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Sample records for blood donation reduces

  1. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  2. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...

  3. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  4. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  5. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  6. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  7. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  8. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  9. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  10. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families.......BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...

  11. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safely and comfortably returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...

  12. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...

  13. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... database. Most whole blood donations are spun in centrifuges to separate it into transfusable components: red cells, ... 2, your test tubes arrive at a testing laboratory. A dozen tests are performed, to establish the ...

  14. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  16. Where to Donate Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Find ... Correspondence Regulatory and Public Meetings Stop the Bleed Professional Development Education Annual Meeting International Cord Blood Symposium ...

  17. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Find ... Correspondence Regulatory and Public Meetings Stop the Bleed Professional Development Education Annual Meeting International Cord Blood Symposium ...

  18. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia

  19. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood donation on posters: a worldwide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Originally pasted on walls and on locations reserved specially for that purpose, the poster is a medium for advertising and promotion to be seen on the streets and in public places. More recently, it has spread, in a smaller format, on dedicated indoor sites: billboards, columns, street furniture, and so forth. For transfusion, it appeared early on that the poster constitutes an important medium to promote blood donation. Thousands of posters supporting regional, national, or international blood donation campaigns have been created all over the planet, with a great variability of images, symbols, and slogans, which are particularly revealing about the image and the reality of blood donation. The topic is rich in information, particularly sociologic, on the variety of ways in which transfusion organizations promote blood donation. The authors present in this article the results of a study based on a total of 283 posters from nations on every continent, divided into 24 different themes. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Free blood donation mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali; Pozo, José Rivera

    2015-05-01

    Blood donation (BD) is a noble act and mobile applications (apps) can help increase awareness about it. This paper analyzes and assesses the characteristics of free apps for BD as regards features and functionality. A search in Google Play, Apple Apps store, Blackberry App World and Windows Mobile App store was carried out to select 169 free BD apps from the 188 apps identified. The results presented in this paper show that the majority of the apps selected have been developed for the Android operating system. Moreover, most of the apps selected are available to help users search for donors. Few of the apps could not be installed and/or accessed. Of those that could be installed: half of them do not require any kind of authentication; a few of them are available in more than one language; half of them have a geographical restriction; around 60 % of them do not notify the user of BD events and requests; one, which is available for Android and iOS, can connect with a laboratory; around 45 % of them allow users to share information via social networks, and the majority of them do not provide BD recommendations. These results are used as a basis to provide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for better BD apps with more features in order to increase the number of volunteer donors.

  3. Antenatal blood donation: Pregnant mothers' attitude, fears and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to 150,000 pregnancy-related deaths could be avoided each year through access to safe blood. Antenatal blood donation, which will increase access to safe blood, is one of the ways to reduce maternal mortality in this environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude, fears and preferences of pregnant mothers ...

  4. The blood donation experience: self-reported motives and obstacles for donating blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, B Nilsson; Sojka, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate motives for donating blood as well as difficulties and obstacles associated with blood donation as perceived by the donors themselves. Six hundred consecutive blood donors (i.e. all blood donors with a history of at least one previous whole blood donation attending, during nine working days, the Blood Centre of Umeå University Hospital) received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions aimed at elucidating motives for donating blood (general motives for donating blood, specific motives for the first donation and motives for continuing to be an active blood donor). Questions concerning difficulties and obstacles that had to be overcome in order to continue being a blood donor were also included in the questionnaire. Altogether 531 whole blood donors filled in the questionnaire (88.5%; 322 men and 209 women). No statistically significant differences were found between male and female blood donors concerning general reasons and motives related to donating blood. The most frequently reported reasons for giving blood the first time were 'influence from a friend' (47.2% of donors) and 'request via media' (23.5% of donors). Among general reasons/motives with highest ranking of importance, the most commonly reported motive for donating blood were 'general altruism' (40.3%), 'social responsibility/obligation' (19.7%) and 'influence from friends' (17.9%). General altruism' and 'social responsibility/obligation' were also the most frequent reasons for continuing to donate blood (68.4 and 16.0%, respectively). The most commonly reported obstacle to becoming a regular blood donor was 'laziness' (19.1%) followed by 'fear of needles' (10.5%). Altruism was the most common general motive for donating blood and also for continuing to be an active blood donor. Yet, for the first blood donation, direct 'influence from friends/relatives', 'media appeal' and other types of recruitment were more commonly reported as reasons or

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is some evidence to suggest that the greater one's knowledge in the blood donation process and the need to donate blood, the more likely one would donate blood. Generally, the lack of knowledge among participants in most studies on blood donation issues seems to be a major concern. There is a ...

  6. "The Tramp", a blood donation propagandist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-02-01

    The French pioneer for blood transfusion, who eventually organized the very early blood transfusion centers worldwide, went to imagine a scenario written in purpose for Charlie Chaplin, the unique character of "The Tramp" ("Charlot" in French). The movie Star was offered to feature a blood donation propagandist, and no longer the perpetual, well-known, "loser". This anecdote, besides being amusing, tells a lot on how Arnault Tzank encompassed all the difficulties in collecting blood enough to meet the demand, at all times; his proposal turns out to be extremely modern and questions nowadays marketing for blood donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. What would encourage blood donation in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A

    2007-05-01

    Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage

  8. Temporal distribution of blood donations in three Brazilian blood centers and its repercussion on the blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Liu, Emily Jing; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Loureiro, Paula; Wright, David; Custer, Brian; Gonçalez, Thelma Therezinha; Capuani, Ligia; Busch, Michael; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of blood donation hinders efforts to provide a safe and adequate blood supply leading to chronic and persistent shortages. This study examined whether holidays, geographical area and donation type (community versus replacement) has any impact on the fluctuation of donations. The numbers of blood donations from 2007 through 2010 in three Brazilian Retrovirus Epidemiological Donor Study II (REDS-II) participating centers were analyzed according to the week of donation. The weeks were classified as holiday or non-holiday. To compare donations performed during holiday versus non-holiday weeks, tabulations and descriptive statistics for weekly donations by blood center were examined and time series analysis was conducted. The average weekly number of donations varied according to the blood center and type of week. The average number of donations decreased significantly during Carnival and Christmas and increased during the Brazilian National Donor Week. The fluctuation was more pronounced in Recife and Belo Horizonte when compared to São Paulo and higher among community donors. National bank holidays affect the blood supply by reducing available blood donations. Blood banks should take into account these oscillations in order to plan local campaigns, aiming at maintaining the blood supply at acceptable levels.

  9. Time course for the recovery of physical performance, blood hemoglobin, and ferritin content after blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Andreas K; Grand, Johannes; Stangerup, Ida

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that blood donation negatively affects endurance performance, but data on physical recovery after a standard blood donation are scarce. This study aimed to elucidate the temporary impact of blood donation on endurance performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO......2peak ) and time trial (TT) performance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: VO2peak , TT performance, blood, iron, and anthropometric variables were determined before (baseline) and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after blood donation in 19 healthy men. RESULTS: VO2peak was reduced by 6.5% from 49.7 ± 2 m......L/kg/min at baseline to 46.3 ± 2 mL/kg/min on Day 3 (p donation. Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined 7.9% from 9.3 ± 0.11 mmol...

  10. Blood Donation and Transfusion: A Primer for Health Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)

  11. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect....

  12. [Blood donation: mechanic solidarity versus organic solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereima, Rosane Suely May Rodrigues; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.

  13. First-time whole blood donation: A critical step for donor safety and retention on first three donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, P; Rapaille, A; Benoît, A; Ceinos, M; Bertrand, O; de Bouyalsky, I; Govaerts, B; Lambermont, M

    2015-01-01

    Whole blood donation is generally safe although vasovagal reactions can occur (approximately 1%). Risk factors are well known and prevention measures are shown as efficient. This study evaluates the impact of the donor's retention in relation to the occurrence of vasovagal reaction for the first three blood donations. Our study of data collected over three years evaluated the impact of classical risk factors and provided a model including the best combination of covariates predicting VVR. The impact of a reaction at first donation on return rate and complication until the third donation was evaluated. Our data (523,471 donations) confirmed the classical risk factors (gender, age, donor status and relative blood volume). After stepwise variable selection, donor status, relative blood volume and their interaction were the only remaining covariates in the model. Of 33,279 first-time donors monitored over a period of at least 15 months, the first three donations were followed. Data emphasised the impact of complication at first donation. The return rate for a second donation was reduced and the risk of vasovagal reaction was increased at least until the third donation. First-time donation is a crucial step in the donors' career. Donors who experienced a reaction at their first donation have a lower return rate for a second donation and a higher risk of vasovagal reaction at least until the third donation. Prevention measures have to be processed to improve donor retention and provide blood banks with adequate blood supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological and hormonal stress reactions during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, Maurits; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Merz, E.M.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  15. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  16. Whole-blood donation: blood donor suitability and adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bruce H

    2004-11-01

    Approximately 3% to 3.5% of the US population donates whole blood each year. Physicians might be approached by a blood donor because of a donor suitability issue, a positive postdonation test, or a donation-related complication. Approximately 83% of blood donors successfully donate; but 13% are rejected because of a donor suitability issue; 1% have a positive test, which is often nonspecific or false-positive; and 2% to 4% of the phlebotomies are not successful. The most common adverse physical events based on donor interviews are bruise (23%), sore arm (10%), fatigue (8%), and vasovagal reaction (7%), while uncommon events include nerve irritation (0.9%), syncope (0.1-0.3%), and arterial puncture (0.01%). One in 3400 donors (0.033%) report seeking outside medical care. Serious injuries occur but are very rare. More often, blood donors do well and feel satisfied with the blood donation experience.

  17. Results of the 24 July blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2013-01-01

    "Bravo! A huge success! A big thanks to everyone involved for their valuable participation this summer," says Ms. Troillet, the nurse responsible for the Transfusion Centre (CTS) at HUG.   During the 24 July blood donation, blood was collected from 109 of the 150 people who attended (including 53 new donors). This excellent result is particularly noteworthy, since blood supplies are at their lowest levels in hospitals during the summer season. The CERN Medical Service joins CTS in thanking all donors for their generous gesture and Ms. Vuattaz, manager of the restaurant NOVAE No. 2 and her team, for their collaboration. Upcoming blood donations:           Wednesday 16 October 2013           Thursday 3 April 2014           Wednesday 23 July 23 2014

  18. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose......-response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n...... plasma donors (> 25 vs 0 donations, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated blood donation was not associated with increased or decreased risk of cancer overall. The lack of consistency across latency periods casts doubt on an apparent association between reduced cancer risk and iron...

  19. Negative peri-donation events among whole blood donors in a blood bank in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Foluke A

    2017-12-31

    The existence and sustenance of the blood bank depends on blood donors. It is imperative that the donation experience is satisfactory for the donors. Therefore this study was carried out to determine the frequency of undesirable events experienced by the blood donor as part of donor haemovigilance. This was a retrospective descriptive study of the events that occurred amongst the blood donors of the blood bank of a tertiary institution. The blood donor incident book was reviewed for the period of six months. Negative undesirable events occurred in 2% of the donor populations, of which 45.8% could not complete the blood donation process while only 16.7% completed the blood donation process. Mild vasovagal attack occurred in 0.2% of the donor population. Undisclosed deferrable risk factors/ behaviours were identified by the phlebotomist in the bleeding room which made donors unfit for donation even though they had passed the donor screening criteria. This accounted for 20.8% of those with negative experience. Guidelines are required to identify donors that are not likely to complete donation to avoid wastage of time, blood, resources and reduce undesirable experiences.

  20. The infectious disease blood safety risk of Australian hemochromatosis donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.

  1. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  2. Knowledge and practice of blood donation among university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood donation is an essential component of health care which saves millions of lives each year.Students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria constitute a significant percentage of the population who areconsidered to meet the criteria for voluntary blood donation. We sought to assess the knowledge, attitude ...

  3. Safety and frequency of whole blood donations from elderly donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhardt, M; Müller-Kuller, T; Weiss, C; Menzel, D; Wiesneth, M; Seifried, E; Klüter, H

    2012-02-01

    Within the coming decades, a steadily growing demand for blood products will face a shrinking blood donor population in many countries. After increasing the donor age of repeat donors for whole blood donation (WB) from 68 to 70 years in 2009 in our Blood Service, we investigated whether this is sufficient as a safe and effective strategy to sustain future blood supply. Between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2011, WB donations from donors aged between 69 and 70 and their proportion of total donations in 2010 were determined. We analysed adverse reaction rates in donors with respect to sex and age and calculated mean annual donation frequencies. Of all invited donors, 32·5% responded and contributed 0·98% (men) and 0·56% (women) to all WB units collected in 2010. The overall and systemic adverse reaction rate per 1·000 WB donations declined by age [men: 1·10 (95%CI: 0·84-1·35) vs. 0 (0-0·8), P donation frequencies were strongly correlated with increasing age (men: r = 0·953, P donate blood. Thus, we consider donations from repeat donors aged 69-70 safe and suggest it a powerful short- to midterm strategy to, at least partially, overcome the challenges of the demographic change. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Umbilical cord blood donation: public or private?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J

    2015-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.

  5. Socio-Economic Determinants of Blood Donation in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest L. Mramba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health insurance were negatively related with blood donation at 1%, 5%, 10%, 1% level with p values of 0.000, 0.011, 0.070, 0.012, respectively, as per assumption. However, age, strong social network at community, employment status, and level of income were not significant determinants. Conclusively, blood donation was largely determined by sex, level of education, health status, cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, fear for HIV test results and health insurance. To increase blood donation, females must be encouraged, emphasis on education, eradication of the myths and misconception about blood donation, partnerships between national blood transfusion and religious bodies, need for more community’s awareness about blood donation so as to alleviate unfounded fear (i.e. fear for HIV test results, need of improving health status of the people and donor recruitments programs strategies must be improved.

  6. The pattern of blood donation and transfusion transmissible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood for transfusion in Nigeria is largely collected from family members or commercial blood donors who would rather conceal information that could disqualify them from blood donation. The blood service is expected to transform blood sources to voluntary, guided by altruism and self-risk assessment and ...

  7. A Strategic Planning Tool for Increasing African American Blood Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Ashley; Spratling, Regena

    2018-05-01

    Historically, African Americans (AAs) have been underrepresented as blood donors. Having a lack of racially diverse blood donors contributes to transfusion complications, particularly in patients with sickle cell disease, who are both disproportionately AA and the recipients of frequent transfusions. Increasing AA blood donation is a complex public health issue. This review article serves to fill a gap in translating research regarding known hindrances and facilitators of AA blood donation to improve real-world donation practice and ultimately, patient outcomes. We incorporate findings from a literature review to develop a tool that blood centers, provider organizations, and patient advocacy groups can use to aid strategic planning efforts aimed at increasing AA blood donation.

  8. Knowledge and behavior towards voluntary blood donation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gift items such as hematinics, T-shirts and wrist bands (29%) would motivate respondents to donate. Conclusion: The Students' Union body and other Organizations in the University should include a blood donation drive in their monthly/annual activities. The University authorities, the University health service centre and the ...

  9. Status and Deterrents of Blood Donation among Civil Servants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The association between blood donation practice and socio demographic .... maximum errors to be +/-5% plus 10 % contingency. The 95% .... population for donation, only a small proportion had ... significant in the model. .... journal of Business Economics, and Management ... Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences.

  10. Dengue virus in blood donations, Puerto Rico, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Tomashek, Kay; Foster, Gregory; Broulik, Amy S; Petersen, Lyle; Stramer, Susan L

    2008-07-01

    A single instance of transfusion-transmitted dengue infection has been reported. The high incidence of dengue in endemic countries, the high proportion of asymptomatic infection, and the median 5-day viremia, however, suggest that transfusion-associated dengue transmission may be more widespread than documented. The prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA was determined in all blood donations to the American Red Cross in Puerto Rico from September 20 to December 4, 2005, using a specific type of nucleic acid amplification test called transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). TMA-positive donations were defined as those having two repeatedly reactive TMA results. TMA-positive donations were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by viral culture. Twelve (0.07%) of 16,521 blood donations tested were TMA-positive. Four were positive by RT-PCR (DENV serotypes 2 and 3). Virus was cultured from 3 of 4 RT-PCR-positive donations. One of the 12 TMA-positive donations was IgM-positive. Only 5 donations remained TMA-positive when diluted 1:16, as is done for routine minipool screening for other transfusion-transmissible viral infections (hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency, West Nile viruses [WNVs]). Nearly 1 in 1000 blood donations contained DENV RNA, and virus could be cultured from TMA-positive donations, suggesting a transfusion transmission risk similar to that which existed in the United States for WNV before universal donation screening. Similar to WNV, IgM antibody screening is likely to be ineffective, and some potentially infectious donations will be missed by minipool screening. Transfusion transmission should be considered in patients with dengue after blood transfusion.

  11. Motivating Cord Blood Donation with Information and Behavioral Nudges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Daniela; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Di Martino, Daniela

    2018-01-10

    Umbilical cord blood is a source of hematopoietic stem cells essential to treat life-threatening diseases, such as leukemia and lymphoma. However, only a very small percentage of parents donate upon delivery. The decision to donate the cord blood occurs at a very specific time and when parents likely experience emotional, informational, and decisional overloads; these features of cord blood donation make it different from other pro-social activities. In collaboration with an OB-GYN clinic in Milan, Italy, we conducted the first randomized controlled trial that applies tools from behavioral science to foster cord blood donation, and quantified the gains that informational and behavioral "nudges" can achieve. We found that information and "soft" commitments increased donations; approaching expecting parents closer to the delivery date and providing them with multiple reminders, moreover, had the strongest impact. However, a significant portion of women who expressed consent to donate could not do so because of organizational constraints. We conclude that simple, non-invasive behavioral interventions that address information gaps and procrastination, and that increase the salience of the activity can substantially enhance altruistic donations of cord blood, especially when coupled with organizational support.

  12. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  13. Ten years of preoperative autologous blood donation in Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    while almost equal proportions donated one or two units of blood which meets the blood needs of most elective surgeries. Therefore healthy patients going for elective surgeries in regions with limited blood supply must be encouraged to enter a PABD Programme. Further studies in this field should evaluate motivational ...

  14. HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, A; Kouriba, B; Baby, M; Murphy, E; Lefrere, J-J

    2009-01-01

    Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (pdonations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.

  15. Physiological stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Tarvainen, M P; Merz, E-M; Huis In 't Veld, E M J; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2018-03-24

    Donating blood is associated with increased psychological stress. This study investigates whether a blood donation induces physiological stress and if response patterns differ by gender, donation experience and non-acute stress. In 372 donors, physiological stress [blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse rate variability (PRV)] was measured at seven moments during routine donation. PRV was assessed using time domain [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power] parameters. Non-acute stress was assessed by questionnaire. Shape and significance of time course patterns were assessed by fitting multilevel models for each stress measure and comparing men and women, first-time and experienced donors, and donors with high and low levels of non-acute stress. Significant response patterns were found for all stress measures, where levels of systolic blood pressure (F(1,1315) = 24·2, P blood pressure (F(1,1326) = 50·9, P blood pressure/pulse rate in women; higher pulse rate in first-time donors; higher RMSSD at arrival and from screening until leaving in first-time donors; and higher LF and HF in first-time donors. This study shows an increase in physiological stress related to needle insertion, followed by a decrease when leaving the donation centre. Some group effects were also found. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. STUDY ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF BLOOD DONORS TOWARDS BLOOD DONATION IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Dilip

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blood is the living force of our body and there is no substitute for it. It can only be replaced through blood donation. Blood donation can save millions of lives. Demand for safe blood is increasing every day because of increase in population, increased life-expectancy and urbanisation, trauma cases, major surgeries, patients with regular transfusion requirement like cases of thalassaemia, haemophilia and chemotherapy. To increase blood donor recruitment and retention, the level of knowledge and attitude of blood donors towards blood donation must be known as this affects donor’s decision of blood donation. This information helps for tailoring targeted programs and campaigns in order to recruit more people as regular voluntary blood donors. OBJECTIVE To assess the level of knowledge and attitude regarding blood donation amongst blood donors in Bijapur district, Karnataka. MATERIALS AND METHODS Blood donors registered for blood donation in B.L.D.E. University’s Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre’s Blood Bank, in Bijapur district were included in this study. The data was collected by filling a self-administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to all the donors ready to participate in the study. Questionnaires were distributed at the time of registration and were collected after filling during the refreshment period. Also one-on-one individual interviews were conducted to know about the blood donation experience and willingness of donor for future donation. A scoring mechanism was used to understand the level of knowledge, a score of one was given for each correct response and zero for wrong and unaware response. RESULTS In this study, it was found that 61% of the participants had average knowledge [Cumulative score 4-6], 34% of the participants had good knowledge [Cumulative score 7-8] and 5% of participants had poor knowledge [Cumulative score 0-3] about the different

  17. Give blood today or save lives tomorrow: Matching decision and message construal level to maximize blood donation intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizler, Amalia; Garbarino, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The research extends construal theory by testing if a match between the temporal construal framing of a blood donation decision and a blood donation request leads to higher donation intentions than a mismatch. Results show participants considering future donation who read an abstract donation request have significantly higher donation intentions than those who read a concrete request. Conversely, participants considering donating today who read a concrete donation request have significantly higher donation intentions than those who read an abstract request. This study confirms the importance of matching the construal framing of the communication to the temporal framing of the decision.

  18. Barriers and motivators to blood and cord blood donations in young African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Brenda; Watkins, Andre R; Fleming, Faye; Debaun, Michael R

    2005-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess potential barriers and motivators to blood and cord blood donation among African-American women. A telephone survey of African-American women, ages 18-30 years, in the St. Louis metropolitan area was performed. The survey was administered by trained telemarketing personnel using a Computer-Assisted Direct Interview (CADI) system. One hundred sixty-two women were surveyed. Common barriers to blood donation were inconvenience of donor sites (19%), fear of needles (16%), and too much time required to donate (15%). Potential motivators were increasing awareness of need for blood (43%), increasing the number of convenient donor locations (19%), and encouragement by spiritual leaders to have blood drives at their church (17%). Lack of awareness was the only identified barrier to cord blood donation. Most women surveyed (88%) indicated that they definitely or probably would donate cord blood. Strategies to increase the proportion of African-American blood and cord blood donations may include educating potential donors about the process and benefits of donation to particular patient populations and engaging church leadership in supporting blood and cord blood donations.

  19. Knowing blood donation surroundings: Implications for nurse service in hemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gilce Erbe de Miranda; Valadares, Glaucia Valente

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at discussing the significations apprehended by the non-blood donators, considering the context and the consequences of the acting of the nurse in hemotherapy. It is a qualitative approach, with theoretical frame of Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory method. The data production was carried out by intensive interview with subjects of three sample groups of a University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro City. The phenomenon originated two analysis categories: "Perceiving the blood matter" and "Reflecting about the blood donation campaigns". It was observed that the environment of the donor is not composed by contact with the other and the information that it can achieve, including the media. These were the main basis for the knowledge of blood donation according to their beliefs, culture and values. Therefore, all these aspects must be considered by the nurse acting on donors capture.

  20. Trends in US minority red blood cell unit donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth

    2017-05-01

    To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Perceptions of donors and recipients regarding blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Vander Monteiro da; Araújo, Jeferson Santos; Oliveira, Rafaela Azevedo Abrantes de; Santana, Mary Elizabeth de; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the perceptions of blood donors and recipients regarding the act of donating blood. This descriptive study with a survey design focuses on subjective and cultural aspects. Twenty donors and 20 recipients in the blood bank at the time of data collection participated in the study. Interviews were analyzed according to deductive thematic analysis. Two themes emerged - perceptions of donors and perceptions of recipients. Both groups saw the act of donating blood as something positive, though donors associated their reports with the experiences of people close to them who needed blood transfusions, while the recipients associated donations with the maintenance of their lives as, for them, a blood transfusion was a necessary medical treatment. Perceptions regarding blood donations are culturally constructed, as the participants associated knowledge acquired in the social world with moral issues and their life experiences. Hence, in addition to helping others, these individuals feel socially and morally rewarded. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Corpore sano in mens sana'. The Morality of Blood Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado Neira, David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern conceptions of health separate body from soul in the familiar Cartesian dualism. In blood donation this separation is easy to identify: embodiment is a civilizing process, and altruism is the moral basis that supports it. The donor is treated as essentially a vessel of blood, a mere container which can be directed to discharge its contents into blood banks. The biomedical use of blood is not morally neutral; indeed, the donor's moral conscience is mobilised in order to get them to donate blood as a gift, or offering. By associating donors' altruism with their bodies' physical nature as a container from which blood can be extracted, altruism is treated as a physiological phenomenon.

  3. Socio-Economic Determinants of Blood Donation in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest L. Mramba; Ismail J. Ismail

    2018-01-01

    The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health in...

  4. Adverse reactions to blood donations: the READ project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garozzo, Giovanni; Crocco, Isabella; Giussani, Barbara; Martinucci, Annalisa; Monacelli, Stefano; Randi, Vanda

    2010-01-01

    In 2006 in Italy 2,404,267 donations of blood components were made by 1,539,454 donors; approximately 55% of the donations were collected directly by Transfusion Structures (TS), while about 45% were collected in Donation Centres managed by Associations and Federations of Donors. The aim of the READ (Rilevamento Eventi Avversi alla Donazione) project is to create a network of TS to test a standardised system for monitoring adverse events (AE) related to blood donations. Shared, standardised data collection forms, compatible with the forms produced by the ISBT-EHN, were prepared. Two types of form were used: (i) a form to collect data on single events (READ 1), to be used at the individual collection sites; (ii) a form for processing the data collected by each TS (READ 2). Between February and August 2008 six TS collected data related to the donation of 89,332 units of blood. Overall, 523 AE were recorded. The AE occurred in 0.59% of the donations. The mean duration of the symptoms was 17 minutes. Fifteen percent of the symptoms were related to the venipuncture (mainly haematomas) and 77% to vasovagal AE. The AE were defined severe (grade C) in 47 cases. The donations in which AE were recorded were completed in 81% of the cases; 59% of the AE did not require treatment. Three donors were monitored briefly (for less than 4 hours) in hospital. The use of standardised forms enabled the collection of data that could be analysed. Some problems related to the performance of the haemovigilance programme did, however, emerge: (i) organisational problems, (ii) limited sensitivity, (iii) inadequate training, and (iv) poorly defined responsibilities. These problems must be resolved at various levels: local, regional and national.

  5. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  6. Donated blood--gift or commodity? Some economic and ethical considerations on voluntary vs commercial donation of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schubert, H

    1994-07-01

    The author applies the theory of public goods on donated blood. Donated blood may be taken as a 'public good' like water and air, police and fire brigades. This theory trends to imply a preference for voluntary donation and bloodbanking by public and nonprofit organisations as well as for low cost supply. An additional commercial supply of blood nevertheless is welcome. Quality as well as quantity of blood depend first of all on the willingness to donate and the honesty of the donors about their health. An altruistic motivation alone, which is not triggered by some material incentive, does not in all systems guarantee a sufficient quantity of safe blood. Both the altruistic as well as the reimbursement-oriented donor's willingness and honesty have to be guarded by sound practice in bloodbanking and adequate public control within a legal framework which reflects the vital role of blood supply. A legal implementation of product liability will certainly be an important instrument in this field.

  7. Impact of the May 12, 2008, Earthquake on blood donations across five Chinese blood centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Huang, Yi; Wang, Jingxing; Bi, Xinhong; Li, Julin; Lu, Yunlai; Wen, Xiuqiong; Yao, Fuzhu; Dong, Xiangdong; He, Weilan; Huang, Mei; Ma, Hongli; Mei, Heili; King, Melissa; Wright, David J; Ness, Paul M; Shan, Hua

    2010-09-01

    On May 12, 2008, a severe earthquake struck China's Sichuan Province. The nationwide outpouring of charity resulted in a surge of subsequent blood donations. The quantity and quality of these donations were examined in comparison with routine donations. Whole blood and apheresis donations from five geographically different blood centers collected within 1 week postearthquake were compared with those collected during the rest of the year. Regional differences, demographic characteristics, first-time and repeat donor status, and infectious disease screening markers associated with these donations were compared by earthquake status using chi-square statistics. Poisson regression analysis examined the number of daily donations by earthquake status after adjusting for center, day of week, and seasonal variations. The number of daily donations across five blood centers increased from 685 on a typical day to 1151 in the postearthquake week. The surge was observed in both sexes and across different education levels, age, and ethnicity groups and three blood centers and was significant after adjusting for confounding covariates. The influx of first-time donors (89.5%) was higher than that of repeat donors (34%). There was a significant change in the overall screening reactive marker rates excluding alanine aminotransferase (2.06% vs. 1.72%% vs. 4.96%). However, when the individual screening test was analyzed separately, no significant differences were found. Timely donations in response to a disaster are crucial to ensure emergency blood transfusion. The dramatically increased postearthquake donations suggest that Chinese blood centers are capable of handling emergency blood needs. Measures to maintain blood safety should be taken in times of emergency. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. The effect of repeated blood donations on the iron status of male Saudi blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saleh M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Regular blood donation can lead to iron deficiency. Screening donors’ serum ferritin levels at the time of first donation and subsequently once every year is a very rational way to pick up iron deficiency in a voluntary blood donor population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of blood donation and the prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency (sideropenia) in Saudi male blood donors. Materials and methods. The study was prospectively conducted, between December 2008 and March 2009, on 182 male native Saudi blood donors at King Fahd Central Hospital in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Each donor gave 450±50 mL of whole blood. Following the donation, samples were removed into 2.5 mL EDTA tubes for measurement of mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and into 7.5 mL plain tubes for estimation of iron and serum ferritin concentrations. The blood donors were divided into five groups, according to the number of donations they had given in the preceding 3 years. The blood donors in group I were first-time donors, with no previous history of blood donation. Group II donors had donated once in the last 3 years. Subjects in groups III, IV and V had donated more than once in the preceding 3 years and were considered regular donors. Results. The mean serum iron was significantly higher among subjects with no previous history of blood donation (group I) than among regular donors who had donated twice or more. The difference in serum ferritin concentration was statistically significant (pdonated once in the last 3 years, and in first-time blood donors (131.4 μg/L) was not statistically significant (pdonated between two to five times had iron deficiency. The prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency in regular blood donors was 4.3%. Conclusion. The results of this study show that an increase in the number of donations results in an increase in the frequency of depleted iron stores and subsequently in

  9. Donation intensity and metabolic syndrome in active whole-blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peffer, K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Geurts-Moespot, A.J.; den Heijer, M.; Atsma, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Increased iron and metabolic syndrome (MetS) go hand in hand. Frequent blood donation depletes iron stores. This study investigates whether high-intensity blood donation is associated with lower MetS prevalence compared with low-intensity blood donation, and whether iron

  10. Complications associated with blood donations in a blood bank at an Indian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Monika; Jindal, Tarun

    2014-09-01

    Blood donation, though safe, has a few potentially avoidable complications associated with it. They are important reasons for the failure of the donors to return for repeat donations. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and identify the possible factors associated with increased risk of blood donation related complications so that they can be minimized. A prospective study was done over a period of four months in the blood bank of an Indian tertiary care hospital to record the donation related complications. Out of 7450 blood donations, total donation associated complications were 74, of which majority were vasovagal reactions (VVRs) (n=48), followed by venous hematomas (n=24) and arterial punctures (n=2). The incidence of VVRs was more, though not statistically significant, in females, replacement/repeat donors, donors between 21-30 y of age and who had a body-mass-index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9. VVRs were more common in April (p=0.002) and in those who donated 450ml of blood (pdonated 350ml of blood, statistically significant association was seen only in repeat donors (pdonation in our country has a complication rate of nearly 1%.

  11. Exploring opinions and beliefs about cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise

    2010-05-01

    Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.

  12. Causes of discontinuity of blood donation among donors in Shiraz, Iran: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kasraian

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The adequacy of blood depends on blood donation rates and numbers of blood donors. To prepare adequate blood supplies, it is essential to investigate the barriers and factors that stop individuals from donating. This study aimed to identify the causes of lapsed donation at our center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of volunteer blood donors in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: We selected 850 donors who had donated between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2005, but had not donated again by June 2008. The participants were recruited by letter and telephone, and were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire that contained items on demographic characteristics, donor motivations and reasons for not returning to donate. We used the chi-square test to identify associations between lapsed donor characteristics and reasons for declining to donate. RESULTS: The greatest motivation for donation was altruism. The most frequent reasons for lapsed donation were lack of time because of work and self-exclusion for medical reasons. Among first-time donors, the most frequent reasons were unsuitability for donation and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for not returning to donate are varied and may correlate with demographic characteristics. In this study, the main reason for not returning was lack of time. Changing donation hours so that donors can donate after work, providing mobile teams at workplaces, and shortening the duration of the donation process may help increase repeat donation rates.

  13. STAFF OFFICERS AS BLOOD SUPPLIERS: EFFECTS OF REPEATED DONATIONS AND AUTOLOGOUS REINFUSIONS OF UNTRANSFUSED UNITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandenes, Geir; Sivertsen, Joar; Eliassen, Håkon; Braathen, Hanne; Hervig, Tor A

    2018-01-24

    Limited blood inventory and resupply chains in combat settings can result in preventable deaths from traumatic hemorrhage. One way of mitigating this could be to establish donor pools where blood is collected in advance of high-risk missions and then reinfused back to the donor if not needed to treat casualties. 450+56 mL blood was collected, rested for 2 hours in room temperature and stored at 4 °C. The blood was reinfused 22-24 hours after donation and the donor observed for adverse reactions. Samples were collected before and 20 minutes after each donation for hematology, IgG, ferritin, CRP, total protein, LDH, bilirubin, haptoglobin and APTT. 9 participants went through a total of 36 donation and reinfusion procedures. 4 donors participated in 5 rounds, 2 in 4 rounds, 2 in 3 rounds, and 1 in 2 rounds. A significant drop was seen in hemoglobin (14.6 ± 0.9 to 13.9 ± 0.9) and ferritin (179 ± 70 to 149 ± 78) from before first donation to after the last reinfusion (pdonations and reinfusions may be both feasible and safe. Blood collected in this way should be labeled with the donor's full name and social security number (or similar) and the identity visually verified by the donor immediately before both donation and reinfusion. To further reduce risk, this form of donation should be restricted to scenarios where there is no other option for making blood available. Therapeutic/care management study, Level V.

  14. Economic crisis and blood donation: How are donors' motivations changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Guiddi, Paolo; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    The economic crisis has exasperated people's feelings of loneliness; job instability often does not allow people to commit to voluntary work. The present work proposes to examine whether the motivations to donate blood have changed before and during the period of economic crisis, taking into consideration donors' gender. We adopted Omoto & Snyder's functionalist approach, which states that blood donation serves different functions for any one person, who may have different motivations from those held by other people. We compared six-year pre-post (t1 "pre-crisis": 2008 - t2 "during the crisis": 2014) data on a sample of blood donors in a single blood donation center situated in Northern Italy. T-test was used for data analysis. Three hundred thirty donors (age range 18-60, M = 32.6, SD = 9.53; 54.5% male) were administered a survey at t1 and 444 (age range 18-60, M = 37.8, SD = 10.16; 68% male) six years later at t2. In both surveys, participants were administered a questionnaire with socio-demographic items and a version of Omoto & Snyder's Motivations to Volunteer scale adapted to blood donation. Donors' motivation priorities did not vary over time. Values and Self-enhancement motivations are the most prevalent. Knowledge and Ego-protection motivations decreased with the upsurge of the crisis. Women, in general, report higher mean values than men do for Values and Ego-protection motivations. These results can offer valuable clues for the agencies that manage blood collection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Knowledge Attitude & Practices towards Voluntary Blood Donation among Medical Students in Barabanki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Chopra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Blood Donation can save million lives. Voluntary blood donations are the cornerstone of a safe and adequate supply of blood and blood products. The safest blood donors are voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low-risk populations. Objectives: The present study was undertaken with an aim to understand the factors like knowledge, attitude and practices associated with voluntary blood donation among the medical students in a medical college. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional study with a sample size of 278. A pre-tested semi structured questionnaire was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding blood donation in the study subjects. The data was analyzed by applying suitable statistical methods. Results:  The knowledge about the recommended age and interval of blood donation was 90 % & 48.9% respectively. Nearly 23% of students had ever donated blood and the majority of subjects (56.5% did not have an opportunity to donate blood. 75.54 % of students were willing to donate blood at the time of study. Conclusion: Creating the opportunities regarding the blood donation may lead to the achievement of goal of 100% non-remunerated voluntary blood donation.

  16. Blood hero: An application for encouraging the blood donation by applying gamification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Daniela C L; Lima, Luis F S G; Messias, Thiago F; Feijo, Jose V L; Diniz, Anthony A R; Soares, Heliana B

    2016-08-01

    There is a strong need for actions to supply the blood demand in the World. Based on this fact, it was designed an application, named `Blood Hero', by applying the `gamification' concept, which allows users to be rewarded by social acts related to the blood donation. It takes advantage of the application of mobile devices, implementing a specific social network, to attract and retain blood donators. This application makes possible an interaction between users and blood centers, and is being tested aiming at evaluating its acceptance and impact in bloodstocks.

  17. ADVERSE REACTIONS OF BLOOD DONATION: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Kandukuri Mahesh; Ravikanth; Chinthakindi; Shashi Kiran; Sudhir Kuma

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary donors normally tolerate blood donation very well as the history and preliminary examination is clear without any hidden history or facts related to the health status of the donor, occasionally, adverse reactions of variable severity may occur during or at the end of the collection. AIM: Aim of this study is to estimate and possibly avoid the cause of unwanted reactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is conducted over a period of three years, from ...

  18. Knowledge and behavior towards voluntary blood donation among students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, A G; Odeh, E

    2011-01-01

    Blood donation is the only way of acquiring blood to meet emergency requirements in cases of road traffic accidents, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, various anemic disorders and surgical emergencies among others. Globally, 80 million units of blood are donated each year, but only two million units are donated in sub-Saharan Africa where the need is enormous. The objective of this study was to determine the behavior of the students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria towards voluntary blood donation. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, which involved students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the participants for this study. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and factors affecting voluntary blood donation. The data obtained were analyzed using EPI-INFO 2005 software Version 3.3.2. Less than two-thirds (61%) of total respondents had good knowledge of blood donation. More than three quarters (85%) of the respondents had never donated blood. Of the 15% that had donated, only 3% donated voluntarily. Among those that had ever donated, males (57%) were more than females. Many of the donors donated for relatives (57%). The majority of the respondents were compelled to donate because of emergency situations (75%). The reasons why many did not donate were lack of opportunity (45%) due to tight lecture schedule and inadequate knowledge (24%). Gift items such as hematinics, T-shirts and wrist bands (29%) would motivate respondents to donate. The Students' Union body and other Organizations in the University should include a blood donation drive in their monthly/annual activities. The University authorities, the University health service centre and the Hematology Department of the Teaching hospital should collaborate in promoting voluntary blood donation among the students.

  19. Reduced social preferences in autism: evidence from charitable donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alice; Tsai, Karin; Rangel, Antonio; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-05-17

    People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences regarding other people are based.

  20. Reduced social preferences in autism: evidence from charitable donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Alice

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. Methods To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Results Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. Conclusions People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences

  1. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  2. Donor Hemovigilance Programme in managing Blood Transfusion Needs: Complications of Whole Blood Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mangwana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits have become an integral part of Blood Transfusion Services in the developed countries and has contributed greatly to its development. Hemovigilance begins with donors and must enable the collection of information on reactions occurring during the donation of blood, selections of donors and to prevent such incidents. The aim of study was to help identify the trends of adverse events , occurring in blood donors at a tertiary-care hospital, to recommend best practices to improve donor care and safety Materials and Methods: This record-based study was conducted on all adverse events related to allogenic whole blood donations performed over 24 months. All whole blood donations were analyzed. All adverse events occurring during or at the end of the donation were noted using a standardized format and analyzed determining significance at p<0.05. Results: Overall rate was 0.3% with vasovagal reactions constituting 82%, and 18% mild syncopal reactions (p<0.001. Immediate vasovagal reaction with injury was very rare (0.007%. Vasovagal reactions showed a significant association with young age, female gender, first time donation status. Mean age of persons recording adverse effects was 30.23 ± 7.49 years as compared to those without adverse effects, 31.14 ± 8.56 years. Conclusion: Donor safety is an essential perquisite to increase voluntary blood donation. AE analysis helps in identifying the blood donors at risk of AE, applying appropriate motivational strategies, predonation counseling, care during and after donation, developing guidelines and hemovigilance programme in countries with limited resources. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8993   Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 459-463

  3. Hepatitis E virus RNA in Australian blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish C; Flower, Robert L P; Seed, Clive R; Keller, Anthony J; Harley, Robert; Chan, Hiu-Tat; Hoad, Veronica; Warrilow, David; Northill, Judith; Holmberg, Jerry A; Faddy, Helen M

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) poses a risk to transfusion safety. In Australia, locally acquired HEV is rare and cases are mainly reported in travelers returning from countries endemic for HEV. The risk posed by HEV to transfusion safety in Australia is unknown; therefore, we aimed to measure the rate of current HEV infection in Australian blood donations. A total of 14,799 blood donations were tested for HEV RNA by transcription-mediated amplification, with confirmatory testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Viral load quantification and phylogenetic analysis was performed on HEV RNA-positive samples. One (0.0068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0002%-0.0376%) sample was confirmed positive for HEV RNA, resulting in a risk of collecting a HEV-viremic donation of 1 in 14,799 (95% CI, 1 in 584,530 to 1 in 2,657). The viral load in this sample was approximately 15,000 IU/mL, and it was determined to be Genotype 3. Our finding of 1 in 14,799 Australian donations positive for HEV RNA is lower than that from many other developed countries; this is consistent with the relatively low seroprevalence in Australia. As this HEV RNA-positive sample was Genotype 3, it seems likely that this infection was acquired through zoonotic transmission, either within Australia or overseas in a developed nation. HEV has the potential to pose a risk to transfusion safety in Australia; however, additional, larger studies are required to quantify the magnitude of this risk. © 2016 AABB.

  4. Factors influencing blood donation: a cross-sectional survey in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H; He, B; Rong, X

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine major factors that influence blood donation in China. Factors affecting blood donation often vary in various populations. This cross-sectional study used self-administered, standardised, structured questionnaires to survey selected donors and non-donors in Guangzhou, China between 10 December 2013 and 25 June 2014. Among the 1080 questionnaires collected, 1034 (95·7%) questionnaires were valid for this analysis, including 602 donors and 432 non-donors. Results revealed that helping patients (n = 405, 68·2%) was the main objective of blood donation, and self-perception of poor health (n = 138, 33·1%) was the main reason for not donating. Responses to questions raised by donors and inquiring about a donor's physical condition were thought to be the most important blood donation routines (n = 302, 65·5%). For non-donors, 90·3% (n = 390) expressed their intention to donate blood in the future, and usage of blood (n = 182, 46·7%) was the most asked question. Prepaid cellular phone cards were the most popular incentives. Raising the awareness of blood donation was the most effective way of enhancing blood donation programmes, and television ads and the internet were the most effective means. Helping patients was the main objective of blood donation in China. However, self-perception of poor health was a major barrier to donating blood. Raising the awareness of blood donation in combination with multiple aspects of campaigns that target different populations with potential blood donors is critical. Television and the internet are the most effective tools for promotion of and recruitment for blood donation. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados Madrona, Dalmiro; Fernández Herrera, María Dolores; Prados Jiménez, Dalmiro; Gómez Giraldo, Sonsoles; Robles Campos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia.

  6. Why do-Saudi Women Refrain Donating Their Blood?--a Study on the Attitude, Belief and Motivation of Saudi Female University Students Towards Blood Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Johar, Al-Waleed; Al-Saud, Abdulrahman; Abalkhail, Yazeed; Jawdat, Talal; Al-Khamees, Saleh; Al-Thunayan Faisal; Abdel-Gader, Abdel G

    2016-01-01

    Saudi females constitute less than 5% of blood donors and as demand for blood is ever increasing there is a need to identify the factors that discourage them from donating their blood and subsequently to find approaches to enhance their share as blood donors. The aim of this study is to find out the knowledge, attitude and motivation of Saudi female university students towards blood donation. This is a questionnaire-based cross-sectional descriptive study among female students (n = 300) from six colleges: Medicine, Dentistry, Applied Medical Sciences, Science, Arts, and Business Administration at King Saud University, Riyadh. Questions covered their knowledge on blood donation and factors that discourage or motivate them to donate. The majority of participants are unaware that females constitute less than 5% of donors, but know that blood banks are in continuous need for donors to give support for needy patients particularly road traffic accidents and surgical patients. Fear from complications of the donation process prevailed widely. Most participants would donate as a religious obligation, need of a relative or friend, but not for money. The most prominent hurdle preventing them from donating is the difficulty of reaching the blood bank as they cannot drive cars or move alone in public transport. Most will donate if blood collection is done at their colleges and other places of gather- ing such as shopping malls. The attitude of Saudi female students towards blood donation is positive and few misconceptions that emerged could be corrected by health awareness campaigns. Careful organization of blood collection efforts that would observe the special status of women in the society by reaching them in their colleges and other gathering sites could enhance female donor input markedly.

  7. Motivators and Barriers to Blood Donation in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaz, Beth H.; Demmons, Derrick G.; Crittenden, Colleen P.; Carnevale, Claudine V.; Lee, Mark; Burnett, Miriam; Easley, Kirk; Hillyer, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate blood supply depends on volunteer non-remunerated blood donors. African Americans have lower blood donation rates than whites. To improve African American blood donation rates, the motivators and barriers to African Americans must be explored. To study the differences in motivators and barriers to blood donation between donor and non-donor African American college students. Methods African Americans college students at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities completed a 41-item, self-administered questionnaire, which assessed participant’s donation frequency, motivators and barriers toward donation, and knowledge and beliefs towards blood donation. Results 364 primarily female college students (96% African Americans, 93% female) completed the questionnaire. 49% reported prior blood donation experience (donors) and 51% were non-donors. The primary motivator for donors and non-donors was convenience (89% donor, 82% non-donor). Donors were more likely than non-donors to disagree with statements regarding blood donation as being too painful (82% donor, 44% non-donor), resulting in feeling faint, dizzy, or nauseated (61% donor, 29% non-donor). Donors more often agreed that the blood supply is safe (77% donor, 58% non-donor), less often concerned about receiving a transfusion (61% donor, 73% non-donor), and more often aware of local blood shortages (50% donor, 35% non-donor). Conclusions African Americans female college students are willing to donate blood given convenience and support from their university. Educational campaigns to increase knowledge regarding the safety of the blood donation process and the ongoing needs of an adequate blood supply might be effective methods to increase blood donation. PMID:19782000

  8. Geographical differences in blood donation and philanthropy in the Netherlands : what role for social capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Veldhuizen, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    The key question addressed in this paper is whether geographical differences in blood donation and philanthropy reflect differences in social capital. We do find considerable spatial variation in blood donation and philanthropy between municipalities in the Netherlands. But we do not find that blood

  9. Trends of Blood and Plasma Donations in Kazakhstan: 12-Years Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Magzumova, Raushan; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit; Alpeissova, Sholpan

    2014-05-01

    Each country faces a continuing challenge to collect enough blood to meet the national needs. According to WHO, there should be at least 20 blood donations per 1,000 population for developing countries, in Kazakhstan this indicator was only 16.8 in 2011. Thus, we conducted an epidemiological assessment and drew a map of the regional distribution of blood and plasma donations in Kazakhstan during the years 2000-2011. The retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2011. Data on blood and its components donations were acquired from the Ministry of Health (annual statistical reporting form N° 39). During 2000-2011, number of blood donors decreased to 17.4% and blood donations to 6.3%. The proportion of non-remunerated blood donations and donors decreased from 97.6% to 77.9% and 97.9% to 87.7%, respectively. The paid donations had the opposite trend. Number of plasma donors increased in 2.1 times, plasma donations in 2.4 times, nevertheless the proportion of non-remunerated plasma donations decreased from 60.1% to 29.8%. The average number of blood donations per 1,000 population decreased from 19.8 (2000) to 16.8 (2011), plasma donations increased from 1.4 to 3.1. Regionally, annual average rates of blood and plasma donations per 1,000 population over 12 years varied greatly. This is the first study conducted in Kazakhstan to provide detailed information, including the regional characteristics of blood and plasma donations over an extended period of time, which can be used in blood transfusion services work.

  10. Attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in saudi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, A.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)

  11. Donor Hemovigilance Programme in managing Blood Transfusion Needs: Complications of Whole Blood Donation

    OpenAIRE

    S Mangwana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits have become an integral part of Blood Transfusion Services in the developed countries and has contributed greatly to its development. Hemovigilance begins with donors and must enable the collection of information on reactions occurring during the donation of blood, selections of donors and to prevent such incidents. The aim of study was to help identify the trends of adverse events , occurring in blood donors at a tertiary-care hospita...

  12. Worldwide policies on epilepsy and blood donation: a survey among blood services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, A; De Buck, E; Emonds, M-P; Vandekerckhove, P; Lagae, L

    2018-02-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by the appearance of seizures. Often, epilepsy patients are temporarily or permanently excluded from blood donation. To gain a better understanding of the policies that are currently applied, we performed a survey among blood services. A cross-sectional, Web-based questionnaire using the online Questback tool was developed and distributed to 46 representatives of blood services worldwide. The questionnaire was composed of nine questions. A total of 27 respondents, representing blood services in 26 countries on five continents, participated in the survey. Current policies range from permanent acceptance over temporary exclusion to permanent exclusion. Rationales for these different policies are diverse. The majority of blood services (59·3%) apply temporary exclusion as their policy, though no consensus exists on the length of time that epilepsy patients have to be medication-free or seizure-free. None of the respondents could provide data about adverse events in epilepsy patients during the blood donation process. The results of this survey indicate a large discrepancy in policies applied worldwide. A lack of scientific evidence could be one of the underlying reasons. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to further research the potential risks for donors and recipients regarding blood donation by people with epilepsy. This can then serve as a base for evidence-based policymaking and lead to safer and more effective blood transfusion programmes. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. Modulation of cardiac autonomic tone in non-hypotensive hypovolemia during blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Singh, Akanksha; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Coshic, Poonam; Chatterjee, Kabita; Deepak, K K

    2017-08-01

    Non-hypotensive hypovolemia, observed during mild haemorrhage or blood donation leads to reflex readjustment of the cardiac autonomic tone. In the present study, the cardiac autonomic tone was quantified using heart rate and blood pressure variability during and after non-hypotensive hypovolemia of blood donation. 86 voluntary healthy male blood donors were recruited for the study (age 35 ± 9 years; weight 78 ± 12 kg; height 174 ± 6 cms). Continuous lead II ECG and beat-to-beat blood pressure was recorded before, during and after blood donation followed by offline time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and BPV. The overall heart rate variability (SDNN and total power) did not change during or after blood donation. However, there was a decrease in indices that represent the parasympathetic component (pNN50 %, SDSD and HF) while an increase was observed in sympathetic component (LF) along with an increase in sympathovagal balance (LF:HF ratio) during blood donation. These changes were sustained for the period immediately following blood donation. No fall of blood pressure was observed during the period of study. The blood pressure variability showed an increase in the SDNN, CoV and RMSSD time domain measures in the post donation period. These results suggest that mild hypovolemia produced by blood donation is non-hypotensive but is associated with significant changes in the autonomic tone. The increased blood pressure variability and heart rate changes that are seen only in the later part of donation period could be because of the progressive hypovolemia associated parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation that manifest during the course of blood donation.

  14. Complications related to blood donation: A multicenter study of the prevalence and influencing factors in voluntary blood donation camps in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Kumar Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complications associated with blood donation significantly lower odds of subsequent donations. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complications related to blood donation, identify the influencing factors, and come up with suggestions for minimizing discomfort to donors and making outdoor voluntary blood donation camps safer. Materials and Methods: This study covered 181 blood donation camps organized by Sankalp India Foundation where 16 blood banks participated from 01-04-2011 to 01-08-2014 in Karnataka. Uniform protocols for donor selection, predonation preparation, counseling, postdonation care, and refreshments were used. The postdonation complications were recorded on a form immediately, after they were observed. Results: We observed 995 (3.2% complications in 30,928 whole blood donations. Of these 884 (2.86% mild, 77 (0.25% moderate, and 5 (0.02% severe complications were observed. Local symptoms (blood outside vessels, pain, and allergy contributed 1.0%, and generalized symptoms (vasovagal reaction contributed 2.2% to all the complications. Conclusion: We observed 322 complications for every 10,000 donations. Since 27 out of every 10000 experience moderate and severe complication, the readiness to manage complications is crucial. Women donors, young donors, and donors with a lower weight are at a significantly greater risk of experiencing complications, highlighting the need for specific guidelines for the management of higher risk donor groups. Complications varied significantly between various blood banks. Predonation hydration was effective in limiting complications with generalized symptoms. We recommend a robust donor hemovigilance program for voluntary blood donation for monitoring complications and enable assessment of effectiveness and implementation of appropriate interventions.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem K; Ahuja, Alok; Kalra, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors) and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials) who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. The sample population consisted of mostly men (67%) in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most prominent. This study illustrates how increasing awareness and

  16. Management of blood donors and blood donations from individuals found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Judith L

    2012-04-01

    The medical literature is replete with articles addressing the diagnosis and management of patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). However, there is scant information addressing the management of blood donors and blood donations found to have a positive DAT. Practices vary considerably between countries and blood suppliers within countries, and there is no standardized approach to the management of these blood donors or the blood products prepared from their donations. Recent evidence from Israel suggests that the finding of a positive DAT in a blood donor may not be as benign as previously thought. Therefore, it may be prudent for blood collection agencies to periodically reexamine their approach to the management of blood donors with a positive DAT and their donations. This article reviews the available literature and explores options for the management of DAT-positive blood donors and their blood donations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using an integrated automated system to optimize retention and increase frequency of blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J Garrett; Hall, Robert F

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the impact of an integrated, automated phone system to reinforce retention and increase frequency of donations among blood donors. Cultivated by incorporating data results over the past 7 years, the system uses computerized phone messaging to contact blood donors with individualized, multilevel notifications. Donors are contacted at planned intervals to acknowledge and recognize their donations, informed where their blood was sent, asked to participate in a survey, and reminded when they are eligible to donate again. The report statistically evaluates the impact of the various components of the system on donor retention and blood donations and quantifies the fiscal advantages to blood centers. By using information and support systems provided by the automated services and then incorporating the phlebotomists and recruiters to reinforce donor retention, both retention and donations will increase. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Adverse reactions to blood donation: A descriptive study of 3520 blood donors in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    C Aneke John; U Ezeh Theodora; A Nwosu Gloria; E Anumba Chika

    2017-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of adverse reactions to blood donation significantly hampers donor retention and negatively impacts on the universal availability of adequate numbers of blood donor units. Objective: To analyze the spectrum and prevalence of adverse reactions in blood donors in a tertiary hospital-based blood bank in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The details of 3520 blood donors who presented for donation over a 12 months period were retrieved from the departmental archives for ana...

  19. Feasibility of pre-operative autologous blood donation in Indian patients with elective orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Karan; Marwaha, Neelam; Thakral, Beenu; Goni, Vijay; Sharma, R R; Puri, G D

    2006-11-01

    Pre-operative autologous blood donation (PABD) in elective orthopaedic surgeries is a well known procedure in the West. We initiated this programme at a tertiary care hospital in north India to study its feasibility in Indian patients. In a prospective case-control study, 144 patients undergoing primary total hip or knee replacement, inter-vertebral discectomy, mal-union and non-union reconstruction were educated and motivated to pre-donate. Patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria and making autologous donation formed the PABD group (n=22). Patients eligible for PABD, but unwilling to participate; age, sex, pre-operative haemoglobin and operative procedure matched acted as controls (n=27). Unit(s) collected was processed like an allogeneic unit. Unit(s) found reactive for infectious markers or not utilized was discarded. Mean blood losses, transfusion trigger, allogeneic exposure and wastage between the two groups were compared. Of the 144 patients motivated, 40 per cent of the eligible subjects pre-deposited. The main motivational factor was fear of getting infection from someone's blood. Cardiac events and anaemia prevented 61.8 per cent patients to participate. Of the 50 units ordered, autologous units with a mean of 1.4 units/patient contributed 62 per cent. For total hip and total knee replacement (THR and TKR), autologous units met 76.2 and 80 per cent respectively of the total blood requirement. A significant decrease in the allogeneic exposure was observed between PABD and control group (18.2 vs 66.7%); 32.3 per cent of the autologous units were discarded. Comprehensive PABD programme may be an effective method for reducing the need for allogeneic transfusion in patients undergoing joint replacement surgeries in our country, where transfusion transmitted infections due to high percentage of replacement donations and lack of sensitive assays for testing are still a cause for concern.

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. Aim: To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. Result: The sample population consisted of mostly men (67% in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most

  1. Determination of the knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors of islamic religious officials toward blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keten, Hamit Sirri; Isik, Oguz; Kus, Celal; Ersoy, Ozgur; Olmez, Soner; Yildirim, Fatis; Celik, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors of Islamic religious officials toward blood donation. This study included 334 religious officials rendering service in the province of Kahramanmaras, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. A questionnaire was administered to gather sociodemographic data of the participants and their knowledge levels, attitudes, and behaviors toward blood donation. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions that yielded a total of 11 points. The religious officials in the study included 206 imams (61.7%, males) and 128 Quran course instructors (38.3%, females). Of study participants, 134 (40.1%) reported a previous experience of blood donation and 200 (59.9%) denied previous experience of blood donation. The mean knowledge score was 7.09±2.54 points for males and 6.89±2.18 points for females. Male and female participants achieved comparable scores (p=0.476). Of the participants, 291 (87.1%) agreed and nine (2.7%) disagreed with the expression, "Blood donation is permissible in Islam;" 34 (10.2%) participants had no idea. The present study revealed considerable deficiencies in knowledge about blood donation among religious officials. In addition, the rate of blood donation and willingness to donate blood were low among religious officials. Although the level of knowledge about blood donation was similar in males and females, it was an interesting finding that the blood donation rate was significantly higher in males than in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleic acid amplification technology screening for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus for blood donations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamaga, Mohammad S.; Bokhari, Fawzi F.; Aboud, Abdulrehman M.; Al-Malki, M.; Alenzi, Faris Q.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the performance of the commercial Roche COBAS AmpliScreen assay, and demonstrate whether the COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) test, v1.5, and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) v 2.0 for screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the donated blood units from which plasma mini pools were collected, by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT), could detect the positive pools and reduce the risk of transmission of infections for those routinely tested by serological assays. The study was performed on 3288 plasma samples collected from blood donors in a period of 13 months, from August 2004 to August 2005, at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were tested by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after RNA extraction (this represents the major method in NAT assays), in parallel with the routine serological testing to detect qualitatively for HIV-1 and HCV. The NAT assays that include an automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays, and the routine serological screening assays for the detection of the HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the plasma samples from the blood donors have shown to be a reliable combination that would meet our requirements. The collected data further confirms the results from the serological assays and enables us to decrease the residual risk of transmission to a minimum with the finding of no seronegative window period donation. The results demonstrate that out of 3288 samples, the percentages of RT-PCR (NAT) negative blood donations that were also confirmed as seronegative were 99% for HCV, and 99.1% for HIV-1. The modified combined systems (automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays) for NAT screening assays has allowed the release of all blood donations supplied in the

  3. Understanding the underlying motives and intention among Indian blood donors towards voluntary blood donation: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Chandra, B

    2018-05-01

    The present study aims to fill the gap in the literature by conducting a comprehensive research on Indian donor's intention towards voluntary blood donation in India. The study attempts to conceptualize and validate an integrative framework incorporating voluntary function inventory (VFI) in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model with the purpose tomeasure the voluntary blood donation intention. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used to rigorously test the hypothesized interrelationships among the underlying motives influencing voluntary blood donation intention. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of respondents selected conveniently from selct locations in India. Total 450 completed questionnaires were received out of 1000 distributed. The study develops a final conceptual framework that determines the drivers of blood donor's intention towards voluntary donation. The components of theory of planned behavior (TPB) model which include 'attitude', 'subjective norms' (SN), and 'perceived behavioral control' (PBC) along with modified volunteer functions namely 'value', 'social', 'career' and 'enhancement' were found significantly explaining the donation intention in the model. The model achieves robustness with respect to predicting Indian donor's intention towards the voluntary donation of blood. The proposed model in this study advances the theory and research on thevolunteering motives towards blood donation. The study would provide a comprehensiveunderstanding of donors' intention to the practitioners, policy makers and Non-Government Organization (NGO), helping them to frame a calibrated strategydirected towards facilitating healthy blood donation practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A brief motivational interview promotes internal motivation to donate blood among young adults with and without a prior donation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livitz, Irina E; Fox, Kristen R; Himawan, Lina K; France, Christopher R

    2017-06-01

    Recruitment and retention of first-time and repeat donors is essential to maintain a stable blood supply. Recent evidence has shown that promoting internal motivation may be an effective strategy to enhance donation behavior. We tested the efficacy of an in-person motivational interview at increasing internal motivation and intention to donate. A sample of 219 donors and nondonors (69.4% female; mean ± SD age, 19.2 ± 1.1 years; 52.1% nondonors) were randomly assigned to either a motivational or a knowledge interview. Immediately before and after the interview participants completed a measure of donation intention and the Blood Donor Identity Survey, which is a multidimensional measure of donor motivation. A latent profile analysis revealed three distinct latent classes, which were identified as low internal motivation, mid internal motivation, and high internal motivation. Comparison of change in latent class from pre- to postinterview revealed that a higher proportion of participants in the motivational interview group moved to a more internally motivated class compared to the knowledge interview group (i.e., 34% vs. 4%, respectively). Further, relative to the knowledge interview group, participants in the motivational interview group reported greater increases in intention to donate. A brief motivational interview may enhance donation intention and intrinsic motivation among both experienced donors and nondonors alike. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Factors associated with positive attitude towards blood donation among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Maric, Gorica; Kurtagic, Ilma; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess attitudes and practice of blood donation among medical students. Medical students were recruited at Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Serbia. Of 973 students, 38.4% of freshmen and 41.4% of final year students have donated blood (χ(2) = 0.918, p = 0.186). Blood donors had significantly more positive attitude towards some aspects of blood donation. Being female, residing in a city other than the capital and previous blood donation experience were independent predictors of positive attitude towards being a blood donor to an unknown person. Efforts are required to augment blood donor pool among future physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporary impact of blood donation on physical performance and hematologic variables in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Ida; Kramp, Nana L.; Ziegler, Andreas K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUNDNo former studies have examined how blood donation influences physical performance in women, who due to menstruation may have a slower recovery of performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify how VO2peak, time trial (TT) performance, and hematologic variables are affected...... in 18 iron-sufficient (plasma ferritin [P-ferritin] > 30 µg/L) women after a standard 450-mL blood donation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODSVO2peak, TT performance, and blood variables were measured at baseline and 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after blood donation in 18 iron-sufficient women. Anthropometrics were...

  7. Donor understandings of blood and the body in relation to more frequent donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, R; Cohn, S

    2018-05-01

    The INTERVAL trial aimed to find the optimum frequency of blood donation to enhance blood supplies and maintain donor health. This not only requires biological knowledge, but also an appreciation of donor perspectives, and how their experiences and beliefs might be central if any changes are ever to be made. To address this, trial participants were interviewed about their ideas of blood and the body in relation to their experiences of increased donation frequency. Thirty in depth face-to-face interviews conducted with blood donors participating in the trial. Three key themes emerged: ideas about how blood and iron reserves are replenished, and what people did to facilitate this; beliefs about physiological differences relating to age and gender; and practical issues that affected the experience of donation. Overall, participants interviewed welcomed more frequent donation, despite a range of pragmatic concerns. Despite some practical obstacles, increased donation frequency aligned with participant's ideas about bodily replenishment, the value of donation, and their identity as enduring blood donors. They therefore supported the idea of increasing frequency of donation, independently of the biomedical evidence from the trial itself. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2015-11-04

    Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.

  9. Attitudes of Swiss mothers toward unrelated umbilical cord blood banking 6 months after donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Enrico; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Troeger, Carolyn; Kostka, Ulrike; Steimann, Sabine; Bitzer, Johanes; Gratwohl, Alois; Tichelli, André; Seelmann, Kurt; Surbek, Daniel V

    2003-05-01

    During the past decade, the use of umbilical cord blood (CB) as a source of transplantable hematopoietic stem cells has been increasing. Little is known about the psychosocial consequences that later affect parents after unrelated CB donation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of mothers toward unrelated donation of umbilical CB for transplantation 6 months after giving birth. A prospective study was performed with a standardized, anonymous questionnaire distributed to 131 women 6 months after CB donation. The questionnaire included topics concerning views about the ethical accuracy of having donated CB, emotional responses after donation, concerns about genetic testing and research with CB samples, attitude toward anonymity between her child and possible unrelated CB recipient, and willingness to repeatedly donate umbilical CB in a next pregnancy. The vast majority (96.1%) stated that they would donate umbilical CB again, and all respondents were certain that their decision to have donated umbilical CB was ethical. With regard to the potential risks of genetic testing and "experimentation" of umbilical CB, a significant correlation (p = 0.01) was found between negative attitudes and the decision not to donate umbilical CB again. Additionally, it was observed that women who had a negative experience concerning the donation of CB would not donate again (p = 0.004). This study shows a high degree of satisfaction of unrelated umbilical CB donation for banking in women 6 months after delivery. Despite a well-performed and detailed informed consent procedure, one of the ongoing issues for the donators in CB banking involves the concern regarding of improper use of the cells, such as genetic testing or experimentation. Accurate and detailed counseling of pregnant women and their partners therefore maximizes the likelihood that they will donate CB for unrelated banking. These data provide a basis for the improvement of donor selection procedures

  10. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sabine; Willand, L; Reinhard, B; Offergeld, R; Hamouda, O

    2008-08-01

    According to Article 22 of the Transfusion Act, the Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the prevalence and incidence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Due to revision of the Transfusion Act in 2005 not only the number of donations but also the number of donors has become available for analysis. Here we give a detailed account on the demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2006. Overall, 4 % of the German population eligible to donate were active as repeat whole blood donors in 2006; 0.3 % repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Irrespective of the type of donation, the percentage of donors among the general population was highest among the youngest age group (18 to 24 years). While the age distribution of whole blood repeat donors roughly resembled that of the general population, with the greatest number among those aged 35 to 44, younger age groups were overrepresented among repeat plasma donors. Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 11.9 for plasmapheresis and 4.0 for plateletpheresis. With the exception of the latter, men donated more frequently than women. For both sexes, donation frequency increased with age. Detailed knowledge of the demographic profile and changes in the composition of donor populations are essential for planning adequate blood supply. The data presented may serve as reference for assessing the consequences of measures that affect the number of donors and/or donations (for example changing deferral criteria) in Germany.

  11. Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P

    2009-02-01

    Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population.

  12. The causes for lack of interest to blood donation in eligible individuals, mashhad, northeastern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, M T; Vafaee, A; Esmaeily, H; Shafiei, N; Bazargani, R; Khayamy, Me

    2012-01-01

    Donor recruitment and retention are significant problems in blood collection agencies around the world. The Aim of this study was to determine the causes of lack of interest to blood donation in eligible individu-als in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. This was a descriptive study. Cases were 1130 non-donor individuals. Participants were selected from eligible individuals in different regions of Mashhad. In this study, surveys included information about age groups, gender, residence area, marriage, education; living situation and job as background variables. Less than 30% of the cases had enough knowledge about blood donation. There was a significant rela-tionship between location, age, education, occupation and social status with knowledge of blood donation, but there was not a correlation between gender and marital status. There are some factors which affect the decision for blood donation. There is a need to change the negative attitude by increasing the knowledge considering the individual and the social status.

  13. role of altruistic behavior, empathetic concern, and social responsibility motivation in blood donation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Whitney Randolph; Schreiber, George B; Guiltinan, Anne; Nass, Catharie; Glynn, Simone A; Wright, David J; Kessler, Debra; Schlumpf, Karen S; Tu, Yongling; Smith, James W; Garratty, George

    2008-01-01

    Blood donation can be described as a prosocial behavior, and donors often cite prosocial reasons such as altruism, empathy, or social responsibility for their willingness to donate. Previous studies have not quantitatively evaluated these characteristics in donors or examined how they relate to donation frequency. As part of a donor motivation study, 12,064 current and lapsed donors answered questions used to create an altruistic behavior, empathetic concern, and social responsibility motivation score for each donor. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean scores by demographics and donor status and to determine the influence of each variable on the mean number of donations in the past 5 years. The mean score for each prosocial characteristic appeared high, with lower scores in male and younger donors. Higher altruistic behavior and social responsibility motivation scores were associated with increased past donation frequency, but the effects were minor. Empathetic concern was not associated with prior donation. The largest differences in prior donations were by age and donor status, with older and current donors having given more frequently. Most blood donors appear to have high levels of the primary prosocial characteristics (altruism, empathy, and social responsibility) commonly thought to be the main motivators for donation, but these factors do not appear to be the ones most strongly related to donation frequency. Traditional donor appeals based on these characteristics may need to be supplemented by approaches that address practical concerns like convenience, community safety, or personal benefit.

  14. Are lapsed donors willing to resume blood donation, and what determines their motivation to do so?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Anne; Abraham, Charles; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schaalma, Herman P; de Kort, Wim L A M; Dijkstra, J Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the possibility of rerecruiting lapsed blood donors. Reasons for donation cessation, motivation to restart donation, and modifiable components of donation motivation were examined. We distinguished between lapsed donors who had passively withdrawn by merely not responding to donation invitations and donors who had contacted the blood bank to actively withdraw. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 400 actively lapsed donors and to 400 passively lapsed donors, measuring intention to restart donation and psychological correlates of restart intention. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The response rate among actively lapsed donors was higher than among passively lapsed donors (37% vs. 25%). Actively lapsed donors typically ceased donating because of physical reactions, while passively lapsed donors quit because of a busy lifestyle. Nonetheless, 51% of actively lapsed responders and 80% of passively lapsed responders were willing to restart donations. Multiple regression analysis showed that, for passively lapsed donors, cognitive attitude was the strongest correlate of intention to donate in the future (β=0.605, pattitude (β=0.239, pattitude was also the strongest correlate of intention (β=0.601, pattitude (β=0.345, pattitudes and self-efficacy could further raise such intentions. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. 60 donors (≥50 years old), self-reported medically healthy. Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively). Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5%) or anaerobic (27.8%) species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening. Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.

  16. Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangiacomi Martinez, Edson; Dos Santos Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães; Garcia Braz, Ana Carolina; Duarte de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students. The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas. In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return. This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Zangiacomi Martinez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students.METHODS: The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas.RESULTS: In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return.CONCLUSION: This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity.

  18. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate : The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  19. Blood donor show behavior after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Zijlstra, Bonne; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  20. [Complete blood count reference values of donated cord blood from Korean neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Byoung Jae; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Kim, Jin Ju; Roh, Eun Youn

    2009-06-01

    In the public cord blood (CB) banks, only safe CB units with adequate cell doses are processed and stored. Complete blood count (CBC) of CB is crucial for estimating total nucleated cells (TNC) and screening suitable CB units without hematologic abnormalities. We analyzed CBC parameters of the donated CB from healthy Korean neonates to establish CBC reference values. A total of 2,129 Korean CB units, donated and processed during the period from August 2007 to December 2007, were enrolled. We measured hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) count, differential count of WBC, platelets and nucleated red blood cell (nRBC) count by XE-2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex, Japan), and estimated reference value of each parameter by using parametric (Mean+/-2SD) and/or non-parametric methods (2.5-97.5 percentile). And also, we compared the result of each parameter in relation to sex of neonates and delivery method. Because the differences of CBC values among different subgroups were not remarkable, we established the reference intervals as follows without subgroup division: Hb, 9.0-14.4 g/dL; WBC count, 5.6-18.5 x 10(3)/microL; differential count of WBC (neutrophils, 40.8-72.4%; lymphocytes, 17.2-46.7%; monocytes, 4.9-12.8%; eosinophils, 0.7-7.0%; basophils, 0.0-1.6%); platelet, 130-287 x 10(3)/microL; nRBCs, 0.0-13.1/100 WBC. We established cord blood CBC reference values of healthy Korean neonates using a large-scale CB units. The established CBC reference values from our study will be useful as basic data for CBC interpretation and assessment of transplant suitability of donated CB.

  1. Tax policy as a lifeline: encouraging blood and organ donation through tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamon, Joseph B

    2008-01-01

    This article, the second concerning the organ donation crisis, proposes the use of tax policy to encourage blood and organ donation. After critiquing the ethical and logistical problems posed by other commercial and non-commercial solutions, the author demonstrates how tax credits can be used as an effective and ethical solution to address the shortage of donors. The author also offers two model statutes that provide guidance as to how a nonrefundable tax credit for blood and organ donation might operate in the tax code.

  2. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C in blood donations in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T; Mukesi, Munyaradzi; Chipare, Israel; Shoombe, Esra

    2014-05-05

    Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are infections which are common in some communities in Southern Africa. It is important to screen blood donations for these infections. This is a retrospective study which involved reviewing of previous blood donation records for the year 2012 in Namibia. The records were analyzed to determine the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, Hepatitis B and C among blood donations with regard to gender, age and geographical region of the donors. The findings indicated a significantly low prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis C among the blood donations. A low infection rate of 1.3% by any of the four tested TTIs was found among the blood donations given by the donor population in Namibia in 2012. The blood donations given by the donor population in Namibia has a low infection rate with the HIV, syphilis, HBsAg and anti-HCV. A strict screening regime must continue to be used as the infections are still present albeit in small numbers.

  3. Estimated prevalence of dengue viremia in Puerto Rican blood donations, 1995 through 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lyle R; Tomashek, Kay M; Biggerstaff, Brad J

    2012-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) nucleic acid amplification testing of blood donations during epidemics in endemic locations, including Puerto Rico, has suggested possible sizable transfusion transmission risk. Estimates of the long-term prevalence of DENV viremic donations will help evaluate the potential magnitude of this risk in Puerto Rico. Estimates of the prevalence of DENV viremia in the Puerto Rican population at large from 1995 through 2010 were derived from dengue case reports and their onset dates obtained from islandwide surveillance, estimates of case underreporting, and extant data on the duration of DENV viremia and the unapparent-to-apparent dengue infection ratio. Under the assumptions that viremia prevalence in blood donors was similar to that of the population at large and that symptomatic persons do not donate, statistical resampling methods were used to estimate the prevalence of dengue viremia in blood donations. Over the 16-year period, the maximum and mean daily prevalences of dengue viremia (per 10,000) in blood donations in Puerto Rico were estimated at 45.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.5-55.4) and 7.0 (95% CI, 3.9-10.1), respectively. Prevalence varied considerably by season and year. These data suggest a substantial prevalence of DENV viremia in Puerto Rican blood donations, particularly during outbreaks. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. Prosocial Motivation and Blood Donations: A Survey of the Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goette, Lorenz; Stutzer, Alois; Frey, Beat M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent shortages in the supply of blood donations have renewed the interest in how blood donations can be increased temporarily. We survey the evidence on the role of financial and other incentives in eliciting blood donations among donors who are normally willing to donate pro bono. We present the predictions from different empirical/psychological-based theories, with some predicting that incentives are effective while others predict that incentives may undermine prosocial motivation. The evidence suggests that incentives work relatively well in settings in which donors are relatively anonymous, but evidence indicates also that when image concerns become important, incentives may be counterproductive as donors do not want to be seen as greedy. PMID:20737018

  5. Reasons for exclusion of 6820 umbilical cord blood donations in a public cord blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tso-Fu; Wen, Shu-Hui; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Yang, Yun-Fan; Chang, Chu-Yu; Wu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Shu-Huey

    2014-01-01

    To provide information for umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks to adopt optimal collection strategies and to make UCB banks operate efficiently, we investigated the reasons for exclusion of UCB units in a 3-year recruitment period. We analyzed records of the reasons for exclusion of the potential UCB donation from 2004 to 2006 in the Tzu-Chi Cord Blood Bank and compared the results over 3 years. We grouped these reasons for exclusion into five phases, before collection, during delivery, before processing, during processing, and after freezing according to the time sequence and analyzed the reasons at each phase. Between 2004 and 2006, there were 10,685 deliveries with the intention of UCB donation. In total, 41.2% of the UCB units were considered eligible for transplantation. The exclusion rates were 93.1, 48.4, and 54.1% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. We excluded 612 donations from women before their child birth, 133 UCB units during delivery, 80 units before processing, 5010 units during processing, and 421 units after freezing. There were 24 UCB units with unknown reasons of ineligibility. Low UCB weight and low cell count were the first two leading causes of exclusion (48.6 and 30.9%). The prevalence of artificial errors, holiday or transportation problem, low weight, and infant problems decreased year after year. The exclusion rate was high at the beginning of our study as in previous studies. Understanding the reasons for UCB exclusion may help to improve the efficiency of UCB banking programs in the future. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Voluntary blood donation in a rural block of Vellore, South India: A knowledge, attitude and practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kurup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a shortage of voluntary blood donors in developing countries which are, therefore, more dependent on replacement donors. Aim: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding voluntary blood donation in a rural block in Vellore, South India. Settings and Designs: A cross-sectional survey in randomly selected villages of a rural block in Vellore, South India. Materials and Methods: Knowledge, attitude, and practices were assessed using a pilot-tested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire on randomly chosen rural adults aged between 18 and 60 years. Results: Of the 104 individuals interviewed, 90% were aware of voluntary blood donation, the main source of this awareness being television. Nearly, two-thirds of the participants felt they would fall sick by donating blood and that women and manual laborers were not capable of blood donation. Among the interviewed, 70.3% were of the opinion that blood can purchased with money. Only 44% were willing to donate blood on a voluntary basis. Perceived weakness and a misconception on the apparent lack of blood were the major reasons for unwillingness to donate blood. There was a significant association between willingness to donate blood and educational status as well as occupation, with the less educated and manual laborers unwilling to donate blood on a voluntary basis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.758, confidence interval [CI] = 1.54–9.156; OR = 5.333, CI = 1.429–19.90, respectively. Conclusions: The study found that although awareness on voluntary blood donation among individuals in the rural community was widespread, hesitancy to donate blood in real life situation was high. Since voluntary unpaid donors are the best candidates for blood donation, community being the best available source, education, and motivation of the community should play a greater role in increasing voluntary blood donation.

  7. Barriers and motivators to blood donation among university students in Japan: development of a measurement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, A M; Goto, A; Yamazaki, S; Machida, M; Kanno, T; Nollet, K E; Ohto, H; Yasumura, S

    2013-10-01

    Despite growing demand for transfusion, the number of voluntary young blood donors has steadily decreased over recent years in Japan. This study aimed to develop an easy-to-use survey tool to assess barriers and motivators to blood donation among Japanese university students. We conducted cross-sectional studies at two universities in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, in December 2011 (Stage 1) and February 2012 (Stage 2) using self-administered questionnaires. A short list of motivators and barriers to blood donation was developed from the open-ended questions asked of 50 students in Stage 1. In the Stage 2, we asked 105 students how important these items were when they decided whether or not to donate blood. Items showing a significant difference between donors and non-donors were kept in the final list. Overall, 56% of the 100 participants analysed in Stage 2 were men, and ages ranged from 19 to 24 with a median of 20 years. Comparison of motivators and barriers between donors and non-donors revealed that only barrier item 8 ('Frightened by blood donation') showed a significant difference (P = 0·0006) in an expected direction and with a consistency between two universities. This study identified fear as being the most significant barrier to blood donation among Japanese university students, which could be used as a single convenient indicator to assess their readiness to donate. More academic and clinical efforts are needed to understand and address students' fear towards blood donation in order to increase the donor pool in Japan. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Donating blood and organs: using an extended theory of planned behavior perspective to identify similarities and differences in individual motivations to donate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K; Knowles, Simon R; White, Katherine M

    2013-12-01

    Due to the critical shortage and continued need of blood and organ donations (ODs), research exploring similarities and differences in the motivational determinants of these behaviors is needed. In a sample of 258 university students, we used a cross-sectional design to test the utility of an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) including moral norm, self-identity and in-group altruism (family/close friends and ethnic group), to predict people's blood and OD intentions. Overall, the extended TPB explained 77.0% and 74.6% of variance in blood and OD intentions, respectively. In regression analyses, common contributors to intentions across donation contexts were attitude, self-efficacy and self-identity. Normative influences varied with subjective norm as a significant predictor related to OD intentions but not blood donation intentions at the final step of regression analyses. Moral norm did not contribute significantly to blood or OD intentions. In-group altruism (family/close friends) was significantly related to OD intentions only in regressions. Future donation strategies should increase confidence to donate, foster a perception of self as the type of person who donates blood and/or organs, and address preferences to donate organs to in-group members only.

  9. Analysis of blood donor pre-donation deferral in Dubai: characteristics and reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shaer L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Shaer,1 Ranjita Sharma,2 Mahera AbdulRahman2 1College of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, UAE; 2Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE Background: To ensure an adequate and safe blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors according to stringent eligibility criteria. Understanding the reasons for donor deferral can help in planning more efficient recruitment strategies and evaluating donor selection criteria. This study aims to define donor pre-donation deferral rates, causes of deferral, and characteristics of deferred donors in Dubai.Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted on all donors who presented for allogeneic blood donation between January 1, 2010, until June 30, 2013, in Dubai Blood Donation Centre, accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks. The donation and deferral data were analyzed to determine the demographic characteristics of accepted and deferred donors, and frequency analyses were also conducted.Results: Among 142,431 individuals presenting during the study period, 114,827 (80.6% were accepted for donation, and 27,604 (19.4% were deferred. The overall proportion of deferrals was higher among individuals less than 21 years old (35%, P<0.000, females (44% were deferred compared to 15% of males, P<0.0001, and first-time donors (22% were deferred vs 14% of repeat donors, P<0.0001. The main causes for a temporary deferral were low hemoglobin and high blood pressure.Discussion: The deferral rate among blood donors in Dubai is relatively high compared to the internationally reported rates. This rate was higher among first-time donors and females, with low hemoglobin as the major factor leading to a temporary deferral of donors. Strategies to mitigate deferral and improve blood donor retention are urged in Dubai to avoid additional stress on the blood supply. Keywords: blood donation, blood safety, donor deferral, selection criteria 

  10. [Voluntariness and blood donation: Proceedings of an ethics seminar held at the National Institute for Blood Transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Danic, B; Cartron, J-P; Chiaroni, J; Clavier, B; Cuneo, B; Guimelchain-Bonnet, M; Hermitte, M-A; Mackowiak, S; Monsellier, M; Moreau, S; Papa, K; Pelletier, B; Pottier, R; Praile, R; Saillol, A; Tissot, J-D; Vernant, J-P; Hervé, C

    2016-09-01

    Voluntariness stands for one of the four pillars of ethics in blood donation; it is, however, more related to tradition than to legislation. Because it seems necessary to apply "marketing" techniques to blood collection in order to meet the needs in blood components, both in terms of quantity and quality, one wonders if this may be at the expense of this principle of voluntariness. This seminar-belonging actually to a series of seminars in Ethics in Transfusion Medicine-aimed at questioning the possible weakness of voluntariness in the field of blood donation. To achieve this goal, specialists of numerous disciplines in medical sciences, law and humanities gathered to discuss all related issues to voluntariness in blood donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of blood donor pre-donation deferral in Dubai: characteristics and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shaer, Laila; Sharma, Ranjita; AbdulRahman, Mahera

    2017-01-01

    To ensure an adequate and safe blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors according to stringent eligibility criteria. Understanding the reasons for donor deferral can help in planning more efficient recruitment strategies and evaluating donor selection criteria. This study aims to define donor pre-donation deferral rates, causes of deferral, and characteristics of deferred donors in Dubai. This retrospective study was conducted on all donors who presented for allogeneic blood donation between January 1, 2010, until June 30, 2013, in Dubai Blood Donation Centre, accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks. The donation and deferral data were analyzed to determine the demographic characteristics of accepted and deferred donors, and frequency analyses were also conducted. Among 142,431 individuals presenting during the study period, 114,827 (80.6%) were accepted for donation, and 27,604 (19.4%) were deferred. The overall proportion of deferrals was higher among individuals less than 21 years old (35%, P Dubai is relatively high compared to the internationally reported rates. This rate was higher among first-time donors and females, with low hemoglobin as the major factor leading to a temporary deferral of donors. Strategies to mitigate deferral and improve blood donor retention are urged in Dubai to avoid additional stress on the blood supply.

  12. US public cord blood banking practices: recruitment, donation, and the timing of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Sherri M; Ponsaran, Roselle S; Goldenberg, Aaron J

    2013-03-01

    Cord blood has moved rapidly from an experimental stem cell source to an accepted and important source of hematopoietic stem cells. There has been no comprehensive assessment of US public cord blood banking practices since the Institute of Medicine study in 2005. Of 34 US public cord blood banks identified, 16 participated in our qualitative survey of public cord blood banking practices. Participants took part in in-depth telephone interviews in which they were asked structured and open-ended questions regarding recruitment, donation, and the informed consent process at these banks. Thirteen of 16 participants reported a variably high percentage of women who consented to public cord blood donation. Fifteen banks offered donor registration at the time of hospital admission for labor and delivery. Seven obtained full informed consent and medical history during early labor and eight conducted some form of phased consent and/or phased medical screening and history. Nine participants identified initial selection of the collection site location as the chief mode by which they recruited minority donors. Since 2005, more public banks offer cord blood donor registration at the time of admission for labor and delivery. That and the targeted location of cord blood collection sites are the main methods used to increase access to donation and HLA diversity of banked units. Currently, the ability to collect and process donations, rather than donor willingness, is the major barrier to public cord blood banking. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Donating blood: a meta-analytic review of self-reported motivators and deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednall, Timothy C; Bove, Liliana L

    2011-10-01

    Although research on blood donor motivation abounds, most studies have typically focused on small sets of variables, used different terminology to label equivalent constructs, and have not attempted to generalize findings beyond their individual settings. The current study sought to synthesize past findings into a unified taxonomy of blood donation drivers and deterrents and to estimate the prevalence of each factor across the worldwide population of donors and eligible nondonors. Primary studies were collected, and cross-validated categories of donation motivators and deterrents were developed. Proportions of first-time, repeat, lapsed, apheresis, and eligible nondonors endorsing each category were calculated. In terms of motivators, first-time and repeat donors most frequently cited convenience, prosocial motivation, and personal values; apheresis donors similarly cited the latter 2 motivators and money. Conversely, lapsed donors more often cited collection agency reputation, perceived need for donation, and marketing communication as motivators. In terms of deterrents, both donors and nondonors most frequently referred to low self-efficacy to donate, low involvement, inconvenience, absence of marketing communication, ineffective incentives, lack of knowledge about donating, negative service experiences, and fear. The integration of past findings has yielded a comprehensive taxonomy of factors influencing blood donation and has provided insight into the prevalence of each factor across multiple stages of donors' careers. Implications for collection agencies are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood management and transfusion strategies in 600 patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty: an analysis of pre-operative autologous blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Paolo; Viganò, Marco; De Girolamo, Laura; Verde, Francesco; Vinci, Anna; Banfi, Giuseppe; Romagnoli, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Blood loss during total joint arthroplasty strongly influences the time to recover after surgery and the quality of the recovery. Blood conservation strategies such as pre-operative autologous blood donation and post-operative cell salvage are intended to avoid allogeneic blood transfusions and their associated risks. Although widely investigated, the real effectiveness of these alternative transfusion practices remains controversial. The surgery reports of 600 patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (312 hip and 288 knee replacements) were retrospectively reviewed to assess transfusion needs and related blood management at our institute. Evaluation parameters included post-operative blood loss, haemoglobin concentration measured at different time points, ASA score, and blood transfusion strategies. Autologous blood donation increased the odds of receiving a red blood cell transfusion. Reinfusion by a cell salvage system of post-operative shed blood was found to limit adverse effects in cases of severe post-operative blood loss. The peri-operative net decrease in haemoglobin concentration was higher in patients who had predeposited autologous blood than in those who had not. The strengths of this study are the high number of cases and the standardised procedures, all operations having been performed by a single orthopaedic surgeon and a single anaesthesiologist. Our data suggest that a pre-operative autologous donation programme may often be useless, if not harmful. Conversely, the use of a cell salvage system may be effective in reducing the impact of blood transfusion on a patient's physiological status. Basal haemoglobin concentration emerged as a useful indicator of transfusion probability in total joint replacement procedures.

  15. Adverse reactions to blood donation: A descriptive study of 3520 blood donors in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Aneke John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of adverse reactions to blood donation significantly hampers donor retention and negatively impacts on the universal availability of adequate numbers of blood donor units. Objective: To analyze the spectrum and prevalence of adverse reactions in blood donors in a tertiary hospital-based blood bank in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The details of 3520 blood donors who presented for donation over a 12 months period were retrieved from the departmental archives for analysis. These included sociodemographic information, type of donor, type and frequency of adverse reactions to blood donation. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA computer software. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to represent the distribution of donor characteristics (as percentages and compare reaction rates by gender and severity, respectively. Results: The prevalence of adverse reactions to blood donation was (56/3520 1.60%; this occurred more frequently in male and family replacement donors (55.35% and 100.0%, respectively. The spectrum of donor adverse reactions included anxiety 25 (44.64%, generalized body weakness 11 (19.64%, hematoma 10 (17.86%, fainting 5 (8.93%, and vomiting 5 (8.93%. Vasovagal reactions were the most frequent adverse reaction encountered among the donors (46/56; 82.14%. Conclusion: Vasovagal reactions are common adverse phenomena in our blood donor set; this has implications on transfusion safety and blood donor retention.

  16. The acceptability of volunteer, repeat blood donations in a hospital setting in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolseth, S; Stange, P; Adamou, D; Roald, B; Danki-Sillong, F; Jourdan, P

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of factors that may influence blood donation in Cameroon is limited. The objectives of this study are to assess the characteristics of previous and potential blood donors by exploring the religious beliefs, and knowledge and understanding of blood donations among individuals present at a district hospital. Forty-nine in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted among consenting, randomly selected 18 years or older community members present at a district hospital in the Adamaoua region during October and November 2011. Ninety-eight per cent (48/49) of the individuals present at this district hospital had heard of blood transfusions. Forty-seven per cent (23/49) had not previously been asked to donate blood; however, 94% (44/47) said that they would donate if given the opportunity. Thirty-three per cent (16/49) had previously donated blood to family members or for replacement, and 81% of these said they would repeat donations. The majority of both donors and non-donors were motivated to donate blood for altruistic reasons. The findings suggest that community members present at this district hospital in Cameroon may be recruited for repeat blood donations. Although the altruistic motivation to donate blood suggests that donors could be recruited from a district hospital population, targeted information about blood donations and accessible blood transfusion services need to be put in place. The study may add to the understanding of the preconditions for blood donations and the possibility to establish sustainable blood transfusion services in the Adamaoua region in Cameroon. © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Blood Donation among Health Science Students in a University campus, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabu Karakkamandapam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major part of demand for blood in India has been meeting through voluntary blood donations. The healthy, active and receptive huge student population is potential blood donors to meet safe blood requirements. However, there is a paucity of studies on awareness and attitude among health science students on voluntary blood donation. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude about blood donation among health science students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 health sciences students from different streams in a University campus of South India through a structured survey questionnaire in the year 2009. Results: The overall knowledge on blood donation was good, but majority (62% of students never donated blood. Knowledge level was found highest among allied health science (53.1% and lowest among pharmacy students (20.7%. ‘Feeling of medically unfit’ and ‘never thought of blood donation’ were the major reasons for not donating blood. A significant association was observed between different streams of students and levels of knowledge and attitude about blood donation. Conclusion: This study elicits the importance of adopting effective measures in our campuses to motivate about voluntary blood donation among students.

  18. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Angelique; Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors

  19. 77 FR 10756 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... with Men. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information Collection: The... prevalence of compliance and non-compliance with the current MSM policy and assessing motivations for blood... donate blood. Frequency of Response: Once. Affected Public: Individuals. Type of Respondents: Males 18...

  20. 77 FR 35408 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Policy for Men Who Have Sex with Men. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of... prevalence of compliance and non-compliance with the current MSM policy and assessing motivations for blood... donate blood. Frequency of Response: Once. Affected Public: Individuals. Type of Respondents: Males 18...

  1. The effect of frequent whole blood donation on ferritin, hepcidin, and subclinical atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peffer, K.; Heijer, M. den; Holewijn, S.; Graaf, J. de; Swinkels, D.W.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Atsma, F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron catalyzes the formation of free radicals, which could lead to damaged vascular walls and subsequent atherosclerosis. Blood donation decreases iron stores and can thus decrease cardiovascular risk. Even within blood donors, differences in stored iron are observed. This study

  2. US Public Cord Blood Banking Practices: Recruitment, Donation, and the Timing of Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Sherri; Ponsaran, Roselle; Goldenberg, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cord blood has moved rapidly from an experimental stem cell source to an accepted and important source of hematopoietic stem cells. There has been no comprehensive assessment of US public cord blood banking practices since the Institute of Medicine study in 2005. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Of 34 US public cord blood banks identified, 16 participated in our qualitative survey of public cord blood banking practices. Participants took part in in-depth telephone interviews in which they were asked structured and open-ended questions regarding recruitment, donation, and the informed consent process at these banks. RESULTS 13 of 16 participants reported a variably high percentage of women who consented to public cord blood donation. 15 banks offered donor registration at the time of hospital admission for labor and delivery. 7 obtained full informed consent and medical history during early labor and 8 conducted some form of phased consent and/or phased medical screening and history. 9 participants identified initial selection of the collection site location as the chief mode by which they recruited minority donors. CONCLUSION Since 2005, more public banks offer cord blood donor registration at the time of admission for labor and delivery. That, and the targeted location of cord blood collection sites, are the main methods used to increase access to donation and HLA diversity of banked units. Currently, the ability to collect and process donations, rather than donor willingness, is the major barrier to public cord blood banking. PMID:22803637

  3. The ban on blood donation on men who have sex with men: time to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rely on guidelines that are far outdated and old-fashioned. The medical community has a duty to secure safe blood for every person who might need it, let us not waste safe potential donors and stigmatize them by focusing on outdated policies. Keywords: HIV, AIDS, donation, blood banks, homosexuality, risk assessment ...

  4. Blood donation by African migrants and refugees in Australia: the role of demographic and socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilten, Z; Waters, N; Polonsky, M; Renzaho, A

    2014-02-01

    To establish blood donation rates among African refugees and migrants and identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with their blood donation. A cross-sectional survey of 425 migrants and refugees living in Victoria and South Australia was used to assess blood donation status. The association between blood donation and demographic and socio-economic factors was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, 73 participants (17·2%; 95% CI: 13·6-20·8) reported having donated blood previously. Of the total sample, 2·4% (95% CI: 0·9-3·8) reported having given blood in Australia; 12·9% (95% CI: 9·7-16·1) had given blood prior to migration to Australia (i.e. country of birth or transition); and 1·9% (95% CI: 0·6-3·2) indicated they had given blood in an unspecified country. In the univariate model, age, country of birth, blood donation knowledge, religion, educational attainment, migration and employment status were all associated with blood donation status. However, in the multivariate model, only age >45 years (odds ratio [OR] 5·72; 95% CI 2·11-15·46), African region of origin (OR 15·89; 95% CI 3·89-65) and blood donation knowledge (OR 4·46; 95% CI 1·57-12·7) were associated with blood donation. In order to increase the number of blood donors among African migrants, promoting knowledge and awareness of issues associated with blood donation in Australia should be emphasized. Consideration should be given to identifying these potential migrant donors to improve the availability of compatible blood for patients of African descent. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. The new Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (SCANDAT2): a blood safety resource with added versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus; Vasan, Senthil K; Wikman, Agneta; Norda, Rut; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Erikstrup, Christian; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Titlestad, Kjell; Ullum, Henrik; Melbye, Mads; Nyrén, Olof; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Risks of transfusion-transmitted disease are currently at a record low in the developed world. Still, available methods for blood surveillance might not be sufficient to detect transmission of diseases with unknown etiologies or with very long incubation periods. We have previously created the anonymized Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database, containing data on blood donors, blood transfusions, and transfused patients, with complete follow-up of donors and patients for a range of health outcomes. Here we describe the re-creation of SCANDAT with updated, identifiable data. We collected computerized data on blood donations and transfusions from blood banks covering all of Sweden and Denmark. After data cleaning, two structurally identical databases were created and the entire database was linked with nationwide health outcomes registers to attain complete follow-up for up to 47 years regarding hospital care, cancer, and death. After removal of erroneous records, the database contained 25,523,334 donation records, 21,318,794 transfusion records, and 3,692,653 unique persons with valid identification, presently followed over 40 million person-years, with possibility for future extension. Data quality is generally high with 96% of all transfusions being traceable to their respective donation(s) and a very high (>97%) concordance with official statistics on annual number of blood donations and transfusions. It is possible to create a binational, nationwide database with almost 50 years of follow-up of blood donors and transfused patients for a range of health outcomes. We aim to use this database for further studies of donor health, transfusion-associated risks, and transfusion-transmitted disease. © 2015 AABB.

  6. Incentives for Blood Donation: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Analyze Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Andrew; Shi, Ling; Bethge, Susanne; Mühlbacher, Axel

    2018-04-01

    Background: Demographic trends affect size and age structure of populations. One of the consequences will be an increasing need for blood products to treat age-related diseases. Donation services rely on voluntariness and charitable motivation. It might be questioned whether there will be sufficient blood supply with voluntary donation. The present study focused on elicitation of preferences for incentives and aimed to contribute to the discussion on how to increase donation rates. Methods: A self-administered discrete choice experiment (DCE) was applied. Respondents were repeatedly asked to choose between hypothetical blood donation centers. In case of reluctance to receiving incentives a none-option was included. Random parameter logit (RPL) and latent class models (LCM) were used for analysis. Results: The study sample included 416 college students from the US and Germany. Choice decisions were significantly influenced by the characteristics of the donation center in the DCE. Incentives most preferred were monetary compensation, paid leave, and blood screening test. LCM identified subgroups with preference heterogeneity. Small subgroups indicated moderate to strong aversion to incentives. Conclusion: The majority of the sample positively responded to incentives and indicated a willingness to accept incentives. In face of future challenges, the judicious use and appropriate utilization of incentives might be an option to motivate potential donors and should be open to discussion.

  7. Study of knowledge and attitude among college-going students toward voluntary blood donation from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra SK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shailesh Kumar Mishra,1 Suchet Sachdev,1 Neelam Marwaha,1 Ajit Avasthi21Department of Transfusion Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaIntroduction: The study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of college-going students toward voluntary blood donation and to bring out and compare the reasons for donating or not donating blood.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,000 college-going students after taking their consent for participation using a prevalidated, self-administered, structured questionnaire after its content and construct validation.Results: The difference in the means of the level of knowledge among the donor (mean: 14.71±2.48 and nondonor students (mean: 11.55±2.82 was statistically significant. There was significant impact of previous blood donation on the level of knowledge in donor students. The attitude toward blood donation was more positive among blood donor as compared to nondonor students, and the difference in their means was statistically significant. About one in two (45.8% college-going students fear that either they are not fit enough to donate blood (26.8% or that they will become weak (19% after blood donation. Almost one in four (27.4% have fear of needle pain; therefore, they do not come forward for blood donation.Interpretation and conclusion: The most significant reason hindering blood donation comes out to be related to health of the individual donor. The findings of this study conclude that the national targets of voluntary blood donation could be better met with specific blood donor information, education, motivation, and recruitment strategies focusing on the myths and misconceptions prevalent in the donor demographic area of that particular region, specifically targeting high-school children in countries developing a volunteer donor base.Keywords: knowledge, attitude, voluntary blood

  8. [Voluntary and non-remunerated blood donation; current situation and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsellier, M

    2017-09-01

    The voluntary and unpaid blood donation is recommended by all international authorities (WHO, Council of Europe, ISBT, EBA), because it represents the best way of aiming towards self-sufficiency in blood products of all kinds, while preserving an optimal level of quality and safety for recipients as for donors. Still infrequent in many developing countries it tends to develop. However, the objective assigned by the WHO to reach 100% of unpaid and voluntary blood donations in 2020 appears ambitious, in particular for the collection of plasma intended to the splitting industry. The close evaluation of European directives concerning the donation of human body elements should allow harmonization of practices by Member States. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Six-year pilot study on nucleic acid testing for blood donations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianlin; Yang, Baocheng; Zhu, Weigang; Zheng, Xin; Du, Peng; Zeng, Jingfeng; Li, Chengyao

    2013-10-01

    A six-year pilot study on nucleic acid testing for HBV, HCV and HIV-1 has been undertaken on sero-negative plasmas in mini-pool and individual donation testing at Shenzhen Blood Center. Of 307,740 sero-negative blood samples, 95 of 102 HBV DNA yields were confirmed positive, 80/95 (84.2%) were classified as occult HBV infection (OBI) and 15 (15.8%) as window period cases. Amongst OBIs, 45% carried anti-HBc only, 41.3% anti-HBc and anti-HBs and 13.7% anti-HBs only. HBV DNA yield was 1:3239. One HCV WP and one HIV-1 infected donations were detected. High residual risk was found in current blood donations screening in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The donor line break cannula: effect on the donation process, blood component quality and transfusion microbiology testing of an important new blood bag safety feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, M J; Beard, M J; Bennett, J; Hambleton, R; Ramskill, S; Thomas, S

    2013-08-01

    The use of blood packs with an integral sampling system can result in anti-coagulant from the main bag reaching the sample pouch via the donor line, causing delayed coagulation of blood samples. In NHS Blood and Transplant, this has prevented the use of serum, the preferred matrix for transfusion microbiology (TM) testing, which has led to an increased false positive rate with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma. There is also a remote possibility of false negative results owing to sample dilution. Manufacturers have responded by offering packs with a donor line break cannula (DLBC) to prevent these adverse effects. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of DLBC packs on donation, blood component quality and of the potential return to serum for TM testing. DLBC packs from three manufacturers were assessed against control packs of the same dimensions and configuration. Donation duration, flow rate, platelet factor 4, prothrombin fragment 1+2, haemolysis and collection and processing incidents were compared. Results indicated no clinically significant adverse effect from the DLBC on the activation state of platelets, the coagulation cascade or increased haemolysis. Donation duration and blood collection and processing incident rates for DLBC packs were not significantly different to controls. The use of DLBC packs would reduce the complexity of manipulations during blood collection and therefore the likelihood of microbially contaminated donations (incorrect skin core diversion) and false negative TM tests. DLBC packs would enable the use of serum for TM testing with a significant reduction in false positive tests compared to EDTA plasma. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Retrospective evaluation of unexpected events during collection of blood donations performed with and without sedation in cats (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolin, Kerry S; Chan, Daniel L; Adamantos, Sophie; Humm, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Describe unexpected events (UEs) that occurred during blood donation in cats with and without sedation. Retrospective observational study (2010-2013). University teaching hospital. Client-owned healthy cats enrolled in a blood donation program. None. Blood collection for transfusion was performed 115 times from 32 cats. Seventy donation events were in unsedated cats and 45 in sedated cats. For each collection, the anticipated blood volume to be collected, actual blood volume collected, sedation protocol, and any UE in the peridonation period were recorded. There were 6 categories of UEs: movement during donation, donor anxiety, inadequate collected blood volume, jugular vessel related UEs, additional sedation requirement, and cardiorespiratory distress. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the frequency of UEs between sedated and unsedated cats. UEs were recorded in 54 of 115 collections. In the donor population, movement was reported as an UE in 0 cats that donated under sedation and 24/70 (34.3%) cats that donated without sedation (P donated under sedation and 14/70 (20.0%) cats that donated unsedated (P = 0.014). Unsedated donation did not increase the likelihood of inadequate donation volume, jugular vessel related UEs, or cardiorespiratory distress. Eight of 45 (17.8%) sedated donations required additional sedation. Movement during donation and signs of donor anxiety were more frequent in unsedated cats. These were considered minor issues, expected in unsedated cats being gently restrained. Blood collection from unsedated feline donors is a viable alternative to sedated donation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  12. An analysis of blood donation barriers experienced by North American and Caribbean university students in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Benjamin W; Hewitt, Sarah N; Begos, Morgan C; Gomez, Angela; Messam, Locksley L McV

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the associations of nationality, university program, donation history and gender, with blood donation barriers experienced by non-donating students on the day of a campus blood drive. This project focused particularly on nationality and the effect of the different blood donation cultures in the students' countries of origin. A retrospective cohort study of 398 North American and Caribbean university students was conducted at St. George's University, Grenada, in 2010. Data were collected from non-donating students on campus while a blood drive was taking place. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate associations between the exposures of interest and donation barriers experienced by the students. North American (voluntary blood donation culture) students were more likely than Caribbean (replacement blood donation culture) students to experience "Lack of Time" (relative risk (RR) = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.07) and "Lack of Eligibility" (RR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.08-2.22) as barriers to donation. Conversely, Caribbean students were a third as likely to state "Lack of Incentive" (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.20-0.50), "Fear of Infection" (RR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21-0.58), and "Fear of Needles" (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.21-0.48) were barriers than North American students. University students from voluntary blood donation cultures are likely to experience different barriers to donation than those from replacement cultures. Knowledge of barriers that students from contrasting blood donation systems face provides valuable information for blood drive promotion in university student populations that contain multiple nationalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes and behaviours of Greeks concerning blood donation: recruitment and retention campaigns should be focused on need rather than altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalargirou, Aikaterini A; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kosma, Alexandra G; Nanou, Christina I; Saridi, Maria I; Kriebardis, Anastasios G

    2014-07-01

    Blood supplies in Greece are insufficient to meet the high transfusion needs arising from car accidents and treatment of thalassaemia. This study was designed to determine Greeks' opinions about blood donation, in order to identify the reasons for the lack of motivation to donate and allow experts to establish better recruitment campaigns for the enrichment of the donor pool, based on our findings. The opinions of randomly selected Greek citizens (n=800) about volunteer blood donation were assessed by means of a standardised, anonymous questionnaire. The results were analysed using the χ(2) test and Spearman's correlation coefficient. With regards to attitudes towards intention to donate, only 7.1% were indifferent, while 88.0% of the individuals believed that donating blood was an "offer". Reasons for not donating mainly involved safety (36.0%) and fear (24.0%), whereas need (77.9%) was the most fundamental positive motivation. Of the people enrolled in the present study, 10.0% were active donors, 31.3% occasional donors, 15.0% rare donors and 36.6% non-donors. The considerable percentages of occasional and rare donors in comparison with the low proportion of active donors in the Greek donor pool indicates that "need" is a more important motivation for blood donation than altruism in Greece. These results could be useful for establishing advertising campaigns on blood donation and for a more direct approach to the population, aiming for a change in mentality in favour of active blood donation.

  14. [Assessment of malaria screening management in blood donation control in the French Military Blood Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, T; Garcia-Hejl, C; Bouzard, S; Roche, C; Sailliol, A; Martinaud, C

    2014-06-01

    The French Military Blood Institute is responsible for the entire blood supply chain in the French Armed Forces. Considering, the high exposition rate of military to malaria risk, blood donation screening of plasmodium infection must be as efficient as possible. The main aim of our study was to assess our malaria testing strategy based on a single Elisa test compared with a two-step strategy implying immunofluorescence testing as confirmation test. The second goal was to describe characteristic of malaria Elisa positive donors. We conducted a prospective study: every malaria Elisa positive test was implemented by immunofluorescence testing and demographical data were recorded as usual by our medical software. We showed a significant risk of malaria ELISA positive tests among donor born in endemic area and we estimate the number of abusively 3-year rejected donors. However, based on our estimations, the two-step strategy is not relevant since the number of additionally collected blood products will be low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Views and attitudes towards blood donation: a qualitative investigation of Indian non-donors living in England

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Dhaara; Meakin, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the views and attitudes of Indians living in England on blood donation. Background In light of the predicted shortages in blood supply, it is vital to consider ways in which to maximise donation rates. These include addressing the issue of lower donation rates among ethnic minorities, including Indians. However research specifically among minority ethnicities in UK is sparse. Setting General practice in North London. Participants A convenience sample of 12 non-donor India...

  16. Views and attitudes towards blood donation: a qualitative investigation of Indian non-donors living in England

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, D.; Meakin, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the views and attitudes of Indians living in England on blood donation. BACKGROUND: In light of the predicted shortages in blood supply, it is vital to consider ways in which to maximise donation rates. These include addressing the issue of lower donation rates among ethnic minorities, including Indians. However research specifically among minority ethnicities in UK is sparse. SETTING: General practice in North London. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience ...

  17. Fibrin sealants or cell saver eliminate the need for autologous blood donation in anemic patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Monsef, Jad; Buckup, Johannes; Waldstein, Wenzel; Cornell, Charles; Boettner, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Reducing allogeneic blood transfusions remains a challenge in total knee arthroplasty. Patients with preoperative anemia have a particularly high risk for perioperative blood transfusions. 176 anemic patients (Hb < 13.5 g/dl) undergoing total knee replacement were prospectively evaluated to compare the effect of a perioperative cell saver (26 patients), intraoperative fibrin sealants (5 ml Evicel, Johnson & Johnson Wound Management, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) (45 patients), preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) (21 patients), the combination of fibrin sealants and preoperative autologous blood donation (44) and no intervention (40 patients) on perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. All protocols resulted in significant reduction of allogeneic blood transfusions. Transfusion rates were similar with the use of PABD (19%), Evicel (18%), and cell saver (19%), all significantly lower than the control group (38 %, p < 0.05). Combining Evicel with PABD resulted in significantly higher wastage of autologous units (p < 0.05) with no significant reduction in allogeneic transfusion rate (14%). The use of fibrin sealant resulted in a significant reduction of blood loss compared to the PABD group (603 vs. 810 ml, p < 0.005) as well as the control group (603 vs. 822 ml, p < 0.005). While PABD proved to be the most cost-effective treatment option in anemic patients, fibrin sealants and cell saver show similar reduction in allogeneic transfusion rates compared to controls. The combination of fibrin sealants and PABD is not cost-effective and increases the number of wasted units.

  18. Koplin, Titmuss and the social tail that wags the dog: Commentary on Koplin, "From blood donation to kidney sales".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearmur, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a commentary on Koplin's "From Blood Donation to Kidney Sales". While appreciative of his paper, it argues that an argument from social solidarity to a Titmussian donor system is problematic. It reviews weaknesses in Titmuss, discusses problems about Titmussian blood donation as a vehicle for solidarity, and explores problems about extending a Titmussian approach to organs.

  19. A portable system for processing donated whole blood into high quality components without centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sean C; Strachan, Briony C; Xia, Hui; Vörös, Eszter; Torabian, Kian; Tomasino, Taylor A; Griffin, Gary D; Lichtiger, Benjamin; Aung, Fleur M; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2018-01-01

    The use of centrifugation-based approaches for processing donated blood into components is routine in the industrialized world, as disparate storage conditions require the rapid separation of 'whole blood' into distinct red blood cell (RBC), platelet, and plasma products. However, the logistical complications and potential cellular damage associated with centrifugation/apheresis manufacturing of blood products are well documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proof-of-concept system for whole blood processing, which does not employ electromechanical parts, is easily portable, and can be operated immediately after donation with minimal human labor. In a split-unit study (n = 6), full (~500mL) units of freshly-donated whole blood were divided, with one half processed by conventional centrifugation techniques and the other with the new blood separation system. Each of these processes took 2-3 hours to complete and were performed in parallel. Blood products generated by the two approaches were compared using an extensive panel of cellular and plasma quality metrics. Comparison of nearly all RBC parameters showed no significant differences between the two approaches, although the portable system generated RBC units with a slight but statistically significant improvement in 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid concentration (p applications in remote or resource-limited settings, or for patients requiring highly functional platelet product.

  20. Effect of pre-donation fluid intake on fluid shift from interstitial to intravascular compartment in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepika, Chenna; Murugesan, Mohandoss; Shastry, Shamee

    2018-02-01

    Fluid shifts from interstitial to intravascular space during blood donation helps in compensating the lost blood volume. We aimed to determine the volume of fluid shift following donation in donors with and without pre-donation fluid intake. We studied the fluid shift in 325 blood donors prospectively. Donors were divided in groups- with no fluid intake (GI) and either water (GII) or oral rehydrating fluids (GIII) before donation. Fluid shift following donation was calculated based on the difference between the pre and post donation blood volume. The influence of oral fluid intake, age, gender and body mass index (BMI) on volume of fluid shift was analyzed. The fluid shift was significant between donors without fluids (GI: 127 ± 81 ml) and donors with fluid intake (GII & III: 96 ± 45 ml) (p donation. As per our observation, the oral fluids before donation might not contribute to increase in fluid shift in blood donors after donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A(1c)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Angelique; Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA(1c) in both

  2. Influence of blood donation on levels of water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, U; Pruss, A; Wodarra, J; Kiesewetter, H; Salama, A; Radtke, H

    2008-12-01

    Iron depletion is a well-known side effect of blood donation. Research evidence also suggests an increasing prevalence of vitamin deficiency in apparently healthy subjects, but there is little information regarding the relationship between blood donation and vitamin status. A total of 217 volunteers (80 first-time and 137 repeat blood donors) were consecutively enrolled in the study. All subjects completed self-administered medical history and food intake forms, which included questions regarding alcohol consumption and smoking as well as on vitamin supplement, iron and contraceptive use (females). Vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12 and biotin levels were measured using standard techniques. The mean vitamin levels of first-time and repeat blood donors did not significantly differ. Vitamin deficiencies occurred in both first-time and repeat blood donors but not on vitamin supplements. Vitamin status was affected by alcohol, nicotine and contraceptives. Blood donation does not decrease the level of water-soluble vitamins. Vitamin deficiencies occur in apparently healthy first-time as well as in repeat blood donors and can be prevented by vitamin supplementation.

  3. Blood Donation and Citizenship Education. An approach from service learning and the Theory of Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. PUIG ROVIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The altruistic donation of blood recommended by the World Health Organisation and carried out through blood banks not only contributes to providing the health system with an indispensable therapeutic element, it is also a means of fostering social integration and educating for citizenship. Within this general context, the article begins by arguing why altruistic donation is better than buying and selling blood and why the gift theory – developed by sociology on the basis of the work by Marcel Mauss – more than justifies the possibility of meeting the demand for blood in this way. On the basis of these considerations it can be said that blood banks are social institutions that perform three basic functions: technical, civic and educational. The article continues by examining the educational project undertaken by the Blood and Tissue Bank of Catalonia, which consists in a programme based on the methodology of service learning and which invites young people to cultivate and develop a communicative approach to promoting the altruistic donation of blood in their neighbourhood. The article concludes by evaluating the consolidation, effectiveness and degree of satisfaction of the project, and suggesting that this model can be used to form the basis of ideas for educational proposals of other social institutions.

  4. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany. Update 2010 and 5-year comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, S; Hamouda, O; Offergeld, R

    2012-08-01

    The Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Since 2006 data not only on the number of donations tested but also on the number of the respective donors have become available. The demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2010 and the percentages among the general population are described and compared to data from 2006. Although the general population eligible to donate blood is on the decline since 2003, with a loss of 2% between 2006 and 2010, this has not led to a decrease in the number of blood donors and donations. Instead, the number of new and repeat whole blood donors increased by 8% and 7%, respectively. At the same time, the number of new plasma donors grew by 23%, that of repeat plasma donors by 41%. In 2010 more than 4.3% of the population aged 18-68 years was active as repeat whole blood donors; 0.4% repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Since 2006 the percentage of donors among the general population increased significantly, especially among the youngest age group (18-24 years). Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 12.5 for plasmapheresis and 5.0 for plateletpheresis. While the donation frequency for whole blood remained unchanged since 2006, the frequency of apheresis donations increased, especially among older donors. By recruiting more new donors and retaining and reactivating existing ones more effectively, the number of whole blood and apheresis donations was augmented.

  5. Views and attitudes towards blood donation: a qualitative investigation of Indian non-donors living in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dhaara; Meakin, Richard

    2017-10-22

    To explore the views and attitudes of Indians living in England on blood donation. In light of the predicted shortages in blood supply, it is vital to consider ways in which to maximise donation rates. These include addressing the issue of lower donation rates among ethnic minorities, including Indians. However research specifically among minority ethnicities in UK is sparse. General practice in North London. A convenience sample of 12 non-donor Indians living in England. This is a qualitative investigation involving semistructured interviews. Themes derived were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Five key themes emerged from the data, and these concerned participants' perspectives regarding attitudes towards blood, blood donation as a 'good thing', donation disincentives, the recipient matters and the donor matters. A variety of attitudes were presented, but were generally positive, and blood was conceptualised in a manner previously found to be consistent with donation. However, lack of awareness and accessibility were prominent barriers, indicating the need for improvement in these capacities. In contrast to this, blood was also greatly associated with family and acted as a symbol of kinship: this 'emotional charge' often acted to dissuade participants from separating with their blood through donation. Possibly due to this, there was also a strong preference for donated blood to be distributed within the family, as opposed to strangers. This presents a potential barrier to blood donation for some Indians within the current system in which donations are given to unknown recipients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection in blood donations in Europe and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suligoi, Barbara; Raimondo, Mariangela; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Camoni, Laura

    2010-07-01

    The safety of blood with regards to transmission of infectious diseases is guaranteed by European laws that regulate both the selection of donors through pre-donation questionnaires and serological screening. However, variability in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in different countries and some differences in the selection of donors can influence the efficacy (with regards to the safety of blood) of these processes. In this study we compared the prevalence of HIV in blood donations in the three macro-areas of Europe and in various western European countries, analysed the criteria of selection and rewarding of donors in western European countries, and studied the trend in the prevalence of HIV in Italy from to 1995 and 2006. European data were derived from the European Centre for the Surveillance of HIV; Italian data were obtained from the Transfusion-Transmitted Infections Surveillance System and National and Regional Register of blood and plasma. The information on eligibility criteria and rewarding offered to donors was derived from international sources. The prevalence of HIV in blood donations was highest in eastern Europe, followed by central Europe and western Europe. Among the western European countries, Spain, Italy and Israel had the highest prevalences; the prevalence was noted to be higher in countries which did not offer any rewarding to the donor. In Italy the prevalence of HIV was 3.8 cases per 100,000 donations in 2006 and increased between 1995 and 2006, both among donations from repeat donors and first time donors. The data highlight the need to continue improving the selection of donors and the coverage of the surveillance systems for HIV infection in transfusion services.

  7. The Causes for Lack of Interest to Blood Donation in Eligible Individuals, Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeri, M T; Vafaee, A; Esmaeily, H; Shafiei, N; Bazargani, R; Khayamy, ME

    2012-01-01

    Background Donor recruitment and retention are significant problems in blood collection agencies around the world. The Aim of this study was to determine the causes of lack of interest to blood donation in eligible individu­als in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Methods This was a descriptive study. Cases were 1130 non-donor individuals. Participants were selected from eligible individuals in different regions of Mashhad. In this study, surveys included information about age groups, gender, resid...

  8. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: relation to cigarette smoking and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Anna-Maja; Sojka, Birgitta Nilsson; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umeå, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 micromol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 micromol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 micromol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.

  9. Emotional-motivational barriers to blood donation among Togolese adults: a structural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinon, K; Gbati, K; Sorum, P C; Mullet, E

    2014-02-01

    Although the number of blood donors has been rapidly increasing in Togo since 2003, it is nevertheless insufficient to cover the demand. To increase needed blood donation in Togo, it is necessary to understand why most people are reluctant to do it. A sample of 400 adult volunteers in Lomé, mostly university educated, rated, on a scale of 0-10, the relevance to them of a comprehensive list of reasons that might deter people from donating blood. The ratings of 250 participants were subjected to factor analysis, and the resulting factorial structure was confirmed on the ratings of the other 150 participants. The resulting six factors were labelled (in order of their ratings of a representative sample of items): Lack of Courage and Lack of Information (mean 5·43 of 10), Concerns about the Use of Blood (4·72), Risk Aversion (4·37), Fear of Medical Settings (2·41), Conformity with Tradition (1·88) and Indifference to Others and Hostility to the Procedure (1·69). To increase blood donation, a public information campaign should address the emotional-motivational barriers found even in the most educated segment of Togolese society. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, incidence, and residual transmission risk in first-time and repeat blood donations in Zimbabwe : implications on blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Mvere, David A.; Chitiyo, McLeod E.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National Blood Service Zimbabwe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk management strategy includes screening and discarding of first-time donations, which are collected in blood packs without an anticoagulant (dry pack). To evaluate the impact of discarding first-time donations on

  11. Status and Deterrents of Blood Donation among Civil Servants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood is an important ingredient in the modern public health delivery system to save the lives of many patients. However, in developing countries, due to lack of safe and reliable sources many patients requiring blood do not have timely access to it. Objective: This study sought to identify the status and ...

  12. The effect of priming with a love concept on blood donation promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Sire, Virginie; Guéguen, Nicolas; Meineri, Sébastien; Martin, Angélique; Bullock, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    This field study on blood donor behavior tests the effectiveness of semantic priming on donor intention and commitment. Using face-to-face interactions, participants were primed with the concept of love and solicited to promise blood to the French National Blood Bank. Results showed a significant effect on willingness to donate blood and on donor commitment. The relatively simple and easily implemented technique used in this study could be of interest in improving performance of recruitment and retention campaigns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Translation into Portuguese and validation of the Blood Donation Reactions Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Garcia Braz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the Blood Donation Reactions Inventory (BDRI scale was proposed as part of a study about the predictors of psychological reactions in volunteer blood donors, as uncomfortable reactions are associated with a lower probability to return for further donations. Objective: to translate the Inventory into Brazilian Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties (validity and reliability. The inventory has 11 items, but the literature suggests that shorter inventories, of four or six items, should be used. Methods: this study was carried out at the blood center of Franca, Brazil. Three people with knowledge of English and familiarity with medical terms translated the Blood Donation Reactions Inventory into Brazilian Portuguese. Aiming to evaluate the objectivity and relevance of the items of the translated instrument, its content was independently evaluated by a panel of eight assessors. After this, data on 1,001 blood donors was collected. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to analyze the measure for construct validity. Results: the sample consisted of 65.8% men, and 27.3% first time donors. Internal consistency determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficient was satisfactory for the 11, 6 and 4-item scales. Considering the factor analysis, the 11-item scale seems to measure more than one construct as three factors were identified with eigenvalues greater than 1. These factors correspond to 'vasovagal adverse reactions', 'fear' and 'anxiety/excitation'. Conclusion: the Portuguese version of the Blood Donation Reactions Inventory is a valid and reliable instrument for collecting information regarding systemic reactions experienced by blood donors. The 6-item scale seems to be useful when the objective is to measure only vasovagal adverse reactions.

  14. [Digital marketing: what place does it have in blood donation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, A

    2013-05-01

    Blood transfusion arose from the actions of medical doctors and has to answer to the increasing evolution of the blood product. To answer this vital need, marketing intervenes with the implementation of strategy and a multi-channel campaign. The emergence, acquisition and evolution of new information technologies in today's society require that marketing and communication professionals use of digital marketing in their relational initiatives and the promotion of the gift of life. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Predicting future blood supply and demand in Japan with a Markov model: application to the sex- and age-specific probability of blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Junko; Ohisa, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Aya; Nishida, Kazuo; Inoue, Shingo; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2016-11-01

    Simulation studies were performed to predict the future supply and demand for blood donations, and future shortfalls. Using data from all donations in 2006 to 2009, the Markov model was applied to estimate future blood donations until 2050. Based on data concerning the actual use of blood products, the number of blood products needed was estimated based on future population projections. We estimated that the number of blood donations increased from 5,020,000 in 2008 to 5,260,000 in 2012, but will decrease to 4,770,000 units by 2025. In particular, the number of donors in their 20s and 30s decreased every year. Moreover, the number of donations required to supply blood products would have been increased from 5,390,000 in 2012 to 5,660,000 units in 2025. Thus, the estimated shortfall of blood donations is expected to increase each year from 140,000 in 2012 to 890,000 in 2025 and then more than double to 1,670,000 in 2050. If the current blood donation behaviors continue, a shortfall of blood availability is likely to occur in Japan. Insufficient blood donations are mainly related to a projected reduction in population of 20 to 30 year olds, a significant group of donors. Thus, it is crucial to recruit and retain new donors and to develop recommendations for proper use of blood products to minimize unnecessary use. This study provides useful information that can be used by governments to help ensure the adequacy of the blood supply through promoting donations and conserving blood resources. © 2016 AABB.

  16. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus RNA and antibody in first-time, lapsed, and repeat blood donations across five international regions and relative efficacy of alternative screening scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Roberta; Lelie, Nico; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael; Kleinman, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-one blood organizations from five geographical regions provided HIV individual donation (ID)-NAT and serology data on 11,787,610 donations. Infections were classified as anti-HIV-/RNA+ window period (WP), anti-HIV+/RNA+ concordant positive (CP) or anti-HIV+/RNA- elite controller (EC). Residual risk and efficacy of several screening scenarios were estimated for first time, lapsed and repeat donations. WP residual risk estimates assumed a 50% infectious dose of 3.16 virions and a 50% detection limit of 2.7 HIV RNA copies/mL for ID-NAT and 10,000 copies/mL for p24Ag. Infectivity for CP (100%) and EC (2.2%) donations was estimated based on viral load distributions and 100-fold reduced infectivity by antibody neutralization as reported elsewhere. Efficacy was calculated as proportion of transmission risk removed from baseline (i.e. in absence of any screening). There was no significant difference in transmission risk between lapsed and repeat donations in any region. Risk was 3.8-fold higher in first time than combined lapsed/repeat donations in South Africa but not in other regions. Screening strategies were most efficacious at interdicting infectious transfusions in first time (98.7-99.8%) followed by lapsed (97.6-99.7%) and repeat (86.8-97.7%) donations in all regions combined. In each donor category the efficacy of ID-NAT alone (97.7-99.8%) was superior to that of minipool (MP)-NAT/anti-HIV (95.0-99.6%) and p24 Ag/anti-HIV (89.8-99.1%). Efficacy patterns were similar by donor/donation status in each region despite large differences in HIV prevalence and transmission risk. As similar data become available for HBV and HCV, this modeling may be useful in cost effectiveness analyses of alternative testing scenarios. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. What motivates men to donate blood? A systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, A; Chell, K; Davison, T E; Masser, B M

    2018-04-01

    Effective recruitment and retention of male donors are vital for the ongoing provision of blood products. Compared with females, male donors are less likely to be medically deferred or experience vasovagal reactions and are typically preferred for plasmapheresis donation in voluntary non-remunerated settings. However, females outnumber males among donors aged under 40 years. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence and identify key motivators for blood donation among males to inform targeted recruitment/retention campaigns. Databases (e.g. EBSCOhost, Web of Science) were searched using terms (dona* OR dono*) AND (blood OR aphaeresis OR apheresis OR plasma* OR platelet* OR platlet*) in title AND (male OR gender OR sex OR female) AND (motivat* OR intention OR attitude OR behavi* OR predictor OR barrier OR deter*) NOT (organ OR sperm OR tissue OR autologous OR oocyte) in text. Two researchers independently systematically scanned quantitative, full-text, English language, peer-reviewed publications from 1990 to 2015 that examined males/females separately with outcomes of blood donation or self-reported intention. Two additional researchers resolved discrepancies. Among 28 identified articles, the most frequently cited motivators for male blood product donation were as follows: altruism; positive attitude towards incentives; health check(s); subjective norms. Altruism was less pronounced among males compared with females and was combined with 'warm glow' in novice males (impure altruism). Perceived health benefits and incentives (e.g. coffee mugs) were stronger motivators of males than females. Marketing campaigns for recruitment/retention of male donors should focus on identified motivators rather than take a 'one-size-fits-all' approach. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Adverse reactions and other factors that impact subsequent blood donation visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Brian; Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen; Kakaiya, Ram M; Gottschall, Jerome L; Wright, David J

    2012-01-01

    The importance of adverse reactions in terms of donor safety recently has received significant attention, but their role in subsequent donation behavior has not been thoroughly investigated. Six REDS-II blood centers provided data for this analysis. Summary minor and major adverse reaction categories were created. The influence of adverse reactions on donation was examined in two ways: Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to determine the cumulative pattern of first return, and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for demographic and other factors positively and negatively associated with return were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Donors who had major reactions had longer times to return than donors with minor or no reactions. The AOR of returning for donors with major reactions was 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.37) and with minor reactions 0.59 (95% CI, 0.56-0.62) when compared to donors who did not have reactions. Conversely, the most important factors positively associated with return were the number of donations in the previous year and increasing age. Subsequent return, whether a major, minor, or no reaction occurred, varied by blood center. Factors that are associated with the risk of having adverse reactions were not substantial influences on the return after adverse reactions. Having an adverse reaction leads to significantly lower odds of subsequent donation irrespective of previous donation history. Factors that have been associated with a greater risk of adverse reactions were not important positive or negative predictors of return after a reaction. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  19. How to encourage non-donors to be more willing to donate blood? Testing of binding communication based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, D; Blondé, J; Girandola, F

    2017-06-01

    Our study aims to test the effectiveness of binding communication based interventions (vs classical persuasive communication based ones) inciting non-donors to act in favour of blood donation. The implementation of effective communication interventions represents a major public health issue. Nevertheless, persuasive media campaigns appear to have little effect on behaviours. Even though non-donors hold a positive attitude towards blood donation, they are not inclined to donate. As an alternative to producing behavioural changes, many recent studies have shown the superiority of binding communication over persuasive communication. All participants, non-donors, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (type of communication: persuasive vs binding) × 2 (source credibility: low vs high) factorial design. Then, they were asked to report their intention to donate blood, and their intention to distribute leaflets regarding blood donation. Binding communication is a more effective strategy for increasing intention towards blood donation compared with persuasive communication, especially when combined with high credibility source. Accordingly this study calls for more consideration of knowledge of social psychology to design effective communication interventions and increase the number of donations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. The persistence of hepatitis C virus transmission risk in China despite serologic screening of blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Jing; Huang, Yi; Wright, David J; Li, Julin; Zhou, Zhongmin; He, Weilan; Yang, Tonghan; Yao, Fuzhu; Zhu, Xiangming; Wen, Guoxin; Bi, Xinhong; Tiemuer, Mei-hei-li; Wen, Xiuqiong; Huang, Mei; Cao, Ru'an; Yun, Zhongqiao; Lü, Yunlai; Ma, Hongli; Guo, Nan; Yu, Qilu; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2013-10-01

    A total of 2%-2.9% of the population in China is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study estimated the prevalence and incidence of HCV among Chinese blood donors. We examined whole blood and apheresis platelet donations at five Chinese blood centers in 2008 to 2010. All donations were screened using two rounds of testing for alanine aminotransferase, antibody to human immunodeficiency virus Types 1 and 2, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, and syphilis. Screening reactivity is defined by a reactive result in one or both rounds of screening tests. Confirmatory tests (Ortho third-generation HCV enzyme immunoassay, Johnson & Johnson) were performed on anti-HCV screening-reactive samples. Confirmatory positive rates among first-time donors (prevalence) and repeat donors (incidence) were calculated by blood center and demographic categories. Donor characteristics associated with HCV confirmatory status among first-time donors were examined using trend test and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Among 821,314 donations, 40% came from repeat donors. The overall anti-HCV screening-reactive rate was 0.48%. Estimated HCV prevalence was 235 per 100,000 first-time donors; incidence was 10 per 100,000 person-years in repeat donors. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, first-time donors older than 25 years displayed higher HCV prevalence than the younger donors. Less education is associated with higher HCV prevalence. Donors 26 to 35 years old and those above 45 years displayed the highest incidence rate. High prevalence and incidence in donors indicate high residual risks for transfusion-transmitted HCV in Chinese patients. Implementation of minipool nucleic acid testing in routine donation screening may prevent a substantial number of transfusion-transmitted HCV infections. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. The effect of pre-donation hypotension on whole blood donor adverse reactions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Nele S; Cusack, Leila; De Buck, Emmy; Compernolle, Veerle; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    Blood services are reliant upon healthy blood donors to provide a safe and adequate supply of blood products. Inappropriate variables contained within blood donor exclusion criteria can defer potentially appropriate donors. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of low pre-donation blood pressure, as compared with normal blood pressure, on adverse events in allogeneic whole blood donors. A systematic review was performed using highly sensitive search strategies within five databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) from inception date until April 12, 2013. Out of 8305 records, 10 observational studies were identified that addressed the question. Five of these studies (with a combined total of 1,482,020 donations and 2903 donors) included either a statistical analysis or an appropriate study design that controlled for possible confounding factors. Based on the currently available evidence, hypotension has not been shown to be an independent predictive factor for donor complications. However, the overall quality of evidence was rather limited and rated 'low,' using the GRADE approach. In conclusion there is currently no evidence that hypotensive blood donors have a greater risk for donor adverse events compared with their normotensive counterparts. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to elicit blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, M; Godin, G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test the relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to trigger blood donation. A sample of 3454 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: phone only (n = 1176), email only (n = 1091) and phone + email (n = 1187). There was a higher proportion of donors who registered to give blood in the phone + email condition (18·45%) compared to the other two conditions (phone: 15·73%, P email: 13·20%; P email conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0·16), suggesting equivalent efficacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  3. Clinical and Surgical Strategies for Avoiding or Reducing Allogeneic Blood Transfusions

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Antonio Alceu; Baumgratz, Jose Francisco; Vila, Jose Henrique Andrade; Castro, Rodrigo Moreira; Bezerra, Rodrigo Freire

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusions have still been used as a standard therapy to treat severe anemia. Current evidences point to both excessive allogeneic blood consumption and decreased donations, which result in reduced stocks in blood banks. Several studies have increasingly suggested a more restrictive transfusion practice for blood products. Currently, a number of autologous blood conservation protocols in surgeries have been noted. We report a case of severe anemia with 2.9 g/dL hemoglobin, which was s...

  4. The effects of a culturally-tailored campaign to increase blood donation knowledge, attitudes and intentions among African migrants in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Francis

    Full Text Available Research suggests that African migrants are often positively predisposed towards blood donation, but are under-represented in participation. A culturally-tailored intervention targeting the African migrant community in Australia was developed and implemented, to enhance knowledge about blood donation, improve attitudes towards donating, increase intentions to donate blood, and increase the number of new African donors in Australia. Four weeks after a targeted campaign, a survey evaluation process commenced, administered face-to-face by bilingual interviewers from the African community in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia (community survey. The questionnaires covered demographics, campaign awareness, blood donation knowledge and intentions, medical mistrust and perceived discrimination, and were analysed to evaluate changes in knowledge and intention. Sixty-two percent of survey participants (n = 454 reported being aware of the campaign. With increasing campaign awareness, there was a 0.28 increase in knowledge score (p = .005; previous blood donation was also associated with an increased blood donation knowledge score. Blood donation intention scores were not associated with campaign awareness (p = 0.272, but were associated with previous blood donation behaviour and a positive blood donation attitude score. More positive scores on the blood donation attitude measure were associated with increasing blood donation intentions, self-efficacy and campaign awareness (score increases of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.04, respectively, all p<0.05. Data were collected on the ethnicity of new blood donors in six blood collection centres before and after the intervention, and independent of the intervention evaluation survey. These data were also used to assess behavioural changes and the proportions of donors from different countries before and after the survey. There was no difference in the number of new African migrant donors, before and after the intervention. The

  5. Blood donors’ physical characteristics are associated with pre- and post-donation symptoms - Donor InSight

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Katja; Peffer, Karlijn; Habets, Karin; Atsma, Femke; Pasker-de Jong, Pieternel C.M.; van Noord, Paulus A.H.; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J.T.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational data suggest that some donors might benefit from donating while others may be harmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential, routinely measured, determinants of pre- and post-donation symptoms. Materials and methods In Donor InSight, questionnaire data from 23,064 whole blood donors (53% female) were linked to routinely measured data on donors’ physical characteristics (haemoglobin, blood pressure, body mass index and estimated blood volume) from the Dutch donor database. Absolute and relative associations between donors’ physical donor and the presence of pre- and post-donation symptoms were studied using multivariable logistic regression. Results Pre-donation symptoms (lack of energy, headaches) were reported by 3% of men and 3% of women. Five percent of men and 4% of women reported positive post-donation symptoms (feeling fit, fewer headaches). Negative symptoms (fatigue, dizziness) were more common, occurring in 8% of men and 19% of women. All the studied donors’ physical characteristics were positively associated with pre- and positive post-donation symptoms and negatively associated with negative symptoms. Body mass index was most consistently and independently associated with symptoms. Discussion Donors’ physical characteristics, in particular body mass index, were consistently associated with pre- and post-donation symptoms. This indicates that subgroups of donors more and less tolerant to donation might be identifiable using routinely measured data. Further research is warranted to study underlying mechanisms and potential strategies to predict and prevent donor reactions. PMID:27416579

  6. Experience of German Red Cross blood donor services with nucleic acid testing: results of screening more than 30 million blood donations for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourfar, Michael K; Jork, Christine; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Weber-Schehl, Marijke; Brixner, Veronika; Busch, Michael P; Geusendam, Geert; Gubbe, Knut; Mahnhardt, Christina; Mayr-Wohlfart, Uschi; Pichl, Lutz; Roth, W Kurt; Schmidt, Michael; Seifried, Erhard; Wright, David J

    2008-08-01

    The risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is predominantly attributable to donations given during the early stage of infection when diagnostic tests may fail. In 1997, nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-testing was introduced at the German Red Cross (GRC) blood donor services to reduce this diagnostic window period (WP). A total of 31,524,571 blood donations collected from 1997 through 2005 were screened by minipool NAT, predominantly with pool sizes of 96 donations. These donations cover approximately 80 percent of all the blood collected in Germany during that period. Based on these data, the WP risk in the GRC blood donor population was estimated by using a state-of-the-art mathematic model. During the observation period, 23 HCV, 7 HIV-1, and 43 HBV NAT-only-positive donations were detected. On the basis of these data and estimated pre-NAT infectious WPs, the residual risk per unit transfused was estimated at 1 in 10.88 million for HCV (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.51-19.72 million), 1 in 4.30 million for HIV-1 (95% CI, 2.39-21.37 million), and 1 in 360,000 for HBV (95% CI, 0.19-3.36 million). Based on observed cases of breakthrough infections, the risk of transfusion-related infections may be even lower. The risk of a blood recipient becoming infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HBV has reached an extremely low level. Introduction of individual donation testing for HCV and HIV-1 would have a marginal effect on interception of WP donations.

  7. Transfusion-Transmitted Hepatitis E: NAT Screening of Blood Donations and Infectious Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Vollmer, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    The risk and importance of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (TT-HEV) infections by contaminated blood products is currently a controversial discussed topic in transfusion medicine. The infectious dose, in particular, remains an unknown quantity. In the present study, we illuminate and review this aspect seen from the viewpoint of a blood donation service with more than 2 years of experience in routine HEV blood donor screening. We systematically review the actual status of presently known cases of TT-HEV infections and available routine NAT-screening assays. The review of the literature revealed a significant variation regarding the infectious dose causing hepatitis E. We also present the outcome of six cases confronted with HEV-contaminated blood products, identified by routine HEV RNA screening of minipools using the highly sensitive RealStar HEV RT-PCR Kit (95% LOD: 4.7 IU/mL). Finally, the distribution of viral RNA in different blood components [plasma, red blood cell concentrate (RBC), platelet concentrates (PC)] was quantified using the first WHO international standard for HEV RNA for NAT-based assays. None of the six patients receiving an HEV-contaminated blood product from five different donors (donor 1: RBC, donor 2-5: APC) developed an acute hepatitis E infection, most likely due to low viral load in donor plasma (donations should be adequate as a routine screening assay to identify high viremic donors and will cover at least a large part of viremic phases.

  8. [Blood donation in the media between 1950 and 1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-02-01

    Anecdotes, such as found in the media and chiefly the humor journals and magazines aim at bringing revisited insights on society subjects, which can even be the most serious. Anecdotes reported here on blood transfusion and the transfusion environment, that were retrieved from French news released in the media press between the 1950s to 1980s give a view on what has been achieved since then, but also on what is at a standstill by some incapability in moving forward or in changing minds. Those anecdotes would be used to stimulate or refresh debates in transfusion related-ethics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparently in a healthy state today but with possible clinical disease consequences in the future. A retrospective study was conducted from April 2011 to November 2012. Screening was done using third generation ELISA kits used according to the manufacturer's directions; these kits were approved for use in blood banks by the Drug Controller General of India. Those testing repeat reactive were referred for further confirmation and management. The total number of TTI reactive donors was 787 (0.93 %, N = 83,865). The observed response rate in the present study is 21.6 % (167, N = 787). The risk factors for acquiring infections in TTI reactive donors were statistically significant history of high risk behaviour (20.3 %) for human immunodeficiency virus infection and history of jaundice in themselves, family or close contacts (16.1 %) for hepatitis B virus infection. One hundred and ten (65.8 %) of the referred donors were on outpatient clinical care when post-referral follow up was conducted. The study emphasises on continuing sensitization of blood donation camp organisers to the need of privacy during blood donor selection. The study also stresses the need to strengthen the pre-donation counselling at outdoor blood donation at the same time raise awareness amongst blood donors about the importance of post-donation counselling and follow up.

  10. Determinants of Intention to Use Mobile Phone Caller Tunes to Promote Voluntary Blood Donation: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Bernard; Burdine, James N; Aftab, Ammar; Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Anum, David A; Kretchy, Irene A; Samman, Elfreda W; Appiah, Patience B; Bates, Imelda

    2018-05-04

    Voluntary blood donation rates are low in sub-Saharan Africa. Sociobehavioral factors such as a belief that donated blood would be used for performing rituals deter people from donating blood. There is a need for culturally appropriate communication interventions to encourage individuals to donate blood. Health care interventions that use mobile phones have increased in developing countries, although many of them focus on SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS). A unique feature of mobile phones that has so far not been used for aiding blood donation is caller tunes. Caller tunes replace the ringing sound heard by a caller to a mobile phone before the called party answers the call. In African countries such as Ghana, instead of the typical ringing sound, a caller may hear a message or song. Despite the popularity of such caller tunes, there is a lack of empirical studies on their potential use for promoting blood donation. The aim of this study was to use the technology acceptance model to explore the influence of the factors-perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, and free of cost-on intentions of blood or nonblood donors to download blood donation-themed caller tunes to promote blood donation, if available. A total of 478 blood donors and 477 nonblood donors were purposively sampled for an interviewer-administered questionnaire survey at blood donation sites in Accra, Ghana. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factory analysis or structural equation modeling, leading to hypothesis testing to examine factors that determine intention to use caller tunes for blood donation among blood or nonblood donors who use or do not use mobile phone caller tunes. Perceived usefulness had a significant effect on intention to use caller tunes among blood donors with caller tunes (beta=.293, Pdonation was statistically significant (beta=.169, Pdonation in Ghana. The study found that making caller

  11. Trends in Sero-Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Voluntary Blood Donations in Iran, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadsar, Maryam; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Rasouli, Mahboube; Karimi, Gharib

    2017-03-01

    Various strategies are implemented to increase blood safety. However, there is always a small amount of residual risk. The amount of risk is associated with the incidence and prevalence of infection in the community. Since increases in the prevalence and changing the pattern of HIV transmission have been observed in the community, monitoring of HIV prevalence among general population and blood donors is necessary. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV in Iranian blood donations. Demographic status and donation type were also investigated in HIV positive blood donors. In the time frame of this study (2008 - 2013), the records of 11,504,231 donations were analyzed and all relevant data were extracted from the central database of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. Demographic characteristics and type of donations were investigated. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to summarize the obtained data. A total of 421 blood donations were HIV sero-positive. Trends in HIV prevalence from 2008 to 2013 per 100000 donations were found as follows: 3.8, 4.3, 3.8, 3.8, 3, and 2.9, respectively. The average prevalence was 3.6 per 100000. The prevalence rate showed a fluctuation from 3.8 to 2.9 per 100000. Gradual reduction has occurred in HIV sero-prevalence but the difference is not statistically significant. The risk of HIV sero-positivity was higher in single and female blood donors. The prevalence of HIV was much higher among donations from first-time than from regular and lapsed donors. The low prevalence rate of HIV in Iranian blood donations suggests the effectiveness of current safety strategies. However, implementing new strategies or improving the existing ones are advisable.

  12. Tapping into a vital resource: Understanding the motivators and barriers to blood donation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Z. Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Due to paucity of research on this topic, our understanding of blood donor behaviour in SSA is limited. Local traditions and cultures intimately shape individuals’ proclivity towards the donation process. In order to change the attitudes and behaviours of many potential donors in SSA it is important to address the deterrents to blood donation, as many represent misconceptions or culture-specific beliefs that may be the ultimate driving force dictating donor behaviour.

  13. The effects of information, social and financial incentives on voluntary undirected blood donations: evidence from a field experiment in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iajya, Victor; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Slonim, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries blood donations per capita are substantially lower than in advanced economies. In these countries blood supply is mostly collected through directed donations from relatives and friends to individuals needing transfusions or to replace blood used in emergencies. The World Health Organization considers this method of blood supply inefficient compared to undirected voluntary donations. To examine methods to motivate undirected voluntary donations, we ran a large-scale, natural field experiment in Argentina, testing the effectiveness of information, social and financial incentives. We find that only higher-valued financial incentives generated more donations, increasing with the value of the reward. These incentives did not create adverse selection in the safety or usability of the donated blood. We discuss the implications of our findings for researchers interested in understanding motivations for pro-social behavior and for health agencies and policymakers concerned with the current and growing shortages in blood supply in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From blood donation to kidney sales: the gift relationship and transplant commercialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J

    2015-01-01

    In The Gift Relationship, Richard Titmuss argued that the practice of altruistic blood donation fosters social solidarity while markets in blood erode it. This paper considers the implications of this line of argument for the organ market debate. I defend Titmuss' arguments against a number of criticisms and respond to claims that Titmuss' work is not relevant to the context of live donor organ transplantation. I conclude that Titmuss' arguments are more resilient than many advocates of organ markets suggest, and more relevant to the debate than is commonly appreciated.

  15. Defining Dogma: Quantifying Crystalloid Hemodilution in a Prospective Randomized Control Trial with Blood Donation as a Model for Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Samuel Wade; Christmas, A Britton; Fischer, Peter E; Holway, Haley; Seymour, Rachel; Huntington, Ciara R; Heniford, B Todd; Sing, Ronald F

    2018-06-04

    The concept of hemodilution after blood loss and crystalloid infusion is a surgical maxim that remains unproven in humans. We sought to quantify the effect of hemodilution after crystalloid administration in voluntary blood donors as a model for acute hemorrhage. A prospective, randomized control trial was conducted in conjunction with community blood drives. Donors were randomized to receive no IV fluid(noIVF), two liters normal saline(NS), or two liters lactated ringers(LR) after blood donation. Blood samples were taken before donation of 500 mL of blood, immediately after donation, and following IV fluid administration. Hemoglobin(Hgb) was measured at each time point. Hgb between time points were compared between groups using standard statistical tests and the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance was set at p≤0.0167. Of 165 patients consented, 157 patients completed the study. Average pre-donation Hgb was 14.3 g/dL. There was no difference in the mean Hgb levels after blood donation between the three groups(p>0.05). Compared to the control group, there was a significant drop in Hgb in the crystalloid infused groups from the post-donation level to post-resuscitation(13.2 vs 12.1 vs 12.2 g/dL, pdonation Hgb - hemorrhage Hgb drop - equilibration hemoglobin drop - resuscitation Hgb drop)=MeanPre-donation Hgb - [(EBL/TBV)*l] - [(EBL/TBV)*h] - [(VR/TBV)*r], l = 5.111g/dL = blood loss coefficient, h=6.722 g/dL=equilibration coefficient, r= 2.617g/dL= resuscitation coefficient. This study proves the concept of hemodilution and derived a mathematical relationship between blood loss and resuscitation. This data may help to estimate response of hemoglobin levels to blood loss and fluid resuscitation in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Interval between Blood Donations Using Log-Normal Hazard Model with Gamma Correlated Frailties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Najmeh; Kheiri, Soleiman; Sedehi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Time to donating blood plays a major role in a regular donor to becoming continues one. The aim of this study was to determine the effective factors on the interval between the blood donations. In a longitudinal study in 2008, 864 samples of first-time donors in Shahrekord Blood Transfusion Center,  capital city of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were selected by a systematic sampling and were followed up for five years. Among these samples, a subset of 424 donors who had at least two successful blood donations were chosen for this study and the time intervals between their donations were measured as response variable. Sex, body weight, age, marital status, education, stay and job were recorded as independent variables. Data analysis was performed based on log-normal hazard model with gamma correlated frailty. In this model, the frailties are sum of two independent components assumed a gamma distribution. The analysis was done via Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm by OpenBUGS. Convergence was checked via Gelman-Rubin criteria using BOA program in R. Age, job and education were significant on chance to donate blood (Pdonation for the higher-aged donors, clericals, workers, free job, students and educated donors were higher and in return, time intervals between their blood donations were shorter. Due to the significance effect of some variables in the log-normal correlated frailty model, it is necessary to plan educational and cultural program to encourage the people with longer inter-donation intervals to donate more frequently.

  18. HEV-positive blood donations represent a relevant infection risk for immunosuppressed recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhölter, Dirk; Hiller, Jens; Denzer, Ulrike; Polywka, Susanne; Ayuk, Francis; Rybczynski, Meike; Horvatits, Thomas; Gundlach, Svantje; Blöcker, Johanna; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Fischer, Nicole; Addo, Marylyn M; Peine, Sven; Göke, Burkhard; Lohse, Ansgar W; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Pischke, Sven

    2018-03-15

    Routine HEV testing of blood products has recently been implemented in Great Britain and the Netherlands. The relevance of transfusion-transmitted HEV infections is still controversially discussed in Europe. All blood donations at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf were prospectively tested for HEV RNA by pooled PCR from October 2016 to May 2017. Reactive samples were individually retested. Additionally, stored samples from previous donations of positive donors were tested to determine the duration of HEV viraemia. HEV RNA-positive donors and a control cohort were asked to answer a questionnaire. Twenty-three out of 18,737 HEV RNA-positive donors were identified (0.12%). Only two of the positive donors (8.7%) presented with elevated aminotransferases at time of donation (alanine aminotransferase: 192 and 101 U/L). The retrospective analysis of all positive donors revealed that four asymptomatic donors had been HEV viraemic for up to three months with the longest duration of HEV viraemia exceeding four months. Despite the HEV-testing efforts, 14 HEV RNA-positive blood products were transfused into 12 immunocompromised and two immunocompetent patients. One recipient of these products developed fatal acute-on-chronic liver failure complicated by Pseudomonas septicemia. The questionnaire revealed that HEV RNA-positive donors significantly more often consumed raw pork meat (12 out of 18; 67%) than controls (89 out of 256; 35%; p = 0.01). In two donors, undercooked pork liver dishes were identified as the source of infection. HEV genotyping was possible in 7 out of 23 of HEV viraemic donors and six out of seven isolates belonged to HEV Genotype 3, Group 2. Prolonged HEV viraemia can be detected at a relatively high rate in Northern German blood donors, leading to transfusion-transmitted HEV infections in several patients with the risk of severe and fatal complications. Eating raw pork tartare represented a relevant risk for the acquisition of HEV

  19. Donating umbilical cord blood to a public bank or storing it in a private bank: knowledge and preference of blood donors and of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Pirrè, Guglielma; Valente, Elisabetta; Gesuiti, Paola; Corona, Francesca; Girelli, Gabriella

    2012-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of stem cells for allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation in paediatric and adult patients with haematological malignancies and other indications. Voluntary donation is the basis for the success of unrelated UCB transplantation programmes. In the last few years a growing number of private banks offer their services to expectant parents, to store UCB for future use. The debate concerning UCB donation and private preservation has been ongoing for several years. The aims of this single centre study were to explore knowledge about UCB stem cells and attitudes towards voluntary UCB donation or private UCB preservation among both blood donors and pregnant women. This study was conducted at the "Sapienza" University of Rome. Two types of anonymous questionnaires were prepared: one type was administered to 1,000 blood donors while the other type was distributed to 300 pregnant women. Most blood donors as well as the majority of pregnant women had some general knowledge about UCB (89% and 93%, respectively) and were aware of the possibility of donating it (82% and 95%). However, the level of knowledge regarding current therapeutic use resulted generally low, only 91 (10%) among informed blood donors and 69 (31%) among informed pregnant women gave a correct answer. The survey revealed a preference for voluntary donation both among blood donors (76%) and among pregnant woman (55%). Indeed, a minority of blood donors (6.5%) and of pregnant women (9%) would opt to store UCB for private use. The study raises the following considerations: (i) the large support for UCB donation expressed by blood donors and by pregnant women suggests that UCB preservation does not represent an obstacle to the expansion of UCB donation and to development of unrelated transplantation programmes; (ii) information about UCB donation and preservation should be carefully given by professionals and institutions.

  20. [Delayed adverse reactions to blood donation: From haemovigilance data to specific studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, J-Y; Durieux, S; Barnoux, M; Sapey, T

    2016-11-01

    Delayed adverse reactions to blood donation occur after the donor left donation site. Their intrinsic gravity and possible complications can be increased by the fact the donor is alone. This can also increase bad memories, leading to a donation giving up. Blood transfusion centre is only aware in case of donor feedback, hence an event underrating. We choose to compare our data upon delayed adverse donor reactions with those we could find in past studies. A first data level comes from French haemovigilance data while serious adverse reactions declaration is mandatory. But a second level can be reached using blood transfusion centre computerized data because all the donation reactions are saved whatever the gravity is. In both cases, delayed reactions are only those reported by donors. We try to make an exhaustive search of specific studies upon the real delayed reactions incidence so as to compare with our data. There were 1957 serious adverse reactions declared in our regional haemovigilance database between 2011 and 2015: 49 % occurring during donation, 40 % after it but before donor departure, and 11 % delayed events. There were 16,050 adverse reactions recorded during the first trimester of 2016 in mainland France, with 2.7 % delayed ones. Proportion of delayed events rises when gravity rises, until 27.6 % for the most serious ones. It varies between 2.2 % and 2.7 % for vasovagal reactions, haematomas, and other local reactions, and reaches 16.2 % for other general reactions. Data found in other studies with a spontaneous donor notification are of the same kind. But four studies soliciting specifically donor notification give a dramatically higher delayed reactions incidence, with an understatement greater than three out of four. Moreover, these studies found a majority of delayed reactions, which are not included in haemovigilance like fatigue or bruising. Occurrence of a delayed donor reaction is clearly underrated in standard haemovigilance. It

  1. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time’ to unwind from the daily stresses of life while helping save lives. What are the benefits to donating platelets? Knowing you’re helping cancer ... of your arm. That pinch is similar to what you will feel when the needle is ... compared to a traditional whole blood donation so some donors find it to ...

  2. Blood donation history and eligibility assessment in a community-based sample of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Brian; Murcia, Karla; Robinson, William T; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, Henry Fisher

    2018-04-01

    In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration changed the regulation from a permanent deferral from donation for men who have sex with men (MSM) to a 1-year deferral since last sexual contact. It is unknown what proportions of MSM try to donate and if they would be willing to answer individual risk-based questions to assess their current eligibility. The National HIV Behavioral Surveillance surveys periodically measure human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and risk behaviors among MSM using a venue-based, time-location sampling method. In the 2014 cycle, that is, before the policy change, investigators in San Francisco and New Orleans added questions about blood donation. Questions inquired into three domains: donation history, policy awareness, and knowledge about HIV testing of donations. There were 404 and 557 respondents in San Francisco and New Orleans, respectively. Nearly one in three MSM in San Francisco (27.4%) and New Orleans (31.4%) tried to donate after their first MSM contact. A majority (63.1% in San Francisco, 58.8% in New Orleans) somewhat or strongly agreed that they would be willing to be asked detailed questions for donation eligibility assessment. The proportion of MSM who reported trying to donate was similar in the two cities. However, a substantial proportion did not agree to be asked more detailed risk behavior questions to assess eligibility. In these two geographic locations, prominent regional differences were not evident. © 2018 AABB.

  3. [Introducing marketing strategies and techniques into the field of voluntary blood donation, to meet the rise in blood demand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, S; Bégué, L

    2011-04-01

    Social marketing uses marketing principles and techniques to induce a target audience to voluntary accept, reject, change or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole. Thus, individual or societal gain is the primary goal of social marketing. This kind of marketing is frequently used in the United States or in Canada in several fields such as healthcare, social work, or the environment. In 2008, we introduced these strategies and techniques in the field of blood donation in France. This article describes what has been achieved in the last three years and outlines the main steps in the social marketing planning process: analyzing the social marketing environment, defining target audiences and objectives, building and implementing strategies and action plans, evaluating and monitoring. On the way to self-sufficiency, while respecting donors, social marketing is additional to the work done by the blood collection staffs, communication teams, and volunteers. Social marketing is a complementary tool to the work done by the blood collection staff, communication teams and blood donation organizations and can help to meet the challenge of self-sufficiency while still allowing for the privacy and rights of donors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Effects of word-of-mouth on the behavior of Austrian blood donors: a case study of the Red Cross Blood Donation Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sebastian; Greiling, Dorothea; Leibetseder, Nina

    2017-12-13

    The procurement of blood is an essential challenge of today's health care. Current studies emphasize the influence of word-of-mouth (WOM) on health care behavior, including blood donation. Still, there exists no study which systematically investigates how WOM affects the behavior of blood donors. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to this lack of research by focusing on Austrian blood donors as possible receivers and senders of WOM. A survey was distributed to 300 donors of the Austrian Red Cross with a return of 245 surveys. The results highlight the strong influence of WOM on the awareness of the blood service and the willingness to donate blood. Further, structured and organized procedures, friendly employees and respectful interaction were found to be important factors determining willingness to recommend blood donation. Family members as well as friends are the preferred WOM-receivers and the personal face-to-face contact is the favored channel of communication. The results also show that WOM-behavior is strongly influenced by factors such as age, gender and donation frequency. By helping blood bank managers to better understand how WOM affects donation intention and behavior, this study provides a new approach to attract blood donors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Assessment of blood donation intention among medical students in Pakistan--An application of theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqah, Anadil; Moiz, Bushra; Shahid, Fatima; Ibrahim, Mariam; Raheem, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Theory of Planned Behavior proposes a model which can measure how human actions are guided. It has been successfully utilized in the context of blood donation. We employed a decision-making framework to determine the intention of blood donation among medical students who have never donated blood before the study. Survey responses were collected from 391 medical students from four various universities on a defined questionnaire. The tool composed of 20 questions that were formulated to explain donation intention based on theory of planned behavior. The construct included questions related to attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control, descriptive norm, moral norm, anticipated regret, donation anxiety and religious norm. Pearson's correlational relationships were measured between independent and dependent variables of intention to donate blood. ANOVA was applied to observe the model fit; a value of 0.000 was considered statistically significant. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the relative importance of the main independent variables in the prediction of intention. Multi-collinearity was also evaluated to determine that various independent variables determine the intention. The reliability of measures composed of two items was assessed using inter-item correlations. Three hundred and ninety-one medical students (M:F; 1:2.2) with mean age of 21.96 years ± 1.95 participated in this study. Mean item score was 3.8 ± 0.83. Multiple regression analysis suggested that perceived behavioral control, anticipated regret and attitude were the most influential factors in determining intention of blood donation. Donation anxiety was least correlated and in fact bore a negative correlation with intention. ANOVA computed an F value of 199.082 with a p-value of 0.000 indicating fitness of model. The value of R square and adjusted R square was 0.811 and 0.807 respectively indicating strong correlation between various independent and dependent

  6. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance capacity and hematological parameters after each donation. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects were randomly divided in a donation (n = 16) and a placebo (n = 8) group. Each of the three donations was interspersed by 3 months, and the recovery of endurance capacity and hematological parameters was monitored up to 1 month after donation. Maximal power output, peak oxygen consumption, and hemoglobin mass decreased (p donation with a maximal decrease of 4, 10, and 7%, respectively. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, ferritin, and red blood cell count (RBC), all key hematological parameters for oxygen transport, were lowered by a single donation (p donations (p donation was 11% for hematocrit, 10% for hemoglobin concentration, 50% for ferritin, and 12% for RBC (p donation group. Maximal, but not submaximal, endurance capacity was altered after blood donation in moderately trained people and the expected increase in capacity after multiple maximal exercise tests was not present when repeating whole blood donations.

  7. Parental versus non-parental-directed donation: an 11-year experience of infectious disease testing at a pediatric tertiary care blood donor center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, Cyril; Seo, Andrew; Miller, Peter M; Lezama, Niara; Criss, Valli R; Colvin, Camilla; Luban, Naomi L C; Wong, Edward C C

    2017-11-01

    Directed donation is associated with a higher prevalence of donations that are positive for infectious disease markers; however, little is known about the positive rates among parental-directed, non-parental-directed, and allogeneic donations. We reviewed blood-collection records from January 1997 through December 2008, including infectious disease results, among parental, non-parental, and community donations. Infectious disease rates were compared by Mann-Whitney U test. In total, 1532 parental, 4910 non-parental, and 17,423 community donations were examined. Among parental donors, the median rate of positive infectious disease testing was 8.66% (interquartile range (IQR), 4.49%) for first-time donors and 1.26% (IQR, 5.86%) for repeat donors; among non-parental donors, the rate was 1.09% (IQR, 0.98%) for first-time donors and 0% (IQR, 0.83%) for repeat donors; and, among community donors, the rate was 2.95% (IQR, 1.50%) for first-time donors and 0.45% (IQR, 0.82%) for repeat donors. The mean rate of positive infectious disease testing for first-time parental donors was significantly higher (7.63%), whereas all repeat donors had similar rates. However, the rate of positive infectious disease testing among first-time non-parental donors was significantly lower than that in the other groups, especially for the period from 2001 through 2008. First-time non-parental and community donors had significantly higher infectious disease risk than the respective repeat donors. First-time parental donors had the highest rates of positive infectious disease testing. We suggest that first-time parental blood donation should be discouraged. Repeat community donors or first-time non-parental donors provide a safer alternative. These findings can foster better patient education, donor selection, and possibly a reduced risk of infectious disease. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donors for hepatitis B and C in prisons of punjab pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervaiz, A.; Sipra, F.S.; Rana, T.H.; Qadeer, I.

    2015-01-01

    Prisoners as a high risk group are never recommended for blood donations. In Pakistan, prisoners are legally allowed to donate blood and get thirty days extra remission. Inspectorate of prisons allowed Alizaib Foundation for blood donation camps subject to pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donor against infectious diseases. This study was conducted to identify the potential benefits of pre-donation screening. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in October, 2009 in Punjab. Intending volunteer prisoner blood donors from January, 2007 to September, 2009 from prisons of Punjab were included. Physically fit were tested for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and B Virus (HBV) by Rapid test kit before bleeding. Data was analysed by Epi-Info. Results: A total of 5894 male volunteer prisoner donors were screened and 1038 (17.6%) were rejected. The mean age was 28 years (range: 17-70 years). Of 5894, 857 (14.5%) were HCV positive and 222 (3.8%) were HBV positive. HCV and HBV co-infection was present among 41 (0.7%). Being convicted prisoner blood donor is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HCV (OR 1.35, 95% C.I. 1.17-1.57) and being under trial prisoner is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HBV (OR 1.40, 95% C.I. 1.06-1.85). Conclusion: Hepatitis B and C viruses were responsible for almost 18% prisoner blood donor rejection. Pre-donation screening of blood donors is an effective intervention to improve the safety and limit the cost of blood. Treatment of identified cases may contribute to public health. In the international scenario this study findings necessitate the amendments in the relevant prison rules. (author)

  9. Screening of Blood Donations for Zika Virus Infection - Puerto Rico, April 3-June 11, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnert, Matthew J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Moseley, Robin R; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Marks, Peter W; Epstein, Jay S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Hobson, J Peyton; Leiby, David A; Akolkar, Pradip N; Petersen, Lyle R; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-06-24

    Transfusion-transmitted infections have been documented for several arboviruses, including West Nile and dengue viruses (1). Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2), became recognized as a potential threat to blood safety after reports from a 2013-2014 outbreak in French Polynesia. Blood safety concerns were based on very high infection incidence in the population at large during epidemics, the high percentage of persons with asymptomatic infection, the high proportion of blood donations with evidence of Zika virus nucleic acid upon retrospective testing, and an estimated 7-10-day period of viremia (3). At least one instance of transfusion transmission of Zika virus has been documented in Brazil after the virus emerged there, likely in 2014 (4). Rapid epidemic spread has followed to other areas of the Americas, including Puerto Rico.

  10. Blood donation practice and its associated factors among health professionals of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arage, Getachew; Ibrahim, Seada; Adimasu, Endeshaw

    2017-07-19

    Blood donation has remained a challenge in developing countries, like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia there is a high reliance on family surrogate and waged blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Health workers are expected to practice blood donation so as to create a good image to the public. A study on blood donation behavior may improve successful implementation of the blood donation programs. An institution based cross-sectional study was deployed from January to June 2015. An aggregate of 427 health workers were included in the study by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by using pre tested and structured questionnaire via self-administrated method. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the level of significance. A total of 427 participants were included in the final analysis (response rate = 100%). Among these participants, 33.2% of them practice blood donation. Age above 25 years [AOR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1, 3.0)], health professionals' knowledge of blood donation [AOR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 3.1)], health professionals' attitude towards blood donation [AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1. 8, 4.9)], and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood [AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 3.7, 8.7)] were significantly and independently associated with blood donation behavior of health professionals. Blood donation practice of health professionals in this study was found to be low as compared to other studies conducted in developing countries. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude, age and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood before were independently associated with blood donation practice. Thus, awareness has to be created for health professionals to improve blood donation practices.

  11. A stochastic simulator of a blood product donation environment with demand spikes and supply shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Wen; Reich, Nicholas G; Crawford, Stephen O; Brookmeyer, Ron; Louis, Thomas A; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2011-01-01

    The availability of an adequate blood supply is a critical public health need. An influenza epidemic or another crisis affecting population mobility could create a critical donor shortage, which could profoundly impact blood availability. We developed a simulation model for the blood supply environment in the United States to assess the likely impact on blood availability of factors such as an epidemic. We developed a simulator of a multi-state model with transitions among states. Weekly numbers of blood units donated and needed were generated by negative binomial stochastic processes. The simulator allows exploration of the blood system under certain conditions of supply and demand rates, and can be used for planning purposes to prepare for sudden changes in the public's health. The simulator incorporates three donor groups (first-time, sporadic, and regular), immigration and emigration, deferral period, and adjustment factors for recruitment. We illustrate possible uses of the simulator by specifying input values for an 8-week flu epidemic, resulting in a moderate supply shock and demand spike (for example, from postponed elective surgeries), and different recruitment strategies. The input values are based in part on data from a regional blood center of the American Red Cross during 1996-2005. Our results from these scenarios suggest that the key to alleviating deficit effects of a system shock may be appropriate timing and duration of recruitment efforts, in turn depending critically on anticipating shocks and rapidly implementing recruitment efforts.

  12. The INTERVAL trial to determine whether intervals between blood donations can be safely and acceptably decreased to optimise blood supply: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carmel; Sambrook, Jennifer; Walker, Matthew; Tolkien, Zoe; Kaptoge, Stephen; Allen, David; Mehenny, Susan; Mant, Jonathan; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Thompson, Simon G; Ouwehand, Willem; Roberts, David J; Danesh, John

    2014-09-17

    Ageing populations may demand more blood transfusions, but the blood supply could be limited by difficulties in attracting and retaining a decreasing pool of younger donors. One approach to increase blood supply is to collect blood more frequently from existing donors. If more donations could be safely collected in this manner at marginal cost, then it would be of considerable benefit to blood services. National Health Service (NHS) Blood and Transplant in England currently allows men to donate up to every 12 weeks and women to donate up to every 16 weeks. In contrast, some other European countries allow donations as frequently as every 8 weeks for men and every 10 weeks for women. The primary aim of the INTERVAL trial is to determine whether donation intervals can be safely and acceptably decreased to optimise blood supply whilst maintaining the health of donors. INTERVAL is a randomised trial of whole blood donors enrolled from all 25 static centres of NHS Blood and Transplant. Recruitment of about 50,000 male and female donors started in June 2012 and was completed in June 2014. Men have been randomly assigned to standard 12-week versus 10-week versus 8-week inter-donation intervals, while women have been assigned to standard 16-week versus 14-week versus 12-week inter-donation intervals. Sex-specific comparisons will be made by intention-to-treat analysis of outcomes assessed after two years of intervention. The primary outcome is the number of blood donations made. A key secondary outcome is donor quality of life, assessed using the Short Form Health Survey. Additional secondary endpoints include the number of 'deferrals' due to low haemoglobin (and other factors), iron status, cognitive function, physical activity, and donor attitudes. A comprehensive health economic analysis will be undertaken. The INTERVAL trial should yield novel information about the effect of inter-donation intervals on blood supply, acceptability, and donors' physical and mental well

  13. The development of the program of voluntary blood donation promotion in students population of the University of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Srzentić Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Given that in each country students represent the most progressive population group, as of 2001, the Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia (BTIS has been carrying the program of voluntary blood donation promotion and education of volunteers at the University of Belgrade (UB. In 2011, the BTIS intensified all activities at the UB. The aim of this study was to present activities performed from 2001 at the Blood Donors` Motivation Department (DMD of the BTIS related with increasing the level of awareness on voluntary blood donation in the Belgrade students` population, enhancing their motivation to become voluntary blood donors (VBDs, increasing the number of blood donations at faculties of the UB, and increasing the number of blood donations in the UB students population compared with the total number of blood units collected by BTIS in Belgrade, with the emphasis on the year 2013. Methods. Initially, the applied methodology was based on encouraging students to donate blood through discussions and preparatory lectures, followed by organized blood drives. Appropriate selection of volunteers at each faculty was crucial. Besides their recognisable identity, they had to have remarkable communication skills and ability to positivly affect persons in their environment. The applied principle was based on retention of volunteers all through the final academic year, with the inclusion of new volunteers each year and 1,000 preparatory lectures on the annual basis. The activities were realized using two Facebook profiles, SMS messages and continuous notification of the public through the media. Results. There was an increase in the average number of students in blood drives at the faculties from 2011, when the average number of the students per blood drive was 39, followed by 43 in 2012 and 46 in 2013. The number of students who donated blood in 2013 increased by 21.3% compared with 2012 data. Conclusion. The applied concept highly

  14. [Evolution of residual risk for HIV, HCV and HBV, from 1999 to 2010, in blood donations of the Centro Hospitalar S. João, EPE, Porto, Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Carmo; Araújo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections is important to evaluate the improvement achieved in the blood donation safety and to adopt policies to reduce risks. The present study calculates the incidence of the key infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) as well as the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections, during twelve years, 1999 through 2010. Data were analyzed over 3 periods of 4 years (1999-2002, 2003-2006 and 2007-2010). The risk estimates were compared to those previously obtained for blood donations occurred between 1991 and 1998. The study included 209 640 blood donations, from 42 634 regular, volunteers and unpaid donors. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted infection per million donations was calculated, for each virus, through mathematical model "Incidence rate/window period", described by Schreiber et al. All donations were screened according to Portuguese legislation. In January 2001, the nucleic acid testing in minipool was implemented on all blood donations, for screening simultaneously HIV-1 and HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) (Cobas Amplicor Ampliscreen-Roche©). This test was replaced, in January 2007, by the simultaneous screening of HBV deoxyribonucleic acid, HCV RNA and HIV-1/HIV-2 RNA, in minipool (Cobas Taqscreen MPX Test-Roche©). The residual risk of transmitting viral infections during the transfusion of blood components is very small and has declined over the years. After the implementation of the nucleic acid testing in minipool for the three viruses, the risk of giving blood during an infectious window period was estimated as follows: for human immunodeficiency virus, 1 in 1.67 million, for hepatitis C virus 1 in 3.33 million and for hepatitis B virus 1 in 526 000. During the 12 years under study, we found a decrease in residual risk for the three viruses, by a factor around five for human immunodeficiency virus

  15. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.

    2016-01-01

    nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors......, symptomatic patients, and swine. RESULTS: Eleven donations (0.04%) were confirmed as positive for HEV RNA (median HEV RNA level, 13 IU/mL). Two donations were successfully genotyped as HEV-gt-3. Only one donor had a travel history outside Europe. Nine of 11 donors were male, but the gender ratio...

  17. [Hemogram profile and interest of pre-donation hemoglobin measurement in blood donors in the northwest region of Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrim, S; Ouarour, A; Jaidann, K; Benajiba, M; Masrar, A

    2018-02-01

    Blood donation in Morocco and more particularly in the northwest region is carried out without prior determination of the pre-donation hemoglobin. In addition, we note the lack of scientific research that reports data on the red blood cells, leukocytes and platelet lines in donated blood at the regional or even national level. To study hemogram profile in blood donors taken from the Northwest region of Morocco in order to provide decision makers of the National Center of Blood Transfusion and Hematology with valid scientific arguments to complete the criteria to donate whole blood, by the hemogram. Prospective study, conducted in 15797 volunteer blood donors (BD) aged between 18 and 60 years, collected during mobile or fixed collections carried out by the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Tangier and Tetouan from November 2014 to May 2016. The hemogram was performed using a Sysmex KX21N ® and the analysis of the data was done by the software SPSS 20.0. According to the World Health Organization, anemia corresponds to a hemoglobin level less than 12g/dL in women and less than 13g/dL in men. We found that 14.5 % of women (n=1054) and 3.0 % of men (n=245) were anemic and anemia was hypochromic microcytic in 58,66 % of these BD. Analysis of the white line showed leucopenia in 2.05 % of BD and 807 cases of leukocytosis (5.27 % of BD). Platelet study showed thrombocytopenia in 3.97 % of BD and thrombocytosis in 151BD (0.99 % of cases). This study shows the interest of systematic pre-donation hemoglobin measurement and periodic realization of the hemogram among BD in the Northwest region of Morocco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old....... CONCLUSIONS: Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, incidence, and residual transmission risk in first-time and repeat blood donations in Zimbabwe: implications on blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Mvere, David A; Chitiyo, McLeod E; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2013-10-01

    National Blood Service Zimbabwe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk management strategy includes screening and discarding of first-time donations, which are collected in blood packs without an anticoagulant (dry pack). To evaluate the impact of discarding first-time donations on blood safety the HIV prevalence, incidence, and residual risk in first-time and repeat donations (wet packs) were compared. Donor data from 2002 to 2010 were retrieved from a centralized national electronic donor database and retrospectively analyzed. Chi-square test was used to compare HIV prevalence with relative risk (RR), and the RR point estimates and 95% confidence interval (CI) are reported. Trend analysis was done using Cochran-Armitage trend test. HIV residual risk estimates were determined using published residual risk estimation models. Over the 9 years the overall HIV prevalence estimates are 1.29% (n = 116,058) and 0.42% (n = 434,695) for first-time and repeat donations, respectively. The overall RR was 3.1 (95% CI, 2.9-3.3; p donations in first-time was 1:7384 (range, 1:11,308-1:5356) and in repeat donors it was 1:5496 (range, 1:9943-1:3347). The significantly high HIV prevalence estimates recorded in first-time over repeat donations is indicative of the effectiveness of the HIV risk management strategy. However, comparable residual transmission risk estimates in first-time and repeat donors point to the need to further review the risk management strategies. Given the potential wastage of valuable resources, future studies should focus on the cost-effectiveness and utility of screening and discarding first-time donations. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Institutional authorisation and accreditation of Transfusion Services and Blood Donation Sites: results of a national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Panetta, Valentina; Bonini, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosa; Fiorin, Francesco; Lupi, Maria Antonietta; Tomasini, Ivana; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the survey described in this article was to determine decisional and strategic factors useful for redefining minimum structural, technological and organisational requisites for transfusion structures, as well as for the production of guidelines for accreditation of transfusion structures by the National Blood Centre. Materials and methods A structured questionnaire containing 65 questions was sent to all Transfusion Services in Italy. The questions covered: management of the quality system, accreditation, conformity with professional standards, structural and technological requisites, as well as potential to supply transfusion medicine-related health care services. All the questionnaires returned underwent statistical analysis. Results Replies were received from 64.7% of the Transfusion Services. Thirty-nine percent of these had an ISO 9001 certificate, with marked differences according to geographical location; location-related differences were also present for responses to other questions and were confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis. Over half of the Transfusion Services (53.6%) had blood donation sites run by donor associations. The statistical analysis revealed only one statistically significant difference between these donation sites: those connected to certified Transfusion Services were more likely themselves to have ISO 9001 certification than those connected to services who did not have such certification. Conclusions The data collected in this survey are representative of the Italian national transfusion system. A re-definition of the authorisation and accreditation requisites for transfusion activities must take into account European and national legislation when determining these requisites in order to facilitate their effective applicability, promote their efficient fulfilment and enhance the development of homogeneous and transparent quality systems. PMID:21839026

  1. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Professional Version Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ... CORTEF, SOLU-CORTEF Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ...

  2. A population-based longitudinal study on the implication of demographic changes on blood donation and transfusion demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinacher, Andreas; Weitmann, Kerstin; Schönborn, Linda; Alpen, Ulf; Gloger, Doris; Stangenberg, Wolfgang; Stüpmann, Kerstin; Greger, Nico; Kiefel, Volker; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-13

    Transfusion safety includes the risk of transmission of pathogens, appropriate transfusion thresholds, and sufficient blood supply. All industrialized countries experience major ongoing demographic changes resulting from low birth rates and aging of the baby boom generation. Little evidence exists about whether future blood supply and demand correlate with these demographic changes. The ≥50% decline in birth rate in the eastern part of Germany after 1990 facilitates systematic study of the effects of pronounced demographic changes on blood donation and demand. In this prospective, 10-year longitudinal study, we enrolled all whole blood donors and all patients receiving red blood cell transfusions in the state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. We compared projections made in 2005 based on the projected demographic changes with: (1) number and age distribution of blood donors and transfusion recipients in 2015 and (2) blood demand within specific age and patient groups. Blood donation rates closely followed the demographic changes, showing a decrease of -18% (vs projected -23%). In contrast, 2015 transfusion rates were -21.3% lower than projected. We conclude that although changes in demography are highly predictive for the blood supply, transfusion demand is strongly influenced by changes in medical practice. Given ongoing pronounced demographic change, regular monitoring of the donor/recipient age distributions and associated impact on blood demand/supply relationships is required to allow strategic planning to prevent blood shortages or overproduction.

  3. Cost effectiveness of adding nucleic acid testing to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus screening of blood donations in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Mapako, Tonderai; Khoza, Star; Emmanuel, Jean C; Marowa, Lucy; Mvere, David; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of introducing individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT), in addition to serologic tests, compared with the exclusive use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) I and II among blood donors in Zimbabwe. The costs, health consequences, and cost effectiveness of adding ID-NAT to serologic tests, compared with serologic testing alone, were estimated from a health care perspective using a decision-analytic model. The introduction of ID-NAT in addition to serologic tests would lower the risk of HBV, HCV, and HIV transmission to 46.9, 0.3, and 2.7 per 100,000 donations, respectively. ID-NAT would prevent an estimated 25, 6, and 9 HBV, HCV, and HIV transfusion-transmitted infections per 100,000 donations, respectively. The introduction of this intervention would result in an estimated 212 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated at US$17,774/QALY, a value far more than three times the gross national income per capita for Zimbabwe. Although the introduction of NAT could further improve the safety of the blood supply, current evidence suggests that it cannot be considered cost effective. Reducing the test costs for NAT through efficient donor recruitment, negotiating the price of reagents, and the efficient use of technology will improve cost effectiveness. © 2016 AABB.

  4. Post-donation telephonic interview of blood donors providing an insight into delayed adverse reactions: First attempt in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aseem K; Aggarwal, Geet; Dara, Ravi C; Arora, Dinesh; Srivastava, Khushboo; Raina, Vimarsh

    2017-04-01

    Blood donor experiences both immediate adverse reactions (IAR) and delayed adverse reactions (DAR). With limited published data available on the incidence of DAR, a study was conducted to estimate incidence and profile of DAR through telephonic interview. Study was conducted over a 45-day period for consecutive volunteer whole blood donations at tertiary care hospital. Donors were divided into first-time, repeat and regular and were monitored for IAR. They were given written copy of post-donation advice. Donors were contacted telephonically three weeks post-donation and enquired about general wellbeing and specific DAR in accordance with a standard n international (International Society of Blood Transfusion) standard format. Donors participated in the study of which 1.6% donors experienced an IAR. Much larger number reported DAR (10.3% vs.1.6% pdonors (age donors (>50 years). First time (12.3%) and repeat donors (13.5%) had similar frequency of DAR but were lower among regular donors (6.7%). DARs are more common than IAR and are of different profile. Post-donation interview has provided an insight into donor experiences and can be used as a valuable tool in donor hemovigilance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. “Well done, CERN!” A big thank you to all those who donated their blood

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The blood donation clinic held on 27 July resulted in a total of 147 units collected from 171 volunteers, including 64 first-time donors. The Swiss blood bank CTS is grateful for the support and dedication of the CERN personnel, particularly as blood stocks tend to be at their lowest during the summer period. The CTS and the Medical Service wish to express their gratitude to all the donors for their generosity, and to Novae (Restaurant 1) for the refreshments it provided free of charge for the donors. Forthcoming dates for blood collection at CERN are: 2 November 2011, 15 March 2012 and 25 July 2012.

  6. Who should donate blood? Policy decisions on donor deferral criteria should protect recipients and be fair to donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailsford, S R; Kelly, D; Kohli, H; Slowther, A; Watkins, N A

    2015-08-01

    An important element in the development of voluntary blood donation schemes throughout the world has been the attention given to minimising the risk to recipients of donated blood, primarily the risk of transfusion transmitted infections. In response to the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the 1980s a range of national policies emerged that excluded populations at high risk of contracting HIV from donating blood, with a particular focus on men who have sex with men (MSM), the primary reason being the protection of recipients of donated blood. Recently some countries, including the UK, have revised their policies, informed by advances in screening tests, epidemiological evidence of transmission rates and an increasing concern about unfair discrimination of specific groups in society. Policy makers face a difficult task of balancing safety of recipients; an adequate blood supply for those who require transfusion; and societal/legal obligations to treat everyone fairly. Given that no transfusion is risk free, the question is what degree of risk is acceptable in order to meet the needs of recipients and society. Decisions about acceptance of risk are complex and policy makers who set acceptable risk levels must provide ethically justifiable reasons for their decisions. We suggest it is possible to provide a set of reasons that stakeholders could agree are relevant based on careful evaluation of the evidence of all relevant risks and explicit acknowledgement of other morally relevant values. We describe using such a process in the Safety of Blood Tissue and Organs (SaBTO) review of donor deferral criteria related to sexual behaviour. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Trends in age and red blood cell donation habits among several racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Vassallo, Ralph; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; van de Watering, Leo; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-07-01

    To meet the needs of a diverse patient population, an adequate supply of red blood cells (RBCs) from ethnic/racial minority donors is essential. We previously described the 10-year changes in minority blood donation in the United States. This study describes donation patterns by donor status, age, and race/ethnicity. Data on the age and the number of unique black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and white RBC donors were obtained from eight US blood collectors for 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Donors self-identified their race/ethnicity. First-time (FT) and repeat (R) donors were analyzed separately. Overall, for both FT and R donor groups, whites constituted the majority of unique donors (FT 66.7% and R 82.7%) and also donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (FT 66.6% and R 83.8%). Donors less than 20 years old comprised the greatest proportion of FT donors for all racial/ethnic groups (39.2%) and had the highest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.12) among FT donors. Conversely, R donors less than 20 years old had some of the lowest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.55) among R donors, whereas R donors at least 60 years old had the highest mean (1.88). Year by year, the percentage of FT donors who were less than 20 years old increased for all race/ethnicities. For R donors, whites were more frequently older, while Hispanics/Latinos and Asians were younger. Greater efforts to convert FT donors less than 20 years into R donors should be undertaken to ensure the continued diversity of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Depletion of blood supply and cost due to indeterminate donations at the Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeel Moya-Salazar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the depletion of blood supply and the cost due to indeterminate donations at Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen during 2014. Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study and a cost-utility analysis were conducted in donations showing results in the gray zone (sample value/cutoff value between >0.85 and <1 after a serological screening of seven infectious markers (HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, HCV, HTLV-1/2, syphilis and Chagas disease and the simultaneous determination of the HIV Ag/Ab combo by means of a fourth generation ELISA. Data was encoded and tabulated using the e-Delphyn® system. The cost-utility analysis was performed considering the current exchange rate. Results: Out of 9,560 donations, 20.7% (1977 donations showed results in the gray zone which caused a loss of 863.9 liters of blood and USD 92,640. The highest and lowest rate of seroprevalence were observed in HBcAb with 10.18% (973 indeterminate test results and anti-HIV with 0.39% (47 indeterminate test results, respectively (p<0.05. No significant differences were found between the anti-HIV y HIV Ag/Ab combo screening methods (p=0.776. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that more than 800 liters of discarded blood generated a more than USD 90,000 cost due to indeterminate donations causing economic damages to the hospital budget and a depletion of blood supply available for patients at Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen.

  9. Break with tradition: donating cadavers for scientific purposes and reducing the use of sentient beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Rosagemma; Martini, Mariano; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Penco, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the development of research and the increased awareness of our moral duties beyond the human species have pushed the scientific community to revise widely-accepted ontological reductionist views that regard non-human animals as mere things. The new horizons offered by the development of advanced research methods therefore require an on-going commitment to new perspectives able to find the right balance between the need for scientific knowledge on one hand and the respect for animal life on the other. This is in line with increasing attention to animal welfare and expansion of the "3Rs model": replacement, reduction, refinement.With the view of promoting the adoption of alternative methods, human body donation for research can contribute not only to the acquisition of important information for human health and for doctors' training, but also can reduce significantly the number of animals sacrificed.By investigating the scientific and ethical reasons that may encourage cadaver donation, the authors aim to promote the adoption of the practice in Italy following other European experiences.

  10. Prevalence of transfusion associated infections in multitransfused children in relation to mandatory screening of HIV in donated blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Prakash, C; Yadav, S; Chattopadhya, D

    1997-12-01

    Any change in risk behavior related to acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is likely to reduce simultaneously the risk for other agents transmitted through identical routes. A study carried out in the city of Delhi, India on the load of transfusion associated infections among multitransfused (MT) children in relation to mandatory screening of HIV infection in donated blood indicated unchanged prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections among the group of MT children transfused after the implementation of mandatory screening of HIV infections in blood banks, i.e. post-implementation period (prevalence of HBV, HCV and HDV being 32.8%, 31.3% and 1.6% respectively) compared to a group of MT children transfused over a similar duration before the implementation of mandatory screening i.e. pre-implementation period (prevalence of HBV, HCV and HDV being 28.1%, 26.6% and 1.6% respectively). However, reduction could be recorded in the prevalence of IgM and IgG classes of antibodies to both CMV and HSV-2 infections among MT children receiving transfusion during the post-implementation period (prevalence of 3.1% and 37.1% for CMV IgM and CMV IgG respectively; prevalence of 3.1% and 25% for HSV-2 IgM and HSV-2 IgG, respectively) compared to the group of MT children transfused in the pre-implementation period (prevalence of 15.6% and 56.3% for CMV IgM and CMV IgG respectively; prevalence of 18.8% and 45.2% for HSV-2 IgM and HSV-2 IgG, respectively). These reductions were statistically significant (p values commercial sex workers during their donation periods compared to 41.5% of donors in the pre-implementation period having similar history (p banks as possible incriminating factors towards acquisition of hepatitis virus infections in blood donors as well as in MT children.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Wilson, Leslie; Novelo-Garza, Barbara; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico’s national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years of Mexico

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Wilson, Leslie; Novelo-Garza, Barbara; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Ramsey, Janine M

    2016-03-01

    An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico's national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years of Mexico's mandated

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sánchez-González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico's national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years

  14. The introduction of anti-HTLV testing of blood donations and the risk of transfusion-transmitted HTLV, UK: 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K L; Dow, B; Barbara, J A; Hewitt, P E; Eglin, R

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the introduction of testing blood donations for antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (anti-HTLV) and to determine the risk of HTLV potentially infectious donations entering the UK blood supply. The rationale for testing was based on (i) evidence of transmission through transfusion in the UK, (ii) the serious nature of HTLV I-associated morbidity and (iii) evidence of infection in UK blood donors. From mid-2002, all blood donations made at UK blood centres were tested in pooled samples using Abbott-Murex HTLV I/II GE 80/81 enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Surveillance data were used to calculate the incidence and prevalence of anti-HTLV and derive estimates of risk. Between August 2002 and December 2006, 106 donations were confirmed positive for anti-HTLV (95 anti-HTLV I and 11 anti-HTLV II). Prevalence was 10-fold higher among donations from new donors than repeat (4.0 and 0.42 per 100 000 donations), and only one repeat donor had evidence of seroconversion. The risk of an HTLV I potentially infectious donation entering the UK blood supply was estimated at 0.11 per million donations (95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.18). The current very low observed incidence and prevalence among blood donors reflect the very low estimated risk of an HTLV I-positive donation entering the UK blood supply. A change in either the epidemiology of HTLV in UK blood donors or the length of the window period of the test should prompt further review of the risk and a reassessment of anti-HTLV testing in the UK.

  15. [Current legal questions in relation to autologous blood transfusion and legally controlled blood donation in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, E

    1994-11-01

    If a patient suffers any damage from treatment, the persons involved in transfusion medicine might be made liable according to civil and penal law for violations against the standards prescribed by the codes of performance and ethics of the individual professions. In order to avoid organisational liability, criteria for adequate patient care must be created which regulate facilities and equipment as well as staff. The typical hazards encountered in interdisciplinary cooperation between specialists of various branches of medicine must be counteracted by a constructive division of tasks and responsibilities. The participating physicians are moreover liable within the scope of the German law forbidding so-called 'unlawful interference with the possession of another' in the case of failure to obtain legally binding consent--usually resulting from inadequacies in informing the patient. The landmark decision by the German Federal Court of Justice on instructing patients about the risks of and alternatives to blood transfusions forces all those involved to take the consequences with regard to instructing patients about the risk of transfusions and concerning the implementation of techniques for sparing and replacing allogenic blood.

  16. Pre-operative blood donation versus acute normovolemic hemodilution in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezvan Nobahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH and preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD have questionable efficacy, viral and bacterial infection risks, intermittent blood shortages as homeostasis problem, electrolyte and hemodynamic disturbances. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional survey, we studied 70 patients undergoing open heart coronary artery bypass grafts [CABG] and different valvular replacement 1 ml surgery (35 in ANH, 35 in PABD in Shaheed Modares - Hospital. We measured electrolytes and homeostatic factors to evaluate the influence of two transfusion methods on homeostatic function and hemodynamic balance. Results: We compared 70 patients (38 male [54.3%] and 32 female [45.7%] with mean age 54.8 years undergoing open heart surgery (CABG and valvular. In ANH group, significant decrease was detected in Na (28.5% K (2.5%, prothrombin time (PT (88.57%, partial thromboplastin time (PTT (94.28%, creatine phosphokinase (CPK (11.4%, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH (11.43%, albumin (Alb (17.14%, globulin (91.43% and total protein (80%. Mean initial and post-operative hemoglobin was 14.12 ± 1.06 versus 11.97 ± 0.98, hematocrit 42.22 ± 3.45 versus 35.40 ± 2.88, systolic blood pressure 124.1 ± 14.4 versus 110.88 ± 15.6 (reduction 22.86% diastolic blood pressure 76.02 ± 10 versus 69.26 ± 11 (reduction 3% and pulse rate was 75.45 ± 10 versus 84.45 ± 12 (12% in this case difference between two groups was strongly significant (P = 0.001. In PABD group, significant decrease was detected in Na (20%, K (2.5%, PT (91.43% PTT (80%, CPK (8.57%, LDH (5.72%, Alb (57.15%, globulin (71.43% and total-protein (62.85%, the value of hemodynamic changes were in normal range. Conclusion: Though autologous blood transfusion (ANH and PABD was preferable to allogeneic transfusion in cardiac surgical patients; but PABD offers more advantages in homeostasis, hemodynamic stability and electrolyte balance.

  17. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    than 0.0001). The lowest values (18 ml/kg) were found in patients with gross ascites and a reduced systemic vascular resistance. In patients with cirrhosis central blood volume was inversely correlated to the hepatic venous pressure gradient (r = -0.41, p less than 0.01), and the total blood volume...... was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral...

  18. Seroprevalence, cost per donation and reduction in blood supply due to positive and indeterminate results for infectious markers in a blood bank in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeel Moya-Salazar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Safety in Transfusion Medicine is subject to regulations and government legislation within a total quality framework. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of seroprevalence and indeterminate results on lost units and cost per donation. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Blood Bank and Transfusion Therapy Department of the Hospital Central de la Policia Nacional del Perú in Lima, Peru. All completed donations (replacement/voluntary without complications were included in this study. Every donation met the institutional requirements and quality criteria of Programa Nacional de Hemoterapia y Bancos de Sangre (PRONAHEBAS. Data analysis was achieved using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: A total of 7723 donations were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 with 493 being seropositive (overall prevalence 5.25% and 502 having indeterminate results (overall prevalence 5.35%. Thus total loss was 995 units, 437.8 L of blood and 49,750 US dollars. The most common seropositive infectious markers were the core antibody of hepatitis B virus (2.82% and syphilis (1.02%, and the most common indeterminate results were Chagas disease (1.27% and the core antibody of hepatitis B virus (1.26%. There was no significant change in the prevalence of seropositivity (p-value = 0.243 or indeterminate results (p-value = 0.227 over the two-year period of the study. A statistical correlation was found between the cost per lost donation and the most prevalent markers (rho = 0.848; p-value = <0.001. Conclusion: Seroprevalence was lower than the regional mean, but the prevalence of indeterminate results was elevated causing a great impact on blood supply and economic losses to this institution.

  19. Seroprevalence, cost per donation and reduction in blood supply due to positive and indeterminate results for infectious markers in a blood bank in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Salazar, Jeel; Ubidia-Incio, Roberto; Incio-Grande, Maritza; Blejer, Jorgelina L; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    Safety in Transfusion Medicine is subject to regulations and government legislation within a total quality framework. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of seroprevalence and indeterminate results on lost units and cost per donation. A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Blood Bank and Transfusion Therapy Department of the Hospital Central de la Policia Nacional del Perú in Lima, Peru. All completed donations (replacement/voluntary) without complications were included in this study. Every donation met the institutional requirements and quality criteria of Programa Nacional de Hemoterapia y Bancos de Sangre (PRONAHEBAS). Data analysis was achieved using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. A total of 7723 donations were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 with 493 being seropositive (overall prevalence 5.25%) and 502 having indeterminate results (overall prevalence 5.35%). Thus total loss was 995units, 437.8L of blood and 49,750 US dollars. The most common seropositive infectious markers were the core antibody of hepatitis B virus (2.82%) and syphilis (1.02%), and the most common indeterminate results were Chagas disease (1.27%) and the core antibody of hepatitis B virus (1.26%). There was no significant change in the prevalence of seropositivity (p-value=0.243) or indeterminate results (p-value=0.227) over the two-year period of the study. A statistical correlation was found between the cost per lost donation and the most prevalent markers (rho=0.848; p-value=<0.001). Seroprevalence was lower than the regional mean, but the prevalence of indeterminate results was elevated causing a great impact on blood supply and economic losses to this institution. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Remifentanil Reduces Blood Loss During Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Okamura, Taiki; Ide, Satoko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Remifentanil is reported to reduce oral tissue blood flow. We performed a retrospective investigation using logistic regression analysis of anesthesia records to investigate whether the use of remifentanil infusion in a balanced anesthesia technique was useful as a primary technique to reduce blood loss during orthognathic surgery. Subjects were 80 patients who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible. The variables included gender, age, weight, type of maintenance anesthetic, type and dose or infusion rate of opioid, mean systolic blood pressure (SBP-mean), coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure (CVSBP) during surgery, mean heart rate (HR-mean), duration of surgery, total blood loss, volume of infusion used, amount of local anesthetic used, body temperature, and urine output. Gender, type of maintenance anesthetic, type of opioid, SBP-mean, CVSBP, HR-mean, and duration of surgery were used as candidates for independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed for the selected independent variables with the total blood loss as the dependent variable. The factors associated with the reduction of blood loss were the use of remifentanil (odds ratio, 3.112; 95% CI, 1.166-8.307; P = .023) and smaller CVSBP (odds ratio, 2.747; 95% CI, 1.07-7.053; P = .036). Use of remifentanil and smaller CVSBP were associated with a reduction of blood loss during orthognathic surgery.

  1. Impacto da doação de sangue nos depósitos de ferro do organismo de doadores Impact of blood donation on donor iron reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Mousinho-Ribeiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a vital element in the human metabolism. It plays a central role in erythropoiesis and is also involved in many other intracellular processes in all the tissues of the body. Blood donation results in a substantial (200 to 250 ng loss of iron at each donation (425 to 475 ml with subsequent mobilization of iron from body deposits. Repetitive donations of blood my cause the depletion of iron reserves in blood donors and thus cause health disorders. Recent reports have shown that iron reserves are generally small and iron depletion is more common in blood donors than in non-donors. The high frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors reported by these studies suggests a need for more accurate studies, as measurement of hemoglobin and hematicrit alone is insufficient to identify and exclude prospective blood donors with iron deficiency but without anemia. It is important, therefore, that blood banks evaluate the risk-benefit of implanting tests to analyze organism iron reserves such as the measurement of serum ferritin of all individuals who donate more than three times per year in order to make the blood donation process safer for both donors and transfused patients.

  2. Description of 15 DNA-positive and antibody-negative "window-period" blood donations identified during prospective screening for Babesia microti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Erin D; Tonnetti, Laura; Hewins, Mary Ellen; Berardi, Victor P; Dodd, Roger Y; Stramer, Susan L

    2017-07-01

    Blood donation screening detecting only antibodies fails to identify donors in the earliest stage of infection, before a detectable immunologic response, that is, the "window period" (WP). We present data on WP donations identified during prospective screening for Babesia microti, a transfusion-transmissible parasite of increasing concern in the United States. Blood donations collected in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and arrayed fluorescence immunoassay (AFIA) to detect B. microti DNA and antibodies, respectively. Parasite loads were estimated using quantitative PCR. Red blood cell (RBC) samples were inoculated into hamsters to assess infectivity. Donors screening reactive were indefinitely deferred, tested by supplemental methods, and followed to assess DNA and antibody clearance. Demographic data from WP donors (i.e., those screening PCR positive and AFIA negative) were compared to data from other positive donors. Of 220,479 donations screened from June 2012 to August 2016, a total of 700 were positive, of which 15 (2% of positive donations or 1 per 14,699 screened donations) were confirmed WP donations. The median estimated parasite load in WP donations was 350 parasites/mL, no different than AFIA-positive and PCR-positive donors. Parasite loads in RBC samples from WP units ranged from 14 to 11,022 parasites/mL; RBC samples from three of 10 (30%) WP donations infected hamsters. The mean age of WP donors was 48 years (range, 17-75 years); three (20%) were female. WP donor demographics did not differ significantly from demographics of other donors. We report one per 15,000 B. microti WP infections in blood donors in endemic areas, demonstrating the importance of nucleic acid testing to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis. © 2017 AABB.

  3. Alternative procedures for reducing allogeneic blood transfusion in elective orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Kathrin; Theusinger, Oliver M; Nuernberg, Johannes; Werner, Clément M L

    2010-09-01

    Perioperative blood loss is a major problem in elective orthopedic surgery. Allogeneic transfusion is the standard treatment for perioperative blood loss resulting in low postoperative hemoglobin, but it has a number of well-recognized risks, complications, and costs. Alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusion include preoperative autologous donation and intraoperative salvage with postoperative autotransfusion. Orthopedic surgeons are often unaware of the different pre- and intraoperative possibilities of reducing blood loss and leave the management of coagulation and use of blood products completely to the anesthesiologists. The goal of this review is to compare alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusion from an orthopedic and anesthesia point of view focusing on estimated costs and acceptance by both parties.

  4. Knowledge and attitude of donating and using cord blood for transfusion among patients attending Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South East Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chide E Okocha; Nkiru N Ezeama; John C Aneke; Chinyere U Onubogu; Charles I Okafor; Chijioke G Egbunike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Allogeneic blood for transfusion is in short supply in most parts of the developing world. Cord blood for transfusion can be a significant source of blood supply to our health institutions. Aims: This study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitude to the donation and use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) for transfusion among the patients receiving services in a tertiary health institution in South-East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study; an a...

  5. Blood donation barriers and facilitators of Sub-Saharan African migrants and minorities in Western high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E. F.; Huis In 't Veld, E. M. J.; de Wit, P. D.; van Dongen, A.; Daams, J. G.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Fransen, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to gain more insight into, and summarise, blood donation determinants among migrants or minorities of Sub-Saharan heritage by systematically reviewing the current literature. Sub-Saharan Africans are under-represented in the blood donor population in Western high-income

  6. Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takecian, Pedro L; Oikawa, Marcio K; Braghetto, Kelly R; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B F; Sabino, Ester C; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P; Ferreira, João E

    2013-06-01

    Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development.

  7. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  8. Insight about Norwegian Millennials and Blood Donation - A qualitative Study on Experiences, Expectations and Perceptions that identify potential Areas of Improvement and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Hilde Vestby

    2017-01-01

    Norway needs more blood donors to increase the preparedness. With the decreasing number of blood donors, the preparedness situation is put in danger if catastrophes or epidemics should occur. Research about how blood donation should be organized exists, but often lack user-centricity when approaching the problem. This thesis offers an exploratory and problem identifying contribution to this problem. A qualitative and user-centred approach was taken, where 18 young adults who both are an...

  9. Blood donation and institutional trust: risk, policy rhetoric, and the men who have sex with men lifetime deferral policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, André; Fiddler, Jay; Walby, Kevin; Hier, Sean

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the process of rebuilding institutional trust in the Canadian blood system in the aftermath of the tainted blood scandal. Our focus is the policy of lifetime deferral from donating blood for men who have sex with men. Drawing on findings from interviews with representatives of Health Canada's Expert Advisory Committee on Blood Regulation, the National Liaison Committee, Canadian Blood Services, and blood consumer groups, we demonstrate how claims making about rights, discrimination, science, and risk contribute to policy continuity. We also examine the link between policy continuity and the management of reputational risk.

  10. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthivhi, T N; Olmsted, M G; Park, H; Sha, M; Raju, V; Mokoena, T; Bloch, E M; Murphy, E L; Reddy, R

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. The making of a risk object: AIDS, gay citizenship and the meaning of blood donation in Sweden in the early 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Boel

    2011-03-01

    In the early 1980s acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented a danger to the blood supply, the extent of which was difficult to ascertain before a reliable test became available in 1985. In a situation of uncertainty, the major Swedish gay organisation in early 1983 recommended voluntary exclusion from blood donation by their members, while internationally gay organisations protested and Swedish medical authorities hesitated about the appropriate action to take. At stake were definitions of gay citizenship, risk and the gift of blood. The article uses three sociological approaches to understand the controversies around blood from men-who-have-sex-with-men as a risk to public health. An institutional approach is used to situate the symbolic meaning of blood donation within the specific Swedish blood collection regime, and thus the possible stigma of exclusion from donation practices. The article then details the evolution of different risk objects, based on different actors' situated knowledge of the danger, and discusses the different framing conditions influencing decision-making by the various actors involved. The analysis uses extensive archival and secondary material to trace decisions taken in the gay movement, medical authorities and blood centres, and to assess their outcome on the spread of AIDS via the blood supply. © 2011 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A comparison of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus marker rates for directed versus volunteer blood donations to the American Red Cross during 2005 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Kerri A; Moritz, Erin D; Steele, Whitney R; Eder, Anne F; Stramer, Susan L

    2013-06-01

    At most US blood centers, patients may still opt to choose specific donors to give blood for their anticipated transfusion needs. However, there is little evidence of improved safety with directed donation when compared to volunteer donation. The percentage of directed donations made to the American Red Cross (ARC) from 1995 to 2010 was determined. Infectious disease marker rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) were calculated for volunteer and directed donations made from 2005 to 2010. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to compare marker-positive rates of directed donations to volunteer donations. The percentage of donations from directed donors declined from 1.6% in 1995 to 0.12% in 2010. From 2005 to 2010, the ARC collected 38,894,782 volunteer and 69,869 directed donations. Rates of HIV, HCV, HBV, and HTLV for volunteer donations were 2.9, 32.2, 12.4, and 2.5 per 100,000 donations, respectively; for directed, the rates were 7.2, 93.0, 40.1, and 18.6 per 100,000. After demographics and first-time or repeat status were adjusted for, corresponding ORs of viral marker positivity in directed versus volunteer donations were not significant for HIV, HBV, or HTLV and significant for HCV (OR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.90). Directed donations have declined by 92% at the ARC since 1995, but have higher viral marker rates than volunteer donations. The difference can be explained in part by the effects of first-time or repeat status of the donors. Patients considering directed donation should be appropriately counseled about the potential risks. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Detection of phase I IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii with EIA as a screening test for blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Wielders, C C H; Schimmer, B; Wegdam-Blans, M C A; Meekelenkamp, J; Zaaijer, H L; Schneeberger, P M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of a high phase I IgG antibody titre may indicate chronic infection and a risk for the transmission of Coxiella burnetii through blood transfusion. The outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands allowed for the comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the reference immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in a large group of individuals one year after acute Q fever. EIA is 100 % sensitive in detecting high (≥1:1,024) phase I IgG antibody titres. The cost of screening with EIA and confirming all EIA-positive results with IFA is much lower than screening all donations with IFA. This should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness analyses of screening programmes.

  14. A life course perspective on blood donation: The influence of life events across the donor career

    OpenAIRE

    Piersma, T.W.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background All over Europe, blood donor numbers are decreasing. Although this does not pose a short-term threat, since the demand is decreasing too, demographic developments (e.g., ageing and growing diversity within the population) may negatively affect the blood supply on the long-term. Hence, recruitment and retention of blood donors remain an important topic of study. For several decades, researchers have been studying donor behaviour while trying to characterize the ‘typical blood donor’...

  15. Acute hepatitis B virus window-period blood donations detected by individual-donation nucleic acid testing: a report on the first two cases found and interdicted in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rocio; Echevarria, José Manuel; Avellón, Ana; Barea, Luisa; Castro, Emma

    2006-07-01

    Mathematical models predict that, in Spain, a significant number of blood units will be obtained during the window period of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Routine nucleic acid testing (NAT) on individual blood units may provide experimental data to evaluate such a theoretical risk. Between February and July 2005, a total of 34,631 individual units were screened for HBV DNA by a multiplex transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) test. Units that repeatedly reacted in the test, but did not react for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), were submitted to additional testing by both molecular and conventional assays, and the donors were recalled for follow-up studies and the collection of clinical and epidemiologic data. Confirmatory testing and follow-up studies identified 2 blood units donated during the HBV infection window period (1/17,316 units studied). Sequencing of amplification products obtained by nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) revealed two HBV strains from genotypes D/ayw3 and F/adw4q-, but did not identify HBsAg mutants. The HBV DNA concentration in the index donations was estimated to be below the n-PCR detection level (180 IU/mL), in both cases. One donor developed acute hepatitis 2 months after donating blood, but the other remained asymptomatic and displayed normal alanine aminotransferase levels at follow-up. The HBV infection window period is a real issue in the setting of Spanish blood transfusions. NAT of individual units by TMA would make a significant contribution to improving the safety of the blood supply in Spain. Additional studies involving a larger number of units and longer periods of time are required, however, to ascertain the true incidence of the problem in this country.

  16. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  18. A life course perspective on blood donation: The influence of life events across the donor career

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T.W.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background All over Europe, blood donor numbers are decreasing. Although this does not pose a short-term threat, since the demand is decreasing too, demographic developments (e.g., ageing and growing diversity within the population) may negatively affect the blood supply on the long-term. Hence,

  19. Real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood donations using a commercial and an in-house assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, M H G M; van Swieten, P; Cuijpers, H T M

    2011-06-01

    European regulations require testing of manufacturing plasma for parvovirus B19 (B19) DNA to limit the load of this virus to a maximum acceptable level of 10 IU/µL. To meet this requirement, most manufacturers introduced a test algorithm to identify and eliminate high-load donations before making large manufacturing pools of plasma units. Sanquin screens all donations using a commercial assay from Roche and an in-house assay. Between 2006 and 2009, 6.2 million donations were screened using two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting B19 DNA. Donations with B19 DNA loads of greater than 1 × 10(6) IU/mL showing significant differences in viral load between the two assays were further analyzed by sequencing analysis. A total of 396 donations with B19 DNA loads of greater than 1 × 10(6) IU/mL were identified. Fifteen samples (3.8%) had discordant test results; 10 samples (2.5%) were underquantified by the Roche assay, two samples (0.5%) were underquantified by the in-house assay, and three samples (0.8%) were not detected by the Roche assay. Sequencing analysis revealed mismatches in primer and probe-binding regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 12 samples were B19 Genotype 1. The three samples not detected by the Roche assay were B19 Genotype 2. This study shows that 3.8% of the viremic B19 DNA-positive donations are not quantified correctly by the Roche or in-house B19 DNA assays. B19 Genotype 1 isolates showing incorrect test results are more common than B19 Genotype 2 or 3 isolates. Newly designed B19 PCR assays for blood screening should preferably have multiplexed formats targeting multiple regions of the B19 genome. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Donation return time at fixed and mobile donation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Patricia M.; High, Patrick M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Johnson, Bryce R.; Mast, Alan E.; Rios, Jorge A.; Simon, Toby L.; Wilkinson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of blood donation environment, fixed or mobile with differing sponsor types, on donation return time. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 2006 through 2009 at six US blood centers participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) were used for analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by whole blood (WB), plateletpheresis (PP), and double red blood cell (R2) donations were obtained for fixed and mobile locations, including median number of donations and median interdonation interval. A survival analysis estimated median return time at fixed and mobile sites, while controlling for censored return times, demographics, blood center, and mandatory recovery times. RESULTS Two-thirds (67.9%) of WB donations were made at mobile sites, 97.4% of PP donations were made at fixed sites, and R2 donations were equally distributed between fixed and mobile locations. For donations at fixed sites only or alternating between fixed and mobile sites, the highest median numbers of donations were nine and eight, respectively, and the shortest model-adjusted median return times (controlling for mandatory eligibility times of 56 and 112 days) were 36 and 30 days for WB and R2 donations, respectively. For PP donations, the shortest model-adjusted median return time was 23 days at a fixed location and the longest was 693 days at community locations. CONCLUSION WB, PP, and R2 donors with the shortest time between donations were associated with fixed locations and those alternating between fixed and mobile locations, even after controlling for differing mandatory recovery times for the different blood donation procedures. PMID:21745215

  1. Clinical and Surgical Strategies for Avoiding or Reducing Allogeneic Blood Transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Antonio Alceu; Baumgratz, Jose Francisco; Vila, Jose Henrique Andrade; Castro, Rodrigo Moreira; Bezerra, Rodrigo Freire

    2016-04-01

    Blood transfusions have still been used as a standard therapy to treat severe anemia. Current evidences point to both excessive allogeneic blood consumption and decreased donations, which result in reduced stocks in blood banks. Several studies have increasingly suggested a more restrictive transfusion practice for blood products. Currently, a number of autologous blood conservation protocols in surgeries have been noted. We report a case of severe anemia with 2.9 g/dL hemoglobin, which was successfully handled without using the standard therapy to treat anemia with hemotransfusions. Such a case of severe anemia condition resulted after the patient was submitted to ascending aortic aneurism repair, valvar aortic replacement, reimplantation of right coronary ostium, followed by a coronary artery bypass grafting and several postoperative complications. The main clinical and surgical strategies used in this case to avoid blood transfusions were acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperative blood cell salvage, and meticulous hemostasis, beyond epsilon-aminocaproic acid, desmopressin, prothrombin complex concentrate, human fibrinogen concentrate, factor VIIa recombinant, erythropoietin and hyperoxic ventilation.

  2. Organ Donation Registration and Decision-Making Among Current Blood Donors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ

  3. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of blood donations in Accra (Ghana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Marinus; Sagoe, Kwamena W. C.; Vermande, Jacobien E.; van der Schaaf, Ido P.; Adriani, Willem P. A. van der Tuuk; Torpey, Kwasi; Ansah, Justina; Mingle, Julius A. A.; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Areas with high HIV-incidence rates compared to the developed world may benefit from additional testing in blood banks and may show more favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of adding p24 antigen, mini pool nucleic acid amplification testing (MP-NAT),

  4. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  5. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During your donation you can relax, watch a movie, listen to music…in a few hours you’ ... requirements may become eligible to donate platelets. Please review our eligibility requirements as some states require parental ...

  6. Detection of occult hepatitis B and window period infection among blood donors by individual donation nucleic acid testing in a tertiary care center in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keechilot, Cinzia S; Shenoy, Veena; Kumar, Anil; Biswas, Lalitha; Vijayrajratnam, Sukhithasri; Dinesh, Kavitha; Nair, Prem

    With the introduction of highly sensitive hepatitis B surface antigen immunoassay, transfusion associated HBV infection have reduced drastically but they still tend to occur due to blood donors with occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and window period (WP) infection. Sera from, 24338 healthy voluntary blood donors were screened for HBsAg, HIV and HCV antibody using Vitros Enhanced Chemiluminescent Immunoassay. The median age of the donor population was 30 (range 18-54) with male preponderance (98%). All serologically negative samples were screened by nucleic acid testing (NAT) for viral DNA and RNA. NAT-positive samples were subjected to discriminatory NAT for HBV, HCV, and HIV and all samples positive for HBV DNA were tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBeAg. Viral load was determined using artus HBV RG PCR Kit. Of the 24,338 donors screened, 99.81% (24292/24338) were HBsAg negative of which NAT was positive for HBV DNA in 0.0205% (5/24292) donors. Four NAT positive donors had viral load of <200 IU/ml making them true cases of OBI. One NAT positive donor was negative for all antibodies making it a case of WP infection. Among OBI donors, 75% (3/4) were immune and all were negative for HBeAg. Precise HBV viral load could not be determined in all (5/5) NAT positive donors due to viral loads below the detection limit of the artus HBV RG PCR Kit. The overall incidence of OBI and WP infections was found to be low at 1 in 6503 and 1 in 24214 donations, respectively. More studies are needed to determine the actual burden of WP infections in Indian blood donors.

  7. Analysis of blood donor pre-donation deferral in Dubai: characteristics and reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Al Shaer, Laila; Sharma, Ranjita; AbdulRahman, Mahera

    2017-01-01

    Laila Al Shaer,1 Ranjita Sharma,2 Mahera AbdulRahman2 1College of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, UAE; 2Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE Background: To ensure an adequate and safe blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors according to stringent eligibility criteria. Understanding the reasons for donor deferral can help in planning more efficient recruitment strategies and evaluating donor selection criteria. This study aims to def...

  8. Reducing maternal mortality: Systolic blood pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-03-21

    Mar 21, 2006 ... While deaths due to fluid overload have ... of better fluid balance management, we have made .... systolic blood pressure plays a significant role in the .... one looks at the work of Martin et al.5 ... Promoting Healthy Life.

  9. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  10. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparent...

  11. Acute toxicities of unrelated bone marrow versus peripheral blood stem cell donation: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsipher, Michael A; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R; Shaw, Bronwen E; Wingard, John R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Waller, Edmund K; Seftel, Matthew; Stroncek, David F; Lopez, Angela M; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Hematti, Peiman; O'Donnell, Paul V; Loren, Alison W; Leitman, Susan F; Anderlini, Paolo; Goldstein, Steven C; Levine, John E; Navarro, Willis H; Miller, John P; Confer, Dennis L

    2013-01-03

    Although peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have replaced bone marrow (BM) as the most common unrelated donor progenitor cell product collected, a direct comparison of concurrent PBSC versus BM donation experiences has not been performed. We report a prospective study of 2726 BM and 6768 PBSC donors who underwent collection from 2004 to 2009. Pain and toxicities were assessed at baseline, during G-CSF administration, on the day of collection, within 48 hours of donation, and weekly until full recovery. Peak levels of pain and toxicities did not differ between the 2 donation processes for most donors. Among obese donors, PBSC donors were at increased risk of grade 2 to 4 pain as well as grade 2 to 4 toxicities during the pericollection period. In contrast, BM donors were more likely to experience grade 2 to 4 toxicities at 1 week and pain at 1 week and 1 month after the procedure. BM donors experienced slower recovery, with 3% still not fully recovered at 24 weeks, whereas 100% of PBSC donors had recovered. Other factors associated with toxicity included obesity, increasing age, and female sex. In summary, this study provides extensive detail regarding individualized risk patterns of PBSC versus BM donation toxicity, suggesting donor profiles that can be targeted with interventions to minimize toxicity.

  12. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion reduces bile duct reperfusion injury after transplantation of donation after circulatory death livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Rianne; van Leeuwen, Otto B.; Matton, Alix P. M.; Burlage, Laura C.; Wiersema‐Buist, Janneke; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Gouw, Annette S. H.

    2018-01-01

    Dual hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (DHOPE) of the liver has been advocated as a method to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study aimed to determine whether DHOPE reduces IRI of the bile ducts in donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation. In a recently performed phase 1 trial, 10 DCD livers were preserved with DHOPE after static cold storage (SCS; http://www.trialregister.nl NTR4493). Bile duct biopsies were obtained at the end of SCS (before DHOPE; baseline) and after graft reperfusion in the recipient. Histological severity of biliary injury was graded according to an established semiquantitative grading system. Twenty liver transplantations using DCD livers not preserved with DHOPE served as controls. Baseline characteristics and the degree of bile duct injury at baseline (end of SCS) were similar between both groups. In controls, the degree of stroma necrosis (P = 0.002) and injury of the deep peribiliary glands (PBG; P = 0.02) increased after reperfusion compared with baseline. In contrast, in DHOPE‐preserved livers, the degree of bile duct injury did not increase after reperfusion. Moreover, there was less injury of deep PBG (P = 0.04) after reperfusion in the DHOPE group compared with controls. In conclusion, this study suggests that DHOPE reduces IRI of bile ducts after DCD liver transplantation. Liver Transplantation 24 655–664 2018 AASLD. PMID:29369470

  13. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    Blood components collected from blood donors are an invaluable part of modern-day medicine. A healthy blood donor population is therefore of paramount importance. The results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) indicate that gender, number of previous donations, time since last donation...... and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark...

  14. Androgenetic Alopecia: A Chronic or Pubertal Onset Disease Retarded by Blood Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dayer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss and common baldness that affects psychological more than physiological aspects of people’s lives. Studies have shown that this multi factorial disorder is initiated by androgens secretion in pubertal period, minerals limitations, autoimmunity, mental stress, genetic predisposition and some alterations in hematological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of hematologic parameters in this disease using a case control study design. Methods In this case-controlled study, two groups each of 80 individuals with androgenetic alopecia were voluntarily included in the study based on their medical histories and clinical examinations and subjected to blood tests for routine hematological parameters. The results were then compared and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results Our findings indicated that all the parameters for both groups fall in normal ranges (Mean ± SD but the values for RBC, HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, LYM and TIBC were significantly higher in patients than in normal group. The average counts of PLT was significantly lower in patients compared with the normal group. Otherwise, Person’s tests for statistical correlations between two groups indicated that the pattern of correlations were abnormal in patients. Conclusions Our findings indicated the presence of a chronic, immunologic and slowly progressing disorder that causes hair loss, the disease which is in turn triggered in pubertal period upon androgen secretion. We suggest, therefore, that the conditions may be ameliorated by prescription of iron tablet, platelet transfusion and anti-inflammation therapy.

  15. Discordant human T-lymphotropic virus screening with Western blot confirmation: evaluation of the dual-test algorithm for US blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramer, Susan L; Townsend, Rebecca L; Foster, Gregory A; Johnson, Ramona; Weixlmann, Barbara; Dodd, Roger Y

    2018-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) blood donation screening has used a dual-testing algorithm beginning with either a chemiluminescent immunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent screening assay (ELISA). Before the availability of a licensed HTLV supplemental assay, repeat-reactive (RR) samples on a first assay (Assay 1) were retested with a second screening assay (Assay 2). Donors with RR results by Assay 2 were deferred from blood donation and further tested using an unlicensed supplemental test to confirm reactivity while nonreactive (NR) donors remained eligible for donation until RR on a subsequent donation. This "dual-test" algorithm was replaced in May 2016 with the requirement that all RRs by Assay 1 be further tested by a licensed HTLV supplemental test (Western blot [WB]). In this study, we have requalified the dual-test algorithm using the available licensed HTLV WB. We tested 100 randomly selected HTLV RRs on screening Assay 1 (Abbott PRISM chemiluminescent immunoassay) but NR on screening Assay 2 (Avioq ELISA) by a Food and Drug Administration-licensed WB (MP Biomedicals) to ensure that no confirmed positives were among those that were RR by Assay 1 but NR by Assay 2. Of the 100 samples evaluated, 79 of 100 were WB seronegative, 21 of 100 indeterminate, and 0 of 100 seropositive. Of the 79 of 100 seronegative specimens, 73 of 79 did not express any bands on WB. We demonstrated that none of the 100 samples RR on Assay 1 but NR on Assay 2 were confirmed positive. This algorithm prevents such donors from requiring further testing and from being deferred. © 2018 AABB.

  16. The risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV from blood donations of men who have sex with men, 12 months after last sex with a man: 2005-2007 estimates from England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K L; Conti, S; Brailsford, S R

    2013-07-01

    The risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV infection under (i) permanent exclusion and (ii) 12-month deferral of MSM in England and Wales during 2005-2007 was estimated. Assuming equal compliance with both scenarios, estimated risk under a 12-month deferral (0.228/million donations [range 0·168-0·306/million donations]) was only marginally greater (0·5%) than that under lifetime exclusion (0·227/million donations [range 0·157-0.318/million donations]), with one extra-HIV infectious donation every 455 years. Poorer compliance of MSM with a 12-month deferral would be expected to increase the estimated risk, whereas improved compliance could decrease risk by up to 29·1%. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. Strategies to reduce blood product utilization in obstetric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neb, Holger; Zacharowski, Kai; Meybohm, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) aims to improve patient outcome and safety by reducing the number of unnecessary RBC transfusions and vitalizing patient-specific anemia reserves. Although PBM is increasingly recognized as best clinical practice in elective surgery, implementation of PBM is restrained in the setting of obstetrics. This review summarizes recent findings to reduce blood product utilization in obstetric practice. PBM-related evidence-based benefits should be urgently adopted in the field of obstetric medicine. Intravenous iron can be considered a safe, effective strategy to replenish iron stores and to correct both pregnancy-related and hemorrhage-related iron deficiency anemia. In addition to surgical techniques and the use of uterotonics, recent findings support early administration of tranexamic acid, fibrinogen and a coagulation factor concentrate-based, viscoelastically guided practice in case of peripartum hemorrhage to manage coagulopathy. In patients with cesarean section, autologous red cell blood salvage may reduce blood product utilization, although its use in this setting is controversial. Implementation of PBM in obstetric practice offers large potential to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products, even though large clinical trials are lacking in this specific field. Intravenous iron supplementation may be suggested to increase peripartum hemoglobin levels. Additionally, tranexamic acid and point-of-care-guided supplementation of coagulation factors are potent methods to reduce unnecessary blood loss and blood transfusions in obstetrics.

  18. A new strategy to improve the cost-effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis testing of blood donations in sub-Saharan Africa: a pilot study in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dramane; Sangaré, Lassana; Sakandé, Jean; Koanda, Abdoulaye; Nébié, Yacouba Kompingnin; Zerbo, Oumarou; Combasséré, Alain Wilfried; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Rouet, François

    2009-10-01

    In Africa where blood-borne agents are highly prevalent, cheaper and feasible alternative strategies for blood donations testing are specifically required. From May to August 2002, 500 blood donations from Burkina Faso were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) according to two distinct strategies. The first strategy was a conventional simultaneous screening of these four blood-borne infectious agents on each blood donation by using single-marker assays. The second strategy was a sequential screening starting by HBsAg. HBsAg-nonreactive blood donations were then further tested for HIV. If nonreactive, they were further tested for syphilis. If nonreactive, they were finally assessed for HCV antibodies. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the two strategies were compared. By using the simultaneous strategy, the seroprevalences of HBsAg, HIV, syphilis, and HCV among blood donors in Ouagadougou were estimated to be 19.2, 9.8, 1.6, and 5.2%. No significant difference of HIV, syphilis, and HCV prevalence rates was observed by using the sequential strategy (9.2, 1.9, and 4.7%, respectively). Whatever the strategy used, 157 blood donations (31.4%) were found to be reactive for at least one transfusion-transmissible agent and were thus discarded. The sequential strategy allowed a cost decrease of euro 908.6, compared to the simultaneous strategy. Given that approximately there are 50,000 blood donations annually in Burkina Faso, the money savings reached potentially euro 90,860. In resource-limited settings, the implementation of a sequential strategy appears as a pragmatic solution to promote safe blood supply and ensure sustainability of the system.

  19. Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and ... of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low ... birds had higher feed conversion ratio compared with birds in the other treatments.

  20. Serial blood donations for intrauterine transfusions of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn with the use of recombinant erythropoietin in a pregnant woman alloimmunized with anti-Ku.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydaki, Evaggelia; Nikoloudi, Irene; Kaminopetros, Petros; Bolonaki, Irene; Sifakis, Stavros; Kikidi, Katerina; Koumantakis, Evgenios; Foundouli, Kaliopi

    2005-11-01

    The management of a pregnant woman with the rare Ko phenotype and anti-Ku is a special challenge, because matched blood is extremely rare and the possibility of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn is high. A 30-year-old woman with rare Ko (Knull) phenotype presented at 18 weeks of gestation with positive indirect agglutination test results. She had anti-Ku due to previous blood transfusion, one pregnancy, and two abortions. During this pregnancy, anti-Ku titers ranged from 1024 to 4096. At the 26th week of gestation ultrasound showed a hydropic fetus and urgent intrauterine exchange transfusion was performed with the maternal red blood cells (RBCs). Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu-EPO) and intravenous (IV) iron were administered to the mother to ensure an adequate supply of matched RBCs for intrauterine transfusions and possible perinatal hemorrhage. Intrauterine transfusions were repeated every 1 to 3 weeks. By 35 weeks 2 days of gestation, the mother had donated 4 units of blood, and four intrauterine transfusions had been performed. Cesarean section was then decided and a healthy male newborn was born. He was treated with phototherapy but without exchange transfusions. By the 15th day of life rHu-EPO was administrated to the newborn because of anemia. The maternal RBCs completely disappeared from the child's blood by Day 100. As shown in this case, treatment with rHu-EPO and IV Fe has effectively increased the mother's capacity to donate RBCs for autologous use and intrauterine transfusions, with no adverse effects to the mother or the child.

  1. Disentangling the stigma of HIV/AIDS from the stigmas of drugs use, commercial sex and commercial blood donation – a factorial survey of medical students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kong-Lai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS related stigma interferes with the provision of appropriate care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Currently, programs to address the stigma approach it as if it occurs in isolation, separate from the co-stigmas related to the various modes of disease transmission including injection drug use (IDU and commercial sex (CS. In order to develop better programs to address HIV/AIDS related stigma, the inter-relationship (or 'layering' between HIV/AIDS stigma and the co-stigmas needs to be better understood. This paper describes an experimental study for disentangling the layering of HIV/AIDS related stigmas. Methods The study used a factorial survey design. 352 medical students from Guangzhou were presented with four random vignettes each describing a hypothetical male. The vignettes were identical except for the presence of a disease diagnosis (AIDS, leukaemia, or no disease and a co-characteristic (IDU, CS, commercial blood donation (CBD, blood transfusion or no co-characteristic. After reading each vignette, participants completed a measure of social distance that assessed the level of stigmatising attitudes. Results Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed statistically significant levels of stigma associated with AIDS, IDU, CS and CBD. The layering of stigma was explored using a recently developed technique. Strong interactions between the stigmas of AIDS and the co-characteristics were also found. AIDS was significantly less stigmatising than IDU or CS. Critically, the stigma of AIDS in combination with either the stigmas of IDU or CS was significantly less than the stigma of IDU alone or CS alone. Conclusion The findings pose several surprising challenges to conventional beliefs about HIV/AIDS related stigma and stigma interventions that have focused exclusively on the disease stigma. Contrary to the belief that having a co-stigma would add to the intensity of stigma attached to people with HIV

  2. 75 FR 17843 - National Donate Life Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... need for donors and to find resources on how to donate. Together, we can save lives and give hope to... Donate Life Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As Americans, we..., tissue, stem cell, and blood donation. During National Donate Life Month, we honor donors who provide...

  3. Clausura grupal e identificación de necesidades en las donaciones de sangre y órganos Group closure and needs identification in blood and organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casado-Neira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La acción de dar sin compromiso, el altruismo y la solidaridad están en el centro de la donación de sangre y órganos con fines terapéuticos. Según se hace ver las personas hacen una entrega desinteresada y transcendental: ‘la sangre salva vidas’. El altruismo y la solidaridad son aquí ineludibles, pero la donación está sometida a los principios de la reciprocidad. La captación y fidelización de donantes se enfrenta a veces a crisis o dificultades que se pueden explicar en parte por cómo los donantes interpretan la reciprocidad. Recurriendo a entrevistas y al análisis de contenido de campañas de captación de donantes de sangre y órganos identificamos dos tipos de reciprocidad (según sea el tipo de destino y concepción de la comunidad: focalizada o difusa. La focalizada es característica de sistemas sociales basados en relaciones personales estrechas (reales o virtuales. La difusa responde a una concepción individualista y anónima de la vida social. En la donación esto va a ser fundamental porque la reciprocidad focalizada es difícilmente compatible con la donación terapéutica, que es voluntaria, altruista y anónima. Lo que dificulta la donación es el intercambio restrictivo de la reciprocidad focalizada, no que este grupo comparta sangre o herencia biológica común que deseen preservar.Three moral values are within the blood and organ donation with therapeutical purpose: giving without obligation, altruism and solidarity. It seems than for donors unselfishness is something transcendental: blood save lives. Altruism and solidarity are present, but spending is under the pattern of reciprocity. Recruiting and keeping blood and organ spenders is an uncertain and complex process. How spenders live reciprocity can help us to understand rejections to donation. The research work is based on personal interviews and on the analyses of the material used in recruitment actions of blood and organ donors. Two kinds of

  4. Knowledge and attitude of donating and using cord blood for transfusion among patients attending Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okocha, Chide E; Ezeama, Nkiru N; Aneke, John C; Onubogu, Chinyere U; Okafor, Charles I; Egbunike, Chijioke G

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic blood for transfusion is in short supply in most parts of the developing world. Cord blood for transfusion can be a significant source of blood supply to our health institutions. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitude to the donation and use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) for transfusion among the patients receiving services in a tertiary health institution in South-East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study; an anonymous structured questionnaire was used. A total of 549 consenting patients randomly selected from the antenatal, postnatal, sickle cell clinics, and wards were the subjects. Statistical analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 20.0. The mean age of the participants was 31.9 ± 9.5 years. The majority were females (77.2%), married (86.4%). About 26.2% of the respondents were willing to accept UCB for transfusion to them or their child. Following counseling, the acceptance rate increased to 71.5%. Most of the respondents (80.0%) were willing to donate the UCB of their baby; or be tested for HIV (93.3%), if necessary. Educational level was significantly associated with knowledge of UCB. After logistic regression, occupation, and gender were significantly associated with acceptance of UCB for transfusion. Up to 52% belonged to low income family background, approximately 150 US dollars monthly family income (50,000 naira). The knowledge and acceptance of UCB for transfusion are low in our environment. However, proper counseling and public enlightenment could change this attitude.

  5. Subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion reduces endothelial cell and bile duct injury after donation after cardiac death pig liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Jan M; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Boehnert, Markus U; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Louis, Kristine S; Adeyi, Oyedele A; Minkovich, Leonid; Yip, Paul M; Keshavjee, Shaf; Levy, Gary A; Grant, David R; Selzner, Nazia; Selzner, Markus

    2014-11-01

    An ischemic-type biliary stricture (ITBS) is a common feature after liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death (DCD) grafts. We compared sequential subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (SNEVLP; 33°C) with cold storage (CS) for the prevention of ITBS in DCD liver grafts in pig liver transplantation (n = 5 for each group). Liver grafts were stored for 10 hours at 4°C (CS) or preserved with combined 7-hour CS and 3-hour SNEVLP. Parameters of hepatocyte [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), international normalized ratio (INR), factor V, and caspase 3 immunohistochemistry], endothelial cell (EC; CD31 immunohistochemistry and hyaluronic acid), and biliary injury and function [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and bile lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] were determined. Long-term survival (7 days) after transplantation was similar between the SNEVLP and CS groups (60% versus 40%, P = 0.13). No difference was observed between SNEVLP- and CS-treated animals with respect to the peak of serum INR, factor V, or AST levels within 24 hours. CD31 staining 8 hours after transplantation demonstrated intact EC lining in SNEVLP-treated livers (7.3 × 10(-4) ± 2.6 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2)) but not in CS-treated livers (3.7 × 10(-4) ± 1.3 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2) , P = 0.03). Posttransplant SNEVLP animals had decreased serum ALP and serum bilirubin levels in comparison with CS animals. In addition, LDH in bile fluid was lower in SNEVLP pigs versus CS pigs (14 ± 10 versus 60 ± 18 μmol/L, P = 0.02). Bile duct histology revealed severe bile duct necrosis in 3 of 5 animals in the CS group but none in the SNEVLP group (P = 0.03). Sequential SNEVLP preservation of DCD grafts reduces bile duct and EC injury after liver transplantation. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Impact of delayed umbilical cord clamping on public cord blood donations: can we help future patients and benefit infant donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotariu, Rodica; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Ciubotariu, Ilinca; Tarnawski, Michal; Lloyd, Sara; Albano, Maria; Dobrila, Ludy; Rubinstein, Pablo; Grunebaum, Amos

    2018-03-25

    Cord blood (CB) is a widely accepted stem cell source and its clinical utilization depends, to a great extent, on its cell content. Birth-to-clamping (BTC) time of umbilical cord determines placental transfusion to the newborn, and the remaining blood that can be collected and banked. The 2017 Committee Opinion of the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends a delay of "at least 30-60 seconds" before clamping the cord for all newborns to ensure adequate iron stores. The impact of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on public CB banking can be substantial. Cord blood units (CBUs) collected from 1210 mothers at one hospital were evaluated for total nucleated cells (TNCs) and weight/volume based on time to clamping. Bank staff recorded BTC time in seconds as reported by obstetricians; collections were performed ex utero. Immediate clamping was defined as BTC of less than 30 seconds, whereas DCC was defined as BTC of 30 seconds or more. Cord clamping was immediate in 903 (75%) and delayed in 307 (25%) deliveries. Successful recovery (% clinical CBUs) decreased 10-fold with DCC of more than 60 seconds (22% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001). CBUs collected after DCC of more than 60 seconds had significantly lower TNC counts than those after DCC of less than 60 seconds (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 38% to 46% of CBUs after DCC of more than 60 seconds had volume of less than 40 mL. Our study indicates that DCC of 30 to 60 seconds has a small negative impact on collection of high-TNC-count CBUs. However, increasing BTC to more than 60 seconds decreases significantly both TNC content and volume, reducing drastically the chances of obtaining clinically useful CBUs. © 2018 AABB.

  7. Knowledge, beliefs, and decisions of pregnant Australian women concerning donation and storage of umbilical cord blood: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron L; O'Brien, Tracey A; Samuel, Gabrielle; Porter, Maree; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Nassar, Natasha

    2014-12-01

    Many women giving birth in Australian hospitals can choose to donate their child's umbilical cord blood to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it privately. We conducted a survey to determine the proportion and characteristics of pregnant women who are aware of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking and who have considered and decided about this option. The survey also sought to ascertain information sources, knowledge, and beliefs about UCB banking, and the effect of basic information about UCB on decisions. Researchers and hospital maternity staff distributed a survey with basic information about UCB banking to 1,873 women of at least 24 weeks' gestation who were attending antenatal classes and hospital clinics in 14 public and private maternity hospitals in New South Wales. Most respondents (70.7%) were aware of UCB banking. Their main information sources were leaflets from hospital clinics, print media, antenatal classes, TV, radio, friends, and relatives. Knowledge about UCB banking was patchy, and respondents overestimated the likelihood their child would need or benefit from UCB. Women who were undecided about UCB banking were younger, less educated, or from ethnic or rural backgrounds. After providing basic information about UCB banking, the proportion of respondents who indicated they had decided whether or not to donate or store UCB more than doubled from 30.0 to 67.7 percent. Basic information for parents about UCB banking can affect planned decisions about UCB banking. Information should be accurate and balanced, should counter misconceptions, and should target specific groups. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  9. Reduced ferritin levels in individuals with non-O blood group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Berkfors, Adam A; Pedersen, Ole B

    2017-01-01

    stores expressed as ferritin levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Ferritin levels were measured at least once for 30,595 Danish Blood Donor Study participants. Linear regression analyses were performed with the ABO blood group as explanatory variable and adjusted for age, number of donations 3 years before......BACKGROUND: Genomewide association studies have reported alleles in the ABO locus to be associated with ferritin levels. These studies warrant the investigation of a possible association between the ABO blood group and ferritin levels. We aimed to explore if ABO blood group is associated with iron...... blood group was associated with a ferritin level of less than 15 ng/mL. RESULTS: Non-O blood group donors had lower ferritin levels than blood group O donors, regardless of sex. Accordingly, risk of ferritin level of less than 15 ng/mL was increased for individuals with non-O blood group compared with O...

  10. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  11. The use of torniquet to reduce blood loss at myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Ezeama, C O; Obiechina, N J A

    2010-06-01

    Fibroids remain the commonest pelvic tumour seen in women with myomectomy being the major form of treatment in our environment. Techniques to minimize blood loss will reduce patient morbidity and the need for blood transfusions. One such technique is the use of a tourniquet during myomectomy operation. This study examines the effectiveness and safety this tourniquet technique. A comparative analysis of the blood loss, transfusion rate and the morbidities associated with the use and non-use of a tourniquet during myomectomy operation at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Nigeria was undertaken. The Foley's urethral catheter was adapted as a uterine tourniquet and applied as low as possible at the base of the uterus before enucleating the fibroid masses. The patients who had their myomectomy performed with application of a tourniquet [tourniquet group] and those without [no-tourniquet group] were evenly matched for age, parity and presenting symptoms. The overall mean age of patients was 35.7 +/- 6.1 years and parity was 0.40 +/- 1.25. The main presenting symptoms of the patients were lower abdominal mass 65.6%, menorrhagia 38.7%, infertility 33.3%, abdominal pain 19.4% and dysmenorrhoea 14.0%. There was a statistically significant difference [P < 0.001] in mean blood loss for the no-tourniquet group [756.4 +/- 285.7] and the tourniquet group [515.7 +/- 292.8] as well as the mean blood transfusion rate in no-tourniquet group [1.0 units +/- 1.14] and the tourniquet group [0.24 units +/- 0.51]. However there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to complication profile. The Foley's catheter form of tourniquet is cheap, safe, effectively reduces blood loss during myomectomy and significantly reduces transfusion rate while not adding to the complications due to the operation.

  12. Splitting blood and blood product packaging reduces donor exposure for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuszkowski, M M; Jonas, R A; Zurakowski, D; Deutsch, N

    2015-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart surgery requires packed red cells (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to be available, both for priming of the circuit as well as to replace blood loss. This study examines the hypothesis that splitting one unit of packed red blood cells and one unit of fresh frozen plasma into two half units reduces blood product exposure and wastage in the Operating Room. Beginning August 2013, the blood bank at Children's National Medical Center began splitting one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and one unit of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The 283 patients who utilized CPB during calendar year 2013 were divided into 2 study groups: before the split and after the split. The principal endpoints were blood product usage and donor exposure intra-operatively and within 72 hours post-operatively. There was a significant decrease in median total donor exposures for FFP and cryoprecipitate from 5 to 4 per case (p = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U-test). However, there was no difference in the volume of blood and blood products used; in fact, there was a significant increase in the amount of FFP that was wasted with the switch to splitting the unit of FFP. We found that modification of blood product packaging can decrease donor exposure. Future investigation is needed as to how to modify packaging to minimize wastage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors

  14. Corticosteroid Reduces Blood Flow to Femoral Heads in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S.M.; Liu, T.K.; Kao, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is one of the common problems in orthopedic practice in Taiwan. The subchondral bone loses its blood supply which weakens its biomechanical support. Steroid overuse is one of many possible etiologies in reducing blood flow to the femoral head. Laser Doppler velocimeter is a precise monitor of regional blood flow of bone which is expressed in perfusion units (PU). In the control group the rabbits were injected with normal saline and there were no statistical differences between blood flow to the right hip (39.26 +/- 5.64 PU) and left hip (38.58 +/- 4.35 PU). In group B a weekly injection of methylprednisolone into rabbits for 6 weeks demonstrated the reduction of blood flow of femoral head (24.74 +/- 3.13 PU) by the laser Doppler velocimeter. The flow decreased further (15.93 +/- 2.33 PU) by 12 weeks of steroid treatment. In group C after a weekly injection of steroid for 6 weeks the flow became 31.63 +/- 4.79 PU. The steroid was then discontinued for 3 weeks and the flow was 34.6 +/- 1.34 PU. In group D the blood flow was 25.89 +/- 4.01 PU after 6 weeks of steroid treatment and we stopped the steroid for 6 weeks, the blood flow became 29.86 +/- 2.59 PU. The merit of our experiment established a model of study in avascular necrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Copyright 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of students towards blood donation in Arsi university and Adama science and technology university: a comparative cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilase, Habtom Woldeab; Fite, Robera Olana; Abeya, Sileshi Garoma

    2017-01-01

    Blood can save millions of lives. Even though people do not donate blood regularly, there is a constant effort to balance the supply and demand of blood. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation between university students. The comparative cross sectional study design was used in Adama Science and Technology University and Arsi University from April 11-May 2, 2016.360 students were selected using stratified sampling. Frequencies and proportions were computed. Chi-Square and logistic regressions were carried out and associations were considered significant at p students of Arsi University and Non-Health Science students of Adama Science and Technology University. The gender of the students (AOR = 3.150, 95% CI: 1.313, 7.554) was a significant predictor of the level of knowledge of Health Science students. The ethnicity of students (AOR = 2.085, 95% CI: 1.025, 4.243) was a significant predictor of the level of an attitude of Health Science students and gender of students (AOR = 0.343, 95% CI: 0.151, 0.779) was a significant predictor of the level of an attitude of Health Science students. Concerning Non-Health Science students, religion (AOR = 10.173, 95% CI: 1.191, 86.905) and original residence (AOR = 0.289, 95% CI: 0.094, 0.891) were a significant predictor of the level of knowledge of Non-Health Science students. Gender (AOR = 0.389, 95% CI: 0.152, 0.992) and Year of study (AOR = 0.389(0.164, 0.922) were significant predictor of level of attitude of Non-Health Science students. Year of study (AOR = 5.159, 95% CI: 1.611, 16.525) was a significant predictor of level of practice of Health Science students. Significant knowledge difference and attitude difference were observed between students from Arsi University and Adama Science and Technology University.

  16. Routine screening of blood donations at Qingdao central blood bank, China, for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with a real-time, multiplex nucleic acid test for HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus Types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongsi; Xu, Lei; Liu, Li; Feng, Qiuxia; Zhang, Longmu; Ma, Weijuan; Saldanha, John; Wang, Mingmin; Zhao, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The Roche cobas TaqScreen MPX test was used to evaluate the rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative donations that were hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA reactive from June 2010 to January 2011 in Qingdao, China. HBsAg-negative samples from 65,800 voluntary blood donors were tested with the cobas TaqScreen MPX test in pools of 6 on the Roche cobas s 201 blood screening platform. Samples positive for HBV DNA and negative for HBsAg were quantitated with the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test. In addition, serologic tests for HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody, anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), anti-hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBe) were done using the Roche electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A total of 80 nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) test-reactive pools were identified and 59 pools (74%) resolved to a reactive sample. All samples were HBV DNA reactive and the viral load in each sample was quantitated. The viral loads of the samples ranged from less than 20 to 34,600 IU/mL; 13 samples (22%) had viral loads of more than 20 IU/mL, 27 samples (45.8%) had viral loads of less than 20 IU/mL, and 19 samples (32.2%) had undetectable viral loads. Of the 59 NAT-reactive samples, 40 (67.8%) were anti-HBc positive. Fifteen of the 59 samples could not be confirmed as NAT reactive either by an alternative NAT test or by serology. The HBV NAT yield in blood donors in Qingdao is 0.06% (38/65,800). This study confirmed the value of NAT for interdicting HBV-positive donations and preventing transfusion-transmitted HBV infections. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  18. The meanings of consent to the donation of cord blood stem cells: perspectives from an interview-based study of a public cord blood bank in England

    OpenAIRE

    Busby, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public ‘cord blood bank’, for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with ...

  19. [Who are the recipients of labile blood products? A multicenter nation-wide study--a "donation day." Blood banks, health facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, J-F; Berthier, F; Courbil, R; Courtois, F; Chenais, F; Waller, C; Leconte des Floris, M-F; Andreu, G; Fontaine, O; Le Niger, C; Puntous, M; Mercadier, A; Nguyen, L; Pélissier, E; Gondrexon, G; Staccini, P

    2009-03-01

    During the years 1994-2001, a progressive decrease of the number of blood units transfused has been reported in France. In contrast, since 2002, there is an increasing number of blood units issuing (+7.6% between 2001 and 2006) and this must be investigated. On behalf of the French Society of Blood Transfusion, the "Recipients" working group promoted a nation wide survey with the support of the regional blood transfusion centres. This survey was aimed at describing the profiles of the transfused patients: socio-demographical patterns, and reasons of the blood transfusion (main and associated diagnoses). A cross-sectional survey was designed. All the patients who received a blood unit during a specific day were considered as the population of the study. They were identified by the regional transfusion centres by means of the "individual issuing form". Survey forms were fully filled for 90% of the patients. It has been considered as a good answer rate. Seven thousand four hundred and twenty-two blood units, delivered to 3450 patients were analyzed. Three groups of pathologies were found as a reason of transfusion: haematology-oncology (52.70% of the prescriptions) with 892 patients (27.8%) for haematological malignancies; surgical procedures (23.99%); intensive care and medicine procedures (21.92%). More than 50% of the recipients are 70 years old and more. This result is explained by the age distribution of inpatients. In a context of lack of donors and consequently difficulties to provide patients with optimal number of blood units, this study is helpful. Variability of blood unit issuings must be detected, analyzed and monitored in real time by the actors of the transfusion process, using computerized dashboards: the blood units provider (in order to adjust the strategy of blood units provision) and the health care establishment as well as care blood components prescribers (reasons of blood transfusion and evaluation of practices).

  20. The meanings of consent to the donation of cord blood stem cells: perspectives from an interview-based study of a public cord blood bank in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Helen

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public 'cord blood bank', for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with high expectations for future applications of stem cells. Given this dynamic, a concern arises that the complex and multiple uses of tissues and related data might be oversimplified in the consent process. In conclusion, the positive finding of a commitment to mutuality in cord blood banking among these women is underlined, and its implications for the wider debate on cord blood banking are discussed.

  1. Cerebral blood flow is reduced in patients with sepsis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowton, D.L.; Bertels, N.H.; Prough, D.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between sepsis-induced CNS dysfunction and changes in brain blood flow remains unknown, and animal studies examining the influence of sepsis on cerebral blood flow (CBF) do not satisfactorily address that relationship. We measured CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO 2 in nine patients with sepsis syndrome using the 133 Xe clearance technique. Mean CBF was 29.6 +/- 15.8 (SD) ml/100 g.min, significantly lower than the normal age-matched value in this laboratory of 44.9 +/- 6.2 ml/100 g.min (p less than .02). This depression did not correlate with changes in mean arterial pressure. Despite the reduction in CBF, the specific reactivity of the cerebral vasculature to changes in CO 2 was normal, 1.3 +/- 0.9 ml/100 g.min/mm Hg. Brain blood flow is reduced in septic humans; the contribution of this reduction to the metabolic and functional changes observed in sepsis requires further study

  2. Do autologous blood transfusion systems reduce allogeneic blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Aditya; Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok; Kekatpure, Aashay; Chen, Yongsheng; Nambi, G I; Tan, Junhao; Sonawane, Dhiraj; Pathak, Subodhkumar

    2017-09-01

    To study whether autologus blood transfusion systems reduce the requirement of allogneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. A comprehensive search of the published literature with PubMed, Scopus and Science direct database was performed. The following search terms were used: (total knee replacement) OR (total knee arthroplasty) OR (TKA) AND (blood transfusion) OR (autologous transfusion) OR (autologous transfusion system). Using search syntax, a total of 748 search results were obtained (79 from PubMed, 586 from Science direct and 83 from Scopus). Twenty-one randomized control trials were included for this meta-analysis. The allogenic transfusion rate in autologus blood transfusion (study) group was significantly lower than the control group (28.4 and 53.5 %, respectively) (p value 0.0001, Relative risk: 0.5). The median units of allogenic blood transfused in study control group and control group were 0.1 (0.1-3.0) and 1.3 (0.3-2.6), respectively. The median hospital stay in study group was 9 (6.7-15.6) days and control group was 8.7 (6.6-16.7) days. The median cost incurred for blood transfusion per patient in study and control groups was 175 (85.7-260) and 254.7 (235-300) euros, respectively. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the use of auto-transfusion systems is a cost-effective method to reduce the need for and quantity of allogenic transfusion in elective total knee arthroplasty. Level I.

  3. Detection of phase I IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii with EIA as a screening test for blood donations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, W.; Wielders, C. C. H.; Schimmer, B.; Wegdam-Blans, M. C. A.; Meekelenkamp, J.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Schneeberger, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a high phase I IgG antibody titre may indicate chronic infection and a risk for the transmission of Coxiella burnetii through blood transfusion. The outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands allowed for the comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the reference immunofluorescence

  4. Successful management of severe hemolytic disease of the fetus due to anti-Jsb using intrauterine transfusions with serial maternal blood donations: a case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Riyami, Arwa Z; Al Salmani, Moza; Al Hashami, Sabria; Al Mahrooqi, Sabah; Al Hinai, Sumaiya; Al Balushi, Halima; Al Riyami, Nihal; Gowri, V; Al Dughaishi, Tamima; Al Hosni, Saif; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Al Huneini, Mohammed; Alkindi, Salam

    2014-01-01

    The management of pregnant women with anti-Jsb is challenging due to the paucity of antigen-negative blood for fetal and neonatal transfusion. A 29-year-old woman with anti-Jsb was referred for assessment of recurrent fetal losses. With the presence of the sister as a historically matched donor, she was planned for active surveillance for fetal anemia during pregnancy. The fetus remained well until 21 weeks of gestation when signs of fetal anemia and early hydrops fetalis were noted. Anti-Jsb titer was at 128. The sister's red blood cells (RBCs) were cross-match incompatible. Urgent intrauterine transfusion (IUT) was performed with washed irradiated maternal RBCs, donated after cessation of heparin. The mother was given intravenous iron (IV-Fe) and continued on weekly recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu-EPO). Repeated IUTs were needed every 1 to 3 weeks. Throughout a 7-week period, three maternal donations were performed with total donated whole blood volume of 1250 mL, supporting four IUTs. At 29 weeks of gestation, the procedure was complicated by umbilical cord hematoma necessitating urgent cesarean section. A male newborn was delivered, transfused at birth, and subsequently treated with phototherapy and five top-up transfusions. This case represents a successful example of managing hemolytic disease of the fetus due to a rare antibody using maternal blood. It also supports previous data on safety of maternal donations during pregnancy and the use of combination of rHu-EPO and IV-Fe as a supportive measure. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Determinants of plasma donation: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, A; Terrade, F; Lebaudy, J-P; Danic, B

    2017-09-01

    The major contribution of Human Sciences in the understanding of the whole blood donation behavior has been through the study of individuals' motivations and deterrents to donate. However, if whole blood donation has been very widely studied in the last sixty years, we still know very little about plasma donation in voluntary non-remunerated environments. Yet, the need for plasma-derived products has been strongly increasing for some years, and blood collection agencies have to adapt if they want to meet this demand. This article aims to review the main motivations and deterrents to whole blood donation, and to compare them with those that we already know concerning plasma donation. Current evidence shows similarities between both behaviors, but also differences that indicate a need for further research regarding plasma donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Seroprevalence & changing trends of transfusion-transmitted infections amongst blood donors in a Regional Blood Transfusion Centre in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Rawat

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The increase in public awareness regarding voluntary blood donation, meticulous donor screening, counselling and use of highly sensitive tests can help in reducing the risk of TTIs.

  7. A doação de sangue sob a ótica de escolares: concepções e valores Blood donation in the view of schoolchildren: conceptions and values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Pagotto Bossolan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa investigou-se o nível de informação, percepção, motivos e sentimentos de escolares sobre a doação de sangue. 145 escolares do pré, 2ª, 4ª séries com seis, oito e 10 anos de idade foram submetidos a provas piagetianas, responderam uma entrevista, se posicionaram frente a um dilema. Verificou-se pouca informação e informações errôneas sobre a doação. A escola foi a fonte de informação menos citada. A maioria dos entrevistados tanto na entrevista, como no dilema, justificou a doação de sangue como um ato solidário, permitindo supor que valores como generosidade podem ser adquiridos na fase pré-operatória. Discute-se o papel da escola nos programas de Educação em Saúde voltados a comportamentos que serão emitidos a longo prazo e que beneficiam a coletividade.This study investigated children's values and perceptions of blood donation. A hundred forty-five students (preschool, second- and fourth-graders aged 6, 8 and 10 years old answered Piagetian tests. They were also interviewed on blood donation and faced a moral dilemma. Lack of information and misinformation were observed. The school was the least frequently cited information source. Findings showed that the participants justified blood donation as an act of solidarity. It indicates that children have a conception of values since the preoperational stage of cognitive development. It is also presented a discussion on the role of schools in Health Care Education, particularly targeting specific behaviors which will be expressed in the long term such as blood donation.

  8. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... white blood cell counts), sperm parameters (sperm motility, viability and counts) and blood glucose were determined. ... cantly increased red blood cell count, white blood cell count, packed cell volume and .... improve sperm motility and fertility in smokers (Dawson et al., 1992) and boar (Ivos et al., 1971), ...

  9. 76 FR 7546 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and... species donation (PSD) program for Pacific salmon and Pacific halibut has effectively reduced regulatory... individuals through tax-exempt organizations. Vessels and processing plants participating in the donation...

  10. Intra-Family Gamete Donation: A Solution to Concerns Regarding Gamete Donation in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Juhong; Devolder, Katrien

    2016-09-01

    Gamete donation from third parties is controversial in China as it severs blood ties, which are considered of utmost importance in Confucian tradition. In recent years, infertile couples are increasingly demonstrating a preference for the use of gametes donated by family members to conceive children-known as "intra-family gamete donation." The main advantage of intra-family gamete donation is that it maintains blood ties between children and both parents. To date there is no practice of intra-family gamete donation in China. In this paper, we investigate intra-family adoption in China in order to illustrate that intra-family gamete donation is consistent with Confucian tradition regarding the importance of maintaining blood ties within the family. There are several specific ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation. It may, for example, result in consanguinity and the semblance of incest, lead to confused family relationships, and raise concerns about possible coercion of familial donors. Confucian tradition provides a new approach to understand and deal with these ethical issues in a way that Western tradition does not. As a result, we suggest intra-family gamete donation could be an acceptable solution to the problem of infertility in China. However, further discussion and open debates on the ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation are needed in China.

  11. Conocimientos y actitudes hacia la donación de sangre en una población universitaria de Chile Blood donation: knowledge and attitudes of a university population in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vásquez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar los conocimientos y actitudes hacia la donación de sangre voluntaria entre estudiantes, académicos y no académicos de la Universidad de Talca, Chile. MÉTODOS: Entre junio y julio de 2002, se aplicó una encuesta, previamente validada, a 487 personas de la comunidad universitaria, para indagar acerca de su percepción con respecto a algunos aspectos de la donación de sangre, tales como: conocimientos y motivaciones sobre la donación, y desmotivaciones y mitos asociados a la donación de sangre. Para el análisis de los datos se usaron estadígrafos descriptivos. RESULTADOS: De los encuestados sólo 14% habían donado sangre y correspondían mayoritariamente al grupo de académicos (43,3%. Los estudiantes fueron quienes, en mayor medida, manifestaron su intención de donar sangre en el futuro (88,1%. Al comparar la predisposición a donar sangre en el futuro entre hombres y mujeres, se obtuvieron porcentajes de 90% y 84,2% respectivamente; sin embargo, esta diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. Dentro de las desmotivaciones para donar sangre, 73,4% de los encuestados dijo desconfiar de la esterilidad del material empleado en la colección de sangre. CONCLUSIONES: La población universitaria es un grupo muy deseable para convertirlo en donantes voluntarios; una adecuada campaña de información y motivación podría transformar a 87,3% de las personas con intención de donar sangre, en donantes voluntarios reales.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of students, professors, and other staff at the University of Talca, Chile, regarding voluntary blood donation. METHODS: From June to July 2002 a previously-validated survey was administered to 487 individuals in the university community. The survey sought to measure their understanding of blood donation, i.e., motivators and reasons for becoming a blood donor and the myths and fears that might deter blood donation. Descriptive statistics were used to

  12. Cultural diversity and patients with reduced capacity: the use of ethics consultation to advocate for mentally handicapped persons in living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, J

    2001-01-01

    Living organ donation will soon become the source of the majority of organs donations for transplant. Should mentally handicapped people be allowed to donate, or should they be considered a vulnerable group in need of protection? I discuss three cases of possible living organ donors who are developmentally disabled, from three different cultures, the United States, Germany, and India. I offer a brief discussion of three issues raised by the cases: (1) cultural diversity and cultural relativism; (2) autonomy, rationality, and self-interest; and (3) the proper use and role for clinical ethics consults.

  13. Lipaemic donations: truth and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    The problem of using material of unsuitable quality, including "nontransparent turbid milky plasma" or more simply "turbid plasma", for producing blood components is not trivial for several epidemiological, technical, analytical, clinical and economical reasons. With some exception, most national and international guidelines mandate that blood components should preferably not be produced from lipaemic donations. The origin of lipaemic blood is variegated, and includes physiological or paraphysiological causes and metabolic disorders, whereas a broad range of common diseases and drugs can also be associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. Overall, the frequency of lipaemic donations ranges between 0.31% and 0.35%, although sporadic reports have highlighted that the frequency might be much higher, up to 13%. Lipaemic donations pose two leading problems in transfusion medicine, that are interference during laboratory testing, and safety of producing blood components from hypertriglyceridaemic materials. While the former issue can be overcome by using chemical or mechanical methods, the clinical use of lipaemic blood for producing components remains an unresolved question. Transfusion medicine should thereby embark on a landmark effort to find a universal agreement of behaviours and harmonization of policies worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  15. A standardized multidisciplinary approach reduces the use of allogeneic blood products in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, P.; de Hert, S.; Daper, A.; Trenchant, A.; Jacobs, D.; de Boelpaepe, C.; Kimbimbi, P.; Defrance, P.; Simoens, G.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Individual and institutional practices remain an independent predictor factor for allogeneic blood transfusion. Application of a standardized multidisciplinary transfusion strategy should reduce the use of allogeneic blood transfusion in major surgical patients. METHODS: This prospective

  16. Restrictive blood transfusion protocol in liver resection patients reduces blood transfusions with no increase in patient morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehry, John; Cannon, Robert; Scoggins, Charles R; Puffer, Lisa; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-02-01

    Management of anemia in surgical oncology patients remains one of the key quality components in overall care and cost. Continued reports demonstrate the effects of hospital transfusion, which has been demonstrated to lead to a longer length of stay, more complications, and possibly worse overall oncologic outcomes. The hypothesis for this study was that a dedicated restrictive transfusion protocol in patients undergoing hepatectomy would lead to less overall blood transfusion with no increase in overall morbidity. A cohort study was performed using our prospective database from January 2000 to June 2013. September 2011 served as the separation point for the date of operation criteria because this marked the implementation of more restrictive blood transfusion guidelines. A total of 186 patients undergoing liver resection were reviewed. The restrictive blood transfusion guidelines reduced the percentage of patients that received blood from 31.0% before January 9, 2011 to 23.3% after this date (P = .03). The liver procedure that was most consistently associated with higher levels of transfusion was a right lobectomy (16%). Prior surgery and endoscopic stent were the 2 preoperative interventions associated with receiving blood. Patients who received blood before and after the restrictive period had similar predictive factors: major hepatectomies, higher intraoperative blood loss, lower preoperative hemoglobin level, older age, prior systemic chemotherapy, and lower preoperative nutritional parameters (all P blood did not have worse overall progression-free survival or overall survival. A restrictive blood transfusion protocol reduces the incidence of blood transfusions and the number of packed red blood cells transfused. Patients who require blood have similar preoperative and intraoperative factors that cannot be mitigated in oncology patients. Restrictive use of blood transfusions can reduce cost and does adversely affect patients undergoing liver resection

  17. Aplicación del análisis modal de fallos y efectos en el proceso de donación de sangre total Application of modal analysis of failures and effects in the process of total blood donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Escoriza-Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda constante de medidas para garantizar la calidad y seguridad de la sangre y hemocomponentes constituye una necesidad para el logro de la seguridad transfusional. Aunque las buenas prácticas de producción tienen el objetivo de disminuir los riesgos para obtener productos puros, seguros y eficaces, es necesario complementarlas con herramientas que permitan prevenir los posibles fallos y detectar dichos riesgos. Tal es el caso de la aplicación del Análisis Modal de Fallos y Efectos en el Banco de Sangre Provincial de Villa Clara, donde se identificaron y evaluaron las posibles fallas del proceso de donación de sangre total, lo que permitió caracterizar este proceso, identificar sus variables críticas, proporcionar las bases para proponer nuevos puntos críticos de control y establecer las acciones necesarias para la reducción o eliminación de las fallas detectadas. Esto contribuyó al aumento de la satisfacción de los servicios de transfusión hospitalarios y de los pacientes.The constant search of measures to guarantee the quality and the safe of blood and hemocomponents is a need to achieve the transfusion safe. Although the aim of the good practices of production was to decrease the risks to obtain pure, safe and effective products, it is necessary its fulfillment with tools allowing to prevent the potential failures and to detect such risks. That is the case of the application of the Modal Analysis of Failures and Effects in the Provincial Blood Bank of Villa Clara where the potential failures in the process of total blood donation were identified and assessed, allowing to characterize it, to identify its critical variables, to lay the foundations to propose new critical points of control and to establish the actions necessary to reduce or to eliminate the failures detected. All this contributed to the satisfaction of hospital transfusion services and of patients.

  18. Saving Blood and Reducing Costs: Updating Blood Transfusion Practice in Lower Limb Arthroplasty

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenelon, C

    2018-04-01

    Our aim was to quantify blood transfusion rates in lower limb arthroplasty following the introduction of a multimodal enhanced recovery programme (ERP). We then sought to update the maximum surgical blood ordering schedule (MSBOS) and calculate cost savings achieved.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of a new automated system for the detection of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acid in blood and plasma donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galel, Susan A; Simon, Toby L; Williamson, Phillip C; AuBuchon, James P; Waxman, Dan A; Erickson, Yasuko; Bertuzis, Rasa; Duncan, John R; Malhotra, Khushbeer; Vaks, Jeffrey; Huynh, Nancy; Pate, Lisa Lee

    2018-03-01

    Use of nucleic acid testing (NAT) in donor infectious disease screening improves transfusion safety. Advances in NAT technology include improvements in assay sensitivity and system automation, and real-time viral target discrimination in multiplex assays. This article describes the sensitivity and specificity of cobas MPX, a multiplex assay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Group M, HIV-2 and HIV-1 Group O RNA, HCV RNA, and HBV DNA, for use on the cobas 6800/8800 Systems. The specificity of cobas MPX was evaluated in samples from donors of blood and source plasma in the United States. Analytic sensitivity was determined with reference standards. Infectious window periods (WPs) before NAT detectability were calculated for current donor screening assays. The specificity of cobas MPX was 99.946% (99.883%-99.980%) in 11,203 blood donor samples tested individually (IDT), 100% (99.994%-100%) in 63,012 donor samples tested in pools of 6, and 99.994% (99.988%-99.998%) in 108,306 source plasma donations tested in pools of 96. Seven HCV NAT-yield donations and one seronegative occult HBV infection were detected. Ninety-five percent and 50% detection limits in plasma (IU/mL) were 25.7 and 3.8 for HIV-1M, 7.0 and 1.3 for HCV, and 1.4 and 0.3 for HBV. The HBV WP was 1 to 4 days shorter than other donor screening assays by IDT. cobas MPX demonstrated high specificity in blood and source plasma donations tested individually and in pools. High sensitivity, in particular for HBV, shortens the WP and may enhance detection of occult HBV. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  20. Reduced blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle in ageing humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    The ability to sustain a given absolute submaximal workload declines with advancing age likely due to a lower level of blood flow and O2 delivery to the exercising muscles. Given that physical inactivity mimics many of the physiological changes associated with ageing, separating the physiological...... consequences of ageing and physical inactivity can be challenging; yet, observations from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effects of physical activity have provided some insight. Physical activity has the potential to offset the age-related decline in blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle...... the O2 demand of the active skeletal muscle of aged individuals during conditions where systemic blood flow is not limited by cardiac output seems to a large extent to be related to the level of physical activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Evaluation of the Blood-Glucose Reducing Effects of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: All the aqueous extracts of (Caraway) CA, (Coriander) CO, (Cumin) CU, (Dill) DI and (Fennel) FE were administered at dose levels of 300 mg/kg body weight orally to different groups each containing 5 animals. A control group was also maintained simultaneously and received distilled water orally.Blood samples ...

  2. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography causes reduced myocardial blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Hendel, H W; Rasmussen, V

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Previous studies have shown that up to 50% of healthy patients may develop ST-segment changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate myocardial blood flow in patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP...

  3. Organ donation, policy and legislation: with special reference to the Dutch organ donation act.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Next of kin decisive on organ donation Changing the donor registration systems is not expected to result in more donor organs. We better try to solve the bottlenecks in the donation process within hospitals and to reduce the number of refusals by next of kin, as NIVEL research shows, based on which

  4. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section: A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr H. Yehia

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  5. 3,4-Dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines: Novel reducing agents through one electron donation mechanism and their application as the formation of nano-metallic silver coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewvilai, Attaphon [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Wattanathana, Worawat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Jongrungruangchok, Suchada [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, 12000 (Thailand); Veranitisagul, Chatchai [Department of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Klong 6, Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110 (Thailand); Koonsaeng, Nattamon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Laobuthee, Apirat, E-mail: fengapl@ku.ac.th [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    3,4-dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines as novel one-electron donators for silver(I) ion into nano-metallic silver was firstly found and reported. The silver formation from nano-spherical particles to coral-like and dendrite-like structures was presented. With respect to the characterization results, the feasible reaction mechanism of the silver formation was proposed as an electron donated from benzoxazine to silver(I) ion, resulting in a radical cationic species of benzoxazine and silver(0). Based on this reduction process, a new approach for nano-silver coating on various surfaces such as fumed silica (SiO{sub 2}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), carbon black (CB), chitosan (CS) including plastic sheet (polycarbonate, PC) and pellet (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), was also revealed. Besides the nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. - Highlights: • Benzoxazines were discovered to be novel reducing agents for silver(I) ion. • The speculated mechanism of the one electron donation process was investigated. • Dendrite structure of silver was formed from spherical silver nanoparticles. • A new approach for nano metallic-silver coating on various surfaces was revealed. • The nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers.

  6. 3,4-Dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines: Novel reducing agents through one electron donation mechanism and their application as the formation of nano-metallic silver coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewvilai, Attaphon; Wattanathana, Worawat; Jongrungruangchok, Suchada; Veranitisagul, Chatchai; Koonsaeng, Nattamon; Laobuthee, Apirat

    2015-01-01

    3,4-dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines as novel one-electron donators for silver(I) ion into nano-metallic silver was firstly found and reported. The silver formation from nano-spherical particles to coral-like and dendrite-like structures was presented. With respect to the characterization results, the feasible reaction mechanism of the silver formation was proposed as an electron donated from benzoxazine to silver(I) ion, resulting in a radical cationic species of benzoxazine and silver(0). Based on this reduction process, a new approach for nano-silver coating on various surfaces such as fumed silica (SiO_2), titanium dioxide (TiO_2), carbon black (CB), chitosan (CS) including plastic sheet (polycarbonate, PC) and pellet (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), was also revealed. Besides the nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. - Highlights: • Benzoxazines were discovered to be novel reducing agents for silver(I) ion. • The speculated mechanism of the one electron donation process was investigated. • Dendrite structure of silver was formed from spherical silver nanoparticles. • A new approach for nano metallic-silver coating on various surfaces was revealed. • The nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers.

  7. Implementation of a comprehensive blood conservation program can reduce blood use in a community cardiac surgery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xydas, Steve; Magovern, Christopher J; Slater, James P; Brown, John M; Bustami, Rami; Parr, Grant V; Thurer, Robert L

    2012-04-01

    The study objective was to determine the effects of implementing a blood conservation algorithm on blood product use and outcomes in a community cardiac surgery program. A blood management strategy including lower hemoglobin transfusion threshold and algorithm-driven decisions was adopted. Intraoperatively, point-of-care testing was used to avoid inappropriate component transfusion. A low prime perfusion circuit was adopted. Blood was withdrawn from patients before initiating bypass when possible. Patients undergoing coronary and valve procedures were included. Outlier patients receiving more than 10 units packed red blood cells were excluded. Data were collected for 6 months as a baseline group (group I). A 3-month period of program implementation was allotted. Data were subsequently collected for 6 months and comprised the study patients (group II). Prospective data were collected on demographics, blood use, and outcomes. Group I comprised 481 patients, and group II comprised 551 patients. Group II received fewer units of packed red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate than group I. There was no difference in platelets transfused. Total blood product use was reduced by 40% in group II (P conservation algorithm can be rapidly introduced, leading to reductions in blood and component use with no detrimental effect on early outcomes. Point-of-care testing can direct component transfusion in coagulopathic cases, with most coagulopathic patients requiring platelets. Further research will determine the effects of reduced transfusions on long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predeposit autologous blood transfusion: Do we require to promote it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safest blood a patient can receive is his own. Quest for safe blood transfusion has remained of prime concern. To meet this aspiration, various forms of autologous blood transfusions can be practiced. It is especially suitable for patients with rare blood groups and religious sects such as Jehovah′s witness autologous transfusion is extremely safe. Cross matching is not required; iso-immunization to a foreign body is excluded. Fear of transfusion transmissible disease can be ignored. Therefore, autologous blood transfusion is required to be revisited. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study carried out at Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pune between July 2010 and May 2012. Study comprised of 100 patients divided into two groups, autologous and homologous. Benefits of autologous transfusion were studied. Results: There was no significant change in hematocrit and blood parameters after blood donation. That is mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P < 0.001 after blood donation. Only one complication of vasovagal syncope was observed at the time of blood donation. Conclusion: Autologous blood transfusion is safe. Easy alternative to be practiced in elective surgeries, especially in patients with rare blood group or believers of Jehovah′s witness faith. It helps to reduce the shortfall in national blood inventory. Autologous blood donation should be practiced whenever possible.

  9. Applying Magneto-rheology to Reduce Blood Viscosity and Suppress Turbulence to Prevent Heart Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.

    Heart attacks are the leading causes of death in USA. Research indicates one common thread, high blood viscosity, linking all cardiovascular diseases. Turbulence in blood circulation makes different regions of the vasculature vulnerable to development of atherosclerotic plaque. Turbulence is also responsible for systolic ejection murmurs and places heavier workload on heart, a possible trigger of heart attacks. Presently, neither medicine nor method is available to suppress turbulence. The only method to reduce the blood viscosity is to take medicine, such as aspirin. However, using medicine to reduce the blood viscosity does not help suppressing turbulence. In fact, the turbulence gets worse as the Reynolds number goes up with the viscosity reduction by the medicine. Here we report our new discovery: application of a strong magnetic field to blood along its flow direction, red blood cells are polarized in the magnetic field and aggregated into short chains along the flow direction. The blood viscosity becomes anisotropic: Along the flow direction the viscosity is significantly reduced, but in the directions perpendicular to the flow the viscosity is considerably increased. In this way, the blood flow becomes laminar, turbulence is suppressed, the blood circulation is greatly improved, and the risk for heart attacks is reduced. While these effects are not permanent, they last for about 24 hours after one magnetic therapy treatment.

  10. Giving blood: Donor stress and hemostasis : Don't let your blood run cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Does a donation induce stress in blood donors, and does this affect the donor’s hemostasis? Donation-induced psychological, hormonal and physiological stress response patterns during a blood donation procedure were examined, and the effects of donation-induced stress response on immediate changes in

  11. Getting to Zero: Goal Commitment to Reduce Blood Stream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    While preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs) can save lives and reduce health care costs, efforts designed to eliminate HAIs have had mixed results. Variability in contextual factors such as work culture and management practices has been suggested as a potential explanation for inconsistent results across organizations and interventions. We examine goal-setting as a factor contributing to program outcomes in eight hospitals focused on preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). We conducted qualitative case studies to compare higher- and lower-performing hospitals, and explored differences in contextual factors that might contribute to performance variation. We present a goal commitment framework that characterizes factors associated with successful CLABSI program outcomes. Across 194 key informant interviews, internal and external moderators and characteristics of the goal itself differentiated actors' goal commitment at higher- versus lower-performing hospitals. Our findings have implications for organizations struggling to prevent HAIs, as well as informing the broader goal commitment literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single...

  13. Stress influences environmental donation behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pattern of requests for interspousal donation and transfusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The cases of 66 female patients who needed transfusion and requested for interspousal directed blood donations from their husbands at the UMTH Blood Bank from 1997 to 2001 were reviewed. The patients required blood for elective procedures, and wanted to be transfused with the blood of their husbands ...

  15. Blood donor incentives: A step forward or backward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasemi Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic increase in blood usage and critical seasonal blood shortages are faced by various countries. Countries which previously reached 100% voluntary nonremunerated donation have been led to offer different kinds of incentives to recruit blood donors and meet their blood demands. In some cases, these incentives are considered monetary and are in complete contrast with International standards like World Health Organization (WHO. It seems that attitudes toward sole dependency on nonremunerated voluntary blood donation have been changed in recent years and experts in some developed countries are reevaluating partial reliance on paid donation. On the other hand, besides the effects of such incentives on blood safety, several economic and psychological studies have shown that incentives have discouraging effects on pro-social behaviors like blood donation and will reduce the number of blood donors in long term. With regard to the results of such studies, it seems that implementing incentive-based blood donor recruitment programs to meet blood requirements by some countries is becoming a challenge for blood banks.

  16. Corporate Donations and Shareholder Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, H.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Do corporate donations enhance shareholder wealth or reflect agency problems? We address this question for a global sample of firms whereby we distinguish between charitable and political donations, as well as between donations in cash and in kind. We find that charitable donations are positively

  17. Can Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss during Major Cardiac Surgery? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Frances; Wahed, Amer; Gregoric, Igor; Kar, Biswajit; Dasgupta, Amitava; Tint, Hlaing

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in preventing intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery. Out of initial 81 patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (both coronary artery bypass and valve repair procedures) at our teaching hospital, sixty-seven patients were selected for this study. We compared estimated blood loss, decrease in percent hemoglobin and hematocrit following surgery between two groups of patients (none of them received any blood product during surgery), one group receiving no tranexamic acid (n=17) and another group receiving tranexamic acid (n=25). In the second study, we combined these patients with patients receiving modest amounts of blood products (1-2 unit) and compared these parameters between two groups of patients (25 patients received no tranexamic acid, 42 patients received tranexamic acid). In patients who received no blood product during surgery, those who received no tranexamic acid showed statistically significant (independent t-test two tailed at p tranexamic acid (mean: 987.2 mL, SD: 459.9, n=25). We observed similar results when the patients receiving no blood products and patients receiving modest amount of blood products were combined based on the use of tranexamic acid or not. No statistically significant difference was observed in percent reduced hemoglobin or hematocrit following surgery in any group of patients. We conclude that intraoperative antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid does not reduce intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery which contradicts popular belief. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  18. A standardized multidisciplinary approach reduces the use of allogeneic blood products in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, P; De Hert, S; Daper, A; Trenchant, A; Jacobs, D; De Boelpaepe, C; Kimbimbi, P; Defrance, P; Simoens, G

    2001-10-01

    Individual and institutional practices remain an independent predictor factor for allogeneic blood transfusion. Application of a standardized multidisciplinary transfusion strategy should reduce the use of allogeneic blood transfusion in major surgical patients. This prospective non randomized observational study evaluated the effects of a standardized multidisciplinary transfusion strategy on allogeneic blood products exposure in patients undergoing non-emergent cardiac surgery. The developed strategy involved a standardized blood conservation program and a multidisciplinary allogeneic blood transfusion policy based mainly on clinical judgement, not only on a specific hemoglobin concentration. Data obtained in a first group including patients operated from September 1997 to August 1998 (Group pre: n=321), when the transfusion strategy was progressively developed, were compared to those obtained in a second group, including patients operated from September 1998 to August 1999 (Group post: n=315) when the transfusion strategy was applied uniformly. Patient populations and surgical procedures were similar. Patients in Group post underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution more frequently, had a higher core temperature at arrival in the intensive care unit and presented lower postoperative blood losses at day one. Three hundred forty units of packed red blood cells were transfused in 33% of the patients in Group pre whereas 161 units were transfused in 18% of the patients in Group post (P <0.001). Pre- and postoperative hemoglobin concentrations, mortality and morbidity were not different among groups. Development of a standardized multidisciplinary transfusion strategy markedly reduced the exposure of cardiac surgery patients to allogeneic blood.

  19. The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M

    2017-07-01

    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress. Fourth, the consequent reduction in the number of donated organs leads to avoidable deaths and increased suffering among potential recipients, and distresses them and their families. There are three strategies which could be used to reduce the harmful effects of this vagueness. First, recategorizing the reasons (commonly referred to as 'overrules' under the current system) given by families who refuse donation from registered donors would bring greater clarity to donation discussions. Second, people who wish to donate their organs should be encouraged to discuss their wishes in detail with their families, and to consider recording their wishes in other ways. Finally, the consent system for organ donation could be made more detailed, ensuring both that more information is provided to potential donors and that they have more flexibility in how their intentions are indicated; this last strategy, however, could have the disadvantage of discouraging some potential donors from registering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Role of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyankur; Sujatha, M S; Bhandiwad, Ambarisha; Biswas, Bivas

    2016-10-01

    Anti-fibrinolytic agents are used to reduce obstetric blood loss as the fibrinolytic system is known to get activated after placental delivery. To evaluate the efficacy of parenteral tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during normal labour and to compare it with the amount of blood loss in patients who received placebo in the third stage of labour. Patients with spontaneous labour or planned for induction of labour and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. In each patient, the pre-delivery pulse rate, blood pressure, Hb gm% and PCV% were noted. Labour was monitored carefully using a partogram. The study group received Inj. Oxytocin and Inj. Tranexamic acid. The control group received Inj. Oxytocin and Placebo injection. Immediately after delivery of the baby, when all the liquor was drained, the patient was placed over a blood drape-a disposable conical, graduated plastic collection bag. The amount of blood collected in the blood drape was measured. Then the patient was given pre-weighed pads, which were weighed 2 h post-partum. The blood loss was measured by measuring the blood collected in the drape and by weighing the swabs before and after delivery. The total number of patients studied was 100-equally distributed in both the groups. The age group of the patients and BMI were comparable. There was a significant increase in the pulse rate and decrease in blood pressure in the control group as compared with the study group. The post-delivery haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in the control group as compared to the study group. The mean blood loss at the end of 2 h was 105 ml in the study group and 252 ml in the control group. There was a significant increase in the usage of uterotonics