with two donations (n = 447) in the second donation class, and so on. For each donation class, separately for men and women, linear multiple regression models for intention were fitted using self-efficacy, cognitive attitude, affective attitude, subjective norm, and moral norm as predictor variables. During all stages of the donor career, self-efficacy is the main predictor of intention, with a relatively constant beta (β = 0.64, p strength, predicts intention. A feeling of self-efficacy remains equally important for all donors. It is worthwhile to study whether directed intervention strategies are necessary to target self-efficacy within donor groups with different levels of donation experience. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. [Voluntariness and blood donation: Proceedings of an ethics seminar held at the National Institute for Blood Transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Danic, B; Cartron, J-P; Chiaroni, J; Clavier, B; Cuneo, B; Guimelchain-Bonnet, M; Hermitte, M-A; Mackowiak, S; Monsellier, M; Moreau, S; Papa, K; Pelletier, B; Pottier, R; Praile, R; Saillol, A; Tissot, J-D; Vernant, J-P; Hervé, C

    2016-09-01

    Voluntariness stands for one of the four pillars of ethics in blood donation; it is, however, more related to tradition than to legislation. Because it seems necessary to apply "marketing" techniques to blood collection in order to meet the needs in blood components, both in terms of quantity and quality, one wonders if this may be at the expense of this principle of voluntariness. This seminar-belonging actually to a series of seminars in Ethics in Transfusion Medicine-aimed at questioning the possible weakness of voluntariness in the field of blood donation. To achieve this goal, specialists of numerous disciplines in medical sciences, law and humanities gathered to discuss all related issues to voluntariness in blood donation.

  16. US Public Cord Blood Banking Practices: Recruitment, Donation, and the Timing of Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Sherri; Ponsaran, Roselle; Goldenberg, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cord blood has moved rapidly from an experimental stem cell source to an accepted and important source of hematopoietic stem cells. There has been no comprehensive assessment of US public cord blood banking practices since the Institute of Medicine study in 2005. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Of 34 US public cord blood banks identified, 16 participated in our qualitative survey of public cord blood banking practices. Participants took part in in-depth telephone interviews in which they were asked structured and open-ended questions regarding recruitment, donation, and the informed consent process at these banks. RESULTS 13 of 16 participants reported a variably high percentage of women who consented to public cord blood donation. 15 banks offered donor registration at the time of hospital admission for labor and delivery. 7 obtained full informed consent and medical history during early labor and 8 conducted some form of phased consent and/or phased medical screening and history. 9 participants identified initial selection of the collection site location as the chief mode by which they recruited minority donors. CONCLUSION Since 2005, more public banks offer cord blood donor registration at the time of admission for labor and delivery. That, and the targeted location of cord blood collection sites, are the main methods used to increase access to donation and HLA diversity of banked units. Currently, the ability to collect and process donations, rather than donor willingness, is the major barrier to public cord blood banking. PMID:22803637

  17. Response to post-donation counseling is still a challenge in outdoor voluntary blood donation camps: A survey from a tertiary care regional blood center in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion carries the risk of transmission of several infectious agents. The latest method for blood screening, nucleic acid testing is not affordable in developing countries. Aim: The study was aimed to find response to post-donation counseling for reactive markers among the voluntary blood donors donating in blood donation camps. Material and Methods: This 1 year study was conducted in 2011. Transfusion transmitted infections testing was performed by routine enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. The initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV reactive donors who returned back to the blood bank were confidentially counseled and referred to the Integrated Counseling Cum Testing Center (ICTC. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV reactive donors were referred to the gastroenterology department for confirmation by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR, Roche Diagnostics, Germany and followed-up. Results: Twenty seven thousand two hundred forty six 27,246 units were collected during the survey. One hundred twenty nine129 units were reactive for HIV 1 and 2, 99 were reactive for HCV, 206 for hepatitis B virus (HBV. Of these reactive donors, 138 could be personally communicated. Out of 47, 27 donors who returned for counseling were initially reactive for HIV 1 and 2, 8 for HBsAg and 12 for anti-HCV. Two were positive for HBV deoxyribonucleic acid and one was positive for HCV ribonucleic acid. The HIV positivity was detected in 1 of 27 donors at ICTC. Conclusion: The response to the post-donation counseling appears in this study to be only 34% (47/138, which is still a challenge.

  18. Study of knowledge and attitude among college-going students toward voluntary blood donation from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra SK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shailesh Kumar Mishra,1 Suchet Sachdev,1 Neelam Marwaha,1 Ajit Avasthi21Department of Transfusion Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaIntroduction: The study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of college-going students toward voluntary blood donation and to bring out and compare the reasons for donating or not donating blood.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,000 college-going students after taking their consent for participation using a prevalidated, self-administered, structured questionnaire after its content and construct validation.Results: The difference in the means of the level of knowledge among the donor (mean: 14.71±2.48 and nondonor students (mean: 11.55±2.82 was statistically significant. There was significant impact of previous blood donation on the level of knowledge in donor students. The attitude toward blood donation was more positive among blood donor as compared to nondonor students, and the difference in their means was statistically significant. About one in two (45.8% college-going students fear that either they are not fit enough to donate blood (26.8% or that they will become weak (19% after blood donation. Almost one in four (27.4% have fear of needle pain; therefore, they do not come forward for blood donation.Interpretation and conclusion: The most significant reason hindering blood donation comes out to be related to health of the individual donor. The findings of this study conclude that the national targets of voluntary blood donation could be better met with specific blood donor information, education, motivation, and recruitment strategies focusing on the myths and misconceptions prevalent in the donor demographic area of that particular region, specifically targeting high-school children in countries developing a volunteer donor base.Keywords: knowledge, attitude, voluntary blood

  19. Status and Deterrents of Blood Donation among Civil Servants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    childhood anemia, genital blood disorders; and road traffic accidents. Severe ... the town, there are two hospitals and one blood bank. The blood bank collects blood .... Do you know how many blood types are there? 95.1. 81.4. 2. Do you know ...

  20. Bloodless surgery in a patient with thalassemia minor. Usefulness of erythropoietin, preoperative blood donation and intraoperative blood salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ferrer, A; Ferrazza, V; Gredilla, E; de Vicente, J; de la Rua, A; Larrea, A

    2007-05-01

    A patient with thalassemia minor and idiopathic scoliosis was scheduled for posterior vertebral arthrodesis. The diagnosis of thalassemia minor was made during the preoperative assessment. Preoperative blood cell count displayed the following data: red blood count 5.4 x 106/microL, haemoglobin 11.6 g/dL and hematocrit 36.9%. As corrective surgery for scoliosis is associated with major blood loss, the patient was scheduled for preoperative treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO), autologous blood donation, intraoperative blood cell salvage and administration of tranexamic acid. The use of rHuEPO was intended to increase hemoglobin (12.1 g/dL) levels at the moment of surgery following the donation of 2 autologous blood units. 1000 mL of salvaged blood were processed. The output line of the blood cell salvage machine did not show any sign of increased red cell haemolysis. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the postoperative intensive care unit on day 7 after surgery with no allogenic blood transfusion. No references detailing the use of rHuEPO and autologous blood donation preoperatively in patients with thalassemia minor and only one case report discussed the utility of intraoperative blood cell salvage in a patient with thalassemia intermedia. Although further experience is needed, this case report suggests that even for patients with thalassemia minor, methods focused on allogenic blood salvage can be used safely.

  1. Motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist before their first donation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van Dongen, Anne

    2013-08-01

    The demand for plasma products has increased rapidly. It is therefore important to understand donating behavior by plasma donors. This study investigates whether motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist at the beginning of a donor career. New donors (n = 4861) were invited to fill out a questionnaire before their first donation (response, 61%). The questionnaire assessed variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and norms), conscientiousness, and donation anxiety. Three years later it was determined who became whole blood or plasma donor. Multivariable linear regression analyses for intention were fitted separately for whole blood and plasma donors. A logistic regression analysis was executed to estimate the effect of intention at the beginning of a donor career on becoming a plasma donor. Plasma donors had a higher intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and conscientiousness and a lower anxiety than whole blood donors. In plasma and whole blood donors, both self-efficacy and cognitive attitude were positively related to intention but with different strength (plasma, β = 0.47 and β = 0.30; whole blood, β = 0.57 and β = 0.17). Having a high level of intention increased the odds of becoming a plasma donor (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.59). Motivational differences already exist between future whole blood and plasma donors before their first donation. Although a feeling of self-efficacy is necessary for all new donors, more favorable cognitions are important for future plasma donors. Recruitment strategies for plasma donors should focus on attracting the more self-confident donors by highlighting the usefulness of plasma donation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Patellar dislocation: a case report and a review of other uncommon adverse events associated with blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meny, G M; Murphy, S

    2003-01-01

    Patellar dislocation is a fairly common occurrence usually associated with various activities such as sports or dancing. A case report of patellar dislocation associated with blood donation in a 17-year-old female is described. A review of uncommon adverse events associated with blood donation is also presented.

  3. The Cost of Screening Blood Donations for West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Korves, Caroline T; Goldie, Sue J; Murray, Megan Blanche

    2006-01-01

    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is endemic in the US, varying seasonally and by geographic region. WNV can be transmitted by blood transfusion, and mandatory screening of blood for WNV was recently introduced throughout the US. Guidelines for selecting cost-effective strategies for screening blood for WNV do not exist. Methods and Findings: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for screening blood for WNV using a computer-based mathematical model, and using data from prospective studie...

  4. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin

    2014-03-01

    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion.

  5. Blood Donation and Citizenship Education. An approach from service learning and the Theory of Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. PUIG ROVIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The altruistic donation of blood recommended by the World Health Organisation and carried out through blood banks not only contributes to providing the health system with an indispensable therapeutic element, it is also a means of fostering social integration and educating for citizenship. Within this general context, the article begins by arguing why altruistic donation is better than buying and selling blood and why the gift theory – developed by sociology on the basis of the work by Marcel Mauss – more than justifies the possibility of meeting the demand for blood in this way. On the basis of these considerations it can be said that blood banks are social institutions that perform three basic functions: technical, civic and educational. The article continues by examining the educational project undertaken by the Blood and Tissue Bank of Catalonia, which consists in a programme based on the methodology of service learning and which invites young people to cultivate and develop a communicative approach to promoting the altruistic donation of blood in their neighbourhood. The article concludes by evaluating the consolidation, effectiveness and degree of satisfaction of the project, and suggesting that this model can be used to form the basis of ideas for educational proposals of other social institutions.

  6. Design of a donor-driven data collection strategy for operational improvement of blood donation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, R; Heuston, M; Ashley, S; Bhortake, A; Carey, R; Dua, S; Mihelic, M; Rajderkar, S; Saini, V

    2010-07-01

    Prior studies have noted that donor retention may be negatively impacted by the total time it takes to complete the blood donation process. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the blood donation process and examine opportunities for operational improvements, an educational partnership established between a blood bank and a university designed and implemented a donor-driven data collection strategy. A large amount of real-time, comprehensive, donor-reported data was collected as donors navigated the process, which has enabled a thorough analysis of the process and its potential improvements. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation efforts, examine the challenges in operationalizing a donor-driven data collection approach, and present insights and recommendations for its application in similar settings. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

    2013-12-01

    Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ≥ 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (pblood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (pcount was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet transfusion management.

  8. Possibility of enhanced risk of retinal neovascularization in repeated blood donors: blood donation and retinal alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastmanesh R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reza RastmaneshDepartment of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: Repeated blood donors manifest clinical, subclinical, and biochemical signs of iron deficiency anemia, have significantly higher erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF concentrations, and decreased tissue oxygen saturation, oxygenated tissue hemoglobin, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Erythropoietin and VEGF are potent retinal angiogenic factors which may initiate and promote the retinal angiogenesis process independently or simultaneously. Increases in circulating levels of erythropoietin and VEGF are proportionate to the levels of hematocrit, hypoxemia, and tissue hypoxia. It is suggested that higher erythropoietin production following iron deficiency anemia-induced chronic hypoxemia/hypoxia may, hypothetically, enhance the risk of retinal angiogenesis and/or neovascularization, possibly by inducing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, which consequently upregulates genes stimulating angiogenesis, resulting in formation of a new vasculature, possibly by modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in the retina. Implications of this hypothesis cover erythropoietin doping, chronic hypoxia, and hypoxemic situations, such as angiogenesis-related cardiac and pulmonary diseases.Keywords: repeated blood donation, erythropoietin, retinal neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia

  9. Emotional-motivational barriers to blood donation among Togolese adults: a structural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinon, K; Gbati, K; Sorum, P C; Mullet, E

    2014-02-01

    Although the number of blood donors has been rapidly increasing in Togo since 2003, it is nevertheless insufficient to cover the demand. To increase needed blood donation in Togo, it is necessary to understand why most people are reluctant to do it. A sample of 400 adult volunteers in Lomé, mostly university educated, rated, on a scale of 0-10, the relevance to them of a comprehensive list of reasons that might deter people from donating blood. The ratings of 250 participants were subjected to factor analysis, and the resulting factorial structure was confirmed on the ratings of the other 150 participants. The resulting six factors were labelled (in order of their ratings of a representative sample of items): Lack of Courage and Lack of Information (mean 5·43 of 10), Concerns about the Use of Blood (4·72), Risk Aversion (4·37), Fear of Medical Settings (2·41), Conformity with Tradition (1·88) and Indifference to Others and Hostility to the Procedure (1·69). To increase blood donation, a public information campaign should address the emotional-motivational barriers found even in the most educated segment of Togolese society. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. [Digital marketing: what place does it have in blood donation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, A

    2013-05-01

    Blood transfusion arose from the actions of medical doctors and has to answer to the increasing evolution of the blood product. To answer this vital need, marketing intervenes with the implementation of strategy and a multi-channel campaign. The emergence, acquisition and evolution of new information technologies in today's society require that marketing and communication professionals use of digital marketing in their relational initiatives and the promotion of the gift of life.

  11. Predicting future blood supply and demand in Japan with a Markov model: application to the sex- and age-specific probability of blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Junko; Ohisa, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Aya; Nishida, Kazuo; Inoue, Shingo; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2016-11-01

    Simulation studies were performed to predict the future supply and demand for blood donations, and future shortfalls. Using data from all donations in 2006 to 2009, the Markov model was applied to estimate future blood donations until 2050. Based on data concerning the actual use of blood products, the number of blood products needed was estimated based on future population projections. We estimated that the number of blood donations increased from 5,020,000 in 2008 to 5,260,000 in 2012, but will decrease to 4,770,000 units by 2025. In particular, the number of donors in their 20s and 30s decreased every year. Moreover, the number of donations required to supply blood products would have been increased from 5,390,000 in 2012 to 5,660,000 units in 2025. Thus, the estimated shortfall of blood donations is expected to increase each year from 140,000 in 2012 to 890,000 in 2025 and then more than double to 1,670,000 in 2050. If the current blood donation behaviors continue, a shortfall of blood availability is likely to occur in Japan. Insufficient blood donations are mainly related to a projected reduction in population of 20 to 30 year olds, a significant group of donors. Thus, it is crucial to recruit and retain new donors and to develop recommendations for proper use of blood products to minimize unnecessary use. This study provides useful information that can be used by governments to help ensure the adequacy of the blood supply through promoting donations and conserving blood resources. © 2016 AABB.

  12. How to encourage non-donors to be more willing to donate blood? Testing of binding communication based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, D; Blondé, J; Girandola, F

    2017-06-01

    Our study aims to test the effectiveness of binding communication based interventions (vs classical persuasive communication based ones) inciting non-donors to act in favour of blood donation. The implementation of effective communication interventions represents a major public health issue. Nevertheless, persuasive media campaigns appear to have little effect on behaviours. Even though non-donors hold a positive attitude towards blood donation, they are not inclined to donate. As an alternative to producing behavioural changes, many recent studies have shown the superiority of binding communication over persuasive communication. All participants, non-donors, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (type of communication: persuasive vs binding) × 2 (source credibility: low vs high) factorial design. Then, they were asked to report their intention to donate blood, and their intention to distribute leaflets regarding blood donation. Binding communication is a more effective strategy for increasing intention towards blood donation compared with persuasive communication, especially when combined with high credibility source. Accordingly this study calls for more consideration of knowledge of social psychology to design effective communication interventions and increase the number of donations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Behavior of the hepatitis C in blood donaters in the Sancti Spiritus province. 2008 -2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Quesada Concepción

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the viral hepatitis type C (VHC as a health problem in the world and in Cuba and its transmission that include as a fundamental way the blood. A descriptive reseach was done with the objective of determining the behaviour of the blood donaters carrier of the hepatitis C virus in the Provincial Blood Bank of Sancti Spiritus in the period between January 1st, 2006 to december 31st, 2008. The sample was conformed by 312 donaters with positive diagnosis of Hepatitis C. Different variables were used such as: prevailing, age, sex, race and residence municipality. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus was of (8,95 x 1000 donants, it prevailed the male sex (95,5 %, the age group between 36-40 years (22,6 % and the white race (55,9%; Sancti Spiritus municipality was which gave more cases. The prevailing of viral hepatitis type c was high in blood donaters of Sanct Spiritus province wich constituted a real health problem.

  14. Umbilical cord blood banking: from personal donation to international public registries to global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrini C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Petrini Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Abstract: The procedures for collecting voluntarily and freely donated umbilical cord blood (UCB units and processing them for use in transplants are extremely costly, and the capital flows thus generated form part of an increasingly pervasive global bioeconomy. To place the issue in perspective, this article first examines the different types of UCB biobank, the organization of international registries of public UCB biobanks, the optimal size of national inventories, and the possibility of obtaining commercial products from donated units. The fees generally applied for the acquisition of UCB units for transplantation are then discussed, and some considerations are proposed regarding the social and ethical implications raised by the international network for the importation and exportation of UCB, with a particular emphasis on the globalized bioeconomy of UCB and its commerciality or lack thereof. Keywords: cord blood banking, economy, ethics, stem cells, transplantation

  15. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to blood donation: the importance of self-efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giles, M; McClenahan, C; Cairns, E; Mallet, J

    2004-01-01

    Given that self-efficacy has emerged as a key construct in health psychology, this study set out to explore its utility in the context of blood donation as defined within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB...

  16. [Persuasive communications and regular blood donation: an experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Balduino Guedes Fernandes da; Dias, Mardonio Rique

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed to: investigate yielding to the dependent variable "behavioral intent to become a regular blood donor", verify the impact of such communications on variance in the dependent variable, examine the single contribution of the external independent variable to the Rational Action Theory, and test the fit of the expanded Rational Choice Theory to the target behavior and sample. Only a post-test design and double-blinded procedure were used, randomly picking 405 university students for experimental groups 1 and 2, placebo control, and control only. The results showed: lack of yielding by the experimental groups; considerable percentage variance in the dependent variable explained by the independent variable in the experimental and placebo control groups; and satisfactory and significant correlations for variables in the expanded theory. Absence of yielding for the criterion variable was probably due to the time interval. The positive persuasive strategy accounted for the greatest variance in the dependent variable. Moral obligation showed the greatest impact on participants' intent to perform the behavior. The correlations corroborated the theoretical and methodological validity of the expanded theory.

  17. The effects of information, social and financial incentives on voluntary undirected blood donations: evidence from a field experiment in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iajya, Victor; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Slonim, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries blood donations per capita are substantially lower than in advanced economies. In these countries blood supply is mostly collected through directed donations from relatives and friends to individuals needing transfusions or to replace blood used in emergencies. The World Health Organization considers this method of blood supply inefficient compared to undirected voluntary donations. To examine methods to motivate undirected voluntary donations, we ran a large-scale, natural field experiment in Argentina, testing the effectiveness of information, social and financial incentives. We find that only higher-valued financial incentives generated more donations, increasing with the value of the reward. These incentives did not create adverse selection in the safety or usability of the donated blood. We discuss the implications of our findings for researchers interested in understanding motivations for pro-social behavior and for health agencies and policymakers concerned with the current and growing shortages in blood supply in low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Odajima

    Full Text Available We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR, the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC, in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%, among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606 were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI, predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001. Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01. For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05-2.56, albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55-1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57-1.97 and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76-2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45-1.81 had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence.

  19. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  20. Evaluation of Intervention on Voluntary Blood Donation among 1st Prof Medical and Dental Students of Index Medical College, Indore (MP, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bachhotiya, V K Arora, Piyusha Mahashabde

    2014-01-01

    Methods: Among 209 students (125 MBBS, 84 BDS a questionnaire was administered followed by participants’ visit to the hospital blood donation centre where a short interactive awareness session was organized. The willingness to donate blood was noted at the end of the session. Results: All the participants had lack of knowledge regarding blood donation with no difference between male and female. The proportion of male blood donors was 36 (36.7% while 9 (8.2% female students had donated blood so far. At first, a total of 88 students were willing to donate blood, including those 45 who had earlier done it. Out of the 164 students who did not donate blood earlier, 24 (14.6% had no support from family, 16 (9.75% were afraid of needle prick, 34 (20.7% had fear of becoming weak after blood donation and 8 (4.8% were afraid of contracting any disease through needle prick. After the awareness session, a total of 196 students (93.77% showed willingness to donate blood and the change was statistically significant. Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of voluntary blood donation among the study participants was found much better than the results of previous studies [7] and the awareness session-cum-visit to the blood donation centre fetched very high level of willingness. This implies the im-portance of regular intervention which can be most easily and successfully carried out by the teaching faculties in the medical college.

  1. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance capacity and hematological parameters after each donation. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects were randomly divided in a donation (n = 16) and a placebo (n = 8) group. Each of the three donations was interspersed by 3 months, and the recovery of endurance capacity and hematological parameters was monitored up to 1 month after donation. Maximal power output, peak oxygen consumption, and hemoglobin mass decreased (p blood donation with a maximal decrease of 4, 10, and 7%, respectively. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, ferritin, and red blood cell count (RBC), all key hematological parameters for oxygen transport, were lowered by a single donation (p donations (p blood donation was 11% for hematocrit, 10% for hemoglobin concentration, 50% for ferritin, and 12% for RBC (p donation group. Maximal, but not submaximal, endurance capacity was altered after blood donation in moderately trained people and the expected increase in capacity after multiple maximal exercise tests was not present when repeating whole blood donations.

  2. 献血者献血意愿及献血服务的Logistic回归研究%Donate willingness of blood donors and logistic regression to study blood donation service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveExplore the donors of blood donation willingness and blood stations of zaozhuang services,to promote the sustainable development of unpaid blood donation.MethodsWith the method of questionnaire survey,from March to August in 2015,the basic situation of blood donors,blood donation,blood donors intend,source of information for blood donation knowledge,attitude to blood donation behavior,such as blood donation service for questionnaire survey. ResultsThis study as a sample,a total of 2 860 blood donors for the questionnaire survey,get 2 759 valid questionnaire responses received. Blood donors different gender,age,educational level,occupation,monthly income(yuan),the number of blood donation form than have significant difference(P<0.05)."Compassion" is the main blood donors will. Blood donation knowledge information sources are mainly "radio and television". Logistic regression analysis showed that sex,blood donation willingness,attitude,service is the main reason affecting the blood donors and respectively. ConclusionZaozhuang gender and blood donors blood donation willingness is the main reason for the effect of blood donation,blood stations staff service attitude is also the main reason for the effect of blood donation and blood environment.%目的:探讨献血者意愿和血站的献血服务,推动无偿献血工作的可持续发展。方法采用问卷调查的方式,于2015年3月—8月对来我站献血者的基本情况、献血经历、献血者意愿、获取献血知识的信息来源、献血服务等方面进行问卷调查。结果本研究共抽取2860献血者作为样本进行了问卷调查,得到2759份有效问卷。献血者不同性别、年龄、文化程度、职业、人月收入(元)、献血次数的构成比有显著性差异(P<0.05)。“奉献爱心”是献血者最主要的意愿。获取献血知识信息来源主要是“广播电视”。Logistic回归分析表明,性别、献血意愿、服务态度

  3. [Antipublic antibodies and pregnancy: use of iron sucrose in autologous blood donation with cryopreservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumeu, F; Vial, F; Zaccabri, A; Agullès, O; Laxenaire, M C

    2002-01-01

    An autologous blood donation with cryopreservation in a pregnant woman with natural antibody against a high frequency alloantigen is reported. A natural anti Gerbich antibody and a rare erythrocyte phenotype at high risk of polyimmunization was discovered during the third month of pregnancy. This leads to recommend the constitution of an autologous blood reserve. Before first sampling a moderate iron deficiency anaemia (10.3 g.dL-1) was treated with 600 mg of intravenous iron sucrose. Four blood packs of 350 mL were taken; after every sampling 200 mg of iron sucrose were injected intravenously. No maternal or foetal adverse effects occurred. Five weeks before delivery, an autologous blood reserve consisting in 4 cryopreserved red cells packs and 4 fresh frozen plasma was constituted. Epidural analgesia was used for delivery. No haemorrhage occurred. The reserve was not used and remained available for future use (one year for fresh frozen plasma and without limit for red cells).

  4. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation.

  5. Quantification of print, radio and television exposure among previous blood donors in Kenya: an opportunity for encouraging repeat donation in a resource-limited setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraju, S V; Mwangi, J; Kellogg, T A; Odawo, L; Marum, L H

    2010-10-01

    Blood services in sub-Saharan Africa experience blood shortages and low retention of voluntary, non-remunerated donors. To boost collections by encouraging repeat donations, the Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service is exploring the likelihood of reaching previous donors through targeted print, radio and television advertising. We analysed data from a national AIDS Indicator Survey to determine whether previous donors have significant exposure to media. Respondents reporting history of blood donation had significantly higher exposure to print, radio and television media than those without history of blood donation. Targeted media campaigns encouraging repeat donation are likely to reach previous donors even in resource-limited settings.

  6. Assessment of blood donation intention among medical students in Pakistan--An application of theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqah, Anadil; Moiz, Bushra; Shahid, Fatima; Ibrahim, Mariam; Raheem, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Theory of Planned Behavior proposes a model which can measure how human actions are guided. It has been successfully utilized in the context of blood donation. We employed a decision-making framework to determine the intention of blood donation among medical students who have never donated blood before the study. Survey responses were collected from 391 medical students from four various universities on a defined questionnaire. The tool composed of 20 questions that were formulated to explain donation intention based on theory of planned behavior. The construct included questions related to attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control, descriptive norm, moral norm, anticipated regret, donation anxiety and religious norm. Pearson's correlational relationships were measured between independent and dependent variables of intention to donate blood. ANOVA was applied to observe the model fit; a value of 0.000 was considered statistically significant. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the relative importance of the main independent variables in the prediction of intention. Multi-collinearity was also evaluated to determine that various independent variables determine the intention. The reliability of measures composed of two items was assessed using inter-item correlations. Three hundred and ninety-one medical students (M:F; 1:2.2) with mean age of 21.96 years ± 1.95 participated in this study. Mean item score was 3.8 ± 0.83. Multiple regression analysis suggested that perceived behavioral control, anticipated regret and attitude were the most influential factors in determining intention of blood donation. Donation anxiety was least correlated and in fact bore a negative correlation with intention. ANOVA computed an F value of 199.082 with a p-value of 0.000 indicating fitness of model. The value of R square and adjusted R square was 0.811 and 0.807 respectively indicating strong correlation between various independent and dependent

  7. Haemochromatosis: evaluating the effectiveness of a novel patient self-management approach to venesection as blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonam; Sim, Dalice; Flanagan, Peter

    2017-06-16

    We set out to evaluate the effectiveness of a new model of self management of haemochromatosis, whereby patients with stable ferritin control were discharged from the New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) therapeutic venesection clinic and educated to manage their own venesection by regular blood donation and annual serum ferritin check by their general practitioner. Data regarding the frequency of blood donation and serum ferritin level were collected from the NZBS and Concerto records of haemochromatosis patients in the Wellington region who had been discharged back to the care of their general practitioner between January 2014 and June 2015. Of the 107 patients, 93% continued to donate blood after discharge. A serum ferritin level was checked in 78% of patients by their general practitioner. The mean number of blood donations per year decreased after discharge, with a corresponding rise in the average ferritin level (difference 28 mcg/L; range 13-43 mcg/L; p<0.005). The new model of self management was effective for the majority of patients who were discharged from the therapeutic venesection clinic. Longer follow up is required to assess the overall pattern of ferritin control in patients who self manage their haemochromatosis by regular blood donation.

  8. [Introducing marketing strategies and techniques into the field of voluntary blood donation, to meet the rise in blood demand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, S; Bégué, L

    2011-04-01

    Social marketing uses marketing principles and techniques to induce a target audience to voluntary accept, reject, change or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole. Thus, individual or societal gain is the primary goal of social marketing. This kind of marketing is frequently used in the United States or in Canada in several fields such as healthcare, social work, or the environment. In 2008, we introduced these strategies and techniques in the field of blood donation in France. This article describes what has been achieved in the last three years and outlines the main steps in the social marketing planning process: analyzing the social marketing environment, defining target audiences and objectives, building and implementing strategies and action plans, evaluating and monitoring. On the way to self-sufficiency, while respecting donors, social marketing is additional to the work done by the blood collection staffs, communication teams, and volunteers. Social marketing is a complementary tool to the work done by the blood collection staff, communication teams and blood donation organizations and can help to meet the challenge of self-sufficiency while still allowing for the privacy and rights of donors.

  9. Screening of Blood Donations for Zika Virus Infection - Puerto Rico, April 3-June 11, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnert, Matthew J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Moseley, Robin R; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Marks, Peter W; Epstein, Jay S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Hobson, J Peyton; Leiby, David A; Akolkar, Pradip N; Petersen, Lyle R; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-06-24

    Transfusion-transmitted infections have been documented for several arboviruses, including West Nile and dengue viruses (1). Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2), became recognized as a potential threat to blood safety after reports from a 2013-2014 outbreak in French Polynesia. Blood safety concerns were based on very high infection incidence in the population at large during epidemics, the high percentage of persons with asymptomatic infection, the high proportion of blood donations with evidence of Zika virus nucleic acid upon retrospective testing, and an estimated 7-10-day period of viremia (3). At least one instance of transfusion transmission of Zika virus has been documented in Brazil after the virus emerged there, likely in 2014 (4). Rapid epidemic spread has followed to other areas of the Americas, including Puerto Rico.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Melku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%, 630 (82%, and 141 (18.4% study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood.

  11. Reasons for blood donation deferral in sub-Saharan Africa: experience in Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouao, Maxime Diane; Dembelé, Bamory; N'Goran, Landry Kouassi; Konaté, Seidou; Bloch, Evan; Murphy, Edward L; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2012-07-01

    Blood donor selection is important to ensure the safety of both donors and recipients. There is a paucity of data on reasons for blood donor deferral in Ivory Coast. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for predonation deferral at a blood collection site at General Hospital, Yopougon Attié in Abidjan. The investigators conducted a retrospective audit of data pertaining to donor deferral for blood donors that presented to the general hospital of Yopugon Attié from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A total of 10,694 prospective blood donors, presented over the study period, and 24,363 attempts to donate were registered. The majority were repeat blood donors (77.4%). A total of 2618 (10.8%) donors were deferred. The most frequent reason for deferral was a low hemoglobin level (42.5%), with females constituting the majority of those deferred. The second most frequent reason for deferral was a reported change of or new sexual partner (34.3%); male donors were predominant in this group. Additional reasons for deferral included short interdonation interval (4.6%) and reactivity for a screened biomarker (2.3%). Although the rates for permanent and temporary deferral rates are similar between the Ivory Coast and high-middle income countries, the causes and demographics differ. The reasons for exclusion are preventable through awareness and education of prospective blood donors. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. A stochastic simulator of a blood product donation environment with demand spikes and supply shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Wen; Reich, Nicholas G; Crawford, Stephen O; Brookmeyer, Ron; Louis, Thomas A; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2011-01-01

    The availability of an adequate blood supply is a critical public health need. An influenza epidemic or another crisis affecting population mobility could create a critical donor shortage, which could profoundly impact blood availability. We developed a simulation model for the blood supply environment in the United States to assess the likely impact on blood availability of factors such as an epidemic. We developed a simulator of a multi-state model with transitions among states. Weekly numbers of blood units donated and needed were generated by negative binomial stochastic processes. The simulator allows exploration of the blood system under certain conditions of supply and demand rates, and can be used for planning purposes to prepare for sudden changes in the public's health. The simulator incorporates three donor groups (first-time, sporadic, and regular), immigration and emigration, deferral period, and adjustment factors for recruitment. We illustrate possible uses of the simulator by specifying input values for an 8-week flu epidemic, resulting in a moderate supply shock and demand spike (for example, from postponed elective surgeries), and different recruitment strategies. The input values are based in part on data from a regional blood center of the American Red Cross during 1996-2005. Our results from these scenarios suggest that the key to alleviating deficit effects of a system shock may be appropriate timing and duration of recruitment efforts, in turn depending critically on anticipating shocks and rapidly implementing recruitment efforts.

  13. Blood donation practices, motivations and beliefs in Montreal's Black communities: the modern gift under a new light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nathalie Y L; Charbonneau, Johanne; Valderrama-Benitez, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Through the conceptual lens of the archaic and modern gift, this study aims to examine perceived limitations and facilitators to increasing blood donations within Black communities in Montreal, Canada. The overall objective is to support blood agencies, such as Héma-Québec, in understanding the challenges and opportunities they face in promoting blood donation among Black communities in pluralistic societies. Thirty-three semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with donors and leaders of ethnocultural groups in Montreal: of these, 6 were Héma-Québec employees; 3 were Caribbean blood drive organizers; 14 were leaders of African, Caribbean or Black multiethnic churches and community groups; and finally, 10 were donors, including 2 African, 4 French-speaking Haitian and 4 English-speaking Caribbean. The existence of multiple Black communities in Montreal reflects the various facilitators and obstacles facing Héma-Québec. Caribbean and African communities have their own experiences with regard to blood donation as well as different relationships with the broader Quebec society, both of which have great impact on how they perceive the cause. Questions of trust, of giving to the family and to the community, as well as perceived social exclusion appear to be fundamental issues for our informants. The current participation of groups interested in bettering the lives of those affected by sickle cell anaemia combined with the fact that leaders felt more comfortable donating to someone close to the community suggests that the promotion of blood donation through this angle would be well received. Trust issues, perceived discrimination and social exclusion have structural and historical roots that can only be partly overcome with long-term efforts to increase awareness, develop collaborative partnerships and increase institutional efforts to adapt to the challenges of blood donation from Black citizens.

  14. Interviews with anti-HIV-positive individuals detected through the systematic screening of blood donations: consequences on predonation medical interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, J J; Elghouzzi, M H; Paquez, F; N'Dalla, J; Nubel, L

    1992-01-01

    This study is based upon interviews with 74 individuals found to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive through the screening of blood donations between January 1988 and December 1990. The donation history and the risk factor of HIV infection were established. Questions about the use of blood donation as a diagnostic test and on the notion of a predonation medical interview evoking the risk factor were asked. The majority of the individuals had a risk factor of HIV infection and had given their blood for serological testing. This data can help to adapt the predonation medical interview to the present epidemiological context of HIV infection. The improvement of this interview will contribute to the decrease of the residual transfusional risk of HIV infection.

  15. [Comparative study on the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV infection acquired by blood transfusion and paid plasma donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Zhao, Hong-Ru; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Bao-Jun; Zhao, Cui-Ying; Bai, Guang-Yi; Liang, Liang; Wang, Wei

    2012-08-01

    To study the effect of HAART in patients with AIDS acquire by blood transfusion and paid plasma donation. All AIDS patients whose disease was caused by blood transfusion and commercial plasma donation came from the domicile of Hebei Province. In the group of cases of blood transfusion in whom the infection was caused by one-time blood transfusion before and after 1995, there were 189 cases, of whom 105 cases on HAART were designated as observation group, and 84 cases who were not on HAART were designated as control group. The group of AIDS patients who were former commercial plasma donors (FCPDs) had 120 patients who were identified in the survey of 1995, of whom 63 cases on HAART were designated as observation group and 57 cases who were not on HAART were as control group. Onset dates were defined as the dates into the queue. Death due to AIDS was regarded as an outcome event. Subjects who were enrolled into the observation group and control group were epidemiologically followed up regularly. Observation was ended on December 31, 2010. Mortality of patients after HAART from groups of FCPDs and blood recipients were 4.42/100 person-years and 6.13/100 person-years, respectively. The survival rates of HAART groups were 80% in FCPDs for 110 months and 72% in blood recipients for 90 months, respectively. Meanwhile the mortality of no HAART groups were 182.05/100 person-years and 250.66/100 person-years, respectively. Mean survival of patients whose disease was caused by plasma donation and blood transfusion were 4 months and 3 months, respectively. Whether the HIV infection was caused by plasmapheresis or blood transfusion, the effects of HAART did not show difference. HAART cold reduce the death intensity and prolong survival.

  16. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    ...% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed...

  17. Properties of donated red blood cell components from patients with hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Caroline; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Laradi, Sandrine; Bost, Vincent; Aubrège, Christine; Acquart, Sophie; Vignal, Martine; Boutahar, Nadia; Arthaud, Charles Antoine; Ange Eyraud, Marie; Pozzetto, Bruno; Tiberghien, Pierre; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) contain large amounts of iron, and periodic therapeutic phlebotomy is thus the main treatment for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, the donation of therapeutic phlebotomy products from asymptomatic patients for transfusion purposes remains controversial. In this study, we compared the quality of RBCs obtained from HH patients with those of non-HH RBCs, within the allowed 42-day storage period. RBCs were obtained from HH patient donors and random regular blood donors by whole blood collection. RBCs were stored for up to 42 days, according to national regulations and standard blood bank conditions in France. The following variables were assessed: hematologic and biochemical results, RBC membrane and soluble inflammatory markers, and the proinflammatory potential of HH RBC supernatant toward endothelial cells in an in vitro model. There were no major differences between the two groups in terms of biophysical, biochemical, or soluble immunomodulatory factors. However, we observed small but significant differences in changes in RBC membrane proteins during storage, including increased phosphatidylserine expression and decreased hemolysis in HH compared with normal RBCs. However, there were no differences in terms of bioactivity of soluble immunomodulatory factors in the RBC supernatant during storage between HH and control donors, as determined by their effects on endothelial cells in vitro. These in vitro studies suggest that RBCs from HH patients appear, while exhibiting subtle differences, to be suitable for transfusion purposes according to currently accepted criteria. © 2016 AABB.

  18. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...... the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA...

  19. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Damgaard; Karin Magnussen; Christian Enevold; Martin Nilsson; Tim Tolker-Nielsen; Palle Holmstrup; Claus Henrik Nielsen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Design Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-sus...

  20. Investigation and Analysis of Mutual Blood Donation in A City%某市互助献血情况调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁日美; 李彬; 曾少红; 姚琳

    2011-01-01

    According to" Mutual blood donation registration form of Nanning", we intended to investigate the development of mutual blood donoation in Nanning City. The mutual blood donation is a beneficial supplement to voluntary unpaid blood donation. Blood center should be strictly control the direction of mutual assistance, regulate flow of mutual blood donation in order to ensure blood safety.%依据,了解南宁市互助献血开展情况.指出互助献血是志愿无偿献血的有益补充.血站应严格把握互助献血方向,规范互助献血流程,以确保血液安全.

  1. Survey and Analysis of Willingness of Blood Donation without Payment in Public%对公众无偿献血意愿的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单明华

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解公众对无偿献血的意愿和需求,为采供血机构制订宣传和招募方案提供参考。方法分别设计针对单位和个人的A、B两种问卷调查表,向该市的大部分企事业单位和12000名个人发放,包括已献过血的和从未献过血的,调查其已往献血的目的或不曾献血的原因及今后的献血意愿。结果大部分已献血单位的目的是“为完成指令性献血任务”,占71.4%;公众个人的献血目的以“为完成单位组织的献血任务”和“为他人奉献爱心、拯救生命”为主,分别占38.5%和37.7%。而许多单位不曾组织献血的主要原因是“工作忙抽不出献血时间”和“献血会影响本单位的正常工作”;公众个人不曾献血的原因主要是“献血可能影响本人身体健康”和“采血针穿刺时,怕痛”。结论已献过血的单位团体和个人,大部分仍会继续献血,而从未献过血的单位和个人献血意愿却不强,以观望者居多,有待针对性的宣传和动员。%Objective To know the willingness and demands of public for blood donation without payment and provide refer-ence for making the publicity and recruitment programs of the blood bank. Methods The questionnaires of A and B respec-tively aiming at unit and individual were designed, and issued to most enterprises and institutions and 12000 individuals in our city, including the persons with blood donation and without blood donation, and the blood donation aim, causes of failing to donate blood and the future blood donation willingness were surveyed. Results The aim of most blood donation unites was to complete the directive blood donation task, accounting for 71.4%, while the aim of individual is to complete the blood do-nation task organized by units and dedicate love to others and save lives, respectively accounting for 38.5%and 37.7%, and the main reasons that many units had never organized the blood donation were

  2. “Well done, CERN!” A big thank you to all those who donated their blood

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The blood donation clinic held on 27 July resulted in a total of 147 units collected from 171 volunteers, including 64 first-time donors. The Swiss blood bank CTS is grateful for the support and dedication of the CERN personnel, particularly as blood stocks tend to be at their lowest during the summer period. The CTS and the Medical Service wish to express their gratitude to all the donors for their generosity, and to Novae (Restaurant 1) for the refreshments it provided free of charge for the donors. Forthcoming dates for blood collection at CERN are: 2 November 2011, 15 March 2012 and 25 July 2012.

  3. Is a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-based assay a valid tool for detecting risky malaria blood donations in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchade, Pascal S; Doderer-Lang, Cécile; Chabi, Nicodème; Perrotey, Sylvie; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Akpovi, Casimir D; Anani, Ludovic; Bigot, André; Sanni, Ambaliou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-08-08

    preponderant. Detection of the pLDH antigen seems to be an adequate screening tool in endemic areas, for this antigen indicates parasite presence. Routine screening of all donated blood would prevent infected blood donations and reduce P. falciparum transmission in critical patients, such as children and pregnant women. This tool would also decrease medical prophylaxis in donation recipients and contribute to lower Plasmodium resistance.

  4. Giving blood donors something to drink before donation can prevent fainting symptoms: is there a physiological or psychological reason?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavic, Nataša; Pagliariccio, Antonella; Bulajic, Milica; Dinić, Radovan; Marinozzi, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The vasovagal reaction has been widely studied but its anatomic and physiological nature remains uncertain. The mechanisms underlying vasovagal reaction related to blood donation are not completely understood either. Does its occurrence depend on the blood donors' physical characteristics and health variables or psychological factors? On the basis that a psychological approach considerably prevents donor reactions, the effect of fruit juice ingestion was studied in a group of 1849 first-time high-school students as a simple strategy to avoid systemic reactions at blood donation. The reasons for the psychological effect of this hydration protocol are stressed also in light of previous physiological studies on the hemodynamic effects of water or carbohydrate drinks.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Wilson, Leslie; Novelo-Garza, Barbara; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Ramsey, Janine M

    2016-03-01

    An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico's national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years of Mexico's mandated

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Wilson, Leslie; Novelo-Garza, Barbara; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico’s national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years of Mexico

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sánchez-González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico's national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years

  8. Blood iron stores reduction affects lipoprotein status – a potential benefit of blood donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoj Jadrić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the lipoprotein proile of voluntary blood donors, and on the basis of parameters to evaluate the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods The study included voluntary blood donors of both sexes. Participants were divided into two groups. The irst group of subjects consisted of men and women in menopause (BD1. Thesecond group consisted of women in reproductive age (BD2. Analysisof concentration of lipoproteins was performed by direct determination of total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C. From the totalserum cholesterol and concentration of lipoproteins ratios of totalcholesterol/ HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. Results Signiicantly higher concentration of LDL-C was obtained in the serum of BD 1, compared to LDL-C in the serum of BD 2, within the reference range. Mean concentration of HDL-C in the serum of BD 2 group was higher than the values measured in the BD group 1, without signiicant difference. The ratio of total cholesterol / HDL-C showed signiicantly higher values in the BD 1 group compared with results in the BD 2 group. Signiicantly higher values in the BD group 1 were observed for the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C. Obtained results showed that all voluntary blood donors had a concentration of individual lipoprotein fractions in a lower risk range for atherosclerosis development. Conclusion Female voluntary blood donors in reproductive age have a more favorable lipid status in relation to the voluntary blood donors, men and women in menopause, indicating that this population of women is exposed to lower risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  9. Pre-operative blood donation versus acute normovolemic hemodilution in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezvan Nobahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH and preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD have questionable efficacy, viral and bacterial infection risks, intermittent blood shortages as homeostasis problem, electrolyte and hemodynamic disturbances. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional survey, we studied 70 patients undergoing open heart coronary artery bypass grafts [CABG] and different valvular replacement 1 ml surgery (35 in ANH, 35 in PABD in Shaheed Modares - Hospital. We measured electrolytes and homeostatic factors to evaluate the influence of two transfusion methods on homeostatic function and hemodynamic balance. Results: We compared 70 patients (38 male [54.3%] and 32 female [45.7%] with mean age 54.8 years undergoing open heart surgery (CABG and valvular. In ANH group, significant decrease was detected in Na (28.5% K (2.5%, prothrombin time (PT (88.57%, partial thromboplastin time (PTT (94.28%, creatine phosphokinase (CPK (11.4%, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH (11.43%, albumin (Alb (17.14%, globulin (91.43% and total protein (80%. Mean initial and post-operative hemoglobin was 14.12 ± 1.06 versus 11.97 ± 0.98, hematocrit 42.22 ± 3.45 versus 35.40 ± 2.88, systolic blood pressure 124.1 ± 14.4 versus 110.88 ± 15.6 (reduction 22.86% diastolic blood pressure 76.02 ± 10 versus 69.26 ± 11 (reduction 3% and pulse rate was 75.45 ± 10 versus 84.45 ± 12 (12% in this case difference between two groups was strongly significant (P = 0.001. In PABD group, significant decrease was detected in Na (20%, K (2.5%, PT (91.43% PTT (80%, CPK (8.57%, LDH (5.72%, Alb (57.15%, globulin (71.43% and total-protein (62.85%, the value of hemodynamic changes were in normal range. Conclusion: Though autologous blood transfusion (ANH and PABD was preferable to allogeneic transfusion in cardiac surgical patients; but PABD offers more advantages in homeostasis, hemodynamic stability and electrolyte balance.

  10. The causes and coping manners in the blood donation reaction of the apheresis platelet%机采血小板献血反应的原因分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菊; 桑列勇; 杜冬芬; 李素娥

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes and the treatments in the blood donation reaction of the apheresis platelet. Methods The intervention and nursing measures of 9 903 cases of apheresis platelet donors from January 2012 to November 2015 were summarized. A total of 53 blood donation responders′ data such as gender were collected, and the data were analyzed. Results From January 2012 to November 2015 blood donation reaction rate was 0.54% (53/903), which was lower than that reported in the literature. Among them, 41 cases were female and 12 were male, female blood donation reaction rate was higher than the male (χ2=78.36,P0.05). Blood donation reactions occurred in 34 cases within 5 minutes before the end of the program, accounting for 64.2%(34/53) of the total. Conclusions The sex and blood cell separator and coping of blood volume and the spiritual factors are related to blood donation reaction. Providing quality nursing and services, and creating a good environment for blood donors are conducive to prevent and reduce the occurrence of blood donation reaction.%目的:探讨机采血小板献血反应的发生原因及对策。方法总结2012年1月至2015年11月9903人次机采血小板献血者的干预及护理方法,收集53人次献血反应者性别等资料进行统计分析。结果2012年1月至2015年11月献血反应发生率为0.54%(53/9903);其中男12人次,女41人次,女性献血反应发生率高于男性(χ2=78.36,P0.05)。程序运行结束前5 min内发生献血反应34人次占64.2%。结论献血反应与性别、分离机型、处理血量、精神因素等有关,为献血者提供优质护理和服务,创造良好的献血环境,有利于预防和减少献血反应的发生。

  11. Attitudes, perceptions and knowledge among men who have sex with men towards the blood donation deferral policy in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmer, Liraz; Livnat, Yuval; Yanko, Adir; Shinar, Eilat

    2017-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are permanently deferred from donating blood in Israel. Pressure to change this policy exists, despite data showing higher prevalence and incidence of HIV in MSM. A survey was conducted to evaluate current knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and compliance if deferral was changed. Study design and methods Anonymous survey was published in a gay-oriented website, collecting demographic information, history of blood donation, attitudes, knowledge and compliance with permanent versus temporary deferral. Responses were analyzed given 1 point for every "yes" response (0–7 points). Student’s t-test was applied to compare differences between continuous variables. Correlations were described with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Responses from 492 MSM were analyzed. Average age was 31±9 years. 76% donated blood at least once, mostly for social solidarity (score of 3.2 on 1–5 scale). Tests seeking or protest scores were 1.7 and 1.6, respectively. 66% were unaware of the higher risk of HIV transmission by MSM, or the potential to infect 3 recipients. Knowledge regarding HIV transmission by blood positively correlated with knowledge regarding other routes of HIV transmission (r = 0.11; p = 0.03), age (r = 0.10; p = 0.04), and higher rate of non-compliance with the current deferral policy (OR = 1.9; p = 0.02). Activism for LGBT rights was associated with lower risk for non-adherence (OR = 0.5; p = 0.03). If temporary deferral is introduced 66% will comply with the new policy, but 23% will continue to donate as long as MSM deferral policy is in place. Conclusion A high proportion of MSM do not comply with the current lifetime deferral. This may partially change if temporary deferral is introduced. PMID:28152072

  12. Attitudes, perceptions and knowledge among men who have sex with men towards the blood donation deferral policy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Itzchak; Olmer, Liraz; Livnat, Yuval; Yanko, Adir; Shinar, Eilat

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are permanently deferred from donating blood in Israel. Pressure to change this policy exists, despite data showing higher prevalence and incidence of HIV in MSM. A survey was conducted to evaluate current knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and compliance if deferral was changed. Anonymous survey was published in a gay-oriented website, collecting demographic information, history of blood donation, attitudes, knowledge and compliance with permanent versus temporary deferral. Responses were analyzed given 1 point for every "yes" response (0-7 points). Student's t-test was applied to compare differences between continuous variables. Correlations were described with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Responses from 492 MSM were analyzed. Average age was 31±9 years. 76% donated blood at least once, mostly for social solidarity (score of 3.2 on 1-5 scale). Tests seeking or protest scores were 1.7 and 1.6, respectively. 66% were unaware of the higher risk of HIV transmission by MSM, or the potential to infect 3 recipients. Knowledge regarding HIV transmission by blood positively correlated with knowledge regarding other routes of HIV transmission (r = 0.11; p = 0.03), age (r = 0.10; p = 0.04), and higher rate of non-compliance with the current deferral policy (OR = 1.9; p = 0.02). Activism for LGBT rights was associated with lower risk for non-adherence (OR = 0.5; p = 0.03). If temporary deferral is introduced 66% will comply with the new policy, but 23% will continue to donate as long as MSM deferral policy is in place. A high proportion of MSM do not comply with the current lifetime deferral. This may partially change if temporary deferral is introduced.

  13. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial...

  14. Doação de sangue: uma visão de marketing Blood donation: a marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Terra Ludwig

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho enfatiza como o marketing pode fazer diferença no retorno do doador de sangue voluntário, pois o maior desafio enfrentado pelas instituições de saúde é manter e incrementar a doação de sangue. Nesse contexto, compreender a motivação do doador voluntário é de suma importância e os estudos apresentados demonstram que diversas variáveis são importantes na doação de sangue. O grande número de pacientes necessitados de transfusão de sangue e a carência de sangue no setor justificam o interesse por este estudo, não só do ponto de vista do doador, mas, sobretudo, das instituições. Além disso, o reconhecimento da importância das ações e da orientação para o doador é fundamental quando se pensa em estratégia de marketing. Dessa maneira, torna-se relevante para as instituições de saúde a identificação das reais necessidades e desejos do doador.This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  15. Living-Donor Kidney Transplantation: Reducing Financial Barriers to Live Kidney Donation--Recommendations from a Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushla, Lara; Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Milton, Jennifer; Rodrigue, James R; Schold, Jesse D; Hays, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Live-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the best treatment for eligible people with late-stage kidney disease. Despite this, living kidney donation rates have declined in the United States in recent years. A potential source of this decline is the financial impact on potential and actual living kidney donors (LKDs). Recent evidence indicates that the economic climate may be associated with the decline in LDKT and that there are nontrivial financial ramifications for some LKDs. In June 2014, the American Society of Transplantation's Live Donor Community of Practice convened a Consensus Conference on Best Practices in Live Kidney Donation. The conference included transplant professionals, patients, and other key stakeholders (with the financial support of 10 other organizations) and sought to identify best practices, knowledge gaps, and opportunities pertaining to living kidney donation. This workgroup was tasked with exploring systemic and financial barriers to living kidney donation. The workgroup reviewed literature that assessed the financial effect of living kidney donation, analyzed employment and insurance factors, discussed international models for addressing direct and indirect costs faced by LKDs, and summarized current available resources. The workgroup developed the following series of recommendations to reduce financial and systemic barriers and achieve financial neutrality for LKDs: (1) allocate resources for standardized reimbursement of LKDs' lost wages and incidental costs; (2) pass legislation to offer employment and insurability protections to LKDs; (3) create an LKD financial toolkit to provide standardized, vetted education to donors and providers about options to maximize donor coverage and minimize financial effect within the current climate; and (4) promote further research to identify systemic barriers to living donation and LDKT to ensure the creation of mitigation strategies.

  16. Practice and Experience to Carry out Mutual Blood Donation in A City%某市互助献血工作的实践与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 廖燕; 李丽兰; 申卫东

    2011-01-01

    Mutual blood donation aid is a special blood donation model to ensure the needs of emergency and clinical medicine. The harmonization of health administrative departments, hospital transfusion departments and blood banks are needed to jointly improve the policy advocacy and mobilization of mutual donation, to develop work -flow and to implement rigorous testing of blood to ensure blood quality and safe use of blood.%互助献血是保障急救和临床医疗用血需求的一种特殊模式.需要卫生行政部门、医院输血科、血站等协调统一,共同做好互助献血的宣传与动员,并制定互助献血流程,实施血液严格检测,以确保血液质量与用血安全.

  17. Exploring the dynamics of the theory of planned behavior in the context of blood donation: does donation experience make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.; Ferguson, E.; Kort, W. de; Donders, R.; Atsma, F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the influence of different variables from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on intention within multiple donation categories, covering the entire range of lifetime number of donations (LND). Does the same set of variables predict intention equally strong

  18. Exploring the dynamics of the theory of planned behavior in the context of blood donation: does donation experience make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.; Ferguson, E.; Kort, W. de; Donders, R.; Atsma, F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the influence of different variables from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on intention within multiple donation categories, covering the entire range of lifetime number of donations (LND). Does the same set of variables predict intention equally strong throug

  19. Artificial Neural Network to Modeling Zero-inflated Count Data: Application to Predicting Number of Return to Blood Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, Shima; Sedehi, Morteza; Kheiri, Soleiman

    2017-09-02

    Traditional statistical models often are based on certain presuppositions and limitations that may not presence in actual data and lead to turbulence in estimation or prediction. In these situations, artificial neural networks (ANNs) could be suitable alternative rather than classical statistical methods.  A prospective cohort study. The study was conducted in Shahrekord Blood Transfusion Center, Shahrekord, central Iran, on blood donors from 2008-2009. The accuracy of the proposed model to prediction of number of return to blood donations was compared with classical statistical models. A number of 864 donors who had a first-time successful donation were followed for five years. Number of return for blood donation was considered as response variable. Poisson regression (PR), negative binomial regression (NBR), zero-inflated Poisson regression (ZIPR) and zero-inflated negative binomial regression (ZINBR) as well as ANN model were fitted to data. MSE criterion was used to compare models. To fitting the models, STATISTICA 10 and, R 3.2.2 was used RESULTS: The MSE of PR, NBR, ZIPR, ZINBR and ANN models was obtained 2.71, 1.01, 1.54, 0.094 and 0.056 for the training and 4.05, 9.89, 3.99, 2.53 and 0.27 for the test data, respectively. The ANN model had the least MSE in both training, and test data set and has a better performance than classic models. ANN could be a suitable alternative for modeling such data because of fewer restrictions.

  20. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R; Huang, K

    2011-07-01

    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ~1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells' normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  1. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  2. 无偿献血者血液筛查策略探讨%To Explore the Screening Algorithm for Non-remunerate Voluntary Blood Donations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇宁; 阮玉琦; 苏志华

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估不同血液筛查模式对筛查效果的影响,为适应新版《血站技术操作规程》,制订适合本地区的献血者血液筛查策略提供依据.方法 选择2010~2011年上海市奉贤区血站37 136例无偿献血标本,其中预约献血标本13 693例,预约后采血标本10 389例,无预约采血标本13 054例.同时在无预约采血者中选择了2 705例在采血前先行ALT快速法,合格后再采血,分析不同的采血模式对筛查不合格率的影响.结果 无论是预约还是无预约献血,ALT为主要不合格原因.预约后献血者所有检测指标不合格率(2.70%)明显较无预约者低(5.62%),采血前筛查ALT能有效降低ALT不合格率(从6.33%降为2.88%),而预约后采血能显著降低HBsAg和抗-HCV等其他指标的不合格率(从1.85%降为0.73%).结论 对于计划性的团体无偿献血者的血液筛查,以预约献血结合采血前ALT干化学法筛查的策略为佳.%Objective To assess the effect of different blood screening algorithms on the screening results, to stipulate for a proper blood screening policy under the guidance of the new version of Blood Bank Technique Regulations of China. Methods Blood screening results of 37 136 ran-remunerate voluntary blood donations from Shanghai Fengxian Blood Bank in 2010 to 2011 were selected, among which 13 693 were pre-donated blood samples from appointment blood donors, 10 398 were donation samples from appointment blood donors, and 13 054 were donation samples from un-appointment blood donors. 2 705 donation samples from un-appointment donors with ALT pre-screened were also been selected. The blood screening results were analyzed to enclose the effect of different screening algorithms. Results Abnormal ALT were the main unqualified reasons both in appointment and in un-appointment blood donations. The unqualified rate of appointment donations (2. 70%) was significant lower than that of un-appointment donations (5. 62%). ALT

  3. 临床医护人员无偿献血知识培训针对性调查%Clinical Nurses Knowledge of Blood Donation of Training Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德贵

    2015-01-01

    目的了解医护人员无偿献血知识认知现状,提高对医护人员无偿献血培训的针对性,促进无偿献血事业进一步发展。方法抽取辖区内二级以上综合性医院医护人员,对其进行问卷调查,用Excel录入并进行统计分析。结果接受调查的医护人员对无偿献血基本知识掌握较差,特别是对互助献血、用血退费、血液收费知识等尤其欠缺。结论应进一步加强医护人员无偿献血知识针对性培训,改变培训重点,促进血站与医疗机构的有效沟通和合作等。%Objective To understand the cognitive status of nurses of blood donation knowledge, improve the pertinence of medical personnel training to promote voluntary blood donation, blood donation to further the development. Methods Doctors and nurses were selected more than two general hospitals, on the questionnaire survey, statistical analysis and Excel. Results Survey of medical staf on voluntary blood donation knowledge is poor, especial y for the mutual blood donation, blood, blood charges refund especial y lack of knowledge. Conclusion Should further strengthen the medical staf for training of unpaid blood donation knowledge, change the training focus, promote ef ective communication and cooperation with medical institutions such as blood.

  4. Research Progress of Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation%贮存式自体输血的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章健萍(综述); 郭建荣; 金孝岠(审校)

    2016-01-01

    随着对异体输血风险认识加深,自体输血越来越受关注。贮存式自体输血作为一种重要的血液保护策略应用于临床,它不仅能够避免异体输血带来的风险,还能够缓解我国临床用血紧张的局面。贮存式自体输血的适应证、采血原则以及其对机体重要功能的影响一直是医学界关注的焦点,积极探索其应用前景,可以使更多患者受益。%With the recognition of the risk of allogeneic blood transfusion , autologous blood transfusion has drawn more and more attention.As an important kind of blood protection strategy used in clinical ,preop-erative autologous blood donation(PABD) can not only avoid the risk caused by allogeneic blood transfusion, but also relieve the tension of clinical blood reserve in China .Indication and blood collection principle of PABD,and its effect on the body′s important function are the focus in the world medical science , and the active exploration of the application prospect will benefit more patients .

  5. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  6. Application of psychological consultation technique in blood donation%浅谈心理咨询技能在无偿献血工作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯刚丽

    2014-01-01

    Blood donors have various degrees of fears which produce an effect on their blood donation. The application of psychological consultation technique can help blood donors set up their blood donation concept. It’s vital to ensure the blood safety by effecting psychological nursing for blood donors, providing excellent blood collection service and developing more blood donors with low risk. This paper simply states the application of psychological consultation technique in blood donation.%在无偿献血的工作中,献血者有着不同程度的恐惧心理,严重影响献血行为。因此,运用心理咨询技术,帮助献血者树立正确的献血观念。对无偿献血者实施有效的心理护理,提供优质的采血服务,发展低危无偿献血者。不断建立和扩大自愿无偿献血者队伍,对保证血液安全至关重要。本文就心理咨询技能在无偿献血中的应用体会作简单地阐述。

  7. Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takecian, Pedro L; Oikawa, Marcio K; Braghetto, Kelly R; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B F; Sabino, Ester C; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P; Ferreira, João E

    2013-06-01

    Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development.

  8. Red blood cells donate electrons to methylene blue mediated chemical reduction of methemoglobin compartmentalized in liposomes in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromi; Li, Bing; Lim, Wei Lee; Iga, Yumika

    2014-07-16

    Electron-energy-rich coenzymes in cells, NADH and NADPH, are re-energized repeatedly through the Embden-Meyerhof and pentose-phosphate glycolytic pathways, respectively. This study demonstrates extraction of their electron energies in red blood cells (RBCs) for in vivo extracellular chemical reactions using an electron mediator shuttling across the biomembrane. Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbVs) are an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating purified and concentrated Hb solution in liposomes. Because of the absence of a metHb-reducing enzymatic system in HbV, HbO2 gradually autoxidizes to form metHb. Wistar rats received HbV suspension (10 mL/kg body weight) intravenously. At the metHb level of around 50%, methylene blue [MB(+); 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)phenothiazinium chloride] was injected. The level of metHb quickly decreased to around 16% in 40 min, remaining for more than 5 h. In vitro mixing of HbV/MB(+) with RBCs recreated the in vivo metHb reduction, but not with plasma. NAD(P)H levels in RBCs decreased after metHb reduction. The addition of glucose facilitated metHb reduction. Liposome-encapsulated NAD(P)H, a model of RBC, reduced metHb in HbV in the presence of MB(+). These results indicate that (i) NAD(P)H in RBCs reacts with MB(+) to convert it to leukomethylene blue (MBH); (ii) MB(+) and MBH shuttle freely between RBC and HbV across the hydrophobic lipid membranes; and (iii) MBH is transferred into HbV and reduces metHb in HbV. Four other electron mediators with appropriate redox potentials appeared to be as effective as MB(+) was, indicating the possibility for further optimization of electron mediators. We established an indirect enzymatic metHb reducing system for HbV using unlimited endogenous electrons created in RBCs in combination with an effective electron mediator that prolongs the functional lifespan of HbV in blood circulation.

  9. Blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis in low-flow extracorporeal life support; an in vitro study using freshly donated human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, R W J; Simons, A P; Lancé, M D; Ganushchak, Y M; Bekers, O; Weerwind, P W

    2017-01-01

    Low-flow extracorporeal life support can be used for cardiopulmonary support of paediatric and neonatal patients and is also emerging as a therapy for patients suffering from exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, pump heating and haemolysis have proven to negatively affect the system and outcome. This in vitro study aimed at gaining insight into blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis related to the performance of a new low-flow centrifugal pump. Pump performance in the 400-1,500 ml/min flow range was modulated using small-sized dual-lumen catheters and freshly donated human blood. Measurements included plasma free haemoglobin, blood temperature, pump speed, pump pressure, blood flow and thermographic imaging. Blood warming (ΔTmax=0.5°C) had no relationship with pump performance or haemolysis (R(2)max=0.05). Pump performance-related parameters revealed no relevant relationships with haemolysis (R(2)max=0.36). Thermography showed no relevant heat zones in the pump (Tmax=36°C). Concerning blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis, we deem the centrifugal pump applicable for low-flow extracorporeal circulation.

  10. Survey on Blood Donation Knowledge and Behavior among Residents in Shijiazhuang%石家庄市居民献血知识与行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋任浩; 何二龙; 张丽娟; 何路军; 常缨

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out the blood donation consciousness and behavior among Shijiazhuang residents and establish the most appropriate method for recruiting blood donors. Methods; The self-designed questionnaire survey of Shijiazhuang residents was carried out anonymously. Results; Shijiazhuang residents' knowledge on "blood donor health inspection requirement" and "blood component and function" cognitive level is relatively low The percentage of knowledge of the people in Shijiazhuang Culture Square had donated blood was higher than railway station citizen, there was the cognitive difference in different educational crowd.74.5% of the residents had donating plan; 78.3% of the residents had an idea that the blood donation motive is "cure patents"; "Blood donation guide" and "the blood donation knowledge" is the main demand of the residents. The blood donation behavior and knowledge sources have certain relevance. Conclusion; The knowledge of the related blood donation knew less, Most residents had the positive attitude and motivation. The blood center should further strengthen blood donation propaganda,improve service quality and satisfaction.%目的:了解石家庄市民献血知识与行为,为改进献血者招募工作提供参考依据.方法:采用自行设计的调查问卷对石家庄市民进行匿名调查.结果:石家庄市民对“献血者健康检查要求”和“血液组成及其功能”认知程度较低;文化广场市民对献血知识的认知程度高于火车站市民(x2=71.88,P<0.01);市民年龄与献血知识的认知呈正相关(x2=17.60,P<0.01);不同教育程度认知有差异(x2=98.60,P<0.01);有献血经历者认知程度高于无献血经历者(x2=17.83,P<0.01).74.5%的市民有献血的打算;78.3%的市民认为献血的动机是“治病救人”;“献血指引”和“献血知识”是市民主要的献血需求,献血行为与知识来源有一定相关性.结论:石家庄市民献血相关知识知晓

  11. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  12. Characterization of blood components separated from donated whole blood after an overnight holding at room temperature with the buffy coat method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fa Qiang; Kang, Wei; Peng, Yu; Wang, Wei Ming

    2011-10-01

    With buffy coat (BC) processing of whole blood (WB) donations, increase in WB storage time to facilitate overnight holding before the separation of blood components would be a logistically attractive development. This study undertakes a comparative in vitro characterization of blood components prepared from WB samples that were either processed within 8 hours or stored overnight at room temperature before processing by the BC method. The WB units (400 mL) collected were either processed within 8 hours (fresh blood) or stored overnight (overnight blood) at room temperature. WB units were separated into individual-component red blood cells (RBCs), BC, and plasma. The in vitro quality of these blood components (RBCs, pooled platelet concentrates [PCs], and plasma) was analyzed during storage. Levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were found to be significantly lower immediately after processing, compared with the fresh WB samples, in RBCs that had been separated from an overnight-hold sample. However, this difference was not apparent after 14 days of storage. In pooled PCs, measurements for glucose, lactate, PO(2), PCO(2), extent of shape change, and hypotonic shock response were similar. The platelet yield in PCs prepared from an overnight-hold WB sample was significantly higher, while CD62P expression and annexin V binding were lower (p component that was most sensitive to the prolongation of production time and it only had 80% of the activity of the 8-hour FP. These data suggest that blood components (RBCs, pooled PCs, and FP) separated from WB that has been stored overnight at room temperature by the BC method are of acceptable quality. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If ... possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication — or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. ...

  14. 延续护理对单采血小板献血者持续献血的效果研究%Study on effects of continuing nursing on sustained blood donation of apheresis platelets donators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽霞; 龙雪芳; 骆小青; 林巧核

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss effects of continuing nursing on sustained blood donation of first - time apheresis platelets donators. Methods:Selected 120 first - time apheresis platelets donators in our hospital from August 2014 to August 2015,and randomly divided these study objects into control group and experimental group equally;control group donors received usual nursing while experimental group donors received intervention nursing under the continuing nursing mode,which included cognitive intervention,mental intervention and behavioral intervention. Sustained blood donation conditions of both groups were assessed within one year after the interventions. The assessed fields included number of platelet donors,number of volunteers,number of successfully recruited blood donors,number of donors who donated whole - blood and platelets alternately and number of donors who no longer donated platelets. Then changes in life styles of both group donors and their masteries of relevant knowledge were observed through analysis reports,so as to know about intervention effects. Results:Within 1 year after interventions,experimental group had more sustained apheresis platelets donator,volunteers,successfully recruited do-nors,but fewer donors who donated whole - blood and platelets alternately and donors who no longer donated platelets,the differences had statistical signifi-cances(P < 0. 05). Cognitive behaviors of donors,masteries of relevant knowledge and changes in life styles were compared between both groups,and the comparisons had statistical differences(P < 0. 05). Conclusion:Continuing nursing can encourage sustained blood donations of apheresis platelets donators, help them to change unhealthy living habits and increase their compliances. It plays an active role in recruitment,call back and conservation of donors.%目的:探讨延续护理对首次单采血小板献血者持续献血的效果。方法:选取我院2014年8月~2015年8月120名首次单采血小板献血

  15. 法国无偿献血见闻及启示%Work Experience and Enlightenment of Voluntary Blood Donation in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏; 梁文飚

    2012-01-01

    The paper presented some successful work experience of French voluntary blood donation, explored the establishment of long - term mechanism of blood work oriented by government and participated in by all social sectors, as well as that of model on centralized management of blood bank, educated, mobilized and recruited the fixed blood donation team in order to promote the sustainable development of voluntary blood donation.%结合法国无偿献血工作制度见闻,介绍了法国无偿献血的先进经验:有全国统一、规范的输血服务体系;有政府的强力推动;有社会力量的广泛参与;有一套行之有效的工作方法;有独立的通联部门.并就其对我国的启示进行了总结.

  16. Analysis of Psychological Needs of Blood Donation and Intervention Measures for Blood Donors%献血者献血心理需求分析及干预对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟炽辉; 吴严竣; 李丽颜; 徐华馨; 陈庆恺; 何子毅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨献血者心理活动特点,采取合理干预措施以提高献血者招募成功率和重复献血者的比例率。方法通过随机发放调查问卷的方式收集献血者的心理活动数据,分析其心理特点及顾虑。结果在献血目的方面,首次献血者有62.73%以“功利心理”为主,重复献血者则有76.01%以“奉献心理”为主;在献血顾虑方面,首次献血者中以关注“献血安全”为主,占72.69%,重复献血者以关注“献血服务质量”为主,占77.91%。结论重视献血者心理需求和顾虑,两类献血者的献血心态有所差异,各有侧重,应针对不同类型的献血者采取不同的心理干预策略,满足他们的需求,消除其顾虑,可有效地提高献血者招募的成功率和重复献血者的比例率。%Objective To investigate the characteristics of blood donors’psychological activity,take reasonable intervention measures to improve the success rate of blood donation recruitment and the ratio of repeated blood donation.Methods The data of blood donors’psychological activity was collected by distributing questionnaires randomly,and the psychological characteristics and worries were analysed.Results In terms of the blood donation purpose,there were 62.73% of the blood donors who donate blood for the first time and take the“utility psychological”as the principal thing.There were 76.01% of the blood donors who donate blood repeatedly and take the“dedication psychological”as the principal thing.In terms of wor-ries,there was 72.69% of the blood donors who donate blood for the first time and take the“safety of blood donation”as the principal thing.There was 77.91% of the blood donors who donate blood repeatedly and take the “service quality of blood donation”as the principal thing.Conclusion The success rate of blood donation recruitment and the ratio of repeated blood donation could be effectively improved by

  17. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of blood donations in Accra (Ghana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Marinus; Sagoe, Kwamena W. C.; Vermande, Jacobien E.; van der Schaaf, Ido P.; Adriani, Willem P. A. van der Tuuk; Torpey, Kwasi; Ansah, Justina; Mingle, Julius A. A.; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit; Postma, Maarten J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Areas with high HIV-incidence rates compared to the developed world may benefit from additional testing in blood banks and may show more favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of adding p24 antigen, mini pool nucleic acid amplification testing (MP-NAT),

  18. End-ischemic machine perfusion reduces bile duct injury in donation after circulatory death rat donor livers independent of the machine perfusion temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerkamp, Andrie C.; Mahboub, Paria; Meyer, Sophie L.; Hottenrott, Maximilia; Ottens, Petra J.; Wiersma-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Lisman, Ton; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Porte, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    A short period of oxygenated machine perfusion (MP) after static cold storage (SCS) may reduce biliary injury in donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor livers. However, the ideal perfusion temperature for protection of the bile ducts is unknown. In this study, the optimal perfusion temperature for

  19. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  20. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Kaur Naidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay, and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4% of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center.

  1. [Body donation versus organ donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ria

    2010-01-01

    There appears to be a discrepancy between the oversupply of donated bodies 'for science' in anatomical institutions in the Netherlands and the shortage of donated organs. However, organ donation is not as straightforward as it seems, mainly because of its strict conditions, e.g. with respect to age and the required hospital setting of the dying. Since Dutch body donors are mainly elderly men, their attitudes to their body, death and science should be explored from a generational perspective.

  2. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies: The Advent of Pathogen-Reduced Blood Components to Reduce Blood Safety Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Dana V; Schubert, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen inactivation technologies represent a shift in blood safety from a reactive approach to a proactive protective strategy. Commercially available technologies demonstrate effective killing of most viruses, bacteria, and parasites and are capable of inactivating passenger leukocytes in blood products. The use of pathogen inactivation causes a decrease in the parameters of products that can be readily measured in laboratory assays but that do not seem to cause any alteration in hemostatic effect of plasma or platelet transfusions. Effort needs to be made to further develop these technologies so that the negative quality impact is ameliorated without reducing the pathogen inactivation effectiveness.

  3. 某市无偿献血人群构成调查与分析%Study on Composition of Population for Voluntary Blood Donation in A City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋琳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate composition of voluntary blood donors to carry out pertinent blood donation promotion.Method We analyzed the gender, age, educational level, occupation, blood type of blood donors from 2005 to 2009. Result The distribution of blood type was O > B > A > AB. The majority of blood donors was front - line staff in production and transportation ( 38.27% ), followed by other free employees (36.08%); with age mainly from 30 to 40 years old ( 37.58% ), followed by 18 to 25 years (26.03 % ) ; males were more than females, with the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Conclusion To better promote the sustainable development of voluntary blood donation, we should innovate the concept of blood donation promotion, actively mobilize government office, institutions and rural population to take part in blood donation.%目的 了解自愿无偿献血人群的构成,以便有针对性地进行无偿献血宣传.方法 对2005年~2009年献血者的性别、年龄、文化程度、职业、血型等进行统计与分析.结果 无偿献血者血型分布O>B>A>AB;职业以生产、运输一线工作人员(38.27%)为主,其次是其他自由职业人员(36.08%);年龄以30~40岁为主(37.58%),其次是18~25岁(26.03%);男性多于女性,男女之比为1.5:1.结论 创新无偿献血宣传理念,积极动员政府机关、事业单位及农村人口等参与无偿献血,可更好地推动无偿献血事业的可持续发展.

  4. Effect of Jiaosanxian on Reducing Blood Lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ai-wu; TIAN Run; ZHAO Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Jiaosanxian (JSX,consisted of stir-baked Hordei Fructus Germinatus-Crataegi Fructus-Massa Fermentata Medicinalis) on reducing blood lipid.Methods The model of hyperlipidemic mice was established by feeding high-fat diet.Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups:blank,hyperlipidemic,Zhibituo,low-,mid-,and high-dose [100,200,and 400 mg/(kg·d)] JSX groups,and were continuously ig administered for 28 d.The contents of total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum and liver and liver index were determined.Results The contents of TC,TG,and LDL-C in serum or liver were decreased significantly but the contents of HDL-C were increased more significantly in the mid-and high-dose JSX groups than those in hyperlipemic group.The weight and liver index were decreased significantly with the dose increasing of JSX.The lipid-decreasing effects were improved with the dose increasing.Conclusion These results suggest that JSX has the significant effects on hyperlipidemia.It could provide the experimental basis for the clinical use of JSX for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  5. [Donation of bodies to science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, V

    2001-01-01

    Teaching and research in anatomy is mainly based on cadaveric dissection. Unclaimed bodies is no more the origin of cadavers, but body donation programs. The dissection is an important part in the anatomical curses of medical students and for anatomical research and special courses devoted to the surgeons. A body donation center was created in Paris in 1953 with the purpose of obtaining bodies for dissection. Donation is a clear will made by people free and informed. Donation is most often by altruism, conferrins life on another. Body donation is regulated by various act or reglementar text according to each country. One of the problem with the body gift is biological hazard, specially in research and clinical courses, but the rule is to consider unembalmed material as contaminated and to use all precautions with barrier for blood and bodily fluid. Body donation is one of the modern expression of solidarity.

  6. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  7. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...... flow, or sequestration of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, or any combination thereof. The present results indicate that central circulatory underfilling is an integral part of the hemodynamic and homeostatic derangement observed in cirrhosis....

  8. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.

    2016-01-01

    , symptomatic patients, and swine. RESULTS: Eleven donations (0.04%) were confirmed as positive for HEV RNA (median HEV RNA level, 13 IU/mL). Two donations were successfully genotyped as HEV-gt-3. Only one donor had a travel history outside Europe. Nine of 11 donors were male, but the gender ratio...... was nonsignificant compared with the total donor population. Seven available recipients tested negative for HEV RNA and anti-HEV immunoglobulin M in follow-up samples. One recipient was HEV RNA-negative but anti-HEV immunoglobulin G-positive. HEV TTI was considered unlikely, but a transfusion-induced secondary...

  9. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemovigilance Membership AABB HUB Membership Directory Corporate Supporters Advertise Copyright © AABB. Privacy Statement | Terms of Use | About AABB | Contact Us Facebook Twitter Youtube LinkedIn

  10. Where to Donate Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemovigilance Membership AABB HUB Membership Directory Corporate Supporters Advertise Copyright © AABB. Privacy Statement | Terms of Use | About AABB | Contact Us Facebook Twitter Youtube LinkedIn

  11. 宜昌市公民无偿献血动机分析及应对策略%Motivations and Strategies of Voluntary Unpaid Blood Donation among Yichang Citizens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查宜昌市公民无偿献血动机,分析其影响因素,制定针对性的应对策略。方法:在宜昌市城区及所属县市区7个固定采血点采取偶遇抽样法,对无偿献血者及同时间段内经过献血点且年龄符合献血要求的未献血者进行现场问卷调查。结果:利他主义、获得荣誉、享受用血优待是促进人们参加无偿献血的主要原因;抽不出时间、怕痛和担心献血影响身体、亲友的阻止等因素是阻碍人们献血的主要原因。结论:针对公民献血动机多元化的特点,建立科学的无偿献血招募体系,巩固积极动机的激励作用,消除和减弱消极动机,制定出科学合理的应对策略,以满足日益增长的临床用血需求。%Objective: Exploring the influencing factors through an investigation on Yichang citizens'motivations of voluntary unpaid blood donation, then we establish the targeted coping strategy.Methods: At seven different blood -donating stations in urban areas and counties of Yichang, we occasionally selected voluntary blood donors and the passing pedestrians which were suitable for blood donation and did not donate during the same time period to do the investigation by questionnaires.Result:The survey shows that the main reasons why people would do blood donation are altruism, gain honor and the preferential treatment in blood, and the main reasons which prevent people from donating blood would be: lack of time, fear of pain, worry about health influenced by blood donation and the stop from relatives and friends.Conclusion:According to the diversification of the citizens'blood donation motivations, we must build a scientific recruitment system of voluntary unpaid blood donation to consolidate the incentive effect of positive motivation and eliminate the negative motivation , and also work out a scientific and reasonable strategy to satisfy the increasing demand of clinical blood use.

  12. 多次捐献机采血小板后献血者外周血象的变化%The changes of peripheral blood indexes in donors donating blood several times for apheresis platelet concentrates*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛健民; 赵宏祥; 任素玲; 袁秀珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of peripheral blood several times indexes in donors donating blood for apheresis platelet concentrates. Methods 20 donors who donated blood for apheresis platelet concentrates 10 38 times (interval: 1- 2 months), were enrolled and detected for peripheral blood indexes respectively before the first and the last time for donating platelet,and the results were analyzed. Results Of all enrolled donors, the platelet number, red blood cell number, white blood cell number and haemoglobin concentrates and the average value before the last donating blood were not statistical different with those before the first donating(P>0.05) ,but mean platelet volume and platelet large cell rate were decreased(P<0.01). Conclusion Blood do nation could promote hematopoiesis of the bone marrow,and might not be harmful to the body health.%目的 研究多次捐献机采血小板后献血者外周血象的变化情况.方法 选择20名自愿捐献机采血小板达10~38次的献血者(每次间隔期为1~2个月),在首次和末次采集血小板前分别进行外周血象的检测,进行统计分析.结果 多次捐献机采血小板的献血者,末次采集前外周血小板数(PLT)与首次采集前PLT、正常值均数相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),外周血中的红细胞数(RBC)、白细胞数(WBC)、血红蛋白浓度(Hb)并未发生明显的变化,但血小板分布宽度(PDW)增加,血小板平均体积(MPV)、大形血小板比例(P-LCR)下降,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 献血可以促进骨髓的造血功能,对机体并无明显不利的影响.

  13. [The development of the assortment and requirements of the tissue bank of the District Institute for Blood Donation and Transfusion Leipzig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K; Müller, C

    1990-08-01

    Since the foundation of the tissue bank at the District Institute for Blood Donation--and Transfusion Service of Leipzig in 1966 the range of production and the assortment of nonvital tissue transplants has considerably increased. The amount of clinical establishments and their requirements is considerably increased, in which the realization of demands is not always possible without waiting periods. The main tissue conservation method is the cryo-drying. Besides the extreme cooling and cryo-preservation were used. Problems of transportation of cooled tissue conserves were discussed.

  14. Oral or parenteral iron supplementation to reduce deferral, iron deficiency and/or anaemia in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham A; Fisher, Sheila A; Doree, Carolyn; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Roberts, David J

    2014-07-03

    Iron deficiency is a significant cause of deferral in people wishing to donate blood. If iron removed from the body through blood donation is not replaced, then donors may become iron deficient. All donors are screened at each visit for low haemoglobin (Hb) levels. However, some deferred blood donors do not return to donate. Deferred first-time donors are even less likely to return. Interventions that reduce the risk of provoking iron deficiency and anaemia in blood donors will therefore increase the number of blood donations. Currently, iron supplementation for blood donors is not a standard of care in many blood services. A systematic review is required to answer specific questions regarding the efficacy and safety of iron supplementation in blood donors. To assess the efficacy and safety of iron supplementation to reduce deferral, iron deficiency and/or anaemia in blood donors. We ran the search on 18 November 2013. We searched Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and six other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened guidelines reference lists. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing iron supplementation versus placebo or control, oral versus parenteral iron supplementation, iron supplementation versus iron-rich food supplements, and different doses, treatment durations and preparations of iron supplementation in healthy blood donors. Autologous blood donors were excluded. We combined data using random-effects meta-analyses. We evaluated heterogeneity using the I(2) statistic; we explored considerable heterogeneity (I(2) > 75%) in subgroup analyses. We carried out sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of trial quality on the results. Thirty RCTs (4704 participants) met the eligibility criteria, including 19 comparisons of iron supplementation and placebo or control; one comparison of oral and parenteral iron supplementation; four comparisons of

  15. Subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion reduces endothelial cell and bile duct injury after donation after cardiac death pig liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Jan M; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Boehnert, Markus U; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Louis, Kristine S; Adeyi, Oyedele A; Minkovich, Leonid; Yip, Paul M; Keshavjee, Shaf; Levy, Gary A; Grant, David R; Selzner, Nazia; Selzner, Markus

    2014-11-01

    An ischemic-type biliary stricture (ITBS) is a common feature after liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death (DCD) grafts. We compared sequential subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (SNEVLP; 33°C) with cold storage (CS) for the prevention of ITBS in DCD liver grafts in pig liver transplantation (n = 5 for each group). Liver grafts were stored for 10 hours at 4°C (CS) or preserved with combined 7-hour CS and 3-hour SNEVLP. Parameters of hepatocyte [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), international normalized ratio (INR), factor V, and caspase 3 immunohistochemistry], endothelial cell (EC; CD31 immunohistochemistry and hyaluronic acid), and biliary injury and function [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and bile lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] were determined. Long-term survival (7 days) after transplantation was similar between the SNEVLP and CS groups (60% versus 40%, P = 0.13). No difference was observed between SNEVLP- and CS-treated animals with respect to the peak of serum INR, factor V, or AST levels within 24 hours. CD31 staining 8 hours after transplantation demonstrated intact EC lining in SNEVLP-treated livers (7.3 × 10(-4) ± 2.6 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2)) but not in CS-treated livers (3.7 × 10(-4) ± 1.3 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2) , P = 0.03). Posttransplant SNEVLP animals had decreased serum ALP and serum bilirubin levels in comparison with CS animals. In addition, LDH in bile fluid was lower in SNEVLP pigs versus CS pigs (14 ± 10 versus 60 ± 18 μmol/L, P = 0.02). Bile duct histology revealed severe bile duct necrosis in 3 of 5 animals in the CS group but none in the SNEVLP group (P = 0.03). Sequential SNEVLP preservation of DCD grafts reduces bile duct and EC injury after liver transplantation. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Development of a web-based application and multicountry analysis framework for assessing interdicted infections and cost-utility of screening donated blood for HIV, HCV and HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, B; Janssen, M P; Hubben, G; Vermeulen, M; van Hulst, M

    2017-08-01

    Most countries test donations for HIV, HCV and HBV using serology with or without nucleic acid testing (NAT). Cost-utility analyses provide information on the relative value of different screening options. The aim of this project was to develop an open access risk assessment and cost-utility analysis web-tool for assessing HIV, HCV and HBV screening options (http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/transfusion-transmitted-infectious-diseases/). An analysis for six countries (Brazil, Ghana, the Netherlands, South Africa, Thailand and USA) was conducted. Four strategies; (1) antibody assays (Abs) for HIV and HCV + HBsAg, (2) antibody assays that include antigens for HIV and HCV (Combo) + HBsAg, (3) NAT in minipools of variable size (MP NAT) and (4) individual donation (ID) NAT can be evaluated using the tool. Country-specific data on donors, donation testing results, recipient outcomes and costs are entered using the online interface. Results obtained include the number infections interdicted using each screening options, and the (incremental and average) cost-utility of the options. In each of the six countries evaluated, the use of antibody assays is cost effective or even cost saving. NAT has varying cost-utility depending on the setting, and where adopted, the incremental cost-utility exceeds any previously defined or proposed threshold in each country. The web-tool allows an assessment of infectious units interdicted and value for money of different testing strategies. Regardless of gross national income (GNI) per capita, countries appear willing to dedicate healthcare resources to blood supply safety in excess of that for other sectors of health care. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. Disentangling the stigma of HIV/AIDS from the stigmas of drugs use, commercial sex and commercial blood donation – a factorial survey of medical students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kong-Lai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS related stigma interferes with the provision of appropriate care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Currently, programs to address the stigma approach it as if it occurs in isolation, separate from the co-stigmas related to the various modes of disease transmission including injection drug use (IDU and commercial sex (CS. In order to develop better programs to address HIV/AIDS related stigma, the inter-relationship (or 'layering' between HIV/AIDS stigma and the co-stigmas needs to be better understood. This paper describes an experimental study for disentangling the layering of HIV/AIDS related stigmas. Methods The study used a factorial survey design. 352 medical students from Guangzhou were presented with four random vignettes each describing a hypothetical male. The vignettes were identical except for the presence of a disease diagnosis (AIDS, leukaemia, or no disease and a co-characteristic (IDU, CS, commercial blood donation (CBD, blood transfusion or no co-characteristic. After reading each vignette, participants completed a measure of social distance that assessed the level of stigmatising attitudes. Results Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed statistically significant levels of stigma associated with AIDS, IDU, CS and CBD. The layering of stigma was explored using a recently developed technique. Strong interactions between the stigmas of AIDS and the co-characteristics were also found. AIDS was significantly less stigmatising than IDU or CS. Critically, the stigma of AIDS in combination with either the stigmas of IDU or CS was significantly less than the stigma of IDU alone or CS alone. Conclusion The findings pose several surprising challenges to conventional beliefs about HIV/AIDS related stigma and stigma interventions that have focused exclusively on the disease stigma. Contrary to the belief that having a co-stigma would add to the intensity of stigma attached to people with HIV

  18. Clausura grupal e identificación de necesidades en las donaciones de sangre y órganos Group closure and needs identification in blood and organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casado-Neira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La acción de dar sin compromiso, el altruismo y la solidaridad están en el centro de la donación de sangre y órganos con fines terapéuticos. Según se hace ver las personas hacen una entrega desinteresada y transcendental: ‘la sangre salva vidas’. El altruismo y la solidaridad son aquí ineludibles, pero la donación está sometida a los principios de la reciprocidad. La captación y fidelización de donantes se enfrenta a veces a crisis o dificultades que se pueden explicar en parte por cómo los donantes interpretan la reciprocidad. Recurriendo a entrevistas y al análisis de contenido de campañas de captación de donantes de sangre y órganos identificamos dos tipos de reciprocidad (según sea el tipo de destino y concepción de la comunidad: focalizada o difusa. La focalizada es característica de sistemas sociales basados en relaciones personales estrechas (reales o virtuales. La difusa responde a una concepción individualista y anónima de la vida social. En la donación esto va a ser fundamental porque la reciprocidad focalizada es difícilmente compatible con la donación terapéutica, que es voluntaria, altruista y anónima. Lo que dificulta la donación es el intercambio restrictivo de la reciprocidad focalizada, no que este grupo comparta sangre o herencia biológica común que deseen preservar.Three moral values are within the blood and organ donation with therapeutical purpose: giving without obligation, altruism and solidarity. It seems than for donors unselfishness is something transcendental: blood save lives. Altruism and solidarity are present, but spending is under the pattern of reciprocity. Recruiting and keeping blood and organ spenders is an uncertain and complex process. How spenders live reciprocity can help us to understand rejections to donation. The research work is based on personal interviews and on the analyses of the material used in recruitment actions of blood and organ donors. Two kinds of

  19. Effect of preoperative donation of autologous blood on venous thromboembolism disease after total hip replacement%术前自体血采集预防髋关节置换术后血栓性疾病的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宁; 杨阳; Alejandro González Della Valle; Eduardo A.Salvati

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of preoperative donation of autologous bood on venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods:Between Jan. 2007 and March. 2010,912 consecutive patients who had THAs performed in Hosptal for Special Surgery were collected,excluded patients with thrombocytopenia or pre-exising bleeding diathesis and patients for whom epidural analgesia was not possible. Among them, there were 428 males and 484 females with an average age of (65.28±11.90) years (ranged from 24 to 93 years). Among them, 835 cases (91.3%) had osteoarthritis, 32 cases (3.6%) had osteonerrosis,20 cases (2.3%) had dysplasia,20 cases (2.2%) had rheumatoid arthritis,and 5 cases (0.6%) had other diagnoses. The surgeries were performed under hypotensive epidural anestheisa (mean arterial pressure between 45 to 55 mm Hg) and through a posterolateral approach,minimizing the duration of femoral vein obstruction and reducing the load of intramedullary content to the venous system by repeated pulsatile lavage and aspiration of the femoral canal. The lower extremity was in the neutral position while working on the acetabulum and flexed and internally rotated while working on the femur. Whenever possible, the lower extremity was extended to a neutral position to restore femoral venous flow. Patients received one bolus of unfractionated intravenous heparin (10 to 15 U/kg), 1 to 2 minutes before femoral canal preparation. All patients were followed up at least 3 months postoperatively. No patient was lost to followed-up. Results: Seven hundreds and fifty-two patients donated autologous blood before THA, 160 did not donate autologoud blood. The incidence of clinical symop-tomatic VTE was 1.3 %(11/912). Among the 11 patients with clinical symoptomatic VTE,5 donated blood pre - operation (0.66%,5/752) and 6 did not donate pre-operation (3.8%,6/160). The rate ofVTE after THA between autologous blood donation and no blood donation was statistically significant (

  20. Is blood donation induced low iron status associated with favourable levels of OxLDL, s-ICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF-antigen in healthy men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoydonck, P.G.A.; Schouten, E.G.; Hoppenbrouwers, K.P.M.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The potential effect of iron depletion by blood donation and its relevance to cardiovascular diseases are still under debate. Markers of vascular integrity are increasingly applied in investigations of atherothrombotic diseases. In this study, we investigated whether a lower iron status through

  1. 献血者机采血小板后外周血细胞的变化分析%Analysis of the changes of peripheral blood cells of apheresis platelet donors before and after donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春媛; 赵庆伟; 庞桂芝

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析机采血小板后献血者外周血细胞的变化情况,保障捐献者安全。方法随机选择51名机采血小板捐献者,对比分析机采血小板前后捐献者外周血液中WBC、RBC、Hct、HGB、RKW、PLT、MPV、PKW等指标。结果机采血小板后献血者WBC、RBC、Hct、HGB、PLT降低,MPV变大,PKW、RKW升高,但都在不影响捐献者个体健康的可控范围内,并且10 d后上述指标基本上都恢复到献血前的水平。结论机采血小板献血不会影响捐献者身体健康,可以促进骨髓的造血功能和血液的新陈代谢。%Objective To analyze the changes of peripheral blood cells of apheresis platelet donors before and after donation for protecting the safety of donors. Methods Fifty -one healthy donors were selected and detected WBC,RBC,Hct,HGB, RKW,PLT,MPV,PKW before and after donation. Results WBC, RBC,Hct,HGB and PLT were decreased,MPV,PKW and RKW of all enrolled donors were increased after donation. But it did not affect donors’health within a controllable range,and peripher-al blood indexes restored to pre-donation levels at 10th day after donation. Conclusion Apheresis platelet donation has no bad effect on the health of individuals and can promote hematopoiesis of the bone marrow and the metabolism of blood.

  2. Quality control and evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus antibody assays used for screening donated blood in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU CHUN WANG; XIU HUA LI; AI JING SONG; CHUN TAO ZHANG; SI HONG XU; FENG ZHANG; HONG ZHANG YIN

    2006-01-01

    During 2004, a total of 124 batches of HIV antibody ELISAs from domestic and overseas manufacturers, comprising approximately 60 million tests, were tested for quality and released for screening blood in China. The inter- and intra-batch variation, specificity, and sensitivity were evaluated using a laboratory panel and clinical samples. The inter-batch variation was less than 15% and only 2 of 12 assays had intra-batch variation of less than 20% for 4 dilutions of a control specimen.257 samples confirmed positive for HIV antibody and 4826 negative samples from different regions in China were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the assays. The results showed that the sensitivity is in the range from 93.7% to 100% for assays sampled directly from the manufacturers,and 91.4%-99.6% for those retrieved from the consumers; the specificity was in the range from 97.88% to 99.97%. The testing environment may vary in different regions of China. Therefore, manufacturers should provide robust assays to satisfy the requirements of these diverse environments, and especially reduce the intra-assay variation and improve the stability of the kits.

  3. In Blood Taking Some Problems Being Paid Attention to For the Gratuitous Donators of Blood%为无偿献血者采血时需注意的若干问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞书英

    2001-01-01

    Our medical personnl engaged in blood bank must be paid attention to every detailed problem in blood taking for the gratuitous donators of blood.Because they get up a panic when most of them are in their first blood taking.They lack experience to cooperate in blood taking.We must work patiently and selflessly in order to ensure safety and successfully for everybody in blood taking.%我们从事血库工作的医务人员,要特别注意为无偿献血者采血时的每一个细节问题,因为目前他们中绝大多数人是第一次来献血,心理上不免有些惶恐感,在整个采血过程中需要作哪些配合还缺少经验。为确保安全、顺利地采好每一人次的血,需要我们做许多耐心、细致的具体工作。

  4. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  5. Reduced myocardial blood flow in acute and chronic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiness, E; Bille-Brahe, N E; Hansen, J F; Lomholt, N; Ring-Larsen, H

    1978-07-01

    The myocardial blood flow was measured by the 133Xenon disappearance curve from the left ventricular wall following an injection of 133Xenon in the left coronary artery in 8 dogs without digoxin pretreatment and in 8 chronically digitalized dogs. The myocardial blood flow was significantly less (30%) in the digitalized dogs than in the dogs without pretreatment. In the digitalized dogs as well as in those without pretreatment an intravenous injection of digoxin resulted in a further significant decrease of the myocardial blood flow of about 20% and a significant increase of the coronary vascular resistance. The reduced myocardial blood flow both during acute and chronic digitalization is beleived to be of clinical importance.

  6. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  7. Routine screening of blood donations at Qingdao central blood bank, China, for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with a real-time, multiplex nucleic acid test for HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus Types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongsi; Xu, Lei; Liu, Li; Feng, Qiuxia; Zhang, Longmu; Ma, Weijuan; Saldanha, John; Wang, Mingmin; Zhao, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The Roche cobas TaqScreen MPX test was used to evaluate the rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative donations that were hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA reactive from June 2010 to January 2011 in Qingdao, China. HBsAg-negative samples from 65,800 voluntary blood donors were tested with the cobas TaqScreen MPX test in pools of 6 on the Roche cobas s 201 blood screening platform. Samples positive for HBV DNA and negative for HBsAg were quantitated with the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test. In addition, serologic tests for HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody, anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), anti-hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBe) were done using the Roche electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A total of 80 nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) test-reactive pools were identified and 59 pools (74%) resolved to a reactive sample. All samples were HBV DNA reactive and the viral load in each sample was quantitated. The viral loads of the samples ranged from less than 20 to 34,600 IU/mL; 13 samples (22%) had viral loads of more than 20 IU/mL, 27 samples (45.8%) had viral loads of less than 20 IU/mL, and 19 samples (32.2%) had undetectable viral loads. Of the 59 NAT-reactive samples, 40 (67.8%) were anti-HBc positive. Fifteen of the 59 samples could not be confirmed as NAT reactive either by an alternative NAT test or by serology. The HBV NAT yield in blood donors in Qingdao is 0.06% (38/65,800). This study confirmed the value of NAT for interdicting HBV-positive donations and preventing transfusion-transmitted HBV infections. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Reduces Blood Product Utilization in Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enter, Daniel H; Zaki, Anthony L; Marsh, Megan; Cool, Nikki; Kruse, Jane; Li, Zhi; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Iddriss, Adam; McCarthy, Patrick M; Malaisrie, S Chris; Anderson, Allen; Rich, Jonathan D; Pham, Duc Thinh

    2017-08-22

    Current practices for the reversal of warfarin prior to cardiac surgery include the use of vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to reduce the risk of bleeding. Although the 2010 International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines acknowledge the use of PCC (Prothrombin Complex Concentrate), there is no clear consensus on its efficacy. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of 4-factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (4-F PCC) administration in patients requiring warfarin reversal prior to heart transplantation by determining blood product utilization perioperatively. Twenty-one patients who received 4-F PCC for warfarin reversal prior to heart transplantation were compared to a similar cohort of 39 patients who did not receive 4-F PCC from January 2011 to July 2015. Blood product utilization was collected retrospectively for the 24-hour preoperative, intraoperative, and 48-hour postoperative periods. Patients receiving 4-F PCC required fewer blood products in all 3 time periods. In the 24-hour preoperative period, 22 patients (56%) in the control group and 2 patients (10%) in the 4-F PCC groups received blood products (p<0.001). Intraoperatively, all patients received blood products. The 4-F PCC group required fewer units of packed red blood cells (median 3 vs. 7 units, p<0.001) and FFP (median 4 vs. 9 units, p<0.001). In the 48-hour postoperative period, 20 patients (51%) in the control group and 5 patients (24%) in the 4-F PCC group received blood products (p=0.04). 4-F PCC is associated with reduced blood product utilization 24 hours preoperatively and intraoperatively. Historically, the majority of patients require FFP for warfarin reversal preoperatively. In this single-center study, a significant reduction in the need for FFP was demonstrated with the use of 4-F PCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The estimation of prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmitted human hepatitis B infection from blood donated at the Anhui blood center, China, from 2009 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV among the Chinese population poses a threat to blood safety; however, few studies have examined epidemiological data regarding HBV infection of Chinese blood donors. The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of blood donors at the Anhui blood center in China, the prevalence, incidence, and residual risk (RR associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg expression in terms of transfusion transmitted HBV (TTHBV infections. METHODS: The demographic characteristics and HBV status of people who donated blood at the Anhui blood center between 2009 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of HBV was estimated through HBsAg yield approach. The window period model was then used to estimate the RR of TTHBV infection. RESULTS: The typical donor at the Anhui blood center was a first-time volunteer, aged less than 25 years, unmarried, of Han ethnicity, and with an education below high school level. The prevalence of HBV infection among repeat donors, first-time donors, and all donors was 28.9, 127.2 and 82.1 per 100,000, respectively. The incidence estimate was 333.9 per 10(5 person-years. Using an infectious window period of 59 days, the RR for HBV was estimated to be 1 in 1853 between 2009 and 2011. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and RR of HBV in Chinese blood donors are much higher than those of donors in developed countries. This is because sensitive ELISAs and nucleic acid tests are not available in China. Further work is needed to improve both the safety and availability of blood products in China.

  10. The effect of pneumatic tube system on complete blood count parameters and thrombocyte donation in healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ismail; Arslan, Aliriza; Ozlu, Can; Hacioglu, Sibel; Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Isler, Kamil; Keskin, Ali

    2012-08-01

    This paper is the first report whether or not pneumatic tube system affects the selection of apheresis donors according to the results of complete blood count. According to the apheresis guidelines, hemoglobin level must be ≥12.5g/dL and platelet level ≥150/μL to be a donor. Paired blood samples of 26 healthy volunteers were transported by either hand delivered or a pneumatic tube system to the laboratory. No statistically significant differences were observed in order to mean values of routine complete blood cell count and white cell differential parameters that were send for selection of apheresis donor before the procedure. Therefore, all healthy volunteers decided as a donor according to the laboratory results independent from transport method.

  11. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors

  12. 医学大学生对无偿献血的认知、态度及影响因素研究%A STUDY ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TO BLOOD DONATION AMONG TANGSHAN MEDICAL UNDERGRADUATES AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪维芬; 刘璇璇; 缪维芳; 董俐坤; 韩东颖; 何金奎; 闫振宇

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解医学大学生对无偿献血的认知、态度及影响因素,以便更好地推动无偿献血工作的开展.方法 采用自行设计医学大学生无偿献血认知、态度和行为调查问卷,选取医学大学生1 072名进行问卷调查.结果 ①医学大学生对于无偿献血相关知识了解不够全面;②对于无偿献血的态度不积极;③女生对无偿献血的知识、态度得分高于男生(P<0.05);④有献血经历的医学生无偿献血相关知识知晓程度、献血态度均高于未献过血的学生(P<0.05).结论 ①医学大学生对无偿献血的认知程度较差、态度良好率偏低;②医学大学生对无偿献血的认知、态度受性别、是否有献血经历的影响;③医学大学生参加无偿献血的主要原因是无偿奉献心理.%Objective To study the knowledge and attitude to voluntary blood donation among medical undergraduates and explore the influencing factors for promoting blood donation.Methods We designed the questionnaire on knowledge,attitude and behavior of blood donation in medical undergraduates' blood donation.Then investigated the knowledge and attitude to the voluntary blood donation among 1072 Tangshan medical undergraduates and its influencing factors using stratified cluster sampling method.Results The medical undergraduates didn't understand the knowledge blood donation very well,and their attitude for blood donation needs to be strengthened.The awareness rate and the attitude scores of medical female undergraduates were higher than medical male undergraduates.The awareness rate of medical undergraduates who had blood donation history was higher than who hadn't blood donation history on blood donation knowledge;the attitude scores to blood donation of medical undergraduates who had blood donation history were higher than who hadn't blood donation history.Conclusions The medical undergraduates should learn more knowledge of blood donation and correct the attitude

  13. What's It Like to Donate Stem Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Types Stem Cell Transplant for Cancer What’s It Like to Donate Stem Cells? People usually volunteer ... their baby’s cord blood should make arrangements for it early in the pregnancy, at least before the ...

  14. Intra-Family Gamete Donation: A Solution to Concerns Regarding Gamete Donation in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Juhong; Devolder, Katrien

    2016-09-01

    Gamete donation from third parties is controversial in China as it severs blood ties, which are considered of utmost importance in Confucian tradition. In recent years, infertile couples are increasingly demonstrating a preference for the use of gametes donated by family members to conceive children-known as "intra-family gamete donation." The main advantage of intra-family gamete donation is that it maintains blood ties between children and both parents. To date there is no practice of intra-family gamete donation in China. In this paper, we investigate intra-family adoption in China in order to illustrate that intra-family gamete donation is consistent with Confucian tradition regarding the importance of maintaining blood ties within the family. There are several specific ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation. It may, for example, result in consanguinity and the semblance of incest, lead to confused family relationships, and raise concerns about possible coercion of familial donors. Confucian tradition provides a new approach to understand and deal with these ethical issues in a way that Western tradition does not. As a result, we suggest intra-family gamete donation could be an acceptable solution to the problem of infertility in China. However, further discussion and open debates on the ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation are needed in China.

  15. THE PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING INFECTIOUS DISEASE SAFETY FOR ORGAN AND TISSUE DONATION BY SCREENING BLOOD-BORNE VIRAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It provided data on the prevalence, clinical signifi cance and methods of laboratory diagnostics for occult forms of blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs. It considered causes of such forms of infection and their signifi cance for clinical transplantation. We analyzed the existing algorithm of laboratory screening of a potential organ donor for BBVIs in Russia. It is shown that the current screening algorithm doesn’t allow detecting hidden forms of BBVIs.

  16. 无偿献血者核酸检测实施效果评价%Effect Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Test Applied in Donator's Blood Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢瑾; 周健欣; 余晋林; 朱业华

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过分析无偿献血者全血标本的核酸检测(NAT)和血清学检测的结果,探讨NAT在筛查乙型肝炎病毒(HBV),丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)和人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)“窗口期”感染者或者隐匿性肝炎的患者中的作用.方法 选择2011年7月至12月于佛山市中心血站采集的无偿献血者全血样本13 126份作为研究对象.对无偿献血者全血标本同时进行血清学检测和NAT.使用诺华诊断血液筛查系统对标本进行单人份NAT.对于NAT联检和鉴别试验阳性而血清学试验阴性的献血者,进一步检测乙型肝炎血清标志物5项指标.结果 13 126份标本中,NAT联检试验阳性为128例(0.98%),其中95例为酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)双试剂阳性,4例为ELISA单试剂阳性,29例为ELISA阴性.对NAT联检试验和鉴别试验结果皆呈阳性的8例献血者做进一步追踪,6例行乙型肝炎血清标志物5项指标检测的结果显示,1例抗-HBs和抗-HBc呈阳性,3例仅抗-HBc呈阳性,2例呈全阴性.结论 NAT作为一种检测原理完全与ELISA不同的方法,能够在一定程度上弥补ELISA方法的局限性,有效缩短“窗口期”.NAT与ELISA两种检测方法能够互为补充,共同降低经输血途径传播病毒的风险.%Objective To explore the role of nucleic acid test (NAT) in screening the "window period" or occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) blood donators by comparing the results of NAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the blood samples.Methods Form July to December 2011,A total of 13 126 blood samples from volunteer blood donors in Foshan blood center were included in this study.All of this samples were tested by NAT using procleix TIGRIS system and ELISA simultaneously.Five markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) of donators who were positive tested by ProcleixUltrio and Discrimination but negative tested by ELISA were detected.Results Among all the samples,128 (0.98%) cases were NAT positive.Among the

  17. A doação de sangue sob a ótica de escolares: concepções e valores Blood donation in the view of schoolchildren: conceptions and values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Pagotto Bossolan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa investigou-se o nível de informação, percepção, motivos e sentimentos de escolares sobre a doação de sangue. 145 escolares do pré, 2ª, 4ª séries com seis, oito e 10 anos de idade foram submetidos a provas piagetianas, responderam uma entrevista, se posicionaram frente a um dilema. Verificou-se pouca informação e informações errôneas sobre a doação. A escola foi a fonte de informação menos citada. A maioria dos entrevistados tanto na entrevista, como no dilema, justificou a doação de sangue como um ato solidário, permitindo supor que valores como generosidade podem ser adquiridos na fase pré-operatória. Discute-se o papel da escola nos programas de Educação em Saúde voltados a comportamentos que serão emitidos a longo prazo e que beneficiam a coletividade.This study investigated children's values and perceptions of blood donation. A hundred forty-five students (preschool, second- and fourth-graders aged 6, 8 and 10 years old answered Piagetian tests. They were also interviewed on blood donation and faced a moral dilemma. Lack of information and misinformation were observed. The school was the least frequently cited information source. Findings showed that the participants justified blood donation as an act of solidarity. It indicates that children have a conception of values since the preoperational stage of cognitive development. It is also presented a discussion on the role of schools in Health Care Education, particularly targeting specific behaviors which will be expressed in the long term such as blood donation.

  18. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gratitude that washed over me when I saw those platelets going into my husband’s body. I ... Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Red Cross Information ...

  19. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  20. End-ischemic machine perfusion reduces bile duct injury in donation after circulatory death rat donor livers independent of the machine perfusion temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerkamp, Andrie C; Mahboub, Paria; Meyer, Sophie L; Hottenrott, Maximilia; Ottens, Petra J; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S H; Lisman, Ton; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Porte, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    A short period of oxygenated machine perfusion (MP) after static cold storage (SCS) may reduce biliary injury in donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor livers. However, the ideal perfusion temperature for protection of the bile ducts is unknown. In this study, the optimal perfusion temperature for protection of the bile ducts was assessed. DCD rat livers were preserved by SCS for 6 hours. Thereafter, 1 hour of oxygenated MP was performed using either hypothermic machine perfusion, subnormothermic machine perfusion, or with controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR) conditions. Subsequently, graft and bile duct viability were assessed during 2 hours of normothermic ex situ reperfusion. In the MP study groups, lower levels of transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured compared to SCS. In parallel, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production were significantly higher in the MP groups. Biomarkers of biliary function, including bile production, biliary bicarbonate concentration, and pH, were significantly higher in the MP groups, whereas biomarkers of biliary epithelial injury (biliary gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT] and LDH), were significantly lower in MP preserved livers. Histological analysis revealed less injury of large bile duct epithelium in the MP groups compared to SCS. In conclusion, compared to SCS, end-ischemic oxygenated MP of DCD livers provides better preservation of biliary epithelial function and morphology, independent of the temperature at which MP is performed. End-ischemic oxygenated MP could reduce biliary injury after DCD liver transplantation. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Wang; Li-Jian Liang; Xiong-Qing Huang; Xiao-Yu Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of low central venous pressure (LCVP) on blood loss during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: By the method of sealed envelope,50 HCC patients were randomized into LCVP group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). In LCVP group,CVP was maintained at 2-4 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 90 mmHg by manipulation of the patient's posture and administration of drugs during hepatectomy, while in control group hepatectomy was performed routinely without lowering CVP. The patients'preoperative conditions, volume of blood loss during hepatectomy, volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' preoperative conditions, maximal tumor dimension, pattern of hepatectomy, duration of vascular occlusion, operationtime, weight of resected liver tissues, incidence of post-operative complications, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups. LCVP group had a markedly lower volume of total intraoperative blood loss and blood loss during hepatectomy than the control group, being 903.9±180.8 mL vs 2 329.4±2 538.4(W=495.5, P<0.01) and 672.4±429.9 mL vs1 662.6± 1932.1 (W=543.5, P<0.01). There were no remarkable differences in the pre-resection and post-resection blood losses between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened in LCVP group as compared with the control group, being 16.3±6.8 d vs21.5 ± 8.6 d (W= 532.5, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LCVP is easily achievable in technique.Maintenance of CVP≤4 mmHg can help reduce blood loss during hepatectomy, shorten the length of hospital stay, and has no detrimental effects on hepatic or renal function.

  2. Matching supply and demand for blood in Guizhou province, China: an unresolved challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Problems with blood supply in China in the 1990s stimulated measures to achieve 100% voluntary donation but supply remains inadequate to meet demand. Review of official policies, supplemented with observation of practice and interviews with key informants (potential and actual donors and health workers) in Guizhou province in Southern China. Interviewees perceived the transfusion system as a mutual social contract. However, some individuals were unwilling to donate because of concerns about health risks, the idea of transferring blood between people, wastage or profits being made from blood. Inappropriate incentives, including cash, were used to encourage donation. Recent reforms have increased confidence in donation and transfusion safety although concerns persist about misuse. There is a need to reduce unnecessary use of blood and its products. China still relies heavily on blood supplies obtained through quota, purchase or use of incentives. There is scope to expand voluntary donation further. However, as a priority it will be necessary to reduce overuse.

  3. 1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果的分析%The analysis of health examination results of 1000 cases of blood donors before donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the health examination results of 1000 donors before blood donation.Methods The health examination results of 1000 donors who donate blood from June to December 2014 were analyzed.Results Voluntary, unpaid blood donors for 850 cases, family mutual blood donation or replacement donations are for 150 cases, the first-time blood donors in 250 cases, 750 cases of again or repeated blood donors, and for the first time in blood donors in the passing rate of 30%(228/760) was significantly lower than 60%of 144/240 again in blood donors in, significant difference has statistical significance (P<0.05), blood before the elimination rate was 16%(160/1000). Conclusion In the blood before, on all blood donors give health examination can keep abreast of blood donors health status, disease and potentially dangerous, to keep the donors health, choose the safety and health of blood donors blood donation, to ensure the blood quality and blood of security, which is helpful to improve the quality of blood.%目的:对1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果给予探讨。方法:随机对本站献血屋2014年6月至12月1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果给予分析。结果:自愿无偿献血者为850例,家庭互助献血或替代献血者为150例,其中首次献血者250例,再次或多次献血者750例,且首次献血人群的合格率30%(228/760)为明显低于再次献血人群的60%(144/240),差异显著,具有统计学意义(P<0.05),献血前淘汰率为16%(160/1000)。结论:在献血前,对所有献血者给予健康检查,可以及时了解献血者的健康状态,发现相关疾病及潜在危险,保障献血者的身体健康,选择健康安全的献血者献血,确保血液质量和受血者的安全,有助于提高血液质量。

  4. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.

  5. Renal Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Imaging in Longitudinal Follow-up of Donated and Remaining Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Maryam; Eisenberger, Ute; Binser, Tobias; Thoeny, Harriet C; Krauer, Fabienne; Rusch, Aurelia; Boesch, Chris; Vogt, Bruno; Vermathen, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine renal oxygenation changes associated with uninephrectomy and transplantation in both native donor kidneys and transplanted kidneys by using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirteen healthy kidney donors and their corresponding recipients underwent kidney BOLD MR imaging with a 3-T imager. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. BOLD MR imaging was performed in donors before uninephrectomy and in donors and recipients 8 days, 3 months, and 12 months after transplantation. R2* values, which are inversely related to tissue partial pressure of oxygen, were determined in the cortex and medulla. Longitudinal R2* changes were statistically analyzed by using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance with post hoc pair-wise comparisons. Results R2* values in the remaining kidneys significantly decreased early after uninephrectomy in both the medulla and cortex (P kidneys, R2* remained stable during the first year after transplantation, with no significant change. Among donors, cortical R2* was found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = -0.47, P kidneys. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  6. Reducing pain associated with arterial punctures for blood gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Linda; Stephenson, Mary; Huber, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Arterial punctures for arterial blood gases (ABGs) analysis are described as the most painful laboratory procedure and are performed without the benefit of pain management. This study originated from one nurse's concern about the level of pain her hospitalized patients endured when she drew their ABGs. A review of the literature found that ABG pain relief has not been studied in hospitalized patients. Therefore, this study explored the question "Can the pain of arterial blood gas draws be reduced through the use of infiltration with a local anesthetic agent?" This study compared the pain scores of 40 hospitalized patients who received either no intervention or one of three analgesic interventions (infiltration of 0.7 ml 1% lidocaine, 0.7 ml buffered 1% lidocaine, or 0.7 ml of bacteriostatic saline at the arterial puncture site). Results showed that, although lidocaine and buffered lidocaine are effective in reducing the pain associated with the arterial puncture, plain lidocaine was the only intervention in which the pain rating score for the overall experience was significantly diminished. This study is limited by partial randomization, small sample size, and patient duress; however, it provides a foundation for further nursing research that explores methods to reduce the pain associated with this very painful procedure. Future studies should be directed at larger, diverse populations, multiple operators, and comparison of interventions to topical analgesics and nonpharmacological measures. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography causes reduced myocardial blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Hendel, H W; Rasmussen, V;

    2002-01-01

    ). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 11 patients scheduled for ERCP were monitored with a Holter tape recorder and underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphies, to evaluate myocardial perfusion at rest and during ERCP. RESULTS: Ten patients completed the study. Eight patients had no sign of myocardial ischemia...... with either of the two methods, while two patients developed signs of ischemia during ERCP with both the Holter tape recording and on myocardial scintigraphy (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing ERCP may develop true myocardial ischemia with reduced myocardial blood flow. Although this is a small...

  8. Volunteer bias in recruitment, retention, and blood sample donation in a randomised controlled trial involving mothers and their children at six months and two years: a longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Jordan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vulnerability of clinical trials to volunteer bias is under-reported. Volunteer bias is systematic error due to differences between those who choose to participate in studies and those who do not. METHODS AND RESULTS: This paper extends the applications of the concept of volunteer bias by using data from a trial of probiotic supplementation for childhood atopy in healthy dyads to explore 1 differences between a trial participants and aggregated data from publicly available databases b participants and non-participants as the trial progressed 2 impact on trial findings of weighting data according to deprivation (Townsend fifths in the sample and target populations. 1 a Recruits (n = 454 were less deprived than the target population, matched for area of residence and delivery dates (n = 6,893 (mean [SD] deprivation scores 0.09[4.21] and 0.79[4.08], t = 3.44, df = 511, p<0.001. b i As the trial progressed, representation of the most deprived decreased. These participants and smokers were less likely to be retained at 6 months (n = 430[95%] (OR 0.29,0.13-0.67 and 0.20,0.09-0.46, and 2 years (n = 380[84%] (aOR 0.68,0.50-0.93 and 0.55,0.28-1.09, and consent to infant blood sample donation (n = 220[48%] (aOR 0.72,0.57-0.92 and 0.43,0.22-0.83. ii Mothers interested in probiotics or research or reporting infants' adverse events or rashes were more likely to attend research clinics and consent to skin-prick testing. Mothers participating to help children were more likely to consent to infant blood sample donation. 2 In one trial outcome, atopic eczema, the intervention had a positive effect only in the over-represented, least deprived group. Here, data weighting attenuated risk reduction from 6.9%(0.9-13.1% to 4.6%(-1.4-+10.5%, and OR from 0.40(0.18-0.91 to 0.56(0.26-1.21. Other findings were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Potential for volunteer bias intensified during the trial, due to non-participation of the most

  9. Analysis on positive confirmation result of HIV antibody prelimicnary screening in voluntary blood donation%无偿献血HIV抗体初筛阳性确认结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚娣; 刘永梅

    2016-01-01

    the Western blot confirmation .The confirmation results of blood samples during 2009 -2015 were statistically analyzed .Results There were 197 766 blood samples from 2009 to 2015 .The overall infection rates of HIV were 1 .3 ,4 .7 ,5 .6 ,5 .4 ,5 .3 ,4 .6 ,7 .3/one hundred thousand respectively ,the average infection rate was 0 .004 9% (4 .9/one hundred thousand) ,the average confirmed positive rate was 22 .1% ,the false positive rate was 77 .9% .Among the blood donors of confirmed positive HIV antibody ,the donors aged 18-30 years old accounted for 67 .7% .Conclusion It is important for the recruitment work before the blood donation .Aiming at the blood donors of workers from outside and relative low cultural level ,especially the blood donors of high risk behavior ,the small card mode could be adopted to guide them to the disease control center to conduct the professional consultation and detection ,which can increase the blood transfusion safety coefficient and also prevents the spread of HIV/AIDS .Aiming at the false positive blood do‐nors ,the works of follow up ,tracking monitoring and return to the blood donation team should be done well for reducing the run a‐way of blood donors .Selecting more sensitive reagents and more sensitive method for the amplification of virus nucleic acid can shorten the infection risk of the window period as far as possible for ensuring the safety of blood transfusion .

  10. 攀枝花市机采血小板互助献血研究%Study on Apheresis Platelets under Mutual Assistance Blood Donation Pat-tern in Panzhihua City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of blood donation pattern of mutual assistance for apheresis platelet in Panzhihua City and provide basis for recruitment strategy on apheresis platelet. Methods The situations of 1089 cases of apheresis platelet blood donation from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Results The retest failure rate for the 476 case of apheresis platelet blood donation under mutual assistance pattern was 3.15%, and that for the 613 cases under voluntary pattern was 0.82%. The former is significantly higher than the latter (χ2=8.107,P<0.01), among which the difference in anti-TP failure rate was statistically significant (χ2=10.379,P<0.005). The initial blood donation ratio for mutual assistance blood donation pattern reached 71.46%(341/476), while that for the voluntary apheresis platelet blood donation pattern was 0.98%(6/613), which differed significantly (χ2=616.180,P<0.001). Conclusion Blood donation pattern of mutual assistance for apheresis platelet relieves the shortage situation in platelet by certain degree, but also brings some hidden safety hazards.%目的:研究攀枝花市机采血小板互助献血模式的利弊,为机采血小板招募策略提供依据。方法对2008-2013年1089人次机采血小板献血情况进行回顾性分析。结果机采互助献血者476人次复检不合格率3.15%,自愿机采献血者613人次复检不合格率0.82%,前者明显大于后者(χ2=8.107,P<0.01),其中抗-TP不合格率差异有显著意义(χ2=10.379,P<0.005)。机采互助献血中初次献血率达71.64%(341/476),自愿机采献血中初次献血率仅0.98%(6/613),两种献血者的初次献血率差异有显著意义(χ2=616.180,P<0.001)。结论机采血小板互助献血在一定程度上缓解了血小板紧缺的状况,也带来一些安全隐患。

  11. Cerebral blood flow is reduced in patients with sepsis syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowton, D.L.; Bertels, N.H.; Prough, D.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between sepsis-induced CNS dysfunction and changes in brain blood flow remains unknown, and animal studies examining the influence of sepsis on cerebral blood flow (CBF) do not satisfactorily address that relationship. We measured CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO/sub 2/ in nine patients with sepsis syndrome using the /sup 133/Xe clearance technique. Mean CBF was 29.6 +/- 15.8 (SD) ml/100 g.min, significantly lower than the normal age-matched value in this laboratory of 44.9 +/- 6.2 ml/100 g.min (p less than .02). This depression did not correlate with changes in mean arterial pressure. Despite the reduction in CBF, the specific reactivity of the cerebral vasculature to changes in CO/sub 2/ was normal, 1.3 +/- 0.9 ml/100 g.min/mm Hg. Brain blood flow is reduced in septic humans; the contribution of this reduction to the metabolic and functional changes observed in sepsis requires further study.

  12. Significance of ALT screening in the safety of blood donation by the ALT deferred donors%ALT单项不合格献血者再次献血血液筛查结果追踪调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎世杰; 汪传喜; 梁华钦; 廖峭; 戎霞; 陈锦艳; 林昌周; 梁浩坚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨和评价ALT血液筛查项目在临床用血血液安全中的意义.方法 采用回顾性调查法对2010年10月至2012年12月期间,ALT单项阳性并再次献血的献血者血液筛查结果进行追踪调查和分析.结果 3 910例再次献血者中,HBsAg、抗-HCV、抗-HIV、抗-TP以及ALT血液筛查结果均合格3 053例,占再次献血的78.1%,ALT单项仍为阳性845例,占不合格的98.6% (845/857),ALT阴性而ELISA筛查项目阳性9例,核酸筛查阳性3例,其中ALT合并NAT阳性1例.结论 ALT血液筛查在肝炎病毒感染“窗口期”或隐匿性感染中有提示的作用,在一定程度上能减少漏检的发生,在保障血液安全中具有一定的意义.%Objective To investigate and evaluate the significance of ALT screening in the safety of blood donation.Methods The blood screening results of ALT deferred donors (October 2010 to December 2012) from the Guangzhou Blood Center were investigated and analyzed by retrospective survey method.Results Among the 3 910 2nd time blood donors with previous unqualified ALT,3 053 (78.1%) donors were found to have qualified results in the testing of HBsAg,anti-HCV,anti-HIV,anti-TP and ALT screening.845 (98.6%) were found to have unqualified result with ALT screening only.Other 11 were found to have unqualified results in either ELISA or NAT,while their ALT screening result was qualified.One donor was found to have unqualified result with both ALT and NAT.Conclusion ALT screening can play a role in the monitoring of hepatitis virus infection and in reducing the risk of transmission due to the window-period and other occult infections.

  13. 危机管理视角下的无偿献血长效机制的建立%Set up long-term mechanism of voluntary blood donation under the view of crisis management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周惠芳

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary blood donation has been rapidly developed in Kunshan city in recent years, but there is large difference which compare with other developed countries. It analyzes the crisis by crisis management theory from current situation of voluntary blood donation, combined with the requests suggested by WHO, as well as the "blood supply shortage" phenomenon appeared in some capital cities. It suggests that to build the long-term mechanism of voluntary blood donation through crisis prevention, plan ahead so as to further guarantee people's health and life safety and promote society’s harmony and stability.%近年来,昆山市无偿献血工作取得了较快发展,但是与国外一些发达国家相比还存在着较大差距。笔者从昆山市无偿献血现状,结合WHO提出的要求和一些省会城市出现的“血荒”现象,应用危机管理理论,分析存在的危机,通过危机预防,提出构建无偿献血的长效机制,做到未雨绸缪,防患未然,从而进一步保障人民群众的身体健康和生命安全,促进社会和谐稳定。

  14. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of transplant is generally reserved for children and small adults. Every year, more than 10,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with life-threatening diseases, such as leukemia or lymphoma, for which a stem cell transplant is the best or the only treatment. ...

  15. Donating Blood Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both known infectious diseases as well as potentially emerging diseases. This conservative approach may result in the deferral of otherwise acceptable donors. FDA recognizes that the scientific technology for determining individuals at risk for CJD and nvCJD, and detecting the infectious ...

  16. Bibliometric analysis on the exploring of the effective promotion of unpaid blood donation%基于文献计量分析的无偿献血有效宣传探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅媛媛; 林振平; 王晖; 赵轶伦; 蔡旭兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the effective promotion of unpaid blood donation in China. Methods:Unpaid blood donation advocacy papers were analyzed by bibliometric analysis method. Results: A total of 110 papers involved 19 provinces and cities were selected. 85.45% authors' affiliations were blood collection agencies. 32.73%papers came from “Chin J Blood Transfusion”. The ratio of qualitative research was 52.73%. The target audiences were college students and migrants in the street accounted for 58.89%. The ratio of effective evaluation was 47.83%. The proportion of effective evaluation of the mass media was 32.00%. Conclusion: The promotion of blood donation is receiving more and more attention. The top three evaluation of effective promotion are celebrity events, heroic deeds of donation reports and special date. The top three of media are advertising, TV news and billboards.%目的:探讨我国无偿献血的有效宣传情况。方法:采用文献计量分析法对无偿献血宣传期刊文献进行分析。结果:110篇文献涉及19个省市,作者单位是采供血机构占85.45%。期刊来自《中国输血杂志》占32.73%,以定性研究为主占52.73%。宣传对象是在校大学生和街头流动人群占58.89%,宣传活动有效评价比例为47.83%,宣传媒体有效评价比例为32.00%。结论:无偿献血宣传研究日益受到重视,评价有效宣传活动位居前3位的是名人效应活动、献血英雄事迹报道、特殊日期活动,评价有效宣传媒体位居前3位的是广告、电视新闻、宣传栏。

  17. Reason for Blood Shortage---Based on a survey of undergraduates′non-remunerated blood donation in a certain university in west Guangdong Province%缘何血荒?*--以粤西某高校在校大学生无偿献血为例的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勤; 王嘉文

    2016-01-01

    基于粤西某高校在校大学生无偿献血的问卷调查发现,作为公益意识较高的社会成员,在校大学生的无偿献血存在差序格局、态度与行为的不一致,且组织主体单一乏力和献血体制的较低信任度等表征。据现有条件,相关组织可以通过拓展使用差序格局,改进献血组织方式,强化献血者自组织和重建机构信任等措施,建设无偿献血的长效机制,系统和统筹地应对血荒。%Based on an investigation about undergraduate volunteer blood in one university , it is found that volunteer blood donation cannot effectively solve serious blood shortage .As a group of society with high moral , undergraduate volun-teer blood donors show some characteristics which include a structure of grade diversity , deviation of attitude and behav-iour, simplicity and weakness of organization bodies , and credit crisis of donation system .According to existing conditions , organizations of blood donation should solve those problems through expanded usage of structure of grade , improving organi-zing methods , rebuilding volunteer donors′self-organization and public confidence in volunteer blood donation system so as to solve blood shortage systematically .

  18. Volunteer Bias in Recruitment, Retention, and Blood Sample Donation in a Randomised Controlled Trial Involving Mothers and Their Children at Six Months and Two Years: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue; Watkins, Alan; Storey, Mel; Allen, Steven J.; Brooks, Caroline J.; Garaiova, Iveta; Heaven, Martin L.; Jones, Ruth; Plummer, Sue F.; Russell, Ian T.; Thornton, Catherine A.; Morgan, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Background The vulnerability of clinical trials to volunteer bias is under-reported. Volunteer bias is systematic error due to differences between those who choose to participate in studies and those who do not. Methods and Results This paper extends the applications of the concept of volunteer bias by using data from a trial of probiotic supplementation for childhood atopy in healthy dyads to explore 1) differences between a) trial participants and aggregated data from publicly available databases b) participants and non-participants as the trial progressed 2) impact on trial findings of weighting data according to deprivation (Townsend) fifths in the sample and target populations. 1) a) Recruits (n = 454) were less deprived than the target population, matched for area of residence and delivery dates (n = 6,893) (mean [SD] deprivation scores 0.09[4.21] and 0.79[4.08], t = 3.44, df = 511, pprobiotics or research or reporting infants’ adverse events or rashes were more likely to attend research clinics and consent to skin-prick testing. Mothers participating to help children were more likely to consent to infant blood sample donation. 2) In one trial outcome, atopic eczema, the intervention had a positive effect only in the over-represented, least deprived group. Here, data weighting attenuated risk reduction from 6.9%(0.9–13.1%) to 4.6%(−1.4–+10.5%), and OR from 0.40(0.18–0.91) to 0.56(0.26–1.21). Other findings were unchanged. Conclusions Potential for volunteer bias intensified during the trial, due to non-participation of the most deprived and smokers. However, these were not the only predictors of non-participation. Data weighting quantified volunteer bias and modified one important trial outcome. Trial Registration This randomised, double blind, parallel group, placebo controlled trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Register, Number (ISRCTN) 26287422. Registered title: Probiotics in the

  19. Chia flour supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Luciana Tavares; da Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira; Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; de Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chia supplementation (Salvia hispanica L.) on blood pressure (BP) and its associated cardiometabolic factors in treated and untreated hypertensive individuals. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: the hypertensive-drug treated (CHIA-MD, n = 10), hypertensive untreated (CHIA-NM, n = 9) and placebo (PLA-MD, n = 7) groups. The subjects consumed 35 g/day of either chia flour or a placebo for 12 weeks. The clinical and ambulatory BP, inflammation, oxidative stress and markers for nitric oxide were measured. While the PLA-MD group showed no changes in BP, there was a reduction in the mean clinical blood pressure (MBP) in the CHIA (111.5 ± 1.9 to 102.7 ± 1.5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and CHIA-MD (111.3 ± 2.2 to 100.1 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001) groups. The CHIA-NM group showed no reduction in the MBP but did show a decreased systolic BP (146.8 ± 3.8 to 137.3 ± 3.1 mmHg, p < 0.05). The clinical BP reduction was demonstrated by a 24 h ambulatory systolic reduction in all of the supplemented groups. However, the mean ambulatory BP was reduced only in the CHIA (98.1 ± 2.4 to 92.8 ± 2.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) group, and there was no change in the diastolic component in either of the CHIA groups. The lipid peroxidation was reduced in the CHIA (p = 0.04) and CHIA-NM (p = 0.02) groups compared with the PLA-MD group. A reduction in the plasma nitrite levels was observed only in the CHIA group (p = 0.02). Chia flour has the ability to reduce ambulatory and clinical BP in both treated and untreated hypertensive individuals.

  20. Organ donation, policy and legislation: with special reference to the Dutch organ donation act.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Next of kin decisive on organ donation Changing the donor registration systems is not expected to result in more donor organs. We better try to solve the bottlenecks in the donation process within hospitals and to reduce the number of refusals by next of kin, as NIVEL research shows, based on which

  1. Cost effectiveness of adding nucleic acid testing to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus screening of blood donations in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Mapako, Tonderai; Khoza, Star; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Marowa, Lucy; Mvere, David; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of introducing individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT), in addition to serologic tests, compared with the exclusive use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hu

  2. Blood Donation and Prevalence of Bloodborne Infections in a Clinic in Luanda, Angola Donación de sangre y prevalencia de infecciones transmitidas por la sangre en una clínica de Luanda, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Dámaso Fernádez Águila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Many African countries lack an adequate supply of safe blood and have no reliable records on the prevalence of bloodborne infections. Objectives: To characterize blood donation in a clinic in Luanda and to determine the cause of rejection of candidates to blood donation and the prevalence among them of infections to be researched. Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted at the Multiprofile Clinic in Angola. We included 8 043 candidates to blood donation who performed this activity between 2005 and 2010. The variables analyzed were: type of donor, results of laboratory tests and donor’s assessment and causes of rejection. We applied the chi-square test to determine differences between the values ​​of frequency, with a confidence interval of 95% (p <0.05. Results: 9.7% of donations were voluntary and the rest were provided by relatives. There were significant differences between the rates of rejection of candidates to donate by type of donation: 29.9% for relatives and 6.8% for volunteers. The most common cause of rejection was the positive result of the surface antigen test for hepatitis B both in relatives and in occasional volunteers. Among regular volunteers malaria and non-infectious causes prevailed. Differences in the prevalence of infections in different types of donors were demonstrated. Conclusions: The prevalence of infections that can be transmitted through blood is high. Volunteer donors present the lowest risk but they are also the smallest group of donors and the hardest to find.

    Fundamento: muchos países africanos carecen de un suministro adecuado de sangre segura y no tienen  registros fiables sobre la prevalencia de infecciones transmitidas por la sangre. Objetivos: caracterizar la donación de sangre en una clínica, determinar las causas de rechazo de candidatos

  3. Defaults and Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Heidhues, Paul

    We study how website defaults affect consumer behavior in the domain of charitable giving. In a field experiment that was conducted on a large platform for making charitable donations over the web, we exogenously vary the default options in two distinct choice dimensions. The first pertains...... to the primary donation decision, namely, how much to contribute to the charitable cause. The second relates to an "add-on" decision of how much to contribute to supporting the online platform itself. We find a strong impact of defaults on individual behavior: in each of our treatments, the modal positive...... contributions in both choice dimensions invariably correspond to the specified default amounts. Defaults, nevertheless, have no impact on aggregate donations. This is because defaults in the donation domain induce some people to donate more and others to donate less than they otherwise would have. In contrast...

  4. Reducing the risk of transfusion-transmissible viral infection through blood donor selection: the Australian experience 2000 through 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Mark N; Wood, Erica M; Ingham, Helen; Keller, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    Selection of voluntary donors who are at low risk of transfusion-transmissible viral infection (TTVI) is central in maintaining the safety of the blood supply. Evaluation of its effectiveness and the dynamics of the process may offer opportunities to further improve transfusion safety. The impact of donor selection on prevalence of TTVI was analyzed in all allogeneic donations in Australia between July 2000 and June 2006 by interviewing donors found to have a TTVI. The presence and disclosure of infective risks was reassessed. A total of 6.3 million donations were tested; of these, 1,449 (0.02%) were repeat-reactive for a TTVI and were discarded. This comprised 605 (42%) positive for the presence of hepatitis B, 818 (56%) positive for the presence of hepatitis C, 18 (1%) positive for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus, and 20 (1%) positive for the presence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I and/or -II (HTLV-I/II). This prevalence was 50 to 350 times lower than in the Australian population. In 1,158 cases (80%), an infective risk was identified; 509 donors (44%) had more than one. The most common identified were country of birth and parental ethnicity (n = 682, 26% of risks), tattoos and/or piercings (n = 448, 18%), and intravenous drug use (n = 302, 12%). In 302 cases (21%) disclosure at predonation screening would have resulted in deferral. Factors influencing nondisclosure included temporal remoteness and perceptions that laboratory testing rendered disclosure unnecessary. These findings affirm the effectiveness of current stringent donor selection criteria in reducing the residual risk of TTVI. Ongoing donor education regarding the importance of risk disclosure is required.

  5. 3,4-Dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines: Novel reducing agents through one electron donation mechanism and their application as the formation of nano-metallic silver coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewvilai, Attaphon [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Wattanathana, Worawat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Jongrungruangchok, Suchada [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, 12000 (Thailand); Veranitisagul, Chatchai [Department of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Klong 6, Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110 (Thailand); Koonsaeng, Nattamon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Laobuthee, Apirat, E-mail: fengapl@ku.ac.th [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    3,4-dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines as novel one-electron donators for silver(I) ion into nano-metallic silver was firstly found and reported. The silver formation from nano-spherical particles to coral-like and dendrite-like structures was presented. With respect to the characterization results, the feasible reaction mechanism of the silver formation was proposed as an electron donated from benzoxazine to silver(I) ion, resulting in a radical cationic species of benzoxazine and silver(0). Based on this reduction process, a new approach for nano-silver coating on various surfaces such as fumed silica (SiO{sub 2}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), carbon black (CB), chitosan (CS) including plastic sheet (polycarbonate, PC) and pellet (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), was also revealed. Besides the nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. - Highlights: • Benzoxazines were discovered to be novel reducing agents for silver(I) ion. • The speculated mechanism of the one electron donation process was investigated. • Dendrite structure of silver was formed from spherical silver nanoparticles. • A new approach for nano metallic-silver coating on various surfaces was revealed. • The nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers.

  6. Pfizer donates drug to South Africa's poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports on Pfizer's AIDS drug donation to South Africa. The donated drug, Diflucan, treats cryptococcal meningitis, a lethal brain infection that occurs in one out of 10 HIV patients. Its daily dose in South Africa costs about US$15, far more than poor people can afford. The HIV and AIDS Treatment Action Campaign, an advocacy group, had lobbied New York-based Pfizer for a year to reduce the drug's price. The donation offered hope among activists that other pharmaceutical companies would follow suit and offer HIV- and AIDS-related drugs at a discount or for free. After the announcement of the donation, the group is now lobbying Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Zidovudine. The group is asking to make the drug available for free to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Glaxo Wellcome, however, has no plans of offering Zidovudine for free, although the drug was offered 75% cheaper in developing nations.

  7. blood pressure reducing effect of bitter kola in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN'S OFFICE

    ABSTRACT: In this study the effect of Garcinia kola (GK) on blood pressure was ... and for blood pressure measurements on a recording device (Ugo Basile ... doses produced statistically significiant (P<0.05) fall in mean arterial pressure and ...

  8. Avaliação da pré-triagem sorológica para o marcador do vírus da hepatite B (anti-HBc total em candidatos à doação de sangue no Estado do Acre, 2002 Evaluation of the sorologic pre-selection for the hepatitis B virus marker (total anti-HBc in candidates to blood donation in the state of Acre, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita do Socorro Uchôa da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a pré-triagem sorológica para hepatite B (anti-HBc total em candidatos à doação de sangue, verificando a associação entre as variáveis sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade e naturalidade. Estudo transversal com dados retrospectivos, tendo como população-alvo candidatos à doação de sangue naturais dos municípios do interior do Acre, que procuraram o Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Acre, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2002. Dos 673 candidatos incluídos foi constatado reatividade ao anti-HBc total em 54,8%. Sendo observado maior reatividade ao anti-HBc total entre os candidatos do sexo masculino, faixa etária mais avançada e menor grau de escolaridade (pThe aim of this research was to evaluate previous serum screening for hepatitis B (total anti-HBc among blood donation candidates, verifying the link between the variables: gender, age, degree of education and native-born. A transverse study with retrospective data carried out on a target population, blood donation candidates from districts of the interior of Acre State, who came to the Acre Hematology and Hemoterapy Center during the period January to December, 2002. The research indicated reactivity in 54.8% of the total anti-HBc among the 673 candidates included. Greater reactivity of total anti-HBc was observed among males, older candidates and those with lower education levels (p<0.005. Previous serum screening for hepatitis B among blood donation candidates is a viable alternative, since it reduces cost and increases transfusional safety. Attracting female donors, youths and those who have higher education levels, would signify potential blood donors for HEMOACRE.

  9. Could cord blood cell therapy reduce preterm brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingang; McDonald, Courtney A; Fahey, Michael C; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP). Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia-ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB-derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications.

  10. Could cord blood cell therapy reduce preterm brain injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP. Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia-ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications.

  11. 血液病毒核酸检测单独阳性标本研究%Study on NAT yield cases of donation blood specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田耘博; 黄霞; 秦伟斐; 李维; 毛伟; 廖红文; 段恒英; 何涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study nucleic acid testing (NAT) yield cases and to evaluate the different NAT methods. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) and NAT by transcription mediated amplification(TMA) were applied to test the blood of donation samples simultaneously. The NAT yield cases were rechecked with discriminated test (TMA) ,Hepatitis B serological markers detection and NAT by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Among 47004 specimens,108 NAT yield cases were screened out with negative ELISA test. Forty out of 108 cases were discriminated as HBV without HIV or HCV infection ,which ac-count for the NAT yield rate of 0.85‰. Nine out of 13 cases of HBV owned the same results with TMA and NAT. Two out of 30 cases without HBV infection were confirmed positive HBV infection by means of NAT(PCR) method. Moreover ,43 cases of positive HBV infection accepted the tests of various Hepatitis B serological markers ,which revealed the highest positive rate of HBcAb and uncertainty results of HBsAg on the contrary. Conclusion Most of NAT yield specimens had the chance to be occult HBV infec-tion (OBI),which might cause some differences in different NAT tests.%目的:对酶联免疫吸附检测(ELISA)阴性而核酸检测(NAT)阳性的NAT单独阳性献血标本进行研究分析,评价不同NAT方法检测结果的差异。方法对献血标本进行ELISA的同时,采用转录介导扩增技术(TMA)进行NAT。对NAT单独阳性标本分别进行NAT(TMA)鉴别检测,乙肝血清学标志物检测,HBsAg确证实验和基于聚合酶链式反应(PCR)的NAT。结果在47004例献血标本中,NAT(TMA)联检(HBV、HIV、HCV)出ELISA阴性的NAT阳性标本108例,其中40例鉴别检测为HBV,68例为鉴别阴性,未发现HIV和HCV,HBV的NAT的单阳性率为0.85‰。选取13例NAT(TMA)鉴别为HBV的标本中有9例NAT(PCR)也为HBV;选取30例NAT(TMA)鉴别阴性标本中有2例NAT(PCR)为HBV。选取鉴别阳性13

  12. 中原地区某村既往有偿献血人群艾滋病发病和死亡规律%Study on AIDS incidence and death in previous paid blood-donated population, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新义; 崔兆麟; 黄祚军; 朱伯健; 汪宁

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study incidence and death among previous paid blood-donated AIDS sufferers.Methods A retrospective cohort study was adopted to study incidence and death of 373 previous paid blood-donated HIV sufferers and its effect factors.Results Previous paid blood-donated HIV infection was serious and the infection rate in blood-donated crowd was 35.87%(373/1040);the mean incubation period of AIDS was 8.87 years(95%CI:8.76-8.99,Kaplan-Meier method):the cumulative incidence of AIDS(10 years)was 92.23%(344/373),and the incidence of total sufferers was 11.64/100 person-year;the cumulative probability of survival of one-year,three-year,five-year AIDS sufferers was separately 94.48% (325/344),85.76%(295/344)and 83.14%(286/344),median survival time was over 5 years;the anti-virotic treatment days(960.29±486.38),infection age(33.39±9.08)disease age(41.98±8.88)had significant effects on AIDS sufferers' survival time/survival rate(x2=61.355,P=0.000;x2=6.555,P=0.010;x2=3.969,P=0.046).Conclusion The survival time of previous paid blood-donated HIV cases was longer,and their survival rate was hisher,remarkably higher than the UNAIDS'research findings.%目的 研究既往有偿献血人群获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)发病和死亡规律.方法 采用回顾性队列研究方法,对373例既往有偿献血感染人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)者的发病、死亡规律及其影响因素进行研究.结果 既往有偿献血人群HIV感染率为35.87%(373/1040),AIDS平均潜伏期为8.87年(95%CI:8.76~8.99,Kaplan-Meier法);感染后10年累计发病率为92.23%(344/373),总人时发病率为11.64/100人年;艾滋病患者1年、3年、5年累计生存率分别为94.48%(325/344)、85.76%(295/344)和83.14%(286/344),中位生存时间超过5年;抗病毒治疗天数[(960.29±486.38)d]、感染年龄[(33.39±9.08)岁]和发病年龄[(41.98±8.88)岁]对艾滋病患者生存时间

  13. 不同检测方法在无偿献血筛选ALT中的应用评价%Evaluation of different inspection methods for ALT screening in blood donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永嘉; 韩翌; 谢云峥

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Through comparing the results of different inspection methods, seeking a suitable inspection method for ALT screening in blood centre for blood donation, to save the blood and greatly reduce the number of blood scrap caused by ALT unqualified. [Methods] Use MissionTMC100 biochemical analyzer, Reflotron plus biochemical analyzer and microlab 300 semiautomatic biochemistry analyzer each to inspect 100 blood donors'ALT, then compare each results with Hitachi 7600 -010 automatic biochemistry analyzer. [Results] Compared with Hitachi 7600 -010 automatic hio-chemistry analyzer, MissionTMC100 biochemical analyzerx2 =2.25,relevance r = 0.9550;Reflotron plus biochemical analyzer;x2=4. 167,relevance r = 0. 9724;microlab 300 semiautomatic biochemistry analyzer x2 =0. 25,relevance r =0.9695. Conclusion: Microlab 300 semiautomatic biochemistry analyzer has a good result and it has a good correlation with Hitachi 7600-010 automatic biochemistry analyzer as well; MissionTMC100 biochemical analyzer and Reflotron plus biochemical analyzer are suggested to adjust critical value, MissionTMC100 biochemical analyzer is suggested to adjust to 35, while Reflotron plus is suggested to 34 U/L.%[目的]寻求一种适合应用于血液中心无偿献血血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)筛选的检测方法,以达到节约血源,大幅度降低因ALT不合格造成的血液报废.[方法]用MissionTMC100干式生化分析仪(艾康)、Reflotron plus 快速全自动干式生化分析仪(罗氏)、microlab 300半自动生化分析仪(威图)3种仪器分别测100例献血者的ALT,并分别与日立7600-010全自动生化分析仪进行比较.[结果]与全自动生化仪测试结果相比,艾康干式法x2=2.25,相关性r=0.9550;罗氏x2 =4.167,相关性r=0.9724;威图半自动x2=o.25,相关性r=0.9695.[结论]威图半自动生化分析仪结果良好,相关性好,与日立7600-010相比无明显差异;艾康与罗氏应适当调整临界值,艾康应调为35 U

  14. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  15. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  16. Awareness of Knowledge of Blood Donation among College Students and Civil Servants in Lianyungang City%连云港市在校大学生和公务员对无偿献血相关知识的知晓情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于杰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the blood donation status among college students and civil servants in Lianyungang City so as to promote the development of blood donation. [Methods]Self-administered questionnaire survey was performed on awareness of voluntary blood donation and the way of learning voluntary blood donation ,the results were statistically analyzed. [ Results]Through investigation, the awareness rate of basic knowledge about blood donation was 78,7% , awareness of proper amount blood donation having no harm on health was not significantly different between genders ( χ2 = 1 . 07, P > 0.25), awareness of proper amount blood donation of 200 ~400ml was significantly different between genders(χ2 =14. 16,P < 0.05). [Conclusion]Publicity of Blood donation requires sustained advocacy, the form of publicity and the carrier should be diversified, comprehensive, sustained and innovative.%目的 了解连云港市在校大学生和公务员对义务献血相关知识的知晓现况,从而推进无偿献血的发展.方法 通过以自填方式发放问卷调查,对获得无偿献血知识的掌握情况和途径进行统计分析.结果 通过调查,对无偿献血基本知识总知晓率为78.7%,男女适量献血对健康无害知晓率,经统计学检验差异无统计学意义(x2=1、07,P>0.05);适量献血量为200~400ml的知晓率,经统计学检验性差异有统计学意义(x2=14.16,P<0.01).结论 无偿献血需要持之以恒的宣传,宣传的形式和载体应多元化,做到全面、持续、新颖.

  17. Reduced blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle in ageing humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    consequences of ageing and physical inactivity can be challenging; yet, observations from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effects of physical activity have provided some insight. Physical activity has the potential to offset the age-related decline in blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle...... and the ability for functional sympatholysis; an attenuation of the vasoconstrictor effect of sympathetic nervous activity. These vascular adaptations with physical activity are likely to be an effect of improved nitric oxide and ATP signaling. Collectively, precise matching of blood flow and O2 delivery to meet...

  18. BEHIND THE Donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A7

    2010-01-01

    @@ Zhao Benshan, regarded as the "King of Xiaopin" in China, carried out his skit, The Donation, during the CCTV Spring Festival Gala on Feb-ruary 13, Chinese Spring Festival Eve for the Year of the Tiger. The skit was mainly about Zhao's donation of 30,000 Yuan (by a mistake, as he initially wanted to donate 3,000 Yuan) to a local village student whose single mother can't afford his university tuition, This play brought hot discussion after-wards, mainly focusing on the story, which was not as funny as the huge audience expected it to be.

  19. Reducing blood loss in total joint surgery with a saline-coupled bipolar sealing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Aaron G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the availability of a number of techniques to reduce blood loss in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty, many patients remain at risk of receiving blood transfusions postoperatively. We have used a new technology that couples bipolar radiofrequency energy with saline to reduce blood loss in patients undergoing total joint surgery. The use of this technology has been shown to effectively minimize the risk of transfusion and reduce intraoperative and postoperative bleeding-related complications.

  20. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  1. Consent for organ donation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincent, A; Logan, L

    2012-01-01

    Summary Improving the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors is a key component of strategies in the UK and other countries to increase the availability of organs for transplantation...

  2. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  3. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  4. The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M

    2016-12-28

    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress. Fourth, the consequent reduction in the number of donated organs leads to avoidable deaths and increased suffering among potential recipients, and distresses them and their families. There are three strategies which could be used to reduce the harmful effects of this vagueness. First, recategorizing the reasons (commonly referred to as 'overrules' under the current system) given by families who refuse donation from registered donors would bring greater clarity to donation discussions. Second, people who wish to donate their organs should be encouraged to discuss their wishes in detail with their families, and to consider recording their wishes in other ways. Finally, the consent system for organ donation could be made more detailed, ensuring both that more information is provided to potential donors and that they have more flexibility in how their intentions are indicated; this last strategy, however, could have the disadvantage of discouraging some potential donors from registering.

  5. Blood Donation Population Human Platelet Antigen of 1~5 System Gene Polymorphism Distribution Characteristics%献血人群人类血小板抗原1~5系统基因多态性分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨献血人群人类血小板抗原1~5系统基因多态性分布特点。方法采用聚合酶链-序列特异性引物技术(PCR-SSP)对200例无血缘关系的健康献血者进行HPA-1-5系统基因分型,分别计算献血人群的基因型及基因频率,分析其基因的多态性分布特点。结果该研究中献血人群HPA-1a、2a、3a、4a、5a基因频率分别为:0.942、0.741、0.926、0.945、0.773,HPA-1b、2b、3b、4b、5b基因频率分别为:0.058、0.286、0.084、0.045、0.227,各系统均呈多态性分布, ab杂合子依次为64和30例,-2bb4例;HPA-3和-15高度杂合,aa基因型依次为112和80例,很多献血人群属于bb基因型。结论该地区献血人群HPA-1-5系统基因均呈多态性分布,以HPA-3、-2和-5的a与b基因杂合率较高。%Objective To investigate the blood donation population human platelet antigen of 1 ~ 5 system gene polymorphism distribution characteristics.Methods Polymerase chain - sequence specific primers (PCR SSP) technology to the health of 200 cases of unrelated donors to HPA genotyping-1-5 system, gene frequency and genotype of the blood donation population are calculated respectively, analyze its gene polymorphism distribution characteristics.Results The study of blood donation population HPA - 1 a、2 a、3 a、4 a、5 a gene frequency are: 0.942、0.741、0.926、 0.741、0.926,HPA - 1 b、2 b、3 b、4 b、5 b gene frequencies are: 0.058、 0.286、0.084、0.286、0.084, are distributed in each system are polymorphism, ab heterozygous for 64 and 30 cases, in turn - 2 bb4 cases; HPA - 3 and 15 highly heterozygous, aa genotype was followed by 242 and 210, many line but people belong to the bb genotype. Conclusion This area crowd HPA - 1-5 blood donation system in gene polymorphism distribution of HPA - 3, 2 and 5 a and b gene hybrid rate is higher.

  6. Mibefradil reduces blood glucose concentration in db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Numerous recent studies suggest that abnormal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i is a common defect in diabetic animal models and patients. Abnormal calcium handling is an important mechanism in the defective pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. T-type Ca2+ channel antagonists lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism remains unknown. METHODS: We examined the effect of the Ca2+ channel antagonist mibefradil on blood glucose in male db/db mice and phenotypically normal heterozygous mice by intraperitoneal injection. RESULTS: Mibefradil (15 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d. caused a profound reduction of fasting blood glucose from 430.92±20.46 mg/dl to 285.20±5.74 mg/dl in three days. The hypoglycemic effect of mibefradil was reproduced by NNC 55-0396, a compound structurally similar to mibefradil but more selective for T-type Ca2+ channels, but not by the specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Mibefradil did not show such hypoglycemic effects in heterozygous animals. In addition, triglycerides, basal insulin and food intake were significantly decreased by mibefradil treatment in the db/db mice but not in the controls. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining showed a significantly increased expression of T-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 in liver and brain tissues from db/db mice compared to those from heterozygous animals. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggest that T-type Ca2+ channels are potential therapeutic targets for antidiabetic drugs.

  7. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and blood transfusion requirements following peri-acetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, G I; Perka, C; Janz, V; Krämer, M; Renner, L

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of using tranexamic acid (TXA) during peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) on peri-operative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. In addition we analysed whether the use of TXA was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following this procedure. A consecutive series of 96 PAOs, performed by a single surgeon, were reviewed. A total of 48 patients received TXA and 48 did not. The TXA group received a continuous infusion of TXA at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. The primary outcome measure was the requirement for blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included total blood loss, the decrease in the level of haemoglobin in the blood, the length of hospital stay, and the complications of this treatment. The mean rate of transfusion was significantly lower in the TXA group (62.5% vs 12.5%, p transfusion after PAO significantly, without adverse effects such as an increased rate of VTE.

  8. Assessing anxiety levels and empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Doğan, Erdoğan; Sevimligül, Gülgün; Yücel, Birsen; Bolat, Fatih; Kavakçı, Onder; Sencan, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    In spite of a constantly-increasing requirement for blood transfusion in the world, blood donation does not exhibit an increase at the same rate. In Turkey with a population of 74 million, only 15 per 10,000 people donate blood regularly and rate of voluntary blood donation is very low compared to developed countries. The aim of this study is to determine empathic level of donors and anxiety levels of blood and platelet donors and also to enable comfort and motivation of donors by taking precautions for reducing their anxieties. This prospective and descriptive study was conducted with 100 voluntary donors (50 blood donors, 50 platelet donors) who admitted to Blood Centre of Cumhuriyet University Hospital between 15 March 2012 and 30 April 2012. Average age of these donors was 27 (19-48)years. The mean scores of donors from Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS), State Anxiety Invertory (SAI) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were 70 (49-83), 40 (33-45) and 34 (30-44), respectively. ETS score of those donating blood/platelet for the first time was low, >1 is higher in those who donated previously. SAI and TAI scores of blood donors were higher than those of platelet donors (pempathy. Donation made during the continuous disclosure is an important factor for being a donor.

  9. Can We Reduce Negative Blood Cultures With Clinical Scores and Blood Markers? Results From an Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukemann, Svenja; Kasper, Nina; Kulkarni, Prasad; Steiner, Deborah; Rast, Anna Christina; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Huber, Andreas; Fux, Christoph A.; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Only a small proportion of blood cultures routinely performed in emergency department (ED) patients is positive. Multiple clinical scores and biomarkers have previously been examined for their ability to predict bacteremia. Conclusive clinical validation of these scores and biomarkers is essential. This observational cohort study included patients with suspected infection who had blood culture sampling at ED admission. We assessed 5 clinical scores and admission concentrations of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte and white blood cell counts, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and the red blood cell distribution width (RDW). Two independent physicians assessed true blood culture positivity. We used logistic regression models with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Of 1083 patients, 104 (9.6%) had positive blood cultures. Of the clinical scores, the Shapiro score performed best (AUC 0.729). The best biomarkers were PCT (AUC 0.803) and NLCR (AUC 0.700). Combining the Shapiro score with PCT levels significantly increased the AUC to 0.827. Limiting blood cultures only to patients with either a Shapiro score of ≥4 or PCT > 0.1 μg/L would reduce negative sampling by 20.2% while still identifying 100% of positive cultures. Similarly, a Shapiro score ≥3 or PCT >0.25 μg/L would reduce cultures by 41.7% and still identify 96.1% of positive blood cultures. Combination of the Shapiro score with admission levels of PCT can help reduce unnecessary blood cultures with minimal false negative rates. The study was registered on January 9, 2013 at the ‘ClinicalTrials.gov’ registration web site (NCT01768494). PMID:26656373

  10. Can We Reduce Negative Blood Cultures With Clinical Scores and Blood Markers? Results From an Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukemann, Svenja; Kasper, Nina; Kulkarni, Prasad; Steiner, Deborah; Rast, Anna Christina; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Huber, Andreas; Fux, Christoph A; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    Only a small proportion of blood cultures routinely performed in emergency department (ED) patients is positive. Multiple clinical scores and biomarkers have previously been examined for their ability to predict bacteremia. Conclusive clinical validation of these scores and biomarkers is essential.This observational cohort study included patients with suspected infection who had blood culture sampling at ED admission. We assessed 5 clinical scores and admission concentrations of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte and white blood cell counts, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and the red blood cell distribution width (RDW). Two independent physicians assessed true blood culture positivity. We used logistic regression models with area under the curve (AUC) analysis.Of 1083 patients, 104 (9.6%) had positive blood cultures. Of the clinical scores, the Shapiro score performed best (AUC 0.729). The best biomarkers were PCT (AUC 0.803) and NLCR (AUC 0.700). Combining the Shapiro score with PCT levels significantly increased the AUC to 0.827. Limiting blood cultures only to patients with either a Shapiro score of ≥4 or PCT > 0.1 μg/L would reduce negative sampling by 20.2% while still identifying 100% of positive cultures. Similarly, a Shapiro score ≥3 or PCT >0.25 μg/L would reduce cultures by 41.7% and still identify 96.1% of positive blood cultures.Combination of the Shapiro score with admission levels of PCT can help reduce unnecessary blood cultures with minimal false negative rates.The study was registered on January 9, 2013 at the 'ClinicalTrials.gov' registration web site (NCT01768494).

  11. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  12. Brain death and organ donation of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Şahin, Şanlıay; Uysal-Yazıcı, Mutlu; Ayar, Ganime; Yakut, Halil İbrahim; Akman, Alkım Öden; Hirfanoğlu, İbrahim Murat; Kalkan, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcome of patients with brain death, and to emphasize the importance of organ donation from children. Data for the period from September 2009 to October 2012 were collected retrospectively. Twenty children who were diagnosed as brain death were included. Data including demographics, major cause leading to brain death, duration of brain death evaluation, ancillary tests used to confirm brain death, complications and outcome, duration of hospitalization and organ donation were collected for statistical evaluation. The mean age was 6.2 years, and the male/female ratio 1.85. The major cause leading to brain death was most often traumatic brain injury, seen in 11 patients (55%). The mean duration of brain death evaluation was 6.7 and 1.7 days in Centers I and II respectively. The mean duration of hospitalization was 12.5 days. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in 18 patients (90%). Complications included hyperglycemia in 13 cases and diabetes incipitus in 7 cases (65% and 35%, respectively). Mean duration of survival was 9.8 days. In Center I, one of the patients' parents gave consent to organ donation, while four parents in Center II agreed to organ donation. The study demonstrated that the duration of brain death evaluation was longer in Center I than in Center II (pbrain death and length of stay in the PICU (p>0.05). Early diagnosis of brain death and prompt evaluation of patients by ICU physicians once the diagnosis is taken into consideration will probably yield better organs and reduce costs. Training PICU physicians, nurses and organ donation coordinators, and increasing children's awareness of the need for organ donation via means of public communication may increase families' rate of agreement to organ donation in the future.

  13. Predictive capacity of pre-donation GFR and renal reserve capacity for donor renal function after living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, M; Hofker, HS; van Son, WJ; van der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Navis, GJ

    2006-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is important to reduce organ shortage. Reliable pre-operative estimation of post-donation renal function is essential. We evaluated the predictive potential of pre-donation glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (iothalamate) and renal reserve capacity for post-do

  14. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  15. Positivity of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in patients enrolled in a confidential self-exclusion system of blood donation: a cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kasraian

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Selection of healthy blood donors is essential to ensure blood safety. A confidential self-exclusion (CSE system was designed so that high-risk donors could confidentially exclude their blood from use in transfusions. This study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics and the results from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface (HBS and hepatitis C virus (HCV screening tests on donors who opted to get into and out of CSE. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study on all volunteer donors at Shiraz Blood Transfusion Organization from March 21, 2006, to March 21, 2008. METHODS: The results from the abovementioned tests were compared between donors who opted into and out of CSE. RESULTS: 100,148 donors in 2006 and 104,271 in 2007 gave blood. Among these donors, respectively, 829 (0.82% and 592 (0.57% opted for the CSE. The prevalence of HIV antibodies, HBS antigens and HCV antibodies in CSE donors was significantly higher than in donors who did not choose CSE (p < 0.05. The prevalence of at least one of these three infections among CSE donors was 3.12% in 2006 and 3.04% in 2007, and was significantly higher than the prevalence among non-CSE donors (0.58% and 0.57%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Because of the higher prevalence of HBS, HCV and HIV positivity in blood donors who chose the CSE option, offering CSE to blood donors could be a potentially useful method for improving blood safety, since it could increase the detection of infected blood during the window period.

  16. Where are We on Organ Donation?

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    Öznur Uludağ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to present the acceptance rate of organ donation of cases that were diagnosed with brain death and evaluated in terms of their demographic and clinical properties retrospectively in Adıyaman University Training and Research Hospital. Material and Method: In the intensive care unit of our hospital, cases that were diagnosed with brain death between the dates of January 2008 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases were evaluated in terms of age, sex, cause of brain death, blood groups, donation status, reasons for acceptance or rejection of donation, cardiac arrest, vasopressin treatment, laboratory test results, arterial blood gas values before and after the apnea test, intensive care unit follow-up durations, apnea test, seasonal and annual distribution. Also, potential donors and recipients were analyzed in accordance with their demographic characteristics. Results: The diagnosis of brain death was made in totally 57 cases; of those, 34 (59.6% were men and 23 (40.4% were women. The most common causes for brain death were traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intracerebral hematoma. Most of the cases had A Rh+ blood type (n=18, 31.5% and the rate of brain death was 4.7 times higher in Rh (+ patients in comparison to Rh (- patients. The rate of incidence of cardiac arrest was 12.3% (n=7, and it was more common in traumatic SAH patients. The rate of receiving vasopressor therapy was 21.1% (n=12, and the mean duration of therapy was 1.3±0.8 days. It was more commonly used in traumatic SAH patients (n=10. The follow-up period was 2.7±3.2 (minimum: 1, maximum: 17 days. Five patients were considered to be organ donors. The most common reason for acceptance of donation was the effect of organ transplantation coordinator during family interviews (n=3, 60%. In total, 4 livers, 5 kidneys and 1 heart transplantation operations were performed to 10 patients. Conclusion: Due to problems in organ donation

  17. Crowdfunding as 'Donations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    to deal with attendant “free-rider” problems in motivating contributions. Reviewing institutional features of today’s crowdfunding, we clarify that there are often limits in the extent to which tangible rewards can be used to motivate contributions. Drawing on analogies with charitable donations, we...

  18. Intermittent blood flow restriction does not reduce atrophy following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Iversen

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: In conflict with other studies using a similar protocol, application of blood flow restriction the first 14 days after ACL reconstruction did not reduce quadriceps ACSA muscle atrophy measured by MR in a population of athletes.

  19. 大连地区居民志愿无偿献血相关知识知晓情况调查%Investigation on the cognition level of voluntary blood donation among Dalian residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高勇; 齐峥; 顾彦; 刘健娣; 孙笑然

    2015-01-01

    /8 037,39.02%)、献血屋宣传(2 677/8 037,33.31%)、互联网(2 177/8 037,27.09%)、广播(2 157/8 037,26.84%)等方式获取,且获得献血相关知识途径为电视的被调查者献血行为存在差异(x2=14.67,P<0.05).从未献血被调查者的不同志愿无偿献血相关知识获取途径存在差异(x2=45.26,P<0.01).④本研究调查中,志愿无偿献血动机居前3位的分别为“帮助他人”(3 043/3 224,94.38%),认为志愿无偿献血“无损健康”(2 000/3 224,62.03%)及“学校及单位组织”(1 227/3 224,38.06%).结论 各采供血机构应加大志愿无偿献血相关知识宣传力度,以提高居民志愿无偿献血率.%Objective To investigate the cognition level and motivation of voluntary blood donation among residents in Dalian,in order to provide scientific theoretical direction for the publicity and sustainable development of voluntary blood donation work.Methods A total of 9 000 residents were selected from 10 districts,4 universities and 4 institutions through stratified random sampling method from January to June 2014 in Dalian.The questionnaire was self-designed according to "Blood Donation Law of the People's Republic of China" and blood physiological knowledge,and the survey was conducted anonymously.The general characteristics of subjects,the cognition level of voluntary blood donation system and knowledge,the ways to acquire these knowledge,and the status and motivation of voluntary blood donation were analyzed.Results ①In this survey,we handed out 9 000 questionnaires,and 8 037 files were returned.Effective recovery ratio was 89.30%.4 233 (52.67%,4 233/8 037) of the participants were male,and 3 804 of them were female (47.33%,3 804/8 037).The age range was from 16 to 65,and mean age was 32.65± 12.55.Occupation of participants included civil servant,student,health educator,peasant,soldier,and others.63.35% (5 092/8 037) of participants had undergraduate degree.② 90.89% of participants

  20. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since

  1. Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss During Complex Combat Related Spine Trauma Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    wound reduces postoperative blood loss by half in major orthopaedic surgery. Eur J Surg Suppl. Jul 2003(588):57-61. 39. Molloy DO, Archbold HA...prospective, randomised controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Br. Mar 2007;89(3):306-309. 40. Eubanks JD. Antifibrinolytics in major orthopaedic surgery...reduces intraoperative blood loss in pediatric patients undergoing scoliosis surgery. Anesthesiology. Apr 2005;102(4):727-732. 50. Vaccaro AR

  2. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  3. Use of local isolate of Monascus purpureus for reducing blood cholesterol in Sprague Dawley rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Research using local isolate of M. purpureus to reduce the blood cholesterol total on the white rats of Sprague Dawley strain had been done. The research proposed was to obtain the best doses of fermented rice contain lovastatin to reduce the blood cholesterol content of the white rats Sprague Dawley strain. The research used 42 male rats which was devided into 6 treatments based on the food and fermented rice doses. Each rat was 2 months and 250 gram in weight. The cholesterol food and the standard food given everyday for 20 gram/day/rat. The blood rats was measured the content of cholesterol every seven days for 21 days. The result showed that the lovastatin of the fermented rice could reduce 20,78% the blood cholesterol total of the white rats Sprague Dawley strain.

  4. Military walking blood bank and the civilian blood service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2012-06-01

    In most countries whole blood transfusions have been replaced by component therapy. This has allowed for both better usage of the blood donations and better quality during storage. While this strategy was initially motivated by the commercial need for plasma the plasma reduction also reduced the levels of low grade proteases and sialidase, hence minimizing the cellular storage lesion/microvesiculation during prolonged storage. Plasma reduction also reduces transfusion reactions associated with plasma. During special military conditions, however, blood transfusion is urgently needed without corresponding access to blood components, in particular platelets. Accordingly, new focus on whole blood has aroused and added a new challenge to the blood transfusion services. This special issue of "what is happening" highlights the planed efforts by Swedish and Norwegian groups in the developments of military walking blood bank, which is applicable to civil blood services.

  5. Feeding through artificial membranes reduces fecundity for females of the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, R Gary; Chiang, Jennifer A

    2010-06-01

    The blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus, has been raised in the laboratory for close to 100 years. Various feeding techniques have been employed ranging from the use of warm-blooded hosts, to the use of previously collected blood offered through artificial membranes. This study compared the fecundity in mated and unmated females fed rabbit blood directly from the shaved belly of a rabbit to that of females fed defibrinated rabbit blood through an artificial membrane. These results confirm previous reports that this insect's feeding efficacy is reduced using an artificial membrane. It also demonstrates for the first time that the fecundity index, which measures the efficiency of turning the blood meal into eggs, is significantly reduced. We suggest that the natural feeding on a warm-blooded host may provide cues that have the short-term effect of enhancing the act of feeding and the long-term effect of increasing egg production efficiency. Until an artificial feeding method that does not interfere with feeding and fecundity is devised, experiments on reproduction in R. prolixus warrant the use of a warm-blooded host to emulate feeding in its natural setting.

  6. Crowdfunding as 'Donations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    For a wide class of crowdfunding approaches, we argue that the reward structure (for funders) is closer to that of charitable donations to public goods than it is to traditional entrepreneurial finance. Many features of the design of crowdfunding platforms can therefore be understood as attempts...... to deal with attendant “free-rider” problems in motivating contributions. Reviewing institutional features of today’s crowdfunding, we clarify that there are often limits in the extent to which tangible rewards can be used to motivate contributions. Drawing on analogies with charitable donations, we...... theorize that intangible sources of motivation — (i) direct psychological rewards, (ii) reciprocity and (iii) social interactions — can play a role in entrepreneurial crowdfunding. In our detailed empirical analysis of a representative project we find abundant evidence consistent with this characterization...

  7. Blood glucose control using an artificial pancreas reduces the workload of ICU nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibu, Kiyo; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2012-03-01

    Blood glucose management is one of the important therapies in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, blood glucose management using the sliding-scale method increases the workload of ICU nurses. An artificial pancreas, STG-22, has been developed to continuously monitor blood glucose levels and to maintain them at appropriate levels. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that compared to conventional methods, blood glucose management using the STG-22 reduces the workload of ICU nurses and has a positive impact on awareness regarding the management of blood glucose. This study included 45 patients who underwent elective surgery and were treated at the ICU postoperatively. The patients were separated into the following two groups: (1) blood glucose was maintained using the STG-22 (AP group) and (2) blood glucose was maintained using the sliding-scale method (SS group). In addition, a questionnaire was developed for an awareness survey of ICU nurses (N = 20). The frequency of blood sampling and number of double checks were significantly lower in the AP group (1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 8.9 ± 8.1 times/admission, P blood glucose.

  8. Chronotherapy improves blood pressure control and reduces vascular risk in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Smolensky, Michael H; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Ríos, María T; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of increased blood pressure during sleep and blunted sleep-time-relative blood pressure decline (a nondipper pattern) is very high and increases substantially with disease severity. Elevated blood pressure during sleep is the major criterion for the diagnoses of hypertension and inadequate therapeutic ambulatory blood pressure control in these patients. Substantial, clinically meaningful ingestion-time-dependent differences in the safety, efficacy, duration of action and/or effects on the 24 h blood pressure pattern of six different classes of hypertension medications and their combinations have been substantiated. For example, bedtime ingestion of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers is more effective than morning ingestion in reducing blood pressure during sleep and converting the 24 h blood pressure profile into a dipper pattern. We have identified a progressive reduction in blood pressure during sleep--a novel therapeutic target best achieved by ingestion of one or more hypertension medications at bedtime--as the most significant predictor of decreased cardiovascular risk in patients with and without CKD. Recent findings suggest that in patients with CKD, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be used for the diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of cardiovascular disease risk, and that therapeutic strategies given at bedtime rather than on awakening are preferable for the management of hypertension.

  9. Interventions to screen for human immune-deficiency virus among people donating blood[Protocol]%献血员人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)筛检措施的系统评价的研究方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 刘建平; 熊玮; 邝璞; 陶铁军

    2002-01-01

    , the fourth generation test has been produced till now. Initially, HIV test was primarily used to screen the blood supply, it also became an important aspect of HIV prevention, especially screening among people donating blood. Today, HIV testing is seen as an integral part of both the nation's prevention and treatment efforts. Objective To assess the effectiveness of any intervention tests for HIV screening among people donating blood, and find appropriate tests for HIV screening to decrease the risk of HIV transmission by blood transfusion.Search strategy MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register(CENTRAL/CCTR), AIDSLINE, EMBASE, CBM were be searched with the terms: "HIV", "AIDS", "screening", "test", "blood donor", "blood bank" and the detailed screening method.The websites of WHO, UNAIDS, CDC, FDA, and their related links were searched. Letters were mailed to various agencies and experts in this field to acquire unpublished reports. Inclusion criteria RCT and CCT for screening HIV among blood donors will be included. Observational studies such as cohort studies, cased-control studies, and historical controlled studies will be used for sensitivity analysis.Method of the review According to the principles of Cochrane Review, selection of trials for inclusion, quality assessment of studies, data extraction and syntheses were conducted by reviewers.

  10. Current Perspectives on the Use of Meditation to Reduce Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly M. Goldstein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation techniques are increasingly popular practices that may be useful in preventing or reducing elevated blood pressure. We reviewed landmark studies and recent literature concerning the use of meditation for reducing blood pressure in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. We sought to highlight underlying assumptions, identify strengths and weaknesses of the research, and suggest avenues for further research, reporting of results, and dissemination of findings. Meditation techniques appear to produce small yet meaningful reductions in blood pressure either as monotherapy or in conjunction with traditional pharmacotherapy. Transcendental meditation and mindfulness-based stress reduction may produce clinically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. More randomized clinical trials are necessary before strong recommendations regarding the use of meditation for high BP can be made.

  11. 单采血小板献血反应的诱因分析总结%Analysis and summary the inducement of platelets aphaeresis donated reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓓怡

    2014-01-01

    目的:预防和降低单采血小板过程中献血反应的发生,保证单采质量,壮大无偿献血队伍。方法:对天津市2010年-2013年发生献血反应的单采献血者情况进行记录并分析。结果:单采血小板发生献血反应的诱因主要包括:精神紧张,枸橼酸盐反应,低血糖反应,身体因素,二次穿刺。结论:做好献血前的宣传告知工作和献血过程中的护理干预,是保证单采过程顺利进行的重要措施之一。%Objective:To prevent and reduce the occurrence of donated reaction in the process of platelet apheresis,ensure the apheresis quality,and strengthen blood donation team.Methods:The situation of solid blood donors with donated reaction from 2010 to 2013 in Tianjin were recorded and analysed.Results:The inducement of platelets aphaeresis donated reaction mainly include:mental stress,citrate reaction,hypoglycemia reaction,physical factors,and the two puncture.Conclusion:Complete the propaganda inform work before blood donation and nursing intervention in the process of blood donation,is one of the important measures to ensure the single production process smoothly.

  12. Role of Religion in Organ Donation-Development of the United Kingdom Faith and Organ Donation Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, G; Neuberger, J

    2016-04-01

    At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The "Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020" strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death.

  13. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50 000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find the diffusion of donations to be driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the via...

  14. Motivations for Deceased Organ Donation Among Volunteers in China: A Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhike; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Liu, Jia

    2016-06-09

    BACKGROUND To align with guiding principles on human organ and tissue transplantation published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) launched a new nationwide organ donation program in 2010 to recruit organ donation volunteers. Despite severe shortage of donated organs, there is a very low rate of volunteering for organ donation among the Chinese population (only 0.03 donors per million population) in the national program. Motivating organ donation is the key to the success of organ transplantation in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Semi-structured 45- to 60-min interviews were conducted among 34 volunteers. Data analysis was performed with Nvivo 8.0 software. RESULTS Six motivations for organ donation were identified: helping others/altruism, fulfilling long-cherished wishes, reducing the burdens, making the best use of everything, giving back to society, and life extension. Factors affecting the motivation of organ donation among volunteers in China included traditional values, personal experiences, role model effect, family support, and problems in the donation system. Possible strategies to improve organ donation included fostering a scientific concept of the body and death, focusing donation promotion efforts on certain groups, and simplifying the process of organ donation. CONCLUSIONS There are multiple reasons for Chinese people to register for organ donation, with helping others as the central motivation.

  15. Controlled lecithin release from a hierarchical architecture on blood-contacting surface to reduce hemolysis of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2014-06-25

    Hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) caused by implant devices in vivo and nonpolyvinyl chloride containers for RBC preservation in vitro has recently gained much attention. To develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term antihemolysis capability, we present a facile method to construct a hydrophilic, 3D hierarchical architecture on the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/lecithin nano/microfibers. The strategy is based on electrospinning of PEO/lecithin fibers onto the surface of poly [poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] [P(PEGMEMA)]-modified SEBS, which renders SEBS suitable for RBC storage in vitro. We demonstrate that the constructed 3D architecture is composed of hydrophilic micro- and nanofibers, which transforms to hydrogel networks immediately in blood; the controlled release of lecithin is achieved by gradual dissolution of PEO/lecithin hydrogels, and the interaction of lecithin with RBCs maintains the membrane flexibility and normal RBC shape. Thus, the blood-contacting surface reduces both mechanical and oxidative damage to RBC membranes, resulting in low hemolysis of preserved RBCs. This work not only paves new way to fabricate high hemocompatible biomaterials for RBC storage in vitro, but provides basic principles to design and develop antihemolysis biomaterials for implantation in vivo.

  16. Attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from the University Hospital of Rabat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayou, Kaoutar; Kouam, Nada; Miara, H; Raoundi, O; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Benamar, Loubna; Bayahia, Rabiaa; Rhou, Hakima

    2016-01-01

    The medical staff could play a major role in promoting for organ donation. The aim of our study was to assess the attitudes of the medical staff toward organ donation. It is a prospective study conducted over a period of six months. A questionnaire was distributed and explained to the medical staff in our institute. Fifteen questions were designed to include four main themes: sociodemographic information, attitude toward organ donation, perceived knowledge about organ donation, and reasons for refusal or acceptance of organ donation. Among the 245 respondents, 36.3% had prior knowledge about organ transplantation, 31.8% knew about the law of organ donation, 43.2% had already donated blood sometimes, 65.7% expressed their consent to organ donation during their lifetime, and 82.8% expressed their agreement to donation after their death. The grounds for refusal were generally: a misunderstanding of risks, desire for respect of corpse. The religious and the ethical motive were present too as a ground for decision making. The medical staff is the key for organ donation. To promote organ transplantation, personnel should be well informed about ethical, moral, and religious dimensions of organ donation and transplantation.

  17. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B; Remy, Kenneth E; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A; Kelley, Walter E; Popovsky, Mark A; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2014-02-27

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes.

  18. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and Implementation of Volunteer Blood Donation Information Management Platform%无偿献血志愿者信息管理平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢树; 夏立敏; 韩文丽; 高翔

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years, public welfare units and some service industries all had volunteers to join and provide various services, and the service troops are expanding year by year. As the public welfare hygiene profession unit, the blood banks also have many volunteers, who donate blood without compensation and provide the service for the blood donors. Majority of the blood banks of Ningxia established its own volunteer troops. However, with development of troops in the entire area of Ningxia, it is becoming necessary to manage the service in omni-direction. It was proposed its own design and methods to control the troops with compute network management pattern in the article.%近年来,各公益单位和一些服务行业都有志愿者加入并提供服务,而且服务队伍也在逐年扩大,作为公益性卫生行业的血站,也有许多为无偿献血提供服务的志愿者,一方面参与无偿献血,另一方面又为献血者提供服务。宁夏全区各血站,大部分都建立了自己的无偿献血志愿者队伍,并随时为献血者提供全面周到的服务。然而随着全区无偿献血事业的发展,需要对志愿者参与无偿献血工作服务进行全方位的管理,因此,笔者站在全区的角度对无偿献血志愿者的管理模式进行了定位,并且探讨利用计算机网络管理模式,提出自己的设计思路与方法,使其能够适应目前全区各血站无偿献血志愿者具体服务内容与理念。

  20. Comparison of reduced models for blood flow using Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin methods

    CERN Document Server

    Puelz, Charles; Canic, Suncica; Rusin, Craig G

    2015-01-01

    Reduced, or one-dimensional blood flow models take the general form of nonlinear hyperbolic systems, but differ greatly in their formulation. One class of models considers the physically conserved quantities of mass and momentum, while another class describes mass and velocity. Further, the averaging process employed in the model derivation requires the specification of the axial velocity profile; this choice differentiates models within each class. Discrepancies among differing models have yet to be investigated. In this paper, we systematically compare several reduced models of blood flow for physiologically relevant vessel parameters, network topology, and boundary data. The models are discretized by a class of Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin methods.

  1. Reduced effect of percutaneous renal denervation on blood pressure in patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Sebastian; Ukena, Christian; Linz, Dominik; Kindermann, Ingrid; Cremers, Bodo; Laufs, Ulrich; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmieder, Roland E; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Renal denervation can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension. The effect in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, ≥140/hypertension (CH, ≥140/≥90 mm Hg) defined as baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive agents. Renal denervation significantly reduced office SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 3, 6, and 12 months by 17/18/17 and 5/4/4 mm Hg in ISH and by 28/27/30 and 13/16/18 mm Hg in CH, respectively. The reduction in SBP and DBP in ISH was lower compared with patients with CH at all observed time points (P<0.05 for SBP/DBP intergroup comparison). The nonresponder rate (change in office SBP <10 mm Hg) after 6 months was 37% in ISH and 21% in CH (P<0.001). Mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP and DBP after 3, 6, and 12 months were significantly reduced by 10/13/15 and 6/6/9 mm Hg in CH, respectively. In patients with ISH the reduction in systolic ambulatory blood pressure was 4/8/7 mm Hg (P=0.032/P<0.001/P=0.009) and 3/4/2 mm Hg (P=0.08/P<0.001/P=0.130) in diastolic ambulatory blood pressure after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly lower after 3 and 12 months in SBP and after 12 months in ambulatory DBP, respectively. In conclusion, renal denervation reduces office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with ISH. However, this reduction is less pronounced compared with patients with CH.

  2. A disturbed macrocirculatory supply as a determinant for a reduced sciatic nerve blood flow in diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Buren, Th. van; Kappelle, A.C.; Kasbergen, C.M.; Wildt, D.J. de

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate macrocirculatory disturbances in relation to the reduced sciatic nerve blood flow seen in diabetic rats. Therefore, both femoral blood flow, the macrocirculatory arterial blood supply to the sciatic nerve, and the microcirculatory neuronal blood flow were measur

  3. Reducing intraoperative lower segment blood loss in placenta previa with Ashok Anand stitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok R. Anand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To avoid the need for blood transfusions and reducing complications in cases of placenta previa during cesarean section delivery by a new simple innovative technique developed by Dr ASHOK ANAND known as Ashok Anand’s stitch. Methods: This stitch is based on the reasoning that taking the stitch bilaterally occludes the collaterals supplying the lower segment. As these are end arteries, their occlusion causes hemostasis in the lower segment. Sample size: 20 cases in each study group. Blood loss was estimated by standardized visual method (fixed container and mop. Results: By applying this technique in 20 cases, there was significant reduction in the blood loss compared to the control group, thereby reducing the need for blood transfusion (p value <0.05. Conclusions: Ashok Anand’s stitch is a simple and effective technique in controlling lower segment bleeding in cases of placenta previa during cesarean section thus avoiding the need for blood transfusions for operative blood loss and obstetric hysterectomy. The technique is easy to apply, less invasive and does not require any special instruments. It can be life-saving. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 135-140

  4. Incidence of human herpes virus-6 and human cytomegalovirus infections in donated bone marrow and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad-Behbahani A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the incidence of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections that are potentially transmitted to haematopoietic stem cells (HSC transplant recipients via bone marrow (BM or umbilical cord blood (UCB. Bone marrow progenitor cells were collected from 30 allogenic BM donors. UCB HSC were collected from 34 subjects. The extracted DNA was then processed using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR technique. HCMV and HHV-6 serological status were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Nested PCR identified HCMV in 22 (73% of 30 samples of BM progenitor cells but in only eight (23.5% of 34 samples of UBC HSC ( P = 0.001. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 11 (36.6% of 30 BM progenitor cells and in only one (2.9% of 34 UBC cells ( P = 0.002. Both HHV-6 and HCMV infections were determined in nine (26.5% of 34 bone marrow samples. The results indicate that, the risk of HCMV and HHV-6 via BM progenitor cells is higher than transmission by UCB cells ( P= 0.04.

  5. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  6. National Organ and Tissue Donation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Nearly 95% of U.S. adults support organ donation. Show your support and sign up today. Sign ... donation statistics Information about Organ, Eye, and Tissue Donation Every day, lives are saved and improved by ...

  7. Tranexamic acid reduces perioperative blood loss of posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Houyin; Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. The routine usage of TA in spinal surgery is controversial. Only a few studies have focused on patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis, although a large clinical cohort exists in the population. This study aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of TA in reducing perioperative blood loss in posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. Methods: 100 eligible patients out of 126 were randomized to receive either a bolus dose of 30 mg/kg TA i.v, a maintenance dosage of 2 mg/kg/h TA, or an equivalent volume of normal saline. The pedicle screw system was used for fixing in all the patients, followed by decompression and posterior lumbar interbody fusion. The primary outcomes were intraoperative estimated blood loss and total blood loss. The secondary outcomes were receiving packed red blood cells and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Results: In total, 4 patients were excluded from the analyses, 50 patients were in the TA group, and 46 in the placebo group. The demographic and baseline data between the groups were not statistically different. The intraoperative estimated blood loss and the total blood loss were 33% and 41% lower in the TA group than the placebo group, respectively. The blood transfusion rate did not vary significantly (P = 0.191). Except a patient with a dural tear in the placebo group, no other complications were observed. Conclusion: TA significantly reduced the perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. PMID:28072709

  8. Reducing blood culture contamination in the emergency department: an interrupted time series quality improvement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G; McNaughton, Candace D; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B; Talbot, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique) and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. During the baseline period, 321 of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate and sustained

  9. The new Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (SCANDAT2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus; Vasan, Senthil K

    2015-01-01

    -creation of SCANDAT with updated, identifiable data. We collected computerized data on blood donations and transfusions from blood banks covering all of Sweden and Denmark. After data cleaning, two structurally identical databases were created and the entire database was linked with nationwide health outcomes...... registers to attain complete follow-up for up to 47 years regarding hospital care, cancer, and death. RESULTS: After removal of erroneous records, the database contained 25,523,334 donation records, 21,318,794 transfusion records, and 3,692,653 unique persons with valid identification, presently followed...

  10. Dengue viremia in blood donors in Northern India: Challenges of emerging dengue outbreaks to blood transfusion safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Mangwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backdround: Emerging infectious diseases pose threats to the general human population; including recipients of blood transfusions. Dengue is spreading rapidly to new areas and with increasing frequency of major outbreaks. Screening blood for dengue antigens in dengue-endemic countries would be costly and should, therefore, be recommended only after careful assessment of risk for infection and cost. Aim: A prospective study was conducted to establish the magnitude of the threat that dengue poses to blood safety where it is sporadic with seasonal variations, to quantify risk and to assess that whether screening is feasible and cost-effective. Materials and Methods: Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen test was done on 1709 donations during dengue outbreak in the months August to November 2013 as an additional test using Bio-Rad Platelia Dengue NS1AG test kit which is one step sandwich format microplate enzyme immunoassay using murine monoclonal antibodies for capture and revelation. Chi-square test was used to find statistical significance. Results and Conclusions: Majority cases were whole blood, replacement, male donors with 76.10% donors in <35 years age group. About 17.85% were single donor platelet donations. NS1 antigen in all donors was negative. In the past, dengue affected mainly children who do not donate blood. With the changing trend, mean age of infection increased affecting the population that does donate blood, further reducing blood donation pool. Further studies need to be done in different geographic regions of the country during dengue transmission season to establish maximum incidence of viremic donations, rates of transfusion transmission and clinical consequences in recipients. If risk is found to be substantial, decision will be taken by the policymakers at what threshold screening should be instituted to ensure safe blood transfusion.

  11. Ergot alkaloids reduce rumen epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  12. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  13. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  14. Brazilian blood donation eligibility criteria for dermatologic patients Critérios brasileiros de elegibilidade à doação de sangue para pacientes dermatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo Wambier

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A focused and commented review on the impact of dermatologic diseases and interventions in the solidary act of donating blood is presented to dermatologists to better advise their patients. This is a review of current Brazilian technical regulations on hemotherapeutic procedures as determined by Ministerial Directive #1353/2011 by the Ministry of Health and current internal regulations of the Hemotherapy Center of Ribeirão Preto, a regional reference center in hemotherapeutic procedures. Criteria for permanent inaptitude: autoimmune diseases (>1 organ involved, personal history of cancer other than basal cell carcinoma, severe atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, pemphigus foliaceus, porphyrias, filariasis, leprosy, extra pulmonary tuberculosis or paracoccidioidomycosis, and previous use of etretinate. Drugs that impose temporary ineligibility: other systemic retinoids, systemic corticosteroids, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, vaccines, methotrexate, beta-blockers, minoxidil, anti-epileptic, and anti-psychotic drugs. Other conditions that impose temporary ineligibility: occupational accident with biologic material, piercing, tattoo, sexually transmitted diseases, herpes, and bacterial infections, among others. Discussion: Thalidomide is currently missing in the teratogenic drugs list. Although finasteride was previously considered a drug that imposed permanent inaptitude, according to its short halflife current restriction of 1 month is still too long. Dermatologists should be able to advise their patients about proper timing to donate blood, and discuss the impact of drug withdrawal on treatment outcomes and to respect the designated washout periods.Uma revisão centrada no impacto de doenças e intervenções dermatológicas no ato solidário de doar sangue é apresentada aos dermatologistas para melhor aconselhamento dos seus pacientes. Esta é uma revisão das atuais normas técnicas brasileiras sobre procedimentos hemoterápicos conforme

  15. Blood derived products in pediatrics: New laboratory tools for optimizing potency assignment and reducing side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiral, Jean; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2017-04-01

    Neonates and children can develop rare bleeding disorders due to congenital/acquired coagulation Factor deficiencies, or allo-immune/autoimmune complications, or can undergo surgeries at high haemorrhagic risk. They then need specialized transfusion of blood components/products, or purified blood extracted products or recombinant proteins. Blood-derived therapies conventionally used for management of affected infants with genetic/acquired deficiencies, bleeding problems (coagulation Factor reduced or missing) or thrombotic disorders (reduced or missing anticoagulant proteins) pose some additional risks. These remedial therapies can cause tolerance when used very early in life and, sometimes needed, repeatedly. The introduction of recombinant proteins has allowed manufacturers to produce large amounts of the proteins usually present at very low concentration in blood. This has also changed the risk pattern of plasma-extracted products, especially in terms of continual reduction of viral transmission. Many efforts have been made over these past decades to reduce the risks associated with the use of all these products in terms of viral and bacterial safety, as well as immune disorders but they are not the objective of this article. Other associated side effects are the presence of undesired activities in blood products, which can produce thrombotic events or adverse reactions. The progressive introduction of blood derived products has greatly improved the prognosis and quality of life of affected patients. This concerns whole blood, but also blood cell concentrates, mainly platelets and red blood cells, plasma, while the blood extracted products are increasingly replaced by recombinant proteins. All these therapeutic products, i.e. blood extracted drugs, improve health and quality of life for hemophiliac's A or B, or patients with auto/allo-immune thrombocytopenias or with rare bleeding disorders, and those with thrombotic events occurring in childhood, which are

  16. Altruistic donor triggered domino-paired kidney donation for unsuccessful couples from the kidney-exchange program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodnat, J I; Zuidema, W; van de Wetering, J; de Klerk, M; Erdman, R A M; Massey, E K; Hilhorst, M T; Ijzermans, J N M; Weimar, W

    2010-04-01

    Between January 2000 and July 2009, 132 individuals inquired about altruistic kidney donation to strangers. These donors were willing to donate to genetically and emotionally unrelated patients. Some altruistic donors wished to donate to a specific person, but most wished to donate anonymously. In domino-paired donation, the altruistic donor donates to the recipient of an incompatible couple; the donor of that couple (domino-donor) donates to another couple or to the waiting list. In contrast to kidney-exchange donation where bilateral matching of couples is required, recipient and donor matching are unlinked in domino-paired donation. This facilitates matching for unsuccessful couples from the kidney-exchange program where blood type O prevails in recipients and is under-represented in donors. Fifty-one altruistic donors (39%) donated their kidney and 35 domino-donors were involved. There were 29 domino procedures, 24 with 1 altruistic donor and 1 domino-donor, 5 with more domino-donors. Eighty-six transplantations were performed. Donor and recipient blood type distribution in the couples limited allocation to blood type non-O waiting list patients. The success rate of domino-paired donation is dependent on the composition of the pool of incompatible pairs, but it offers opportunities for difficult to match pairs that were unsuccessful in the kidney-exchange program.

  17. A comparative research on the motivation factors of voluntary blood donation among college students from a comprehensive university and a medical university%综合性大学与医学类院校学生无偿献血的动因比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆佳玲; 孙牧; 屠小明; 赵轶轮; 蔡旭兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the differences of common knowledge, attitudes and motivations in voluntary blood donation between students from one comprehensive university and one medical university in Nanjing. Methods: We established questionnaires via document research, expert consultation and focus group discussion. Chi-square test was performed to compare the differences of common knowledge. t-test was performed to compare the differences of attitudes and motivations. Results: Students in comprehensive university known less about blood donation than students in medical universities. The score of attitude towards blood donation in students from medical university was higher than that in students from comprehensive university. No significant differences were found between them in feelings when they are donating blood. The score of motivation of altruism in medical university students was higher than that in comprehensive university students. Among the students who did not donate blood, the score of motivation of self-efficacy and reward in medical university students was higher than that in comprehensive university students. Conclusion:It is necessary to strengthen the popularization of blood donation in comprehensive universities. Suitable broadcasting and recruiting strategies can be established according to the differences between them in motivation and attitudes to donate blood.%以南京某综合性大学和某医学院校为例,比较两类学校学生在无偿献血认知、献血参与态度及献血动机方面的差异。通过文献研究、专家咨询及焦点小组评分编制调查问卷。认知差异比较采用卡方检验,态度和动机差异采用t检验。综合性大学学生对无偿献血的认知水平较低。医学类院校学生在献血参与态度方面的得分较高,二者在献血感受上无差异。献血动机方面,医学类院校学生献血的利他性得分较高,在两校暂未献血人群中,医学类院校学生自

  18. A novel redox-active metalloporphyrin reduces reactive oxygen species and inflammatory markers but does not improve marginal mass engraftment in a murine donation after circulatory death islet transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Antonio; Pepper, Andrew R; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Pawlick, Rena; Abualhassan, Nasser; Crapo, James D; Piganelli, Jon D; Shapiro, A M James

    2016-07-03

    Islet transplantation is a highly effective treatment for stabilizing glycemic control for select patients with type-1 diabetes. Despite improvements to clinical transplantation, single-donor transplant success has been hard to achieve routinely, necessitating increasing demands on viable organ availability. Donation after circulatory death (DCD) may be an alternative option to increase organ availability however, these organs tend to be more compromised. The use of metalloporphyrin anti-inflammatory and antioxidant (MnP) compounds previously demonstrated improved in vivo islet function in preclinical islet transplantation. However, the administration of MnP (BMX-001) in a DCD islet isolation and transplantation model has yet to be established. In this study, murine donors were subjected to a 15-min warm ischemic (WI) period prior to isolation and culture with or without MnP. Subsequent to one-hour culture, islets were assessed for in vitro viability and in vivo function. A 15-minute WI period significantly reduced islet yield, regardless of MnP-treatment relative to yields from standard isolation. MnP-treated islets did not improve islet viability compared to DCD islets alone. MnP-treatment did significantly reduce the presence of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p MnP-treatment. DCD islet grafts harvested 7 d post-transplant exhibited sustained TNF-α and IL-10, while MnP-treated islet-bearing grafts demonstrated reduced IL-10 levels. Taken together, 15-minute WI in murine islet isolation significantly impairs islet yield. DCD islets do indeed demonstrate in vivo function, though MnP therapy was unable to improve viability and engraftment outcomes.

  19. Attitude toward living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was

  20. Does a kaolin-impregnated hemostatic dressing reduce intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusions in pediatric spinal deformity surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Emily M; Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Schwend, Richard M

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To evaluate the hemostatic benefits of using a kaolin-impregnated dressing during pediatric spinal deformity correction surgery. Minimizing blood loss and transfusions are clear benefits for patient safety. A technique common in both severe trauma and combat medicine that has not been reported in the spine literature is wound packing with a kaolin-impregnated hemostatic dressing. Estimated blood loss and transfusion amounts were analyzed in a total of 117 retrospectively identified cases. The control group included 65 patients (46 females, 19 males, 12.7±4.5 yr, 10.2±4.8 levels fused) who received standard operative care with gauze packing between June 2007 and March 2010. The treatment group included 52 patients (33 females, 19 males, 13.9±3.2 yr, 10.4±4.3 levels fused) who underwent intraoperative packing with QuikClot Trauma Pads (QCTP, Z-Medica Corporation) for all surgical procedures from July 2010 to August 2011. No other major changes in the use of antifibrinolytics or perioperative, surgical, or anesthesia technique were noted. Statistical differences were analyzed using analysis of covariance in R with P value of less than 0.05. The statistical model included sex, age, weight, scoliosis type, the number of vertebral levels fused, and surgery duration as covariates. The treatment group had 40% less intraoperative estimated blood loss than the control group (974 mL vs. 1620 mL) (Pkaolin-impregnated intraoperative trauma pad seems to be an effective and inexpensive method to reduce intraoperative blood loss and transfusion volume in pediatric spinal deformity surgery. 3.

  1. Analysis of influencing factors and reasons of red blood cell spill- over in thrombocytapheresis occurred in voluntary blood donation in blood stations%机采血小板在血站无偿献血中造成冲红原因及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influencing factors and reasons of red blood cell spill - over in thrombocytapheresis occurred in voluntary blood donation in blood stations. Methods Totally 618 voluntary blood donors with complete clinical data between May 11th 1999 and November 7 th 2010 were enrolled in this study. All of them met the national stipulation physical examination standard. Before blood collection, phlebotomists from blood stations inquired strictly about the donors' healthy condition, then followed a standard program according to procedures;21 red blood cell spill - over cases (Platelets were collected by a CS -3000Plus cell separator) .excluded the machine fault and misopera-tion,were investigated in this study. The normal control group consisted of 597 voluntary blood donors with normal platelet collection. The study include ①the blood count of finger - prick blood before hemapheresis in both groups; ②the effects of pre - diluted blood store time; ③the results of two methods in donors with different levels of platelets; ④the effects of test cups; the comparison of platelet count in the two groups;⑤the effects of environmental factors;⑥the-comparison of the effects of different blood collection methods; ⑦the anticoagulant selection. Results The blood count of finger - prick before hemapheresis in both groups had no difference (P > 0.05) in HGB(g/L) 、PLT( x 109/L) 、MPV(fl) ,MCHC(g/L) ,MCV(pg) ,MCV(fl) ,PTW(% ),except RDW (P < 0.05). The separation of platelets should be finished in 120 minutes. The difference between the two groups (P < 0. 05) is more significant with the decrease of platelet counts. The result suggested that thrombocytapheresis show a high incidence of red blood cell spill - over. Choose the test cups with high quality. The environmental temperature is particularly important. It shall be strictly forbidden to squeeze hard on the blood collecting location. Select EDTA - K2 as the anticoagulant. Conclusions Red blood cell

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... takes you through her blood stem cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center ... views 11:58 Sara's filgrastim and PBSC donation experience - Duration: 10:58. Be The Match 24,944 ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and harming ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  4. Paid donation: a global view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Rizvi, S Adibul Hasan; Padilla, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Paying for kidney or other organ donation has lead to heated debates about donor and recipient welfare. Many have argued that paying for donation leads to coercion and exploitation of the poor, and, in the end, produces more harm than good. Others have said that payment helps the poor, and we should all have sovereignty over our bodies and, thus, should be allowed to donate for remuneration. Although World Health Organizations and governments in many countries have now banned the process of paying for donation, there is still ongoing payment legally and illegally. Thus, this timely set of three articles from Iran, Pakistan, and the Philippines, where paid donation has been extensively performed, will allow the reader to decide for themselves whether the benefits and/or harms of this practice are now clear. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1.We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  6. Comunicações persuasivas e doação regular de sangue: um estudo experimental Persuasive communications and regular blood donation: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balduino Guedes Fernandes da Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigação teve por objetivos: verificar capitulação para a variável dependente "intenção comportamental de tornar-se doador(a regular de sangue", averiguar influência destas comunicações na variância da variável dependente, examinar a contribuição isolada da variável independente externa, à Teoria da Ação Racional e testar o ajuste da Teoria da Ação Racional ampliada para o comportamento e amostra estudados. Utilizou-se delineamento só pós-teste e procedimento duplo-cego, designando-se aleatoriamente 405 estudantes universitários, para os grupos experimental 1, experimental 2, controle-placebo e somente-controle. Resultados demonstraram: inexistir capitulação para os grupos experimentais; consideráveis percentuais de variância da variável dependente explicados pelas independentes dos grupos experimentais e controle-placebo; correlações satisfatórias e significativas para variáveis da teoria ampliada. A ausência de capitulação para a variável critério deveu-se, provavelmente, ao intervalo do tempo. Coube à estratégia persuasiva positiva maior variância da variável dependente. A obrigação moral demonstrou maior influência na intenção dos participantes em desempenhar o comportamento. Correlações corroboraram validades teórica e metodológica da teoria ampliada.This study aimed to: investigate yielding to the dependent variable "behavioral intent to become a regular blood donor", verify the impact of such communications on variance in the dependent variable, examine the single contribution of the external independent variable to the Rational Action Theory, and test the fit of the expanded Rational Choice Theory to the target behavior and sample. Only a post-test design and double-blinded procedure were used, randomly picking 405 university students for experimental groups 1 and 2, placebo control, and control only. The results showed: lack of yielding by the experimental groups; considerable

  7. Communicating Effectively about Organ Donation: A Randomized Trial of a Behavioral Communication Intervention to Improve Discussions about Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, Laura A; Traino, Heather M; Genderson, Maureen Wilson

    2015-03-01

    Families' refusal to authorize solid organ donation contributes to the organ deficit in the United States. The importance of communication to reducing refusal to requests for solid organ donation at the bedside and thus increasing the supply of transplantable organs cannot be overstated. This research compares two versions of an innovative communication skills training program for Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) request staff, Communicating Effectively About Donation (CEaD), designed to improve the quantity and quality of organ donation discussions with family decision makers (FDM) of deceased patients. We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial of the CEaD intervention, comparing an online only version of the training (CEaD1) with the online version bolstered with in-person practice and feedback (CEaD2). Survey and interview data were collected from 1,603 FDMs and 273 requesters to assess the impact of both versions of the CEaD on requesters' communication skills and behaviors; the rate of family authorization to solid organ donation were obtained from administrative data provided by 9 OPOs. Results revealed higher rates of authorization for requesters with less tenure (78% to 89%, p organ donation, and the overall quality of the donation experience.

  8. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  9. Experiments on alcocytes containing enzyme nanoparticles for reducing toxic blood concentration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Yu G; Kosenko, E A; Alexandrovich, Yu G; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2012-05-01

    We developed a method of introduction of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase into mouse and human erythrocytes. The possibility of using erythrocytes loaded with the two enzymes (alcocytes) for reducing ethanol concentration in animal blood was studied. Injection of alcocytes to mice led to accelerated decrease in ethanol concentration as soon as after 5 min and this capacity of alcocytes persisted for at least 2 h. Alcocytes prepared from fresh or preserved human blood did not survive in mice. Thus autologous alcocytes is functionally active and can be used as a protective system in acute alcohol intoxication. The developed method can be regarded as a new medical biotechnology.

  10. Mutations in the Na-Cl cotransporter reduce blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, D N; Simon, D B; Nelson-Williams, C; Farhi, A; Finberg, K; Burleson, L; Gill, J R; Lifton, R P

    2001-06-01

    The relationship between salt homeostasis and blood pressure has remained difficult to establish from epidemiological studies of the general population. Recently, mendelian forms of hypertension have demonstrated that mutations that increase renal salt balance lead to higher blood pressure, suggesting that mutations that decrease the net salt balance might have the converse effect. Gitelman's syndrome, caused by loss of function mutations in the Na-Cl cotransporter of the distal convoluted tubule (NCCT), features inherited hypokalemic alkalosis with so-called "normal" blood pressure. We hypothesized that the mild salt wasting of Gitelman's syndrome results in reduced blood pressure and protection from hypertension. We have formally addressed this question through the study of 199 members of a large Amish kindred with Gitelman's syndrome. Through genetic testing, family members were identified as inheriting 0 (n=60), 1 (n=113), or 2 (n=26) mutations in NCCT, permitting an unbiased assessment of the clinical consequences of inheriting these mutations by comparison of the phenotypes of relatives with contrasting genotypes. The results demonstrate high penetrance of hypokalemic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria in patients inheriting 2 mutant NCCT alleles. In addition, the NCCT genotype was a significant predictor of blood pressure, with homozygous mutant family members having significantly lower age- and gender-adjusted systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those of their wild-type relatives. Moreover, both homozygote and heterozygote subjects had significantly higher 24-hour urinary Na(+) than did wild-type subjects, reflecting a self-selected higher salt intake. Finally, heterozygous children, but not adults, had significantly lower blood pressures than those of the wild-type relatives. These findings provide formal demonstration that inherited mutations that impair renal salt handling lower blood pressure in humans.

  11. The reason and prevention of blood adverse reaction%献血不良反应原因及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯颖

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing reasons of donating blood adverse reaction, including mental reasons, piercing pain, faint at the sight of puppy blood and treatment reasons, lack of fasting blood donation, lack of blood donation knowledge and environmental reasons, the reasonable effective prevention methods were found, including: completing the propaganda work of blood donation knowledge, strict examination, improving the blood donation site environment, improving the level of blood business knowledge and professional technical personnel, and so on, so as to control the incidence of blood donation reaction, and reduce the fear of blood donors, then the unpaid blood donation team would get stronger.%目的:通过对献血不良反应的发生原因进行分析,包括精神原因、穿刺疼痛原因、晕血和晕针原因、空腹献血、献血者献血知识缺乏以及献血环境原因等,找到合理有效的预防方法,包括做好献血知识的宣传工作、严格的体格检查、改善献血场所环境、提高采血人员业务知识及专业技术水平等,从而控制献血反应的发生率,减少献血者的恐惧心理,使无偿献血队伍得到壮大。

  12. Effects of hydroxyhydroquinone-reduced coffee on vasoreactivity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Chikama, Akiro; Kataoka, Kiyoshi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Maekawa, Yoshihiro; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Rakugi, Hiromi; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that chlorogenic acids, which are the main components of the polyphenol class in coffee, decrease blood pressure, and that hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ), which is generated by roasting coffee beans, inhibits the antihypertensive effect of chlorogenic acids in brewed coffee. Here, we examined the vasoreactivity and antihypertensive effects of HHQ-reduced coffee in mild hypertension. The study design was a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study, with a 4-week run-in period, followed by an 8-week test beverage ingestion period. The subjects were Japanese men and women with mild hypertension and vascular failure, who were not taking any antihypertensive drugs. During the test beverage ingestion period, the subjects ingested either active or placebo HHQ-reduced coffee (chlorogenic acids per 184 ml of coffee: active, 300 mg; and placebo, 0 mg) daily. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: active group (n=9) and placebo group (n=12). In the active beverage group, endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation impairment was significantly ameliorated and systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased from the baseline, but not in the placebo group. There were no test beverage consumption-related changes in other parameters that may influence blood pressure, such as pulse, cardiac output, body weight or 24-h urine volume. Ingestion of the active beverage significantly decreased urinary isoprostane levels, suggesting a reduced oxidative stress. These findings indicate that HHQ-reduced coffee decreased blood pressure in subjects with mild hypertension. The decreased blood pressure was associated with improved vascular endothelial function.

  13. Incentivizing living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynowiec, Jessica; Kim, Jennifer; Qazi, Yasir A

    2009-04-01

    The number of organs available for the patients on the transplant waitlist remains at a disproportionate low. All possible methods to curtail this shortage, including providing donors with incentives, have been proposed. This article reviews recent publications addressing the benefits and risks involved in incentivizing living donation. The debate about the ethics, feasibility, and possible models for compensating organ donors has been prominent in recent literature. As certain countries take lead on this initiative, others are cautiously weighing in on the impact implementations of such policies may have on the society, especially on the underprivileged. The shortage of organs has resulted in proposal of strategies that encroach on certain moral and ethical principles. Providing incentives to donors is one such strategy that is likely to receive a lot of attention in the next few years.

  14. Effect of cadmium or magnesium on calcium-dependent central function that reduces blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutoo, D.; Akiyama, K. [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan). Inst. of Medical Sci.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of cadmium or magnesium on central calcium-dependent blood pressure regulation was investigated. The systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; male, 13 weeks of age) decreased following i.c.v. administration of cadmium chloride (20 nmol/rat), and increased following i.c.v. administration of magnesium chloride (20, 600, and 1200 nmol/rat). The hypotensive effect of cadmium was suppressed by i.c.v. administration of W-7 (a calmodulin antagonist, 30 {mu}g/rat). Taking into consideration these results with our previous reports, it is suggested that cadmium binds to the calcium-binding sites of calmodulin and activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent enzymes in a disorderly manner, whereas magnesium does not. Therefore, cadmium increases dopamine synthesis in the brain via a calmodulin-dependent system, and the resultant increase in dopamine levels inhibits sympathetic nerve activity and reduces blood pressure in SHR. (orig.)

  15. Sperm donation in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor-Yosef, S; Schenker, J G

    1995-04-01

    Science and technology in the field of human reproduction present new legal, ethical and religious questions which do not always have immediate answers. The first step in the rapidly developed field of reproductive technology was the use of sperm donation (artificial insemination by donor, AID) and the establishment of sperm banks. The state of Israel faced these problems when the regulations for sperm donation were discussed. The fact that the main holy places for the three monotheistic religions are in Israel directly influences the make-up of the population constituents. Therefore, besides a majority of secular people, a high percentage of the population of Israel is very religious: Jews, Moslems and Christians. Thus any resolution relating to AID should take this demographic combination into account. The practice of AID is opposed by the different monotheistic religions. To avoid the conflict between secular and religious people, and between the different religions' perspectives, the legal problem of AID in Israel was solved not by laws but by regulations which were published by the Ministry of Health. The main idea behind this attitude is that the state and its authorities should not and do not deal with ethical or religious questions. Thus, the decision was left to the couples and to the donors. The regulations address technical requirements, health problems and confidential issues concerning the couple, the donor and the child. In this paper we present the different views relating to these problems as perceived by the different religions, and describe the solution that was accepted by the Israeli Ministry of Health.

  16. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy reduces blood pressure and hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K. McGavigan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, causes remarkable improvements in cardiometabolic health, including hypertension remission. However, the mechanisms responsible remain undefined and poorly studied. Therefore, we developed and validated the first murine model of VSG that recapitulates the blood pressure-lowering effect of VSG using gold-standard radiotelemetry technology. We used this model to investigate several potential mechanisms, including body mass, brain endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling and brain inflammatory signaling, which are all critical contributors to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated hypertension. Mice fed on a high-fat diet underwent sham or VSG surgery and radiotelemeter implantation. Sham mice were fed ad libitum or were food restricted to match their body mass to VSG-operated mice to determine the role of body mass in the ability of VSG to lower blood pressure. Blood pressure was then measured in freely moving unstressed mice by radiotelemetry. VSG decreased energy intake, body mass and fat mass. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was reduced in VSG-operated mice compared with both sham-operated groups. VSG-induced reductions in MAP were accompanied by a body mass-independent decrease in hypothalamic ER stress, hypothalamic inflammation and sympathetic nervous system tone. Assessment of gut microbial populations revealed VSG-induced increases in the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Enterococcus, and decreases in Adlercreutzia. These results suggest that VSG reduces blood pressure, but this is only partly due to the reduction in body weight. VSG-induced reductions in blood pressure may be driven by a decrease in hypothalamic ER stress and inflammatory signaling, and shifts in gut microbial populations.

  17. Reduced dose of foscarnet as preemptive therapy for cytomegalovirus infection following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, H; Kami, M; Kato, D; Matsumura, T; Murashige, N; Kusumi, E; Yuji, K; Hori, A; Shibata, T; Masuoka, K; Wake, A; Miyakoshi, S; Morinaga, S; Taniguchi, S

    2007-03-01

    Although foscarnet is a promising alternative for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, its toxicity can be significant in patients with advanced age. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 123 patients (median age of 55; range, 17-79) who received reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation (RI-CBT). Patients preemptively received reduced-dose foscarnet 30 mg/kg twice daily when CMV antigenemia exceeded 10/50,000. Sixty-three patients developed CMV antigenemia on a median of day 34, and 29 received foscarnet preemptively. The median level of CMV antigenemia at the initiation of foscarnet was 30. Median duration of foscarnet administration was 24 days. Adverse effects included electrolyte abnormalities (n=19), renal impairment (n=13), and skin eruption requiring discontinuation of foscarnet (n=1). Preemptive therapy of foscarnet was completed in 18 patients. Seven patients died during foscarnet use without developing CMV disease. The remaining 3 developed CMV enterocolitis 5, 14, and 17 days after initiation of foscarnet. All of them were successfully treated with ganciclovir or foscarnet. Reduced dose of foscarnet is beneficial to control CMV reactivation following RI-CBT; however, it has considerable toxicities in RI-CBT recipients with advanced age. Further studies are warranted to minimize toxicities and identify optimal dosages.

  18. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2-3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%.

  19. Reduced compensatory responses to maintain central blood volume during hypovolemic stress in women with vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Länne, Toste; Lindenberger, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Although vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common clinical condition, the underlying pathophysiology is not fully understood. A decrease in cardiac output has recently been suggested as a factor in orthostatic VVS. The aim was to investigate compensatory mechanisms to maintain central blood volume and venous return during hypovolemic stress in women with VVS. Fourteen VVS women (25.7 ± 5.0 yr) and 15 matched controls (22.8 ± 3.2 yr) were investigated. Single-step and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope were used to create hypovolemic stress. Peripheral mobilization of venous blood from the arm (capacitance response and net capillary fluid absorption) and lower limb blood pooling (calf capacitance response) were evaluated using a volumetric technique. Cardiovascular responses and plasma norepinephrine (P-NE) were measured. Resting P-NE was elevated in VVS women (P < 0.01). Despite a similar hypovolemic stimulus, the increase in P-NE was blunted (P < 0.01) and the maximal percent increase in total peripheral resistance was reduced (P < 0.05) during graded LBNP in VVS women. The arm capacitance response was slower (P < 0.05) and reduced in VVS women at higher levels of LBNP (P < 0.05). Capillary fluid absorption from extra- to intravascular space was reduced by ∼40% in VVS women (P < 0.05). Accordingly, the reduction in cardiac output was more pronounced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in VVS women, mobilization of peripheral venous blood and net fluid absorption from tissue to blood during hypovolemic stress were decreased partly as a result of an attenuated vasoconstrictor response. This may seriously impede maintenance of cardiac output during hypovolemic stress and could contribute to the pathogenesis of VVS.

  20. Blood soluble drag-reducing polymers prevent lethality from hemorrhagic shock in acute animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameneva, Marina V; Wu, Zhongjun J; Uraysh, Arkady; Repko, Brandon; Litwak, Kenneth N; Billiar, Timothy R; Fink, Mitchell P; Simmons, Richard L; Griffith, Bartley P; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, blood-soluble drag reducing polymers (DRPs) have been shown to significantly enhance hemodynamics in various animal models when added to blood at nanomolar concentrations. In the present study, the effects of the DRPs on blood circulation were tested in anesthetized rats exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock. The animals were acutely resuscitated either with a 2.5% dextran solution (Control) or using the same solution containing 0.0005% or 5 parts per million (ppm) concentration of one of two blood soluble DRPs: high molecular weight (MW=3500 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG-3500) or a DRP extracted from Aloe vera (AVP). An additional group of animals was resuscitated with 0.0075% (75 ppm) polyethylene glycol of molecular weight of 200 kDa (PEG-200), which possesses no drag-reducing ability. All of the animals were observed for two hours following the initiation of fluid resuscitation or until they expired. We found that infusion of the DRP solutions significantly improved tissue perfusion, tissue oxygenation, and two-hour survival rate, the latter from 19% (Control) and 14% (PEG-200) to 100% (AVP) and 100% (PEG-3500). Furthermore, the Control and PEG-200 animals that survived required three times more fluid to maintain their blood pressure than the AVP and PEG-3500 animals. Several hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these observed beneficial hemodynamic effects of DRPs are discussed. Our findings suggest that the drag-reducing polymers warrant further investigation as a potential clinical treatment for hemorrhagic shock and possibly other microcirculatory disorders.

  1. Heterozygous disruption of renal outer medullary potassium channel in rats is associated with reduced blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zuo; Shin, Myung Kyun; Horwitz, Sarah Beth; Levorse, John M; Zhu, Lei; Sharif-Rodriguez, Wanda; Streltsov, Denis Y; Dajee, Maya; Hernandez, Melba; Pan, Yi; Urosevic-Price, Olga; Wang, Li; Forrest, Gail; Szeto, Daphne; Zhu, Yonghua; Cui, Yan; Michael, Bindhu; Balogh, Leslie Ann; Welling, Paul A; Wade, James B; Roy, Sophie; Sullivan, Kathleen A

    2013-08-01

    The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK, KCNJ1) mediates potassium recycling and facilitates sodium reabsorption through the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter in the loop of Henle and potassium secretion at the cortical collecting duct. Human genetic studies indicate that ROMK homozygous loss-of-function mutations cause type II Bartter syndrome, featuring polyuria, renal salt wasting, and hypotension; humans heterozygous for ROMK mutations identified in the Framingham Heart Study have reduced blood pressure. ROMK null mice recapitulate many of the features of type II Bartter syndrome. We have generated an ROMK knockout rat model in Dahl salt-sensitive background by using zinc finger nuclease technology and investigated the effects of knocking out ROMK on systemic and renal hemodynamics and kidney histology in the Dahl salt-sensitive rats. The ROMK(-/-) pups recapitulated features identified in the ROMK null mice. The ROMK(+/-) rats, when challenged with a 4% salt diet, exhibited a reduced blood pressure compared with their ROMK(+/+) littermates. More importantly, when challenged with an 8% salt diet, the Dahl salt-sensitive rats with 50% less ROMK expression showed increased protection from salt-induced blood pressure elevation and signs of protection from renal injury. Our findings in ROMK knockout Dahl salt-sensitive rats, together with the previous reports in humans and mice, underscore a critical role of ROMK in blood pressure regulation.

  2. Glycyrrhizic Acid Reduces Heart Rate and Blood Pressure by a Dual Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kailash; Zaw, Aung Moe; Sekar, Revathi; Palak, Ahuja; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Chow, Billy K C

    2016-09-27

    Beta adrenergic receptors are crucial for their role in rhythmic contraction of heart along with their role in the pathological conditions such as tachycardia and high risk of heart failure. Studies report that the levels of beta-1 adrenergic receptor tend to decrease by 50%, whereas, the levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptor remains constant during the risk of heart failure. Beta blockers-the antagonistic molecules for beta-adrenergic receptors, function by slowing the heart rate, which thereby allows the left ventricle to fill completely during tachycardia incidents and hence helps in blood pumping capacity of heart and reducing the risk of heart failure. In the present study, we investigate the potential of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as a possible principal drug molecule for cardiac arrhythmias owing to its ability to induce reduction in the heart rate and blood pressure. We use in vitro and in silico approach to study GA's effect on beta adrenergic receptor along with an in vivo study to examine its effect on heart rate and blood pressure. Additionally, we explore GA's proficiency in eliciting an increase in the plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide, which by dilating the blood vessel consequently, can be a crucial aid during the occurrence of a potential heart attack. Therefore, we propose GA as a potential principal drug molecule via its potential in modulating heart rate and blood pressure.

  3. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge......-only administration of TXA. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized to one of two interventions. The TXA IV and IA group received combined administration of TXA consisting of 1 g administered intravenously preoperatively......, the additional benefit of IA administration of TXA when combined with IV administration, without the use of a tourniquet, has not been previously investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined IV and IA administration of TXA reduced total blood loss compared with IV...

  4. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single......-centre placebo-controlled double-blinded randomised clinical trial was performed to test the hypothesis on patients undergoing surgery for extra-capsular hip fractures. For reasons outside the control of the investigators, the trial was stopped before reaching the 120 included patients as planned in the protocol.......7) in the TXA group. The 90-day mortality was 27.2% (n = 9) in the TXA group and 10.2% (n = 4) in the placebo group (p = 0.07). We were not able to ascertain a reliable cause of death in these patients. DISCUSSION: TXA significantly reduced TBL in extra-capsular hip fractures, but concerns regarding its safety...

  5. Brain donation: who and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaw, Xanthe Meryn; Garrick, Therese M; Terwee, Peter J; Patching, Jo R; Blake, Helen; Harper, Clive

    2009-08-01

    Understanding what influences people to donate, or not donate, body organs and tissues is very important for the future of transplant surgery and medical research (Garrick in J Clin Neurosci 13:524-528, 2006). A previous web-based motivation survey coordinated by the New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre found that most people who participated in brain donation were young, female, educated Australians, not affiliated with any particular religion, and with a higher prevalence of medical illness than the general Australian population. It discussed the main motivating factors for brain donation to be "the benefits of the research to medicine and science". This study has been replicated in a paper-based version to capture a broader cross-section of the general population, to find out who they are and what motivates them to donate. All consented and registered brain donors (n = 1,323) were sent a questionnaire via the post and recipients were given 3 months to complete the questionnaire and return it in a reply paid envelope. Results were entered into the original web-based survey and analyzed using SPSS version 10. Six hundred and fifty-eight questionnaires were returned completed, a response rate of 53%. The results show that people from all age groups are interested in brain donation. The over 65's are the largest of the groups (30.7%). The majority of the participants were female (60.6%), married (49.2%) with children (65.8%), employed (52.9%) and have a tertiary education (73.3%). They were either non-religious (48.2%) or Christian (41.6%) and were mostly Australian (65.4%). Most (81%) had pledged to donate other organs and tissues for transplantation. The most commonly cited reasons for the donation were to benefit science (27.6%), to benefit medicine (23.9%), a family illness (17.5%) and to benefit the community (16.6%). This study demonstrates that people across all age groups are interested in brain donation. Recruitment of new brain donors could target the

  6. Role of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between caesarean section and intra operative and post operative bleeding is known. Post-partum hemorrhage is still a leading cause for maternal morbidity and mortality. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following lower segment caesarean section (LSCS and note any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 41 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 50 did not receive tranexamic acid. Statistical Analysis: For quantitative outcomes, the t-test was used to test for difference in the two groups. For categorical outcomes, chi square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used as applicable. Results: The patient characteristics, namely age, height, weight, gestational age and gravidity in two groups were similar which was statistically insignificant. Hemoglobin decreased slightly after birth in both groups but no statistical difference between two groups was noticed. There was no episode of thrombosis in the study. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001 and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001. However, there was no statistical difference in quantity of blood loss from time of placental delivery to end of LSCS in both groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction. Thus, drug can be used effectively in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality during LSCS.

  7. Chlorthalidone Plus Amiloride Reduces the Central Systolic Blood Pressure in Stage 1 Hypertension Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leticia Aparecida Barufi; Cestario, Elizabeth do Espirito Santo; Cosenso-Martin, Luciana Neves; Vilela-Martin, Jose Fernando; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Fuchs, Flavio Danni

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension reduction strategies use blood pressure in the brachial artery as the primary endpoint. Individuals who achieve the target blood pressure reduction with antihypertensive treatment have residual cardiovascular risk attributed to the difference in pressure between the aorta and brachial artery. Antihypertensive treatment affects the intrinsic properties of the vascular wall and arterial stiffness markers and consequently the central pressure. Recent publications stress the importance of adequate control of the central compared to peripheral blood pressure. Related clinical implications suggest that individuals with normal peripheral but high central blood pressure should not receive antihypertensive drugs that act on the central pressure. Therefore, they are at greater cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with a thiazide diuretic versus losartan on the central blood pressure in stage 1 hypertensive patients. Methods Twenty-five patients were randomized to the chlorthalidone 25 mg/amiloride 5 mg group (q.d.) and 25 patients received losartan 50 mg (b.i.d). The central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) and augmentation index (AIx 75) were assessed using applanation tonometry. The paired t-test was used to compare the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), CSBP and AIx 75 between the thiazide and losartan groups at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Results Significant reductions in CSBP (123.3 ± 14.2 vs. 113.4 ± 111.4, P = 0.0103) and AIx 75 (87.7 ± 9.6 vs. 83.8 ± 8.9, P = 0.0289) were observed after 6 months of drug treatment with chlorthalidone 25 mg/amiloride 5 mg (q.d.). The administration of losartan 50 mg (b.i.d) did not reduce the CSBP and there were insignificant changes in the AIx 75. Conclusions Six-month treatment of chlorthalidone/amiloride but not losartan reduces the CSBP and AIx 75 in adults with stage 1

  8. The critical pathway for deceased donation : reportable uniformity in the approach to deceased donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L.; Shaheen, Faissal A. M.; Matesanz, Rafael; O'Connor, Kevin; Minina, Marina; Muller, Elmi; Young, Kimberly; Manyalich, Marti; Chapman, Jeremy; Kirste, Guenter; Al-Mousawi, Mustafa; Coene, Leen; Garcia, Valter Duro; Gautier, Serguei; Hasegawa, Tomonori; Jha, Vivekanand; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Chen, Zhonghua Klaus; Loty, Bernard; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Nathan, Howard M.; Ploeg, Rutger; Reznik, Oleg; Rosendale, John D.; Tibell, Annika; Tsoulfas, George; Vathsala, Anantharaman; Noel, Luc

    2011-01-01

    P>The critical pathway of deceased donation provides a systematic approach to the organ donation process, considering both donation after cardiac death than donation after brain death. The pathway provides a tool for assessing the potential of deceased donation and for the prospective identification

  9. Organ donation, transplantation and religion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliver, Michael; Woywodt, Alexander; Ahmed, Aimun; Saif, Imran

    2011-01-01

    .... These issues may be equally, or even more, important when live donation is discussed. There is good reason to believe that religious concerns play a significant role much more often than clinicians and transplant teams believe...

  10. Communication strategies for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo

    2008-03-01

    A country, state or hospital may have the latest medical technology and infrastructure as well as qualified professionals for organ transplantation, but unless there is an adequate donor population the waiting lists for transplants will continue to be long and for some patients, hopeless. Public and professional awareness programmes are key factor in the donation process. Social education that explains the life-saving benefits of organ transplantation, the enormous need for organ donation, the concept of brain death and religious teachings related to these issues is vital for creating a conducive environment for the organ transplant co-ordinator or physician soliciting the donation. The education of hospital medical, nursing and administrative personnel is also essential to both miximise opportunities for donation, as well as to prevent loss of potential organs after donor consent. Other target populations are medical examiners or coroners, and police personnel under whose jurisdiction the donations occur, as their co-operation and guidance is necessary for meeting statutory requirements. The involvement of government officials and politicians is also valuable, as their active intervention is essential for the introduction and amendment of rules and laws to promote the donation and transplantation of organs. The present paper describes communication strategies for the development of an efficient education plan that will provide information about organ transplantation, explain the desired outcome, address potential queries, misconceptions or obstacles, and identify potential sources of support.

  11. Wolbachia infection reduces blood-feeding success in the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Turley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a "bendy" proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.

  12. Reduced Blood Coagulation on Roll-to-Roll, Shrink-Induced Superhydrophobic Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, Jolie M; Liedert, Ralph; Kim, Monica Y; Siddiqui, Ali; Chu, Michael; Lee, Eugene K; Khine, Michelle

    2016-03-09

    The unique antiwetting properties of superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces prevent the adhesion of water and bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva. While typical manufacturable approaches to create SH surfaces rely on chemical and structural modifications, such approaches are expensive, require postprocessing, and are often not biocompatible. By contrast, it is demonstrated that purely structural SH features are easily formed using high throughput roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing by shrinking a prestressed thermoplastic with a thin, stiff layer of silver and calcium. These features are subsequently embossed into any commercially available and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved plastic. The R2R SH surfaces have contact angles >150° and contact angle hysteresis 4200× reduction of blood residue area compared to the nonstructured controls of the same material. In addition, blood clotting is reduced >5× using whole blood directly from the patient. Furthermore, these surfaces can be easily configured into 3D shapes, as demonstrated with SH tubes. With the simple scale-up production and the eliminated need for anticoagulants to prevent clotting, the proposed conformable SH surfaces can be impactful for a wide range of medical tools, including catheters and microfluidic channels.

  13. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas’ disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which hav...

  14. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2003-01-01

    = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  15. Cerebral and blood correlates of reduced functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escamilla, Gabriel; Atienza, Mercedes; Garcia-Solis, David; Cantero, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that decreased functional connectivity in cortical networks precedes clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although our knowledge about cerebral and biological correlates of this phenomenon is limited. To shed light on this issue, we have investigated whether resting-state oscillatory connectivity patterns in healthy older (HO) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects are related to anatomical grey matter (GM) and functional (2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET) changes of neuroelectric sources of alpha rhythms, and/or to changes in plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ) and serum lipid levels, blood markers tied to AD pathogenesis and aging-related cognitive decline. We found that aMCI subjects showed decreased levels of cortical connectivity, reduced FDG-PET intake of the precuneus, and GM atrophy of the thalamus, together with higher levels of Aβ and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) compared to HO. Interestingly, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were positively correlated with the strength of neural-phase coupling in aMCI subjects, and increased triglycerides accompanied bilateral GM loss in the precuneus of aMCI subjects. Together, these findings provide peripheral blood correlates of reduced resting-state cortical connectivity in aMCI, supported by anatomo-functional changes in cerebral sources of alpha rhythms. This framework constitutes an integrated approach to assess functional changes in cortical networks through neuroimaging and peripheral blood markers during early stages of neurodegeneration.

  16. [Coordination and donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, J; Lorente, M

    2006-01-01

    The progressive incorporation of organ transplants as a therapeutic resource resulted in organisational adaptation and overall transplant management, leading to the emergence of the figure of the transplant coordinator in the mid-1980s. In Spain, the National Organisation of Transplants (Organización Nacional de Transplantes - ONT) was created, establishing a system - called the "Spanish model" - based on a network of coordinators at three levels: national, the autonomous community and the hospital. This organisational structure is a point of reference at the world level. The prevalence of the Intensive Medicine specialisation amongst hospital transplant coordinators is remarkable. The majority of organs proceed from brain-dead patients with beating hearts and this requires the infrastructure offered by intensive care units. The functions of the coordinator can be summarised in guaranteeing a synchrony of all the elements and teams that come together in an organisational chain that has come to be called the "process of donation". Schematically, the crucial points that the hospital coordinator develops are the following: - Detection of the potential donor. - Maintenance of the donor. - Diagnosis of brain death. - Family consent. - Preparation of the hospital logistics. - Helping the relatives. - Direct involvement in the Program of Guarantee of Quality. - Person of reference in any activity related to the transplant. It would be desirable to achieve the creation of transplant coordination teams, with univocal messages, professionalism and a permanent input of the so-called "human factor", which is so necessary and also so close to the transplant world.

  17. Confidentiality in gamete donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Yavari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, the third person intervention in human artificial insemination has created new hopes for infertile couples. However these new progresses have propounded new ethical and legal concerns for families. One of them is confidentiality regarding gamete donor's identity, and its disclosure to the future child and others. Of course, negligence to this ethical issue would produce a big barrier for efficient health care services."nFor compiling this article we searched different websites including Pubmed, Ovid, Elsevier, Google and etc and the resulting articles were investigated carefully. "nIn this article, the history of gamete donation in different countries is reviewed initially and the mentioned reasons for anonymity with that of disclosure are compared. "nBecause of the different cultures and values of various societies, it is not justifiable to propose a unique method regarding this issue; however, there have to be clear rules in this regard, in each country. In order to facilitate this process, pretreatment counseling courses should be established to explain different aspects of this issue for the recipients.

  18. Ethics Guide Recommendations for Organ-Donation-Focused Physicians: Endorsed by the Canadian Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.

  19. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão [Departamento de Educação Física - UFS, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  20. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8; sedentary diabetic (n = 8; and trained diabetic (n = 8. Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2% and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3% without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  1. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose–response trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, K; Frank, O R; Stocks, N P

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: Hypertension affects about 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic has blood pressure-lowering properties and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial assessed the effect, dose–response, tolerability and acceptability of different doses of aged garlic extract as an adjunct treatment to existing antihypertensive medication in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Subjects/methods: A total of 79 general practice patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension participated in a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose–response trial of 12 weeks. Participants were allocated to one of three garlic groups with either of one, two or four capsules daily of aged garlic extract (240/480/960 mg containing 0.6/1.2/2.4 mg of S-allylcysteine) or placebo. Blood pressure was assessed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks and compared with baseline using a mixed-model approach. Tolerability was monitored throughout the trial and acceptability was assessed at 12 weeks by questionnaire. Results: Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced by 11.8±5.4 mm Hg in the garlic-2-capsule group over 12 weeks compared with placebo (P=0.006), and reached borderline significant reduction in the garlic-4-capsule group at 8 weeks (−7.4±4.1 mm Hg, P=0.07). Changes in systolic blood pressure in the garlic-1-capsule group and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly different to placebo. Tolerability, compliance and acceptability were high in all garlic groups (93%) and highest in the groups taking one or two capsules daily. Conclusions: Our trial suggests aged garlic extract to be an effective and tolerable treatment in uncontrolled hypertension, and may be considered as a safe adjunct treatment to conventional antihypertensive therapy. PMID:23169470

  2. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, K; Frank, O R; Stocks, N P

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension affects about 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic has blood pressure-lowering properties and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial assessed the effect, dose-response, tolerability and acceptability of different doses of aged garlic extract as an adjunct treatment to existing antihypertensive medication in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. A total of 79 general practice patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension participated in a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose-response trial of 12 weeks. Participants were allocated to one of three garlic groups with either of one, two or four capsules daily of aged garlic extract (240/480/960 mg containing 0.6/1.2/2.4 mg of S-allylcysteine) or placebo. Blood pressure was assessed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks and compared with baseline using a mixed-model approach. Tolerability was monitored throughout the trial and acceptability was assessed at 12 weeks by questionnaire. Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced by 11.8±5.4 mm Hg in the garlic-2-capsule group over 12 weeks compared with placebo (P=0.006), and reached borderline significant reduction in the garlic-4-capsule group at 8 weeks (-7.4±4.1 mm Hg, P=0.07). Changes in systolic blood pressure in the garlic-1-capsule group and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly different to placebo. Tolerability, compliance and acceptability were high in all garlic groups (93%) and highest in the groups taking one or two capsules daily. Our trial suggests aged garlic extract to be an effective and tolerable treatment in uncontrolled hypertension, and may be considered as a safe adjunct treatment to conventional antihypertensive therapy.

  3. Therapeutic options to minimize allogeneic blood transfusions and their adverse effects in cardiac surgery: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Antônio Alceu; da Silva, José Pedro; da Silva, Luciana da Fonseca; Sousa,Alexandre Gonçalves de; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari; Baumgratz,José Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introdution Allogeneic blood is an exhaustible therapeutic resource. New evidence indicates that blood consumption is excessive and that donations have decreased, resulting in reduced blood supplies worldwide. Blood transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as higher hospital costs. This makes it necessary to seek out new treatment options. Such options exist but are still virtually unknown and are rarely utilized. Objective To gather and describe in a system...

  4. Excessive zinc intake increases systemic blood pressure and reduces renal blood flow via kidney angiotensin II in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Miyoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of excess zinc intake on the mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow (RBF), inulin clearance (IC), serum zinc level, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and kidney angiotensin II (AT II) levels in rats. Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained for 4 weeks on a diet containing either 5 mg/100 g (control group), 50 mg/100 g (Zn50 group), or 200 mg/100 g (Zn200 group) zinc carbonate. Serum zinc levels significantly increased to 126.5 % in the Zn50 group and 198.1 % in the Zn200 group compared with controls. MAP significantly increased to 107.8 % in the Zn50 group and 114.5 % in the Zn200 group again compared with controls. Although the difference in serum ACE activity was independent of the serum zinc levels, the kidney AT II levels increased significantly to 137.2 % in the Zn50 group and 174.4 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. RBF was decreased significantly to 74.4 % in the Zn50 group and 69.7 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. IC values were significantly decreased to 69.6 % in the Zn50 group and 52.7 % in the Zn200 group as compared with control levels. Combined together, these results show that excessive Zn intake reduced IC and RBF and increased MAP and kidney AT II levels, suggesting that excessive Zn intake reduces renal function.

  5. Alternative Living Kidney Donation Programs Boost Genetically Unrelated Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie A. Poldervaart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor-recipient ABO and/or HLA incompatibility used to lead to donor decline. Development of alternative transplantation programs enabled transplantation of incompatible couples. How did that influence couple characteristics? Between 2000 and 2014, 1232 living donor transplantations have been performed. In conventional and ABO-incompatible transplantation the willing donor becomes an actual donor for the intended recipient. In kidney-exchange and domino-donation the donor donates indirectly to the intended recipient. The relationship between the donor and intended recipient was studied. There were 935 conventional and 297 alternative program transplantations. There were 66 ABO-incompatible, 68 domino-paired, 62 kidney-exchange, and 104 altruistic donor transplantations. Waiting list recipients (n=101 were excluded as they did not bring a living donor. 1131 couples remained of whom 196 participated in alternative programs. Genetically unrelated donors (486 were primarily partners. Genetically related donors (645 were siblings, parents, children, and others. Compared to genetically related couples, almost three times as many genetically unrelated couples were incompatible and participated in alternative programs (P<0.001. 62% of couples were genetically related in the conventional donation program versus 32% in alternative programs (P<0.001. Patient and graft survival were not significantly different between recipient programs. Alternative donation programs increase the number of transplantations by enabling genetically unrelated donors to donate.

  6. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  7. Interventions to reduce wrong blood in tube errors in transfusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Susan; Watson, Douglas; Eyre, Toby A; Brunskill, Susan J; Dorée, Carolyn; Murphy, Michael F

    2013-10-01

    This systematic review addresses the issue of wrong blood in tube (WBIT). The objective was to identify interventions that have been implemented and the effectiveness of these interventions to reduce WBIT incidence in red blood cell transfusion. Eligible articles were identified through a comprehensive search of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, BNID, and the Transfusion Evidence Library to April 2013. Initial search criteria were wide including primary intervention or observational studies, case reports, expert opinion, and guidelines. There was no restriction by study type, language, or status. Publications before 1995, reviews or reports of a secondary nature, studies of sampling errors outwith transfusion, and articles involving animals were excluded. The primary outcome was a reduction in errors. Study characteristics, outcomes measured, and methodological quality were extracted by 2 authors independently. The principal method of analysis was descriptive. A total of 12,703 references were initially identified. Preliminary secondary screening by 2 reviewers reduced articles for detailed screening to 128 articles. Eleven articles were eventually identified as eligible, resulting in 9 independent studies being included in the review. The overall finding was that all the identified interventions reduced WBIT incidence. Five studies measured the effect of a single intervention, for example, changes to blood sample labeling, weekly feedback, handwritten transfusion requests, and an electronic transfusion system. Four studies reported multiple interventions including education, second check of ID at sampling, and confirmatory sampling. It was not clear which intervention was the most effective. Sustainability of the effectiveness of interventions was also unclear. Targeted interventions, either single or multiple, can lead to a reduction in WBIT; but the sustainability of effectiveness is uncertain. Data on the pre- and postimplementation of

  8. Mozart, but not the Beatles, reduces systolic blood pressure in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhlke, Luiza Carolina; Patrício, Marcelo Coelho; Moreira, Daniel Medeiros

    2015-12-01

    Music reduces systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) in various clinical situations, but it is unclear whether these changes occur in post-infarction patients. The aim is to evaluate the effects of music on patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated patients with MI and we measured SBP, DBP, HR and double product (DP) two times before the intervention and one time every fifteen minutes with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. We divided the patients into 3 groups: a group listening to music by Mozart; another listening to a Beatles collection and a third one listening to the radio news. Outcomes were the change in mean SBP, DBP, HR and DP with intervention. We enrolled 60 patients (20 in each group). SBP was significantly reduced in the Mozart group (variation of –7.2 ± 8.5 mmHg) compared to the Beatles group (–1.3 ± 6.2 mmHg) (P = 0.021) and the radio news group (0.6 ± 8.7 mmHg) (P = 0.003). DP was significantly reduced in the Mozart group compared with the News group (–668.5 ± 773.2 vs 31.6 ± 722.1 mmHg) (P = 0.006). There were no differences in DBP and HR. Patients with MI who listened Mozart had a reduction in SBP and DP compared to those who listened to the Beatles or the news.

  9. 血站降低不合格血液报废率的探讨%To investigate the unqualified blood scrap rate reduced blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚卢清

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACt: Objective: to analyze and evaluate the blood of unqualified blood scrap reason, summarize the reduce the unqualiifed blood scrap rate measures.Methods: retrospective analysis of 2013 January –2014 year in December my station of unqualiifed blood discarding, statistical unreasonable blood scrap rate.Results: ALT is a major project for blood unqualiifed, and plasma and red cell class class scrap rate high, decreased year by year. Conclusion: according to the blood bank blood discarding unreasonable, blood internal quality management should be strengthened, regulate the blood collection and supply behavior, thereby reducing the unqualiifed blood scrap rate, promote the healthy development ofChina’s cause of blood.%目的:分析和探讨血站不合格血液报废的原因,总结降低不合格血液报废率的措施。方法回顾性分析我站2013年1月—2014年12月不合格血液报废情况,统计不合理血液报废率。结果 ALT是血站血液不合格的主要项目,且血浆类与红细胞类报废率较高,呈逐年下降趋势。结论针对血站不合理血液报废情况,血站内部应加强质量管理,规范采供血行为,从而降低不合格血液报废率,促进我国血液事业健康发展。

  10. Reduced Numbers and Impaired Function of Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ruhnau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Regulatory T cells (Tregs have been suggested to modulate stroke-induced immune responses. However, analyses of Tregs in patients and in experimental stroke have yielded contradictory findings. We performed the current study to assess the regulation and function of Tregs in peripheral blood of stroke patients. Age dependent expression of CD39 on Tregs was quantified in mice and men. Methods. Total FoxP3+ Tregs and CD39+FoxP3+ Tregs were quantified by flow cytometry in controls and stroke patients on admission and on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 thereafter. Treg function was assessed by quantifying the inhibition of activation-induced expression of CD69 and CD154 on T effector cells (Teffs. Results. Total Tregs accounted for 5.0% of CD4+ T cells in controls and <2.8% in stroke patients on admission. They remained below control values until day 7. CD39+ Tregs were most strongly reduced in stroke patients. On day 3 the Treg-mediated inhibition of CD154 upregulation on CD4+ Teff was impaired in stroke patients. CD39 expression on Treg increased with age in peripheral blood of mice and men. Conclusion. We demonstrate a loss of active FoxP3+CD39+ Tregs from stroke patient’s peripheral blood. The suppressive Treg function of remaining Tregs is impaired after stroke.

  11. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G

    2002-03-15

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  12. Hepatic injury following reduced intensity unrelated cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Eiji; Kami, Masahiro; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Murashige, Naoko; Seki, Kunihiko; Fujiwara, Masayo; Koyama, Rikako; Komatsu, Tsunehiko; Hori, Akiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Yuji, Koichiro; Matsumura, Tomoko; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2006-12-01

    Liver injury is a common complication in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Its major causes comprise graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infection, and toxicities of preparative regimens and immunosuppressants; however, we have little information on liver injuries after reduced intensity cord blood transplantation (RICBT). We reviewed medical records of 104 recipients who underwent RICBT between March 2002 and May 2004 at Toranomon Hospital. Preparative regimen and GVHD prophylaxis comprised fludarabine/melphalan/total body irradiation and cyclosporine or tacrolimus. We assessed the etiology of liver injuries based on the clinical presentation, laboratory results, comorbid events, and imaging studies in 85 patients who achieved primary engraftment. The severity of liver dysfunction was assessed according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0. Hyperbilirubinemia was graded according to a report by Hogan et al (Blood. 2004;103:78-84). Moderate to very severe liver injuries were observed in 36 patients. Their causes included cholestatic liver disease (CLD) related to GVHD or sepsis (n = 15), GVHD (n = 7), cholangitis lenta (n = 5), and others (n = 9). Median onsets of CLD, GVHD, and cholangitis lenta were days 37, 40, and 22, respectively. Frequencies of grade 3-4 alanine aminotransferase elevation were comparable across the 3 types of hepatic injuries. Serum gamma-glutamil transpeptidase was not elevated in any patients with cholangitis lenta, whereas 27% and 40% of patients with CLD and GVHD, respectively, developed grade 3-4 gamma-glutamil transpeptidase elevation. Multivariate analysis identified 2 risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia; grade II-IV acute GVHD (relative risk, 2.23; 95% confidential interval, 1.11-4.47; P = .024) and blood stream infection (relative risk, 3.77; 95% confidential interval, 1.91-7.44; P = .00013). In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that the hepatic injuries are significant

  13. Nitroglycerin reduces augmentation index and central blood pressure independent of effects on cardiac preload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-min Liu; Xiao-lin Niu; Ben-yu Jiang; Mike Saddon; Karen McNeil; Philip Chowienczyk

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reduction In central pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by nitroglycerine (NTG) results from effects on pre-lead or is due to arterial dilation. Methods We compared effects of NTG with these of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Hemodyunmic measurements were made at rest, during LBNP (10, 20 and 30 mmHg, each for 15 min) and after NTG (10, 30 and 100μg/min, each dose for 15 min) in ten healthy volunteers. Cardiac pre-lead, stroke volume and cardiac output were assessed by echacardiography. Central pressure an mnentation and central systolic pressure were obtained by radial tonometry using a transfer function. Results LBNP (20 mmHg) and NTG (30μg/min) reduced pre-lead (as measured by the peak velocity of the S wave in the superior vena eava) to a similar degree [by (26. 8 ± 3.8) % and (23.9 ± 3. 4) %, respectively]. Compared to LBNP, NTG reduced systemic vascular resistance [by (32. 9 ± 7.5) %, p< 0. 01], decreased peripheral and central pressure augmentation [by (20. 8 ± 3. 4)% units and (12. 9±2. 9)% units, respectively, each P< 0. 01]. Conclusion These results suggest that a reduction in pre-load does not explain reduction in pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by NTG and that these effects are mediated through arterial dilation.

  14. DMSO Represses Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Blood Cells and Reduces Autoimmune Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisia, Ingrid; Nakamura, Hisae; Lam, Vivian; Hofs, Elyse; Cederberg, Rachel; Cait, Jessica; Hughes, Michael R.; Lee, Leora; Jia, William; Adomat, Hans H.; Guns, Emma S.; McNagny, Kelly M.; Samudio, Ismael; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is currently used as an alternative treatment for various inflammatory conditions as well as for cancer. Despite its widespread use, there is a paucity of data regarding its safety and efficacy as well as its mechanism of action in human cells. Herein, we demonstrate that DMSO has ex-vivo anti-inflammatory activity using Escherichia coli- (E. coli) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-stimulated whole human blood. Specifically, we found that between 0.5%– 2%, DMSO significantly suppressed the expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, a significant reduction in monocyte viability was also observed at 2% DMSO, suggesting a narrow window of efficacy. Anti-inflammatory concentrations of DMSO suppressed E. coli-induced ERK1/2, p38, JNK and Akt phosphorylation, suggesting DMSO acts on these signaling pathways to suppress inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production. Although DMSO induces the differentiation of B16/F10 melanoma cells in vitro, topical administration of DMSO to mice subcutaneously implanted with B16 melanoma cells was ineffective at reducing tumor growth, DMSO was also found to block mouse macrophages from polarizing to either an M1- or an M2-phenotype, which may contribute to its inability to slow tumor growth. Topical administration of DMSO, however, significantly mitigated K/BxN serum-induced arthritis in mice, and this was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the joints and white blood cell levels in the blood. Thus, while we cannot confirm the efficacy of DMSO as an anti-cancer agent, the use of DMSO in arthritis warrants further investigation to ascertain its therapeutic potential. PMID:27031833

  15. Description of a new non-injectable connector to reduce the complications of arterial blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyaselvam, M Z; Heij, R E; Laba, D; Richardson, J A; Hodges, E J; Maduakor, C A; Carter, J J; Young, P J

    2015-01-01

    Arterial cannulation is associated with complications including bacterial contamination, accidental intra-arterial injection and blood spillage. We performed a series of audits and experiments to gauge the potential for these, as well as assess the possible contribution of a new device, the Needle-Free Arterial Non-Injectable Connector (NIC), in reducing these risks. The NIC comprises a needle-free connector that prevents blood spillage and a one-way valve allowing aspiration only; once screwed onto the side port of a three-way tap, the device can only be removed with difficulty. We performed a clinical audit of arterial monitoring systems in our intensive care unit, which showed an incidence of bacterial colonisation of five in 86 (6%) three-way tap ports. We constructed a manikin simulation experiment of the management of acute bradycardia, in which trainee doctors were required to inject atropine intravenously. Ten of 15 (66%) doctors injected the drug into the three-way tap of the arterial monitoring system rather than into the intravenous cannula or the central venous catheter. In a laboratory study, we replicated the arterial blood sampling and flushing sequence from a three-way tap, with the syringes attached either directly to the three-way tap port or to a NIC attached to the port. The first (discard) syringe attached to the three-way tap was contaminated with bacteria. Bacterial growth was found in 17 of 20 (85%) downstream flushed samples (corresponding to the patient's circulation) when the three-way tap was accessed directly, compared to none of 20 accessed via the NIC (p contaminating sampling lines. As its design also prevents accidental intra-arterial injection, we suggest that it can reduce complications of arterial monitoring. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Telmisartan exerts sustained blood pressure control and reduces blood pressure variability in metabolic syndrome by inhibiting sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueta, Daisuke; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Hasegawa, Yu; Toyama, Kensuke; Uekawa, Ken; Katayama, Tetsuji; Ma, MingJie; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence on blood pressure (BP) reduction with various angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) show that the magnitudes and durations of BP control differ across ARBs. However, the mechanism of ARBs is unknown. This work was undertaken to compare telmisartan and valsartan in duration of BP control, BP variability, and effects on the autonomic nervous system. Using radiotelemetry combined with spectral analysis with a fast Fourier transformation algorithm, we compared the effects of various doses of telmisartan and valsartan on BP and its variability during dark (active phase) and light (inactive phase) periods over 5 weeks in SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+)(SHRcp) rats, a model of metabolic syndrome. We also compared the effects of these ARBs on autonomic nervous system, central oxidative stress, and inflammation in SHRcp rats. Telmisartan exerted a longer-lasting BP-lowering effect and greater attenuation of BP variability in SHRcp than valsartan. Telmisartan decreased low frequency power of systolic BP and increased spontaneous baroreflex gain in SHRcp during both the dark and light periods more than valsartan. Telmisartan reduced 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion more than valsartan. Furthermore, telmisartan attenuated oxidative stress and the numbers of gp91(phox)-positive cells and activated microglia and astrocytes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of SHRcp rats more than valsartan. The superiority of telmisartan over valsartan in sustained BP control and reduction of BP variability was attributed to more suppression of sympathetic activity and more improvement of baroreceptor reflex. The greater suppression of sympathetic activity by telmisartan appeared to be partially mediated by a stronger amelioration of central oxidative stress. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mass media, online social network, and organ donation: old mistakes and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing the usage of autologous blood transfusion with homologous blood transfusion in spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Hamdan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Autologous Blood Transfusion (ABT is the safest type of blood transfusion for the operator and the patient. The preoperative donation technique had already been reduced the homologous blood requirements successfully. Homologous Blood Transfusion (HBT brings more risks in complications such as transmission of diseases, anaphylactic reactions, haemolitic reactions etc. This was a parallel study, comparing one group receiving ABT and a second group receiving HBT where in both groups were performed spine surgery. The parameter used was the hemoglobin(Hb and hematocrit(Ht content preoperatively (after donation of ABT and after transfusion, total days in hospitalization after surgery. Another purpose of this study was also to achieve understandings in using ABT by considering the total patients who finally required additional HBT. There were 74 patients with diagnosis of spine fracture, tuberculous spondylitis, scoliosis, spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis. In the ABT group the average age was 33,9 ± 14 years old and the HBT group was 29,1 ± 11,5 years old. Both groups consisted of 21 males and 16 females. Body weight of the ABT group was 55,3 ± 11,1 kg and the HBT group 52,8 ± 9,7 kg. Amount of donations preoperatively in ABT was 798,6 ± 170 cc. There were 12 patients (32,4% where the donated blood amount preoperatively did not match up the requests. There were eight patients (21,6% in the ABT group that required additional HBT of about 550 cc. Three patients (8,1% of the ABT group received transfusion that did not match the indications (blood loss < 15% of the total blood volume. The Hb and Ht content preoperatively (after donation of the ABT group significantly was less than the HBT group (p= 0,001. Hb content after transfusion in the ABT group was not significantly less than the HBT group (p = 0,30. Hospitalization days after surgery were significantly higher in the HBT group (p = 0,000. In conclusions : there was 21,6% of the ABT group

  19. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home Site Map Company Links Newsroom Careers Donation FAQs Over 120,000 people need organ transplants ... MTF encourages you to learn the facts about donation, to make a personal choice and to discuss ...

  20. Proposal for the Donation of Equipment

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN has been requested by the Japanese High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) to donate the UA1 Magnet for use within the T2K Experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to approve this donation.

  1. Acute aerobic exercise reduces 24-h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel G. Ciolac

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even with anti-hypertensive therapy, it is difficult to maintain optimal systemic blood pressure values in hypertensive patients. Exercise may reduce blood pressure in untreated hypertensive, but its effect when combined with long-term anti-hypertensive therapy remains unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the acute effects of a single session of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure of long-term-treated hypertensive patients. METHODS: Fifty treated hypertensive patients (18/32 male/female; 46.5±8.2 years; Body mass index: 27.8±4.7 kg/m² were monitored for 24 h with respect to ambulatory (A blood pressure after an aerobic exercise session (post-exercise and a control period (control in random order. Aerobic exercise consisted of 40 minutes on a cycle-ergometer, with the mean exercise intensity at 60% of the patient's reserve heart rate. RESULTS: Post-exercise ambulatory blood pressure was reduced for 24 h systolic (126±8.6 vs. 123.1±8.7 mmHg, p=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (81.9±8 vs. 79.8±8.5 mmHg, p=0.004, daytime diastolic blood pressure (85.5±8.5 vs. 83.9±8.8 mmHg, p=0.04, and nighttime S (116.8±9.9 vs. 112.5±9.2 mmHg, p<0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (73.5±8.8 vs. 70.1±8.4 mmHg, p<0.001. Post-exercise daytime systolic blood pressure also tended to be reduced (129.8±9.3 vs. 127.8±9.4 mmHg, p=0.06. These post-exercise decreases in ambulatory blood pressure increased the percentage of patients displaying normal 24h systolic blood pressure (58% vs. 76%, p=0.007, daytime systolic blood pressure (68% vs. 82%, p=0.02, and nighttime diastolic blood pressure (56% vs. 72%, p=0.02. Nighttime systolic blood pressure also tended to increase (58% vs. 80%, p=0.058. CONCLUSION: A single bout of aerobic exercise reduced 24h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients and increased the percentage of patients reaching normal ambulatory blood pressure values. These effects suggest that

  2. A reduced gastric corpus microvascular blood flow during Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy detected by laser speckle contrast imaging technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Rikard; Svendsen, Lars B; Secher, Niels H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced microvascular blood flow is related to anastomotic insufficiency following esophagectomy, emphasizing a need for intraoperative monitoring of the microcirculation. This study evaluated if laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) was able to detect intraoperative changes in gastric...

  3. Detrimental effects of perioperative blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of infectious complications after major surgery and of cancer recurrence after curative operation. This has been attributed to immunosuppression. Several authors have suggested that filtered whole blood and/or red...... cell concentrate, or leucocyte- and buffy coat-reduced red cells in artificial medium or their own plasma, may reduce postoperative immunosuppression. It was also anticipated that the use of autologous blood might minimize the risk of perioperative transfusion, but studies have unexpectedly shown...... similar postoperative infectious complications and cancer recurrence and/or survival rates in patients receiving autologous blood donated before operation and those receiving allogeneic blood. Future studies should identify common risk factors associated with blood storage....

  4. Detrimental effects of perioperative blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of infectious complications after major surgery and of cancer recurrence after curative operation. This has been attributed to immunosuppression. Several authors have suggested that filtered whole blood and/or red...... similar postoperative infectious complications and cancer recurrence and/or survival rates in patients receiving autologous blood donated before operation and those receiving allogeneic blood. Future studies should identify common risk factors associated with blood storage....... cell concentrate, or leucocyte- and buffy coat-reduced red cells in artificial medium or their own plasma, may reduce postoperative immunosuppression. It was also anticipated that the use of autologous blood might minimize the risk of perioperative transfusion, but studies have unexpectedly shown...

  5. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors : The development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriet; Hooghof, ChristinaW.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Dam, Ruth E.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Berendsen, Elsbeth C. M.; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J. A.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Evers, Andrea W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This

  6. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirken, L.; Middendorp, H. van; Hooghof, C.W.; Sanders, J.F.; Dam, R.E.; Pant, K. van der; Berendsen, E.C.M.; Wellink, H.; Dackus, H.J.A.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Evers, A.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background.: Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This

  7. Gastrodin Reduces Blood Pressure by Intervening with RAAS and PPARγ in SHRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrodin is a bioactive compound extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, Gastrodia elata  Bl. It has a definite effect on reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients. However, the mechanisms of gastrodin in lowering blood pressure still remain unclear. In this study, 4 weeks of administration of gastrodin (100 mg/kg/d intraperitoneally injected decreased the systolic blood pressure (SBP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs (190.2±8.9 versus 169.8±6.4, P<0.01. Among SHRs receiving gastrodin treatment, angiotensin II (Ang II and aldosterone (ALD in serum were significantly decreased (2022.1±53.0 versus 1528.7±93.9, 213.33±35.17 versus 179.65±20.31, and P<0.01, P<0.05, resp. and dramatically downregulated expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R (4.9±0.9 versus 2.6±0.9, P<0.05 in myocardium in both mRNA and protein levels compared with their corresponding groups without gastrodin treatment. Additionally, gastrodin increased the mRNA expression (0.18±0.07 versus 0.82±0.10, P<0.01 and protein synthesis (0.40±0.10 versus 0.34±0.10, P<0.01 of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ in myocardium tissues. Overall, our data demonstrated that gastrodin was able to decrease the SBP in SHR. Furthermore, this study showed that gastrodin intervened with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS and PPARγ effectively, which indicates its antihypertensive mechanism.

  8. (−)-Epicatechin Prevents Blood Pressure Increase and Reduces Locomotor Hyperactivity in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenyiova, A.; Drobna, M.; Lukac, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of subchronic (−)-epicatechin (Epi) treatment on locomotor activity and hypertension development in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Epi was administered in drinking water (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Epi significantly prevented the development of hypertension (138 ± 2 versus 169 ± 5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and reduced total distance traveled in the open-field test (22 ± 2 versus 35 ± 4 m, p < 0.01). In blood, Epi significantly enhanced erythrocyte deformability, increased total antioxidant capacity, and decreased nitrotyrosine concentration. In the aorta, Epi significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity and elevated the NO-dependent vasorelaxation. In the left heart ventricle, Epi increased NOS activity without altering gene expressions of nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS. Moreover, Epi reduced superoxide production in the left heart ventricle and the aorta. In the brain, Epi increased nNOS gene expression (in the brainstem and cerebellum) and eNOS expression (in the cerebellum) but had no effect on overall NOS activity. In conclusion, Epi prevented the development of hypertension and reduced locomotor hyperactivity in young SHR. These effects resulted from improved cardiovascular NO bioavailability concurrently with increased erythrocyte deformability, without changes in NO production in the brain. PMID:27885334

  9. Reduced pCREB in Alzheimer's disease prefrontal cortex is reflected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, N; Bennett, D A; Lazarov, O

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has a critical role in the formation of memories. CREB signaling is dysfunctional in the brains of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and evidence suggests that CREB signaling may be disrupted in human AD brains as well. Here, we show that both CREB and its activated form pCREB-Ser133 (pCREB) are reduced in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients. Similarly, the transcription cofactors CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are reduced in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients, indicating additional dysfunction of CREB signaling in AD. Importantly, we show that pCREB expression is reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of AD subjects. In addition, pCREB levels in PBMC positively correlated with pCREB expression in the postmortem brain of persons with AD. These results suggest that pCREB expression in PBMC may be indicative of its expression in the brain, and thus offers the intriguing possibility of pCREB as a biomarker of cognitive function and disease progression in AD. PMID:27480489

  10. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  11. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  12. Evaluation of Factors Limiting Corneal Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Yoeruek, Efdal; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Tobias

    2016-11-15

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate factors limiting corneal donation at the University Hospital Tübingen. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively studied all hospital deaths from January 2012 to December 2015, considering each deceased patient as a potential corneal donor. During this period an ophthalmic resident managed corneal donor procurement on a full-time basis. Various factors limiting corneal donation were examined. RESULTS Among the 3412 deaths, 2937 (86.1%) displayed nonfulfillment of corneal donation. Consent for corneal donation was obtained in 475 cases (13.9%). The mean annual corneal donation rate was 13.9 donors per 100 deaths (range: 11.2-17.8). The leading causes of nonfulfillment of corneal donations were refusal to donate (49.8%, 1698 cases) and medical contraindications (23.6%, 805 cases). After next-of-kin interview of 2173 potential donors (109 potential donors were excluded because of logistical problems), willingness to participate in corneal donation was present in 475 cases (21.9%), whereas in 1698 cases (78.1%) corneal donation was refused. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed refusal to donate is the most important factor limiting corneal donation. It seems that increasing the knowledge of people about corneal donation through public education and media are necessary to address the corneal shortage.

  13. Donations: how to ensure you really benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate donated equipment or consumables can help to achieve the goals of VISION 2020. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO Guidelines on Healthcare Equipment Donation (2000, an estimated 70% or more of donated medical equipment is not being used.

  14. Molecular matching for Rh and K reduces red blood cell alloimmunisation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelsin, Gláucia A.S.; Rodrigues, Camila; Visentainer, Jeane E.L.; de Melo Campos, Paula; Traina, Fabíola; Gilli, Simone C.O.; Saad, Sara T.O.; Castilho, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Background Matching for Rh and K antigens has been used in an attempt to reduce antibody formation in patients receiving chronic transfusions but an extended phenotype matching including Fya and Jka antigens has also been recommended. The aim of this study was to identify an efficient transfusion protocol of genotype matching for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We also examined a possible association of HLA class II alleles with red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation. Materials and methods We evaluated 43 patients with MDS undergoing transfusion therapy with and without antibody formation. We investigated antigen-matched RBC units for ABO, D, C, c, E, e, K, Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, S, s, Doa, Dob and Dia on the patients’ samples and on the donor units serologically matched for them based on their ABO, Rh and K phenotypes and presence of antibodies. We also determined the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 alleles in the alloimmunised and non-alloimmunised patients. Results Seventeen of the 43 patients had discrepancies or mismatches for multiple antigens between their genotype-predicted profile and the antigen profile of the units of blood serologically matched for them. We verified that 36.8% of patients had more than one RBC alloantibody and 10.5% of patients had autoantibodies. Although we were able to find a better match for the patients in our extended genotyped/phenotyped units, we verified that matching for Rh and K would be sufficient for most of the patients. We also observed an over-representation of the HLA-DRB1*13 allele in the non-alloimmunised group of patients with MDS. Discussion In our population molecular matching for C, c, E, e, K was able to reduce RBC alloimmunisation in MDS patients. An association of HLA-DRB1*13 and protection from RBC alloimmunisation should be confirmed. PMID:24960644

  15. Does yoga therapy reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension?: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonta, Nkechi Rose

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present a evidence-based integrative research review that validates yoga therapy as an effective complementary treatment in the management of high blood pressure (BP). The article also uses the theoretical framework of Dr Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome. Yoga researchers demonstrate that yoga works because it modulates the physiological system of the body, specifically its effect on the heart rate. This review is significant because yoga presents an effective method of treating hypertension that is nonpharmacologic and therefore there are no adverse effects and there are other valuable health benefits. Research suggests that stress is a contributing factor to high BP; hence, the use of the general adaptation syndrome and the most important attribute of yoga, that is, it is a physical and mental exercise program, that is in sync with the philosophy of holistic nursing care where one treats the whole individual and not just the disease. The review was conducted with a search of computerized databases such as OVID, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic edition, PsychINFO, as well as reliable Web sites such as the cdc.gov, among others. An integrative review search was conducted, and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. They include a combination of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and pilot studies. Yoga therapy is a multifunctional exercise modality with numerous benefits. Not only does yoga reduce high BP but it has also been demonstrated to effectively reduce blood glucose level, cholesterol level, and body weight, major problems affecting the American society. The completed integrative review provides guidelines for nursing implementation as a complementary treatment of high BP. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  16. Fatores associados à aptidão clínica para a doação de sangue: determinantes demográficos e socioeconômicos Factors associated to clinical aptness for blood donation: demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Brener

    2008-04-01

    technological advances and increasing demand for blood transfusions. However, despite investment to increase the number of blood donors, there is a chronic shortage of blood. The aim of this study was to compare demographic and social-economic characteristics comparing individuals that were considered eligible with temporarily and permanent non-eligible blood donors. A case-comparison study was carried out at the Blood Donation Center (Hemocentro of Belo Horizonte from a survey involving 3,527 candidates for blood donation. Comparisons stratified by gender were made for all characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to verify the association between the variables and eligibility for blood donation. Candidates for blood donation were similar according to the socio-economic level and dissimilar according to gender, age and type of donation. For both genders, the following characteristics were statistically associated in respect to eligibility for blood donation: to be young (18 to 29 years, to have a stable relationship and employment and not to own an automobile. For men, the presence of less than two people per bedroom of their residence was also statistically significant. Distinct demographic and social-economic profiles were identified in relation to gender and eligibility category. Similar profiles were found between temporarily non-eligible and eligible candidates, especially among women. Therefore, adopting multiple strategies in blood donor recruitment is justified in order to make contact with the different groups.

  17. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  18. Graft failure following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation for adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kami, Masahiro; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Murashige, Naoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Hamaki, Tamae; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Kusumi, Eiji; Kishi, Yukiko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Wake, Atsushi; Morinaga, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the medical records of 123 adult reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation (RI-CBT) recipients to investigate the clinical features of graft failure after RI-CBT. Nine (7.3%) had graft failure, and were classified as graft rejection rather than primary graft failure; they showed peripheral cytopenia with complete loss of donor-type haematopoiesis, implying destruction of donor cells by immunological mechanisms rather than poor graft function. Three of them died of bacterial or fungal infection during neutropenia. Two recovered autologous haematopoiesis. The remaining four patients underwent a second RI-CBT and developed severe regimen-related toxicities. One died of pneumonia on day 8, and the other three achieved engraftment. Two of them died of transplant-related mortality, and the other survived without disease progression for 9.0 months after the second RI-CBT. In total, seven of the nine patients with graft failure died. The median survival of those with graft failure was 3.8 months (range, 0.9-15.4). Graft failure is a serious complication of RI-CBT. As host T cells cannot completely be eliminated by reduced-intensity preparative regimens, we need to be aware of the difficulty in differentiating graft rejection from other causes of graft failure following RI-CBT. Further studies are warranted to establish optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies.

  19. Reduced serotonin synthesis and regional cerebral blood flow after anxiolytic treatment of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andreas; Åhs, Fredrik; Appel, Lieuwe; Jonasson, My; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Bani, Massimo; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Bettica, Paolo; Långström, Bengt; Lubberink, Mark; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas

    2016-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with increased fear-related neural activity in the amygdala and we recently found enhanced serotonin synthesis rate in the same region. Anxiolytic agents like selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists reduce amygdala activity and may attenuate serotonin formation according to animal studies. Here, we examined the effects of SSRI pharmacotherapy, NK1R antagonism, and placebo on serotonin synthesis rate in relation to neural activity, measured as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and symptom improvement in SAD. Eighteen SAD patients were randomized to receive daily double-blind treatment for six weeks either with the SSRI citalopram (n=6; 40mg), the NK1R antagonist GR205171 (n=6; 5mg; 4 weeks following 2 weeks of placebo), or placebo (n=6). Serotonin synthesis rate at rest and rCBF during stressful public speaking were assessed, before and after treatment, using positron emission tomography with the tracers [(11)C]5-hydroxytryptophan and [(15)O]water respectively. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) indexed symptom severity. All groups exhibited attenuated amygdala serotonin synthesis rate after treatment, which was associated with reduced amygdala rCBF during public speaking and accompanied by symptom improvement. These results are consistent with the notion that serotonin in the amygdala exerts an anxiogenic influence and, conversely, that anxiolysis is achieved through decreased serotonin formation in the amygdala.

  20. Body donation in India: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Rokade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of anatomy is inseparable from cadaveric dissection. However scarcity of cadavers is felt all over the world. Body donation is the preferred and major source of cadavers worldwide. It is defined as an informed and free act of giving one’s whole body after death for medical education and research. This article gives a brief review of history of body donation. It reveals the details about who can donate and who can accept the body along with procedure followed to donate body in India. It discusses the donors’ attitude behind body donation and factors preventing people from body donation. It deals with approach of various religions towards body donation. It discusses some important ways to overcome the scarcity of bodies in India and the world. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 173-177

  1. Endothelin-receptor antagonist can reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenming; Cheng, Genyang; Li, Bin; Li, Yansheng; Lu, Shan; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness and safety of endothelin-receptor antagonist (ERA) in the patients with hypertension. Searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were conducted to include all the randomized control trials (RCTs). Eighteen trials including 4898 patients were used in the meta-analysis, of which nine were classified as low risk of bias and the other nine as unclear risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference in all-cause mortality between ERA and placebo groups [6 trials, fixed effects model, RR 1.53 (0.89-2.62); random effects model, RR 1.45 (0.84-2.52)]. ERA significantly reduced 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and sitting blood pressure in patients with hypertension [5 trials, 24-h SBP: WMD -7.65 (-8.95 to -6.36), 24-h DBP: WMD -5.92 (-7.50 to -4.33); 18 trials, SBP: WMD -6.12 (-7.87 to -4.36), DBP: WMD -3.81 (-4.82 to -2.80)]. However, ERA had more adverse events [within 24 h: 3 trials, RR 1.16 (0.82-1.65); after 24 h, 13 trials, RR 1.21 (1.08-1.36)] and severe adverse events than placebo controls [SAE: 9 trials, RR 1.34 (1.13-1.60)]. In addition, there is a potential need for further RCTs that focus on the use of ERA in patients with hypertension.

  2. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  3. The Latin American population in Spain and organ donation. Attitude toward deceased organ donation and organ donation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; López-Navas, Ana I; Navalón, Juan C; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ayala-García, Marco A; Sebastián-Ruiz, María J; Moya-Faz, Francisco; Garrido, Gregorio; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-04-01

    The Latin American (LA) population has similarities with the Spanish population which makes its integration into Spanish society easier. to analyze the attitude toward organ donation among Latin American citizens residing in Spain, to determine the psychosocial variables which affect this attitude, and to examine the correlation between donation rates of LA citizens in Spain and in their countries of origin. A random sample of LA residents in Spain was taken and stratified according to the respondent's nationality (n = 1.314), in the year 2010. Attitude was assessed using a validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO Dr Rios). The survey was self-administered and completed anonymously. Student's t-test, the χ(2) test, and logistic regression analysis. There was a 94% completion rate (n = 1.237). Attitude toward donation was favorable in 60% of cases (n = 745), 12% (n = 145) were against, and 28% (n = 347) were undecided. The following variables were associated with attitude toward donation: sex (P = 0.038), level of formal education (P donation of a family member's organs (P donation with the family (P organ donation and transplantation process (P donation (P organ donation and transplantation (P organ donation (P donation rates in this population group in Spain are higher than those recorded in their countries of origin (55.76 vs. organ donation among LA citizens residing in Spain is slightly worse than that reported in the native Spanish population and is determined by many psychosocial factors. The donation rates of LA citizens in Spain are higher than those in their countries of origin. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. Autologous blood collection in anemic patients using low-dose erythropoietin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, L S; Bechinski, J; Jones, M J

    1997-06-01

    Autologous donation of blood for use during elective surgery is being recommended and used more frequently. Autologous donation and transfusion represent the safest way to handle elective surgical blood requirements because they eliminate the risk of transfusion-transmitted disease and alloimmunization, and significantly reduce the other risks associated with homologous transfusion. Many individuals, particularly women and the elderly, do not have sufficient initial hemoglobin concentration or hemopoietic reserve to effectively use autologous donation. Use of standard-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) (600 units/kg) to mitigate these limitations is costly. The optimal dose, interval, and route of administration for rHuEPO therapy has yet to be perfected. This article describes a program using low-dose (effectiveness, cost savings, and clinical indications for the use of low-dose rHuEPO.

  5. The effect of education on the attitude of medical students towards organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, Sonia; Juntermanns, Benjamin; Heuer, Matthias; Frühauf, Nils R; Paul, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot M

    2012-01-01

    The persisting shortage of organs for transplantation could be reduced by increasing the willingness to donate organs. An appropriate education and a positive attitude of medical students and future physicians towards organ donation may have a positive impact on the attitudes of the general public. During the summer semester 2010 we conducted a voluntary educational intervention study concerning organ donation among medical students in the course of the main surgery lecture at the University of Essen, Germany. The survey comprised 94 questionnaires. At the beginning of the lecture there were 67% of organ donor card carriers among the students. An additional 20% imagined they might carry an organ donor card in the future. 37% needed more information regarding organ donation. After the lecture 13% were still not willing to carry an organ donor card in the future. 18% of the students required further information. 42% of the students rated their attitude towards organ donation to be influenced positively by the lecture, 57% of the students stated there was no influence. One student documented a negative influence by the lecture towards organ donation. Well-directed interventions are needed to sensitize young adults to the topic of organ donation. Better understanding of medical students and future physicians in the field of organ donation will help them to become disseminators for this important topic in our society.

  6. Vitamin D therapy to reduce blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in resistant hypertension: randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Miles D; Ireland, Sheila; Houston, J Graeme; Gandy, Stephen J; Waugh, Shelley; Macdonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S; Struthers, Allan D

    2014-04-01

    Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with higher prevalent blood pressure. We tested whether high-dose intermittent oral vitamin D therapy could reduce blood pressure and left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension resistant to conventional treatment. We conducted a parallel-group, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Patients with supine office blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensive agents received 100 000 U oral vitamin D3 or matching placebo every 2 months. Office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol were measured at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months; left ventricular mass index was measured by cardiac MRI on a subgroup at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome was mean 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure at 6 months. A total of 68 participants were randomized, 34 in each group. Mean age was 63 (SD 11) years, mean baseline office blood pressure was 154/84 (13/10) mm Hg, and mean baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 42 (16) nmol/L. Treatment with vitamin D did not reduce 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (adjusted treatment effects: systolic, +3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -4 to +11; P=0.33; diastolic, -2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -6 to +2; P=0.29); similar results were seen for office blood pressure. Left ventricular mass index was measured in a subgroup (n=25); no reduction was seen with vitamin D treatment (adjusted treatment effect, +4 g/m(2); 95% confidence interval, 0 to +7; P=0.04). There was no significant change in cholesterol or glucose levels. Thus, 6 months of intermittent, high-dose oral vitamin D3 did not reduce blood pressure or left ventricular mass in patients with resistant hypertension.

  7. Another donation of computer equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  8. [The contribution of persuasion social psychology to the retention of donors: the impact of labelling the previous donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callé, N; Plainfossé, C; Georget, P; Sénémeaud, C; Rasonglès, P

    2011-12-01

    The supply of blood cell products requires from the National French Blood Institute (Établissement Français du Sang - EFS) to rely upon regular blood donors. Contact with donors, tailored to individuals as much as possible, helps them to donate on a regular basis. Within the context of a research program conducted with the Psychology Department of the Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, persuasive theoretical models from social psychology have been tested. These models allow adapting messages according to the motivation of donors. The content is centred on the previous donation, differently labelled according to two types of labelling: functional labelling and social labelling. Functional labelling points out the efficiency of what "has been done" (the previous blood donation), whereas social labelling emphasizes the social value of the individual. Different types of mailing invitations have been sent to 1917 donors from the Normandy database, invited to three different blood collections. Every experimental letter worked better than the standard EFS letter (which was used as the "control" letter) in terms of effective blood donation after reception of the letter. Some of the letters are more efficient in motivating donors than other ones. The letters labelling the previous blood donation as functional (efficiency of the donation) appeared more efficient than those with social label (social value) in whichever motivation induced.

  9. Double umbilical cord blood transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning and sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, C; Stevenson, K; Kim, H T; Brown, J; McDonough, S; Herrera, M; Reynolds, C; Liney, D; Kao, G; Ho, V; Armand, P; Koreth, J; Alyea, E; Dey, B R; Attar, E; Spitzer, T; Boussiotis, V A; Ritz, J; Soiffer, R; Antin, J H; Ballen, K

    2011-05-01

    The main limitations to umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation (UCBT) in adults are delayed engraftment, poor immunological reconstitution and high rates of non-relapse mortality (NRM). Double UCBT (DUCBT) has been used to circumvent the issue of low cell dose, but acute GVHD remains a significant problem. We describe our experience in 32 subjects, who underwent DUCBT after reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine/melphalan/antithymocyte globulin and who received sirolimus and tacrolimus to prevent acute GVHD. Engraftment of neutrophils occurred in all patients at a median of 21 days, and platelet engraftment occurred at a median of 42 days. Three subjects had grade II-IV acute GVHD (9.4%) and chronic GVHD occurred in four subjects (cumulative incidence 12.5%). No deaths were caused by GVHD and NRM at 100 days was 12.5%. At 2 years, NRM, PFS and OS were 34.4, 31.2 and 53.1%, respectively. As expected, immunologic reconstitution was slow, but PFS and OS were associated with reconstitution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte subsets, suggesting that recovery of adaptive immunity is required for the prevention of infection and relapse after transplantation. In summary, sirolimus and tacrolimus provide excellent GVHD prophylaxis in DUCBT, and this regimen is associated with low NRM after DUCBT.

  10. Cytomegalovirus infections following umbilical cord blood transplantation using reduced intensity conditioning regimens for adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tomoko; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kami, Masahiro; Yuji, Koichiro; Kusumi, Eiji; Hori, Akiko; Murashige, Naoko; Tanaka, Yuji; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2007-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT); however, we have little information on the clinical features of CMV reactivation after cord blood transplantation using reduced-intensity regimens (RI-CBT) for adults. We reviewed medical records of 140 patients who underwent RI-CBT at Toranomon Hospital between January 2002 and March 2005. All the patients were monitored for CMV-antigenemia weekly, and, if turned positive, received preemptive foscarnet or ganciclovir. Seventy-seven patients developed positive antigenemia at a median onset of day 35 (range, 4-92) after transplant. Median of the maximal number of CMV pp65-positive cells per 50,000 cells was 22 (range, 1-1806). CMV disease developed in 22 patients on a median of day 35 (range, 15-106); 21 had enterocolitis and 1 had adrenalitis. CMV antigenemia had not been detected in 2 patients, when CMV disease was diagnosed. CMV disease was successfully treated using ganciclovir or foscarnet in 14 patients. The other 8 patients died without improvement of CMV disease. In multivariate analysis, grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was a risk factor of CMV disease (relative risk 3.48, 95% confidential interval 1.47-8.23). CMV reactivation and disease develop early after RI-CBT. CMV enterocolitis may be a common complication after RI-CBT.

  11. Invasive fungal infection following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kusumi, Eiji; Matsumura, Tomoko; Hori, Akiko; Murashige, Naoko; Hamaki, Tamae; Yuji, Koichiro; Uchida, Naoyuki; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Kami, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yuji; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2007-07-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a significant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, we have little information on its clinical features after reduced intensity cord blood transplantation (RICBT) for adults. We reviewed medical records of 128 patients who underwent RICBT at Toranomon Hospital between March 2002 and November 2005. Most of the patients received purine-analogbased preparative regimens. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was a continuous infusion of either tacrolimus 0.03 mg/kg or cyclosporine 3 mg/kg. IFI was diagnosed according to the established EORTC/NIH-MSG criteria. IFI was diagnosed in 14 patients. Thirteen of the 14 had probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and the other had fungemia resulting from Trichosporon spp. Median onset of IFI was day 20 (range: 1-82), and no patients developed IFI after day 100. Three-year cumulative incidence of IA was 10.2%. Four of the 13 patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) developed grade II-IV acute GVHD, and their IA was diagnosed before the onset of acute GVHD. The mortality rate of IFI was 86%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the use of prednisolone >0.2 mg/kg (relative risk 7.97, 95% confidence interval 2.24-28.4, P = .0014) was a significant risk factor for IA. This study suggests that IFI is an important cause of deaths after RICBT, and effective strategies are warranted to prevent IFI.

  12. Intestinal thrombotic microangiopathy following reduced-intensity umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, H; Kami, M; Hara, S; Matsumura, T; Miyakoshi, S; Kusumi, E; Kakugawa, Y; Kishi, Y; Murashige, N; Yuji, K; Masuoka, K; Yoneyama, A; Wake, A; Morinaga, S; Kanda, Y; Taniguchi, S

    2005-09-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a significant complication after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT); however, there is little information on it following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation (RI-CBT). We reviewed the medical records of 123 adult patients who received RI-CBT at Toranomon Hospital between January 2002 and August 2004. TMA was diagnosed in seven patients based on intestinal biopsy (n = 6) or autopsy results (n = 1). While these patients showed some clinical symptoms such as diarrhea and/or abdominal pain, mental status alterations or neurological disorders were not observed in any of them. Laboratory results were mostly normal at the onset of TMA; >2% fragmented erythrocytes (n = 1), 200 IU/dl lactic dehydrogenase (LD) (n = 4). On endoscopic examination, TMA lesions, consisting of ulcers, erosions, and diffuse exfoliation, were distributed spottily from terminal ileum to rectum. Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis were confirmed in five and four patients, respectively. With therapeutic measures including supportive care (n = 4), fresh frozen plasma (n = 1), and a reduction of immunosuppressive agents (n = 1), TMA improved in four patients. The present study demonstrates that intestinal TMA is a significant complication after RI-CBT. Since conventional diagnostic criteria can overlook TMA, its diagnosis requires careful examination of the gastrointestinal tract using endoscopy with biopsy.

  13. Disseminated tuberculosis following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T; Kusumi, E; Kami, M; Kawabata, M; Le Pavoux, A; Hara, S; Chizuka, A; Murashige, N; Tanimoto, T E; Matsumura, T; Yuji, K; Yuji, Ko; Wake, A; Miyakoshi, S; Morinaga, S; Taniguchi, S

    2005-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) recipients are prone to infections. The incidences of mycobacterial infections after allo-SCT in several case series vary from less than 0.1-5.5%. However, no study has been published on tuberculosis following unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 113 adult patients with a median age of 54 years who underwent reduced-intensity UCBT (RI-UCBT) at Toranomon Hospital from March 2002 to May 2004. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections were diagnosed in three patients (2.7%), of these two patients developed primary infection and one patient developed reactivation of latent tuberculosis. The interval between RI-UCBT and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was 34, 41 and 61 days. All the patients had disseminated disease at diagnosis. Histological examination showed the lack of granuloma in caseous necrosis. Combination antituberculous treatments showed limited efficacy, and two patients died immediately after diagnosis. M. tuberculosis caused life-threatening illness, rapidly progressing in RI-UCBT recipients. The lack of granuloma in caseous necrosis suggests the impaired T-cell function in early post transplant phase of RI-UCBT. We should consider M. tuberculosis in the differential diagnoses of fever of unknown source after RI-UCBT.

  14. Reduced-intensity unrelated cord blood transplantation for patients with advanced malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuji, Koichiro; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kato, Daisuke; Miura, Yuji; Myojo, Tomohiro; Murashige, Naoko; Kishi, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Kusumi, Eiji; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Hamaki, Tamae; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro; Fukuda, Takahiro; Masuo, Shigeru; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Ueyama, Junichi; Yoneyama, Akiko; Miyamoto, Ko; Nagoshi, Haruhisa; Matsuzaki, Michio; Morinaga, Shinichi; Muto, Yoshitomo; Takeue, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2005-04-01

    We report the results of reduced-intensity unrelated cord blood transplantation (RI-UCBT) in patients with advanced malignant lymphoma. Twenty patients (median age, 46.5 years; range, 27-66 years) underwent RI-UCBT with a preparative regimen consisting of fludarabine 125 mg/m2 , melphalan 80 mg/m 2 , and 4 Gy of total body irradiation. The median infused total cell dose was 2.75 x 10(7)/kg (range, 2.3-3.4 x 10(7)/kg). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was composed of cyclosporine or tacrolimus alone. Fifteen patients achieved primary neutrophil engraftment after a median of 20 days. Eight patients developed grade II to IV acute GVHD, and 2 developed chronic GVHD. Of the 16 patients with evaluable disease, 10 achieved a complete response. Primary disease recurred in 1 patient, and transplant-related mortality within 100 days occurred in 8 of 20 patients. The estimated 1-year probability of progression-free survival was 50%. These data suggest that RI-UCBT is a feasible option for patients with refractory lymphoma who lack an HLA-matched donor.

  15. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors enable freezing of human red blood cells with reduced glycerol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Kurach, Jayme D R; Turner, Tracey R; Mancini, Ross S; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N

    2015-04-08

    In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are cryopreserved in a clinical setting using high glycerol concentrations (40% w/v) with slow cooling rates (~1°C/min) prior to storage at -80°C, while European protocols use reduced glycerol concentrations with rapid freezing rates. After thawing and prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis. This is a time consuming process requiring specialized equipment. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) such as β-PMP-Glc and β-pBrPh-Glc have the ability to prevent ice recrystallization, a process that contributes to cellular injury and decreased cell viability after cryopreservation. Herein, we report that addition of 110 mM β-PMP-Glc or 30 mM β-pBrPh-Glc to a 15% glycerol solution increases post-thaw RBC integrity by 30-50% using slow cooling rates and emphasize the potential of small molecule IRIs for the preservation of cells.

  16. Blood donors' perceptions, motivators and deterrents in Sub-Saharan Africa - a scoping review of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Hassall, Oliver W; Bates, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    save lives. The main deterrent to blood donation was fear due to lack of knowledge and discouraging spiritual, religious and cultural perceptions of blood donation. The main motivators for blood donation were altruism, donating blood for family and incentives. The findings support the need for targeted......Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing...... effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA. The review revealed a common understanding that blood and blood donation...

  17. Increasing Donation Opportunities for Vascularized Composite Allografts: An Analysis of Worldwide Donor Registries and Procurement Organization Web Content (VOLAR Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2016-08-19

    There are 40 vascularized composite allotransplant programs across 5 continents served by 31 organ procurement organizations (or equivalent). The organizations' websites inform about organ and tissue donation. This research explored worldwide educational efforts on vascularized composite allograft (VCAG) donation via their corporate websites as well as options within donor registries and donor card systems to indicate a VCAG donation preference. Of these, 13 (41.9%) of 31 had VCAG content and 7 (22.6%) of 31 offered a mechanism for individuals to voice a preference about VCAG donation through an opt in donor registry or card or an opt out registry. In North America, the only donor registration/card system that facilitated VCAG donation is in Mexico. The resistance to consent for VACG donation is likely due to poor public education and the personal nature of face, hand, uterus, and penile allografts. Efforts to reduce this resistance can begin with the assistance of website content, registries, and donor cards.

  18. Drivers of Discretionary Firm Donations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bandeira-de-Mello

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Discretionary firm donation is usually related to the stakeholder theory and corporate social performance. Although theoretical explanations for this social behavior are pervasive in related literature, empirical modeling remains underdeveloped. We developed an explanatory structural model of discretionary firm donation using firm and industry level indicators. Unlike previous research, we estimated the explanatory power of the construct we called stakeholder orientation. Our tentative model was tested on a Brazilian sample of 101 publicly traded donor firms, using data on firm donations to social projects and to political candidates in electoral campaigns. The main results suggest that discretionary donation seems to be a strategy for managing conflicting claims in highly stakeholder oriented firms; the characteristics of the firm are more important than industry effects in explaining firm donations; and large firms, showing slack resources, and with a less concentrated ownership structure tend to engage in discretionary donation more intensively.

  19. Beta-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation of retinal blood vessels is reduced in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Taisuke; Sato, Ayumi; Mori, Asami; Saito, Maki; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of epinephrine and dopamine on retinal blood vessels in streptozotocin (STZ, 80 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated rats and age-matched control rats to determine whether diabetes mellitus alters the retinal vascular responses to circulating catecholamines. Experiments were performed 6-8 weeks after treatment with STZ or the vehicle. The fundus images were captured with the digital fundus camera system for small animals we developed and diameters of retinal blood vessels contained in the digital images were measured. Epinephrine increased the diameters of retinal blood vessels, but the vasodilator responses were reduced in diabetic rats. Dopamine produced a biphasic retinal vascular response with an initial vasoconstriction followed by a vasodilation. The vasoconstrictor effects of dopamine on retinal arterioles were enhanced in diabetic rats, whereas the difference between the two groups was abolished by treatment with propranolol. The vasodilator effect of isoproterenol, but not of the activator of adenylyl cyclase colforsin, on retinal blood vessels was reduced in diabetic rats. No difference in vasoconstriction of retinal blood vessels to phenylephrine between non-diabetic and diabetic rats was observed. The vasodilator responses of retinal blood vessels to 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, a ganglionic nicotinic receptor agonist, were also attenuated in diabetic rats. These results suggest that diabetes mellitus alters the retinal vascular responses to circulating catecholamines and the impairment of vasodilator responses mediated by beta-adrenoceptors contributes to the alteration.

  20. The capacity of red blood cells to reduce nitrite determines nitric oxide generation under hypoxic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel H Fens

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a key regulator of vascular tone. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS is responsible for NO generation under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxia however, eNOS is inactive and red blood cells (RBC provide an alternative NO generation pathway from nitrite to regulate hypoxic vasodilation. While nitrite reductase activity of hemoglobin is well acknowledged, little is known about generation of NO by intact RBC with physiological hemoglobin concentrations. We aimed to develop and apply a new approach to provide insights in the ability of RBC to convert nitrite into NO under hypoxic conditions. We established a novel experimental setup to evaluate nitrite uptake and the release of NO from RBC into the gas-phase under different conditions. NO measurements were similar to well-established clinical measurements of exhaled NO. Nitrite uptake was rapid, and after an initial lag phase NO release from RBC was constant in time under hypoxic conditions. The presence of oxygen greatly reduced NO release, whereas inhibition of eNOS and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR did not affect NO release. A decreased pH increased NO release under hypoxic conditions. Hypothermia lowered NO release, while hyperthermia increased NO release. Whereas fetal hemoglobin did not alter NO release compared to adult hemoglobin, sickle RBC showed an increased ability to release NO. Under all conditions nitrite uptake by RBC was similar. This study shows that nitrite uptake into RBC is rapid and release of NO into the gas-phase continues for prolonged periods of time under hypoxic conditions. Changes in the RBC environment such as pH, temperature or hemoglobin type, affect NO release.

  1. The capacity of red blood cells to reduce nitrite determines nitric oxide generation under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fens, Marcel H; Larkin, Sandra K; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Morris, Claudia R; Kuypers, Frans A

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of vascular tone. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is responsible for NO generation under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxia however, eNOS is inactive and red blood cells (RBC) provide an alternative NO generation pathway from nitrite to regulate hypoxic vasodilation. While nitrite reductase activity of hemoglobin is well acknowledged, little is known about generation of NO by intact RBC with physiological hemoglobin concentrations. We aimed to develop and apply a new approach to provide insights in the ability of RBC to convert nitrite into NO under hypoxic conditions. We established a novel experimental setup to evaluate nitrite uptake and the release of NO from RBC into the gas-phase under different conditions. NO measurements were similar to well-established clinical measurements of exhaled NO. Nitrite uptake was rapid, and after an initial lag phase NO release from RBC was constant in time under hypoxic conditions. The presence of oxygen greatly reduced NO release, whereas inhibition of eNOS and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) did not affect NO release. A decreased pH increased NO release under hypoxic conditions. Hypothermia lowered NO release, while hyperthermia increased NO release. Whereas fetal hemoglobin did not alter NO release compared to adult hemoglobin, sickle RBC showed an increased ability to release NO. Under all conditions nitrite uptake by RBC was similar. This study shows that nitrite uptake into RBC is rapid and release of NO into the gas-phase continues for prolonged periods of time under hypoxic conditions. Changes in the RBC environment such as pH, temperature or hemoglobin type, affect NO release.

  2. Intermittent blood flow restriction does not reduce atrophy following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erik Iversen; Vibeke Røstad; Arne Larmo

    2016-01-01

    Background: A previous study has reported a 50%reduction in disuse atrophy of the quadriceps during the first 14 days after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A follow-up trial is needed to confirm these promising results. The present study aims to investigate the effect of an occlusion stimulus on quadriceps atrophy after ACL reconstruction. Methods: A total of 24 subjects participated in the study. They were randomized into two groups. Starting the 2nd day after surgery, the occlusion group received an occlusion stimulus for 5 min, followed by removal of the occlusive pressure for 3 min. This was repeated five times in one training session, twice daily. During the period of occlusive stimulus, the subjects performed 20 low load exercises for the quadriceps. The control group followed the same exercise protocol, but without the occlusion stimulus. Changes in quadriceps anatomical cross section area (ACSA) were measured using axial magnetic resonance (MR) images at 40%and 50%of the length of the femur. Results: Both groups had a significant reduction of quadriceps ACSA from 2 days before surgery to 16 days after surgery. During the intervention period, the occlusion group lost 13.8% ± 1.1% (mean ± SEM) and the control group lost 13.1% ± 1.0% of their quadriceps ACSA, respectively. There was no significant difference between the occlusion and control groups with regards to atrophy of the quadriceps muscles. Conclusion: In conflict with other studies using a similar protocol, application of blood flow restriction the first 14 days after ACL reconstruction did not reduce quadriceps ACSA muscle atrophy measured by MR in a population of athletes.

  3. Attitudes toward organ donation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tian, Hui; Yin, Hang; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science, and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however, the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits this technology can bring. The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation. We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions, which were distributed to 10 groups. Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation. The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, a commercial district, and four professional colleges. Participants were randomly selected, and answered questions about gender, age, educational background, profession, and study major. In all, 2930 valid responses were received. Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years). Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation, but the time they had been aware of it varied. Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem. Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation. College students were very positive about organ donation, though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change. Altogether, 65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation, which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P organ donation in China, 62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media and various kinds of education. Only 20.0% of the participants believed that legislation was required. We conclude that

  4. Attitudes toward organ donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; TIAN Hui; YIN Hang; LIU Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Background Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science,and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however,the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits -this technology can bring.The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation.Methods We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions,which were distributed to 10 groups.Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation.The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,a commercial district,and four professional colleges.Participants were randomly selected,and answered questions about gender,age,educational background,profession,and study major.Results In all,2930 valid responses were received.Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years).Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation,but the time they had been aware of it varied.Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem.Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation.College students were very positive about organ donation,though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change.Altogether,65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation,which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P <0.05).In all,85.7% of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family.To promote organ donation in China,62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media

  5. Embryo donation in Iran: an ethical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Leila; Bagheri, Alireza

    2013-12-01

    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10-15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in embryo donation, the paper presents a critical review of the Act of Embryo Donation in Iran. The paper argues that the Act does not provide enough safeguards for the future child and assurance for the safety of the donated embryos. It also does not restrict embryo donation to surplus embryos from infertile couples and is silent about the number of embryos that could be donated by each couple as well as the number of recipients for donated embryos by a couple. The Act is also silent about the issues of genetic linkage (nasab) and heritage which are challenging issues, especially in a conservative Islamic society. As a result, the future child may not inherit from their birth parents, as it is not required by the Act, or from the genetically related parents under the anonymity policy. Finally there is no standard national protocol or guidelines to evaluate the safety of the donated embryos. The paper concludes that despite its benefits, the Act lacks clarity, and it is subject to misunderstanding and confusion.

  6. Experiences obtaining insurance after live kidney donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L

    2014-09-01

    The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation.

  7. Inactivation of neuronal function in the amygdaloid region reduces tail artery blood flow alerting responses in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M; Kulasekara, K; De Menezes, R C; Ootsuka, Y; Blessing, W W

    2013-01-03

    Few studies have investigated whether neuronal function in the amygdaloid complex is necessary for the occurrence of the cardiovascular response to natural (unconditioned) environmental threats. In the present investigation in conscious unrestrained Sprague-Dawley rats we inactivated neuronal function in the amygdaloid complex acutely (bilateral muscimol injections) or chronically (unilateral or bilateral ibotenic acid injections) and measured the effect on sudden falls in tail artery blood flow elicited by non-noxious salient stimuli (sympathetic cutaneous vasomotor alerting responses, SCVARs). After acute bilateral injection of vehicle (200nl Ringer's solution) the SCVAR index was 81 ± 2%, indicating that tail blood flow was reduced by 81% in response to the salient stimuli. After acute bilateral injection of muscimol (1 nmol in 200 nl of Ringer's solution) into the amygdaloid complex the SCVAR index was 49 ± 5%, indicating that tail blood flow was reduced by 49% in response to the salient stimuli (pbody with more immediate metabolic requirements.

  8. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E Dale; Pereira, Troy J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-HF had lower (P high-fat diet reduced blood pressure and improved arterial function in SHR without producing signs of insulin resistance or altering insulin-mediated signaling in the heart, skeletal muscle, or vasculature.

  9. Intensive care medicine and organ donation: exploring the last frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, D; Otero, J

    2015-01-01

    The main, universal problem for transplantation is organ scarcity. The gap between offer and demand grows wider every year and causes many patients in waiting list to die. In Spain, 90% of transplants are done with organs taken from patients deceased in brain death but this has a limited potential. In order to diminish organ shortage, alternative strategies such as donations from living donors, expanded criteria donors or donation after circulatory death, have been developed. Nevertheless, these types of donors also have their limitations and so are not able to satisfy current organ demand. It is necessary to reduce family denial and to raise donation in brain death thus generalizing, among other strategies, non-therapeutic elective ventilation. As intensive care doctors, cornerstone to the national donation programme, we must consolidate our commitment with society and organ transplantation. We must contribute with the values proper to our specialization and try to reach self-sufficiency by rising organ obtainment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Local Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Peritrochanteric Fracture Surgery in the Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virani SR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritrochanteric fractures are common injuries occurring in elderly patients. Surgeries for these fractures are associated with significant blood loss. Intravenous tranexamic acid has a proven track record in many orthopaedic surgeries including trauma, arthroplasty and spine surgeries. Objective: To study the effect of local subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and the requirement for blood transfusion in intertrochanteric fracture surgery. Study Design: Single centre prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty seven patients above 65 years of age were included in the study, divided into two groups: the intervention group received subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of 2g tranexamic acid before wound closure and the control group of alternate patients did not receive any tranexamic acid infiltration. The postoperative drain output was recorded, as well as the haemoglobin level and the patients needing blood transfusion. Results and Conclusions: The preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin values were recorded. The mean preoperative haemoglobin was 10.9% and 10.8% (p=0.79 in the trial and control groups respectively. The mean postoperative haemoglobin was 9.5gm% and 9.2gm% (p=0.36 in the two groups. The total postoperative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group and the control group was 190.3ml and 204.3ml respectively (p=0.25. Ten patients (14.9% in the intervention group and 12 patients (17.1% in the control group required blood transfusion. We conclude that tranexamic acid does not play a significant role in reducing postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion when used locally in peritochanteric fracture surgery. However a larger double blinded study comparing various modalities of use of tranexamic acid is needed to conclusively establish its role.

  11. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  12. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  13. An analysis of first-time blood donors return behaviour using regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri, S; Alibeigi, Z

    2015-08-01

    Blood products have a vital role in saving many patients' lives. The aim of this study was to analyse blood donor return behaviour. Using a cross-sectional follow-up design of 5-year duration, 864 first-time donors who had donated blood were selected using a systematic sampling. The behaviours of donors via three response variables, return to donation, frequency of return to donation and the time interval between donations, were analysed based on logistic regression, negative binomial regression and Cox's shared frailty model for recurrent events respectively. Successful return to donation rated at 49·1% and the deferral rate was 13·3%. There was a significant reverse relationship between the frequency of return to donation and the time interval between donations. Sex, body weight and job had an effect on return to donation; weight and frequency of donation during the first year had a direct effect on the total frequency of donations. Age, weight and job had a significant effect on the time intervals between donations. Aging decreases the chances of return to donation and increases the time interval between donations. Body weight affects the three response variables, i.e. the higher the weight, the more the chances of return to donation and the shorter the time interval between donations. There is a positive correlation between the frequency of donations in the first year and the total number of return to donations. Also, the shorter the time interval between donations is, the higher the frequency of donations. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Do trichothecenes reduce viability of circulating blood cells and modify haemostasis parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froquet, R; Arnold, F; Batina, P; Parent-Massin, D

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript describes the results of experiments conducted using human blood cells to determine the ability of T-2 toxin and DON to cause changes in clotting time, platelet aggregation, red blood cell haemolysis, RBC glucose content, lactate release, glutathione depletion, as well as white blood cell viability. In vitro results showed that haemostasis parameters and erythrocytes were not affected at concentrations able to induce inhibition of haematopoietic progenitor proliferation. In the presence of 10(-8) M and 10(-6) M T-2, the leucocyte number decreased at 24 h by 30% and 50% respectively. A 50% decrease in leucocyte number was observed for 10(-5) M DON. Results were compared with haematopoietic progenitor sensitivities. Due to the differences in sensitivities between mature blood cells and haematopoietic progenitors, haematological problems associated with trichothecene intoxication could be attributed to haematopoiesis inhibition.

  15. PVC-plasticizer DEHP in medical products: do thin coatings really reduce DEHP leaching into blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Sibylle L; Lehmann, Hans-Dieter; Wodarz, Roman; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans P

    2005-10-01

    The hemocompatibility of artificial surfaces in extracorporeal blood circulation systems can be improved by coatings. According to the literature, heparin coatings should avoid the leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) into the blood from components made from plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). DEHP and its metabolites are known to impair the fertility of male rodents; effects on human fertility are assumed. Three different surface coatings with and without heparin were examined in a Chandler Loop model at 37 degrees C using fresh human blood to evaluate their hemocompatibility and barrier property to plasticizer. The levels of toxic oxidation products of DEHP generated in the blood, particularly, were found as high as in the uncoated tubing. The coatings improved the hemocompatibility, but are not safe protection against the hazardous metabolites of DEHP. For pregnant women, neonates and children, we would recommend using the available surface-coated plasticized PVC tubing sets, but free of DEHP.

  16. Low dose spironolactone reduces blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Henriksen, J. E.; Tarnow, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with arterial hypertension is particularly pronounced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood pressure control is, therefore, decisively important but often not sufficiently achieved.Objective:The primary...

  17. Blood transfusion practices in obstetric anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is an essential component of emergency obstetric care and appropriate blood transfusion significantly reduces maternal mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage, especially postpartum haemorrhage, remains one of the major causes of massive haemorrhage and a prime cause of maternal mortality. Blood loss and assessment of its correct requirement are difficult in pregnancy due to physiological changes and comorbid conditions. Many guidelines have been used to assess the requirement and transfusion of blood and its components. Infrastructural, economic, social and religious constraints in blood banking and donation are key issues to formulate practice guidelines. Available current guidelines for transfusion are mostly from the developed world; however, they can be used by developing countries keeping available resources in perspective.

  18. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older heart failure (HF patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (aged 68 ± 10 years without large (aorta or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2, b physical function, c cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.01. Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p p ≤ 0.03. Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow.

  19. Effects of competitive red blood cell binding and reduced hematocrit on the blood and plasma levels of (/sup 14/C)Indapamide in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettieri, J.T.; Portelli, S.T.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of chlorthalidone and acetazolamide on the red blood cell binding of indapamide were investigated. Both drugs caused a substantial decrease in the amount of indapamide bound to the erythrocytes in vitro. This effect was demonstrated by a change in the indapamide blood/plasma ratio from approximately 6 in control samples, to a value of 1 when either of the displacing agents was added. Coadministration of acetazolamide with /sup 14/C-labeled indapamide to rats, resulted in a 5-fold drop in the blood levels of total radioactivity, relative to rats dosed with (/sup 14/C)indapamide alone. Concomitantly, there was a 2-fold increase in the plasma levels of total radioactivity after acetazolamide coadministration. In rats whose hematocrits had been reduced by extensive bleeding, there were only minor alterations in the blood/plasma partitioning of (/sup 14/C)indapamide. Thus, chlorthalidone and acetazolamide were able to displace indapamide from erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo, possibly by competition at a carbonic anhydrase binding site. The pharmacokinetics of drugs which are extensively bound to erythrocytes may be significantly altered by the presence of other agents capable of competitive binding.

  20. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping; Birck, Malene M; Pan, Xiaoyu; Kamal, Shamrulazhar B S; Pors, Susanne E; Gammelgaard, Pernille L; Nielsen, Dennis S; Thymann, Thomas; Levy, Ofer; Frøkiær, Hanne; Sangild, Per T

    2016-01-01

    Immature immunity may predispose preterm neonates to infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intravenous antibiotics are frequently given to prevent and treat sepsis, while oral antibiotics are seldom used. We hypothesized that oral antibiotics promote maturation of systemic immunity and delay gut bacterial colonization and thereby protect preterm neonates against both NEC and bacteremia in the immediate postnatal period. Preterm pigs were given formula and administered saline (CON) or broad-spectrum antibiotics orally (ORA) or systemically (SYS) for 5 d after birth. Temporal changes in blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm neutrophil and monocyte TLR2 expression and TLR2-mediated blood cytokine responses were low relative to adults. ORA pigs showed enhanced blood neutrophil maturation with reduced cell size and CD172a expression. Only ORA pigs, but not SYS pigs, were protected from a high density of gut Gram-positive bacteria, high gut permeability, Gram-positive bacteremia and NEC. Neonatal oral antibiotics may benefit mucosal and systemic immunity via delayed gut colonization and enhanced blood neutrophil maturation just after preterm birth.

  1. The Percentage Variation of Platelets in Multiple Donator Apheresis Platelets in Peripheral Blood Reticulocytes%多次单采血小板献血者外周血网织血小板百分比水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱国; 李继红; 周宁; 孟德伍; 祝峰; 范恩勇

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解单采血小板献血者外周血网织血小板百分比水平的变化情况。方法按照单采血小板捐献情况分为2组,实验组为参加过单采血小板的献血者153例,对照组为以往无献血史,首次来血站献血且符合献血条件,共189例,利用全自动血球分析仪检测WBC、RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT、PDW、PCT、MPV及IPF比例等项目。结果与对照组相比,实验组中男性献血者WBC、PCT的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT明显升高,有统计学意义(P<0.05),PDW、MPV、IPF下降,有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组中女性献血者WBC、RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT、PCT、MPV的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),PDW、IPF明显升高,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论多次进行单采血小板捐献,对于男性献血者除加快RBC、PLT的骨髓造血功能外,并未加速IPF上升,相反促进PLT成熟。对于女性献血者则由于自身早期的生理性周期性失血,女性献血者的RBC、PLT等指标已受自身免疫负反馈调节而耐受,但对于多次捐献血小板的女性献血者,可能血小板生成能力较男性献血小板者增加有关。%Objective To understand reticulated platelet level changes in apheresis platelet donors. Methods The platelets donators were divided into experimental group (A) and control group(B). Group A comprised 153 cases of apheresis platelet donors and group B included 189 cases without the experience of blood donation. Automated blood analyzer was used for testing WBC,RBC,Hb,HCT,PLT,PDW,PCT,MPV and IPF proportions and other items. Results No significant difference was seen of WBC and PCT(P>0.05) in the male blood donors in Group A,whereas RBC,Hb,HCT,and PLT were obviously elavated(P0.05)whereas PDW and IPF were significantly increased(P<0.05). Conclusion Repeated apheresis platelet donations may accelerate RBC and PLT rather than IPF production in bone marrow

  2. Process and barriers to organ donation and causes of brain death in northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Abdollah; Khaleghi, Ebrahim; Vakilzadeh, Ali Khorsand; Afzalaghaee, Monavar

    2017-02-01

    Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for some diseases. However, the need for cadaveric organ donation has either plateaued or is on a decreasing trend in some countries, especially in developed ones. In this study, we aimed to identify the barriers to organ donation in brain dead patients, who were referred to the organ procurement organizations (OPO) in northeast Iran. In this cross-sectional study during 2006 to 2013, data were collected from medical records of brain dead patients. Demographic information, cause of brain death, the process of obtaining informed consent, and the reasons for declining organ donation were obtained from the OPO records. The data were analyzed using chi-square test by SPSS 13 software. Of 1034 brain dead patients, 751 cases (72.6%) were eligible for organ donation, and, ultimately, 344 cases underwent organ donation. The rate of organ donation increased during the course of the study; medical and legal reasons as well as family refusal to authorize donation were the main barriers to the process. Based on the pattern of mortality, the need for living donors in developing countries, such as Iran and other countries in the Mediterranean region, can be reduced by improving the quality of healthcare, efficient identification of brain death, and obtaining consent with appropriate strategies.

  3. Progesterone reduces sympathetic tone without changing blood pressure or fluid balance in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Eide, I; Maltau, J M

    1993-01-01

    There is scant information on the effects of progesterone on circulation. Changes in catecholamine levels, blood pressure and transcapillary fluid balance were measured in 12 men before and during administration of natural progesterone (Utrogestan). Before administration, systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with venous adrenaline (r = 0.67, p = 0.01). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.004) in venous noradrenaline during progesterone administration, and systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with the arteriovenous difference for noradrenaline (r = 0.66, p = 0.02). Serum progesterone, which attained levels similar to those found in women during the luteal phase, did not significantly alter blood pressure, body weight or intra- to extravascular fluid shift. It is concluded that progesterone may have a direct action by increasing the uptake of noradrenaline from the synaptic cleft or by decreasing the nerve firing rate. Interestingly, the pretreatment finding of a significant correlation between blood pressure and adrenaline was less evident during progesterone administration.

  4. Nonpharmacological, Blood Conservation Techniques for Preventing Neonatal Anemia—Effective and Promising Strategies for Reducing Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Patrick D.; Widness, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of anemia after birth in very premature, critically ill newborn infants is a universal well-described phenomenon. Although preventing anemia in this population, along with efforts to establish optimal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and pharmacologic therapy continue to be actively investigated, the present review focuses exclusively on nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of neonatal anemia. We begin with an overview of topics relevant to nonpharmacological techniques. These topics include neonatal and fetoplacental hemoglobin levels and blood volumes, clinical and laboratory practices applied in critically ill neonates, and current RBC transfusion practice guidelines. This is followed by a discussion of the most effective and promising nonpharmacological blood conservation strategies and techniques. Fortunately, many of these techniques are feasible in most neonatal intensive care units. When applied together, these techniques are more effective than existing pharmacotherapies in significantly decreasing neonatal RBC transfusions. They include increasing hemoglobin endowment and circulating blood volume at birth; removing less blood for laboratory testing; and optimizing nutrition. PMID:22818543

  5. Nonpharmacological, blood conservation techniques for preventing neonatal anemia--effective and promising strategies for reducing transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Patrick D; Widness, John A

    2012-08-01

    The development of anemia after birth in very premature, critically ill newborn infants is a universal well-described phenomenon. Although preventing anemia in this population, along with efforts to establish optimal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and pharmacologic therapy continue to be actively investigated, the present review focuses exclusively on nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of neonatal anemia. We begin with an overview of topics relevant to nonpharmacological techniques. These topics include neonatal and fetoplacental hemoglobin levels and blood volumes, clinical and laboratory practices applied in critically ill neonates, and current RBC transfusion practice guidelines. This is followed by a discussion of the most effective and promising nonpharmacological blood conservation strategies and techniques. Fortunately, many of these techniques are feasible in most neonatal intensive care units. When applied together, these techniques are more effective than existing pharmacotherapies in significantly decreasing neonatal RBC transfusions. They include increasing hemoglobin endowment and circulating blood volume at birth; removing less blood for laboratory testing; and optimizing nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-19

    To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. 53 participants, aged 19-77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). 6 themes (with subthemes) were identified; religious conviction; invisibility of organ donation; medical suspicion; owning the decision; and reciprocal benefit. Although organ donation is considered a generous life-saving 'gift', representative members of the Arabic-speaking community in Australia were unfamiliar with, unnerved by and sceptical about the donation process. Making positive decisions about organ donation would likely require resolving tensions between respecting family, community and religious values versus their individual autonomy. Providing targeted education about the process and benefits of organ donation within the Arabic community may clarify ambiguities surrounding cultural and religious-based views on organ donation, reduce taboos and suspicion towards donation, and in turn, lead to increased organ donation rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  8. Giving Ourselves: The Ethics of Anatomical Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical…

  9. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  10. Proposal for the donation of LEP equipment

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    CERN has announced that LEP equipment will become available for donations to educational and scientific research institutes, to museums and public bodies in Member States and non-member States. A number of requests for a limited amount of equipment have been received. CERN has no further use for this equipment. The Finance Committee is invited to approve these donations.

  11. Understanding Australian families' organ donation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neate, S L; Marck, C H; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; McGain, F; Weiland, T J; Hickey, B B; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Numbers of deceased organ donors in Australia have increased, but rates of consent to donation remain at around 60%. Increasing family consent is a key target for the Australian Organ and Tissue Authority. Reasons for donation decisions have been reported in the international literature, but little is known of reasons for Australian families' decisions. Potential organ donors in four Melbourne hospitals were identified and 49 participants from 40 families (23 consenting and 17 non-consenting) were interviewed to understand reasons for consent decisions. Themes for consent to organ donation included that: donation was consistent with the deceased's explicit wishes or known values, the desire to help others or self-including themes of altruism, pragmatism, preventing others from being in the same position, consolation received from donation and aspects of the donation conversation and care that led families to believe donation was right for them. Themes for non-consent included: lack of knowledge of wishes; social, cultural and religious beliefs; factors related to the donation process and family exhaustion; and conversation factors where negative events influenced decisions. While reasons for consent were similar to those described in international literature, reasons for non-consent differed in that there was little emphasis on lack of trust of the medical profession, concerns regarding level of care provided to the potential donor, preserving the deceased's body, fears of body invasion or organ allocation fairness.

  12. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  13. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  14. Reducing Blood-borne Exposure in Interventional Radiology: What the IR Should Know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, David K. [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology (Canada); Athreya, Sriharsha, E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca [St. Joseph' s Healthcare Hamilton, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiologists are at risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens in their day-to-day practice. Percutaneous exposure from unsafe sharps handling, mucocutaneous exposure from body fluid splashes, and glove perforation from excessive wear can expose the radiologist to potentially infectious material. The increasing prevalence of blood-borne pathogens, including hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus, puts nurses, residents, fellows, and interventional radiologists at risk for occupational exposure. This review outlines suggestions to establish a culture of safety in the interventional suite.

  15. Reduced blood pressure of CFTR-F508del carriers correlates with diminished arterial reactivity rather than circulating blood volume in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A Peotta

    Full Text Available The F508del mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF. Both CF patients and F508del carriers have decreased blood pressure. While this has been attributed to salt depletion, recent studies have shown F508del expression interferes with smooth muscle cell calcium mobilization. We tested the hypothesis that carriers of the F508del mutation have lower adult blood pressures and reduced aortic contractility without a reduction in circulating blood volume. By radiotelemetry, F508del heterozygous mice had significantly lower arterial pressures than wild-type C57BL/6 controls, with the greatest effect seen at the time of dark-to-light cycle transition (mean difference of 10 mmHg. To replicate the vascular effects of sympathetic arousal, isoproterenol and epinephrine were co-infused, and F508del mice again had significantly reduced arterial pressures. Aortas isolated from F508del heterozygous mice had significantly decreased constriction to noradrenaline (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 2.9 ± 0.7 mN. Inhibition of wild-type CFTR or the inositol triphosphate receptor replicated the phenotype of F508del aortas. CFTR carrier status did not alter circulating blood volume. We conclude the CFTR-F508del mutation decreases aortic contractility and lowers arterial pressures. As a cAMP-activated chloride channel that facilitates calcium mobilization, we speculate wild-type CFTR co-activation during adrenergic receptor stimulation buffers the vasodilatory response to catecholamines, and loss of this compensatory vasoconstrictor tone may contribute to the lower arterial pressures seen in heterozygote carriers of a CFTR-F508del mutation.

  16. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Keyhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg, topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. Results: The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P

  17. Adjusting prednisone using blood eosinophils reduces exacerbations and improves asthma control in difficult patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Peter Ab; McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G

    2015-11-01

    Severe or therapy-resistant asthma represents a major problem, and despite advanced treatment, many patients require oral corticosteroids (OCS). We aimed to determine if patients with severe asthma and elevated peripheral blood eosinophils (PBE) could have treatment with OCS adjusted using an algorithm that controlled PBE (asthma symptoms with an overall lower OCS dose.

  18. Reducing time to identification of aerobic bacteria and fastidious micro-organisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-12-01

    Rapid and early identification of micro-organisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 h of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with five drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification. Ninety-nine percentage of aerobic bacteria were correctly identified from 600 monomicrobial-positive blood cultures. This procedure allowed obtaining the correct identification of fastidious pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae that need complex nutritional and environmental requirements in order to grow. Compared to the traditional pathogen identification from blood cultures that takes over 24 h, the reliability of results, rapid performance and suitability of this protocol allowed a more rapid administration of optimal antimicrobial treatment in the patients.

  19. Blood-gene expression reveals reduced circadian rhythmicity in individuals resistant to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Erna S; Nikonova, Elena V; Shockley, Keith R; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Anafi, Ron C; Tanis, Keith Q; Maislin, Greg; Stone, David J; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Pack, Allan I

    2014-10-01

    To address whether changes in gene expression in blood cells with sleep loss are different in individuals resistant and sensitive to sleep deprivation. Blood draws every 4 h during a 3-day study: 24-h normal baseline, 38 h of continuous wakefulness and subsequent recovery sleep, for a total of 19 time-points per subject, with every 2-h psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) assessment when awake. Sleep laboratory. Fourteen subjects who were previously identified as behaviorally resistant (n = 7) or sensitive (n = 7) to sleep deprivation by PVT. Thirty-eight hours of continuous wakefulness. We found 4,481 unique genes with a significant 24-h diurnal rhythm during a normal sleep-wake cycle in blood (false discovery rate [FDR] sleep. After accounting for circadian effects, two genes (SREBF1 and CPT1A, both involved in lipid metabolism) exhibited small, but significant, linear changes in expression with the duration of sleep deprivation (FDR sleep deprivation was a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of expression of normally cycling probe sets. This reduction was noticeably higher in behaviorally resistant subjects than sensitive subjects, at any given P value. Furthermore, blood cell type enrichment analysis showed that the expression pattern difference between sensitive and resistant subjects is mainly found in cells of myeloid origin, such as monocytes. Individual differences in behavioral effects of sleep deprivation are associated with differences in diurnal amplitude of gene expression for genes that show circadian rhythmicity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Effects of resveratrol in pregnancy using murine models with reduced blood supply to the uterus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Poudel

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE and fetal growth restriction (FGR contribute significantly to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Although the causes of PE and FGR are not fully understood, both conditions are known to be associated with impaired uterine artery blood flow. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in a number of plants, has been shown to induce relaxation of uterine arteries in vitro as well as improve many pathological conditions associated with PE and FGR. We hypothesized that treatment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS⁻/⁻ and catechol-O-methyltransferase knockout mice (COMT⁻/⁻ with resveratrol during pregnancy would improve uterine artery blood flow and therefore ameliorate the PE-like phenotype and FGR in these murine models. Pregnant C57BL/6J, eNOS⁻/⁻ and COMT⁻/⁻ mice received either resveratrol supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet or control diet between gestational day (GD 0.5 and GD 18.5. Resveratrol supplementation significantly increased uterine artery blood flow velocity and fetal weight in COMT⁻/⁻ but not in eNOS⁻/⁻ mice. There were no effects of resveratrol on litter size and placental weight among the groups. In conclusion, resveratrol increased uterine artery blood flow velocity and fetal weight in COMT⁻/⁻ mice, suggesting potential as a therapeutic strategy for PE and FGR.

  1. Reduced blood parasite prevalence with age in the Seychelles Warbler : selective mortality or suppression of infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, Kees; Richardson, David S.; Saether, Stein A.; Komdeur, Jan; Guglielmo, C.G.

    Avian malaria can affect survival and reproduction of their hosts. Two patterns commonly observed in birds are that females have a higher prevalence of malaria than do males and that prevalence decreases with age. The mechanisms behind these patterns remain unclear. However, most studies on blood

  2. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  3. Amikacin can be added to blood to reduce the fall in platelet count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaomian; Wu, Xiaoli; Deng, Weixiong; Li, Jieqiu; Luo, Wenshen

    2011-10-01

    Our objective was to develop an effective method to prevent the fall in platelet count for patients with anticoagulant-dependent (AD) pseudothrombocytopenia, a spurious phenomenon due to anticoagulant-induced aggregation of platelets. We report a case of insidious multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in which AD pseudothrombocytopenia may be caused by 4 anticoagulants, eg, EDTA, sodium citrate, heparin, and sodium fluoride (NaF). Multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia was confirmed by finding clumped platelets on microscopic evaluation in 4 anticoagulated blood samples. With this case, we tried a variety of reagents, including aminoglycosides, eg, gentamicin and amikacin, vitamin B(6), and aminophylline to inhibit pseudothrombocytopenia. Except for amikacin, all reagents failed to prevent pseudothrombocytopenia. Microscopic examination of K(2)-EDTA-, heparin-, sodium citrate-, and NaF-anticoagulated blood samples showed massive platelet clumping, but no aggregate was seen in the anticoagulated blood with amikacin. When amikacin was added within 1 hour after blood sample withdrawal, platelet, WBC, and RBC counts and hemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume, and mean platelet volume remained unchanged for up to 4 hours at room temperature. These findings suggest that amikacin could inhibit and dissociate pseudo platelet aggregation in multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia and EDTA-induced pseudothrombocytopenia.

  4. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, Henning; Gemmer, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow was quanti...

  5. Reduced frequency of blood group Lewis a-b- in female Type 1 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharagjitsingh, A.V.; Prinsen, K.; Lemkes, H.H.;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To examine a disputed association between the Lewis(a(-)b(-)) phenotype and Type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Lewis red blood cell phenotyping was performed for 97 T1D White patients and 100 control subjects using monoclonal antibodies. Two historical cohorts were also included as a control...

  6. Pinitol from soybeans reduces postprandial blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Jung-In; Yoon, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jae Cherl; Cha, In-June

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol (D-pinitol), purified from soybean, on the postprandial blood glucose response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was examined. Fifteen Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men, eight women; 60.3 +/- 3.1 years old) ingested cooked white rice containing 50 g of available carbohydrate with or without prior ingestion of soy pinitol. Pinitol was given either as a 1.2 g dose at 0, 60, 120, or 180 minutes prior to rice ingestion, or as a 0.6 g dose at 60 minutes prior to rice ingestion. Capillary blood glucose levels were monitored for 4 hours after rice consumption. The ingestion of 1.2 g of pinitol 60 minutes prior to rice consumption controlled postprandial capillary blood glucose most effectively, significantly diminishing the postprandial increase in plasma glucose levels measured at 90 and 120 minutes after rice consumption (P pinitol and rice was significantly lower than that for subjects who consumed only rice (P pinitol had no apparent effect on postprandial insulin levels. Therefore, soybean-derived pinitol may be useful in controlling postprandial increases in blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Predictive Modeling of Massive Transfusion Requirements During Liver Transplantation and Its Potential to Reduce Utilization of Blood Bank Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustavoitau, Aliaksei; Lesley, Maggie; Ariyo, Promise; Latif, Asad; Villamayor, April J; Frank, Steven M; Rizkalla, Nicole; Merritt, William; Cameron, Andrew; Dagher, Nabil; Philosophe, Benjamin; Gurakar, Ahmet; Gottschalk, Allan

    2017-05-01

    Patients undergoing liver transplantation frequently but inconsistently require massive blood transfusion. The ability to predict massive transfusion (MT) could reduce the impact on blood bank resources through customization of the blood order schedule. Current predictive models of MT for blood product utilization during liver transplantation are not generally applicable to individual institutions owing to variability in patient population, intraoperative management, and definitions of MT. Moreover, existing models may be limited by not incorporating cirrhosis stage or thromboelastography (TEG) parameters. This retrospective cohort study included all patients who underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2010 and 2014. We defined MT as intraoperative transfusion of > 10 units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) and developed a multivariable predictive model of MT that incorporated cirrhosis stage and TEG parameters. The accuracy of the model was assessed with the goodness-of-fit test, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and bootstrap resampling. The distribution of correct patient classification was then determined as we varied the model threshold for classifying MT. Finally, the potential impact of these predictions on blood bank resources was examined. Two hundred three patients were included in the study. Sixty (29.6%) patients met the definition for MT and received a median (interquartile range) of 19.0 (14.0-27.0) pRBC units intraoperatively compared with 4.0 units (1.0-6.0) for those who did not satisfy the criterion for MT. The multivariable model for predicting MT included Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, whether simultaneous liver and kidney transplant was performed, cirrhosis stage, hemoglobin concentration, platelet concentration, and TEG R interval and angle. This model demonstrated good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test P = .45) and good discrimination (c statistic: 0.835; 95

  8. Reduced defense of central blood volume during acute lower body negative pressure-induced hypovolemic circulatory stress in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste

    2012-06-01

    Elderly humans are more vulnerable to trauma and hemorrhage than young and elderly men and respond with decreased defense of central blood volume during acute experimental hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). However, these defense mechanisms have not been evaluated in elderly women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of compensatory responses to defend central blood volume during experimental hypovolemia in elderly and young women. Cardiovascular responses in 34 women, 12 elderly (66 ± 1 years) and 22 young women (23 ± 0.4 years), were studied during experimental hypovolemia induced by LBNP of 11 to 44 mmHg. Air plethysmography was used to assess the capacitance response (redistribution of peripheral venous blood to the central circulation) as well as net capillary fluid transfer from tissue to blood in the arm. Lower body negative pressure seemed to create comparable hypovolemia measured as total calf volume increase in elderly and young women. Heart rate increased less in elderly women (LBNP of 44 mmHg: 20 ± 2 vs. 37 ± 4%; P < 0.01) but with similar (%) increase in forearm vascular resistance. Mobilization of capacitance blood from the peripheral circulation was both slower and decreased by ∼60% in elderly women (P < 0.001), and net capillary fluid absorption from surrounding tissues was reduced by ∼40% (P < 0.01, LBNP of 44 mmHg). Elderly women responded with less increase in heart rate but with equal forearm vascular resistance (%) response during LBNP. Furthermore, the compensatory capacitance response was both slower and substantially decreased, and net capillary fluid absorption considerably reduced, collectively indicating less efficiency to defend central blood volume in elderly than in young women.

  9. Effects of targeted education for first-year university students on knowledge and attitudes about stem cell transplantation and donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Zühre; Gültekin, Korcan Emre; Demirtaş, Oğuz Kaan; Karadeniz, Dilşen; Çalapkulu, Yunus; Tap, Özge

    2015-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a life-saving treatment, but donor numbers are lacking in Turkey and elsewhere. Increased awareness of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation among university students might help expand donation. We evaluated the effect of a brief targeted educational intervention on knowledge and attitudes about hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and donation among first-year university students in Turkey. There were 301 first-year university students (median age, 18 y) who volunteered: 163 medical students (54%) and 138 law students (46%). Before and after a brief lecture about hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, students answered a 5-item yes-or-no questionnaire regarding (1) knowledge about health benefits of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; (2) knowledge about stem cell banking and donation in Turkey; (3) knowledge about the transplantation procedure; (4) prior experience and/or willingness to donate blood; and (5) willingness to donate stem cells. Reasons for motivation to donate blood and/or stem cells were categorized. Results before and after the lecture were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. The response rate was 100%. Significantly greater proportions of students had knowledge about hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and willingness to donate blood and stem cells after the lecture. There were no differences between medical and law students before the lecture. After the lecture, a significantly greater proportion of medical students indicated knowledge about health benefits of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, stem cell banking and donation in Turkey, and the transplantation procedure. Brief education about hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for university students can increase knowledge and awareness about hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and cause more positive attitudes about stem cell donation.

  10. Doação de sangue: solidariedade mecânica versus solidariedade orgânica Donación de sangre: solidariedad mecánica versus solidariedad orgânica Blood donation: mechanic solidarity versus organic solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Suely May Rodrigues Pereima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Reflete-se sobre doação de sangue em um hemocentro de Santa Catarina, abordando-a como solidariedade mecânica e orgânica. Discute-se a forma de viver na contemporaneidade com a Globalização e o culto à velocidade em um contexto impregnado por incertezas e adversidades. Vive-se num mundo acelerado, dificultando a convivência em sociedade, contribuindo para a fragilização de valores e atitudes que melhorem a qualidade de vida. Mesmo com as dificuldades vivenciadas no cotidiano da sociedade contemporânea, percebe-se na história da hemoterapia brasileira, ao se falar em doação de sangue, que atitudes e valores como a solidariedade vêm se transformando de forma sensível tendo-se a atualidade como pano de fundo Busca-se compreender a doação de sangue como solidariedade mecânica e orgânica.Reflexión sobre la donación de sangre en un homocentro de Santa Catarina, abordandola como solidaridad mecánica y orgánica. Se reflexiona sobre el modo de vida contemporáneo en la globalización y el culto a la velocidad en un contexto impregnado por la incertidumbre y la adversidad. Vivimos en un mundo acelerado, lo que dificulta la convivencia en sociedad, contribuyendo al debilitamiento de valores y actitudes que mejoren la calidad de vida. A pesar de las dificultades que la sociedad contemporánea experimenta en la vida cotidiana, se percibe en la historia de la hemoterapia brasileña, cuando se habla de donación de sangre, que actitudes y valores tales como la solidaridad se están transformando cada vez más de manera significativa en el contexto en que vivimos. En este estudio se trata de entender la donación de sangre como solidaridad mecánica y orgánica.The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live

  11. SY 09-4 PUBLIC POLICIES TO REDUCE SALT IN PROCESSED FOODS: HOW THEY MAY CORRELATE WITH IMPROVEMENT IN BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL AND REDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the second leading global risk for death and disability after unhealthy diets. Amongst dietary risks, excess dietary salt (sodium) is the leading risk. As dietary sodium increases, blood pressure increases linearly. In meta-analyses of higher quality cohort studies and in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, higher dietary sodium is linearly associated with increased cardiovascular disease. There are an estimated xxxx deaths and xxx DALYs in 2013 from excess dietary sodium. The World Health Organization has a recommended sodium (salt) intake of less than 2000 mg (5 g)/day with the World Health Assembly setting a voluntary target of a 30% reduction by 2025. In high income countries, the vast majority of dietary salt comes from additives during commercial food processing. In low income countries the vast majority of salt is 'discretionary' being added at home in cooking and at the table, often as condiments (e.g. soya/fish sauce or bouillon). Many highly populated countries are in nutritional transition and have the highest salt intakes with both commercial and discretionary sources. Notably diets of natural foods without added salt contain 500-800 mg sodium/day. Policies to reduce commercial sources of salt have had demonstrated efficacy at reducing salt intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Use of salt replacers (potassium partly replacing sodium) hold promise to reduce discretionary salt and in randomized controlled trials reduce blood pressure. There is renewed 'scientific' controversy about reducing dietary salt. The controversy is largely based on a small number of individuals many of whom have had associations with the food and salt industry and/or have conducted research using methods highly prone to erroneous findings. Sadly several of those dissenting have made false or misleading statements about the science supporting salt reduction, altered scientific formula to make their controversial data appear more

  12. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, E; Christensen, S W; Hirata, R P; Larsen, R G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-04-28

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise, but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. Twelve healthy subjects (five women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (five sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the tibialis anterior muscle was recorded. Blood flow was assessed by ultrasound Doppler on the anterior tibialis artery (ATA) and within the anterior tibialis muscle tissue before and immediately after 1-second MVC, 5-seconds MVC, and 5-minutes thigh cuff occlusion. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded on the tibialis anterior muscle. All measures were done bilaterally at day 0 (pre-exercise), day 2, and day 6 (post-exercise). Subjects scored the muscle soreness on a Likert scale for 6 days. Eccentric exercise increased Likert scores at day 1 and day 2 compared with day 0 (Pexercise (day 0), reduced PPT (~25%, Peccentric contractions decreased vessel diameter, impaired the blood flow response, and promoted hyperalgesia. Thus, the results suggest that the blood flow reduction may be involved in the increased pain response after eccentric exercise. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Inventory management strategies that reduce the age of red blood cell components at the time of transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Jessica L; Tuma, Christopher W; Shulman, Ira A

    2016-07-01

    There has been interest concerning patient outcomes when older red blood cell (RBC) components are utilized. Inventory management is key to maintaining a stock of fresher RBCs for general transfusion needs. We have altered our practice for RBC management to reduce RBC age at the time of transfusion. Retrospective review of RBC age at time of transfusion at a tertiary care hospital with active trauma service was performed. The baseline nonirradiated RBC inventory was decreased from 12 to 15 days of stock to 7 to 10 days of stock, with request made to the blood supplier for fresher RBCs, specified at 75% of RBCs less than 14 days old. The age of RBCs at time of receipt and at time of transfusion was tracked on a monthly basis for the next 12 months. The mean age of RBCs at transfusion was decreased by 9 days on average for the year. Significant decreases in the mean age of RBCs at transfusion were seen in the second half of the year, with 4 of 6 months seeing a mean age of less than 20 days. There were no documented incidences of hospital blood shortages after the reduction in inventory; no surgery was canceled or delayed because of inventory. Inventory age depends on active management, combined with vendor cooperation to receive fresher components. Reducing the age of RBC components transfused is possible without experiencing blood component shortages. Longer periods of observation may allow for further adjustment of stocking levels on a seasonal basis. © 2016 AABB.

  14. Reducing error in feline platelet enumeration by addition of Iloprost to blood specimens: comparison to prostaglandin E1 and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedten, Harold W; Bäcklund, Kerstin; Lilliehöök, Inger E

    2015-06-01

    Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and Iloprost inhibit platelet aggregation and should prevent or minimize preanalytic error with feline platelet enumeration. The objective was to compare the relative effectiveness in reducing errors in platelet enumeration by adding Iloprost to feline EDTA blood specimens in comparison to adding PGE1 or EDTA alone. In addition, a grading system for platelet aggregation in blood smears was evaluated for effectiveness in predicting prominent errors and compared to ADVIA's PLT-CLM flag. Finally, the use of plateletcrit in feline blood with platelet aggregation was evaluated. Blood specimens from 35 cats were included. Blood was collected into EDTA tubes with or without Iloprost or PGE1, and was rapidly mixed. Platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet flags were determined with an ADVIA 2120. Manual PLT was performed with a Leucoplate stain. PLT was determined by an IDEXX VetAutoread hematology analyzer (QBC). Neither addition of Iloprost nor PGE1 to EDTA blood specimens completely prevented platelet aggregation. Iloprost-treated specimens had the least severe aggregation. PGE1 was better than EDTA alone. Significant errors in PLT results were consistently identified by the grading system. ADVIA's PLT-CL flag usually predicted significant errors in PLT. QBC PLT results showed high imprecision. Manual PLT error was smaller than ADVIA PLT in EDTA specimens with aggregation. Adding Iloprost to feline blood specimens improved platelet enumeration accuracy. A grading system for severity of platelet aggregation and usually the ADVIA's PLT-CL alarm predicted specimens with significant errors in platelet enumeration. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Reduced cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics during sustained affective stimulation in young women with chronic low blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Covassin, Naima; Gallicchio, Germano; Stegagno, Luciano; Sarlo, Michela

    2015-05-01

    Although low blood pressure has been associated with lower affect and higher depressive symptoms in the elderly, the presence of possible impairment in emotional reactivity in chronic hypotensive individuals in early adulthood remains largely unexplored. Using a combination of transcranial Doppler sonography, beat-to-beat blood pressure recording and impedance cardiography we assessed central and peripheral hemodynamic changes in 15 undergraduate women with chronic hypotension (Age: 23.9 ± 2.7 years) and 15 normotensive controls (Age: 23.7 ± 3.1 years) during sustained exposure to pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Overall, systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in normotensives and decreased in hypotensives during picture viewing as compared to baseline. Also, compared to normotensives, in hypotensives mean cerebral blood flow velocity increased to a lesser extent during the viewing of pleasant pictures and the magnitude of this increase was negatively associated with subjective emotional arousal. In addition, in hypotensives screening SBP was positively associated with valence rating of pleasant contents. These findings indicate a close association between chronic low blood pressure and reduced processing of pleasant stimuli in young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Remote monitoring of blood pressure to reduce the risk of preeclampsia related complications with an innovative use of mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, R; Grewal, A; Castleman, J S

    2016-10-01

    Assess suitability of remote self-monitoring of blood pressure with an innovative use of technology in detecting raised blood pressure in pregnancy. Assess ease of use and safety of the newly developed kit which included a Bluetooth enabled blood pressure machine and an android based mobile phone. The phone was modified to have only one application in it which showed the blood pressure readings with a traffic light system. The study was a proof of concept for wider use of the kit. We provided 50 women who were admitted with the kit. We assessed ease of use of the blood pressure machine and accuracy of readings including remote transfer to a computer. Technological feasibility and acceptance by women. The technology provides accurate data and visual cues including safe remote transfer instantaneously. 90% of the women agreed that the Kit was simple to use and 78% would prefer this model of testing at home. In a relatively resource rich setting the machine can reduce the number of patient visits for women who are at risk for preeclampsia. In resource poor settings it helps to triage resources to women who need it the most. It also is a valuable tool for research. Studies of the Kit in both developed and developing world will be needed to show reduction in perinatal and maternal morbidity or mortality secondary to preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Melatonin reduces traumatic brain injur y-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex and blood of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilgnenol; Mustafa Nazrolu

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals induced by traumatic brain injury have deleterious effects on the function and antioxidant vitamin levels of several organ systems including the brain. Melatonin possesses antioxidant effect on the brain by maintaining antioxidant enzyme and vitamin levels. We in-vestigated the effects of melatonin on antioxidant ability in the cerebral cortex and blood of traumatic brain injury rats. Results showed that the cerebral cortex β-carotene, vitamin C, vita-min E, reduced glutathione, and erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels, and plasma vitamin C level were decreased by traumatic brain injury whereas they were increased following melatonin treatment. In conclusion, melatonin seems to have protective effects on traumatic brain inju-ry-induced cerebral cortex and blood toxicity by inhibiting free radical formation and supporting antioxidant vitamin redox system.

  18. Nanomolar concentration of blood-soluble drag-reducing polymer inhibits experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhijie; Joy, Marion; Kameneva, Marina V; Roy, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Extravasation of cancer cells is a critical step of metastasis. We report a novel proof-of-concept study that investigated whether non-toxic blood-soluble chemical agents capable of rheological modification of the near-vessel-wall blood flow can reduce extravasation of tumor cells and subsequent development of metastasis. Using an experimental metastasis model, we demonstrated that systemic administration of nanomolar concentrations of so-called drag-reducing polymer dramatically impeded extravasation and development of pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. This is the first proof-of-principle study to directly demonstrate physical/rheological, as opposed to chemical, way to prevent cancer cells from extravasation and developing metastasis and, thus, it opens the possibility of a new direction of adjuvant interventional approach in cancer. PMID:28280386

  19. Hydroxyethyl starch reduces coagulation competence and increases blood loss during major surgery: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael; Kridina, Irina; Kistorp, Thomas; Thind, Peter; Nielsen, Henning B; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Pedersen, Tom; Secher, Niels H

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) only a minor effect on coagulation competence is expected. Eighty patients were scanned for enrollment in the study, and 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two patients withdrew their consent to participate in the study, and 5 patients were excluded. Thus, 16 patients were randomized to receive lactated Ringer's solution and 17 to receive HES 130/0.4. Among the patients receiving HES 130/0.4, thrombelastography indicated reduced clot strength (P Administration of HES 130/0.4 reduced clot strength and perioperative hemorrhage increased by more than 50%, while administration of lactated Ringer's solution provoked an approximately 2.5 times greater positive volume balance at the end of surgery.

  20. Rosuvastatin Reduced Blood Clot Risk%罗苏伐他汀可减少血栓形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴河水; 洪班信

    2009-01-01

    A large trial of the cholesterol lowering drug rosuvastatin showed that giving1 it to healthy adults reduced their risk of blood clots (venous thromboembolism) by 43 per cent. This was the result of a subgroup analysis in the JUPITER trial2, and was published online on 28 March in The Lancet and presented at the American College of Cardiology's 58th Annual Scientific Sessions.

  1. Melatonin reduces traumatic brain injury-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex and blood of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Nilgün; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals induced by traumatic brain injury have deleterious effects on the function and antioxidant vitamin levels of several organ systems including the brain. Melatonin possesses antioxidant effect on the brain by maintaining antioxidant enzyme and vitamin levels. We investigated the effects of melatonin on antioxidant ability in the cerebral cortex and blood of traumatic brain injury rats. Results showed that the cerebral cortex β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, a...

  2. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p253

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since

  3. [Transplant coordinator: organ donation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Guillem, Purificación; Camaño-Puig, Ramón; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Spain is a leader in organ donations although it seems that this number does not increase in the same proportion that the waiting list and it is necessary to decrease the refusal situations, which are ~16%. Analytic study. We review the reports prepared by the coordinators of transplants archived at the hospital La Fe during the period between May 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, resulting in conceptualization and categorization. Sixty-nine topics were obtained from the point of view of the family and 11 from the point of view of the interviewer. After its conceptualization, codification and classification, we proceeded to create an appropriate text. Certain guidelines may be offered that allow us to standardize the action of transplant coordinators during the interview and to be more effective.

  4. Reduced LAK cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Petersen, K R; Steven, K

    1990-01-01

    were analyzed using monoclonal antibodies against T cells, natural killer (NK) -cells, monocytes, and activation markers. The cytotoxicities of US-PBMC, PS-PBMC, and LAK cells were all significantly lower in the cancer patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). The percentages of PBMC positive......The cytotoxicity of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (US-PBMC), phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC (PS-PBMC) and interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated PBMC (LAK cells) was assessed in patients with noninvasive and invasive transitional-cell bladder cancer and compared with those...... determined in healthy controls. The differences in the cytotoxicities were correlated with specific changes in the subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC from 37 patients and 13 healthy controls were tested against the bladder cancer cell line T24 in 51Cr-release assays. The PBMC subsets...

  5. Esmolol is more effective than sodium nitroprusside in reducing blood loss during orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, W S; Kafer, E R; Anderson, J A

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of esmolol and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as primary drugs for producing controlled hypotension and limiting blood loss during orthognathic surgery. Thirty ASA physical status I and II patients (mean age 22 yr) undergoing LeFort I maxillary osteotomies were randomly assigned to receive either esmolol (n = 15) or SNP (n = 15) as the primary drug to induce hypotension. All patients received a balanced anesthetic technique including isoflurane, with controlled hypotension during the downfracture of the maxilla. Patients assigned to the esmolol treatment group received boluses of 500 micrograms/kg of esmolol, followed by a continuous infusion of 100-300 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, and the SNP treatment group received a continuous infusion of SNP at 0.25-4.00 micrograms.kg-1.min-1; both infusions were titrated to obtain a mean arterial blood pressure within the target range of 55-65 mm Hg. The mean arterial blood pressure during the hypotensive period was 58.7 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SEM) and 61.8 +/- 0.4 mm Hg for esmolol and SNP, respectively (P less than 0.001). In addition, 40% +/- 4% of the observed values in the esmolol group and 53% +/- 3% in the SNP group were outside the target range for mean arterial blood pressure (difference significant at P less than 0.05), and a greater proportion of the deviations were above 65 mm Hg in the SNP group than in the esmolol group (0.64 vs 0.46, respectively, P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Reducing effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of essential hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hongwei; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The comprehensive meta-analysis aimed to explore the reductive effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Methods: The related researches were selected from PubMed and Embase databases up to June 2016. Based on specific inclusive criteria, the eligible studies were selected, and the heterogeneities in their results were estimated by χ2-based Q-test and I2 statistics. Quantitative meta-analysis was assessed by R 3.12 software, and results were presented by standardized mean difference (SMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Outcome indicators were systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The publication biases were estimated by Egger test. Besides, the “leave one out” method was used for sensitivity evaluations. Results: As a result, a total of 13 papers with 802 samples were included. Based on the meta-analysis results, there were no significant differences in SBP and DBP between aerobic and control groups before exercise (SMD = 0.15, 95%CI: −0.16–0.46; SMD = 0.16, 95% CI: −0.23–0.55). However, significant reductions were obviously in aerobic group after aerobics, compared with control (SMD = −0.79, 95% CI: −1.29 to −0.28; SMD = −0.63, 95% CI: −1.14 to −0.12). A significant publication bias was detected in SBP (t = −2.2314, P = 0.04549) but not in DBP (t = −1.4962, P = 0.1604). Additionally, the DBP result would be altered after the exclusion of 2 individual papers. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise may be a potential nonpharmacological treatment for blood pressure improvement in essential hypertensive patients. PMID:28296729

  7. Training in ChiRunning to reduce blood pressure: a randomized controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdermott, K.; Kumar, D.; Goldman, V.; Feng, H.; Mehling, W; Moskowitz, JT; Souza, RB; Hecht, FM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 McDermott et al. Background: People with prehypertension (120-130/80-90 mmHg) are at increased risk of progressing to hypertension. Recommendations for prehypertension include engaging in regular physical activity. We aimed to assess feasibility and acceptability and collect preliminary outcome data on ChiRunning for people with elevated blood pressure. ChiRunning is a commercially available running program based on the mindful movements of Tai Chi, which is aimed at decreasing injury ...

  8. Nanomolar concentration of blood-soluble drag-reducing polymer inhibits experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Z

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhijie Ding,1,* Marion Joy,1,* Marina V Kameneva,1-3 Partha Roy1,3-6 1Department of Bioengineering, 2Department of Surgery, 3McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Cell Biology, 6Magee Women’s Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Extravasation of cancer cells is a critical step of metastasis. We report a novel proof-of-concept study that investigated whether non-toxic blood-soluble chemical agents capable of rheological modification of the near-vessel-wall blood flow can reduce extravasation of tumor cells and subsequent development of metastasis. Using an experimental metastasis model, we demonstrated that systemic administration of nanomolar concentrations of so-called drag-reducing polymer dramatically impeded extravasation and development of pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. This is the first proof-of-principle study to directly demonstrate physical/rheological, as opposed to chemical, way to prevent cancer cells from extravasation and developing metastasis and, thus, it opens the possibility of a new direction of adjuvant interventional approach in cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, metastasis, extravasation, hemodynamics, drag-reducing polymer, blood cell traffic, microvessels

  9. Relationship between reduced lower abdominal blood flows and heart rate in recovery following cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, T; Iwane, H; Katsumura, T; Murase, N; Higuchi, H; Sakamoto, A; Hamaoka, T; Shimomitsu, T

    2012-03-01

    To examine the blood flow (BF) response in the lower abdomen (LAB) in recovery following upright cycling exercise at three levels of relative maximum pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and the relationship of BF(LAB) to heart rate (HR) and target intensity. For 11 healthy subjects, BF (Doppler ultrasound) in the upper abdominal aorta (Ao) above the coeliac trunk and in the right femoral artery (RFA) was measured repeatedly for 720 s after the end of cycling exercises at target intensities of 30%, 50% and 85% VO(2max), respectively. Blood flow in the lower abdomen (BF(LAB)) can be measured by subtracting bilateral BF(FAs) (≈twofolds of BF(RFA)) from BF(Ao). Change in BF(LAB) (or BF(LAB) volume) at any point was evaluated by difference between change in BF(Ao) and in BF(FAs). Heart rate and blood pressure were also measured. At 85% VO(2max), significant reduction in BF(LAB) by approx. 89% was shown at 90 s and remained until 360 s. At 50% VO(2max), reduction in BF(LAB) by approx. 33% was found at 90 s although it returned to pre-exercise value at 120 s. On the contrary at 30% VO(2max), BF(LAB) showed a light increase (exercise intensities. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  10. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W T; Reeds, D N; Mondy, K E; Overton, E T; Grassino, J; Tucker, S; Bopp, C; Laciny, E; Hubert, S; Lassa-Claxton, S; Yarasheski, K E

    2010-07-01

    People living with HIV infection are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV infection are high priorities. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virological or immunological status, or quality of life (QOL) in HIV-infected adults relative to standard of care treatment in a matched control group. Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 weeks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were: 2-h oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4 T-cell count and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36 health-related QOL inventory. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures improved more (P=0.04) in the yoga group (-5 +/- 2 and -3 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively) than in the standard of care group (+1 +/- 2 and+2 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively). However, there was no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass or proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall QOL after yoga. Immune and virological status was not adversely affected. Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low-cost, simple to administer, nonpharmacological, popular behavioural intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors.

  11. Acute stress reduces blood flow in the orofacial area, in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Mohammed, Mazher; Passatore, Magda

    2009-04-01

    In the complex neurovascular control of the orofacial area, the only vasoconstrictor action is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system; however, its functional role is still unclear as little evidence exists of vasoconstrictor responses to physiological stimuli in both animal and human models. Aim of the present study was to investigate, orofacial vascular responses to acute stress in conscious rabbits. Twenty rabbits, implanted with chronic perivascular flow probes on the facial artery and with a telemetric probe for arterial blood pressure, were subjected to different alerting/stress stimuli, i.e., noise, taps on the rabbit's box, air jet, noxious cutaneous stimuli. Smaller groups of animal also underwent electromyographic (EMG) activity recording from the masseter muscle, unilateral section of the cervical sympathetic nerve (n=8), and alpha-adrenergic blockade with phentolamine (n=6). On average, all stressors evoked a pressor response accompanied by variable changes in heart rate and induced a marked, short-latency reduction in facial artery blood flow, corresponding to a decrease of 37-50% in vascular conductance of the facial artery. Local sympathetic denervation abolished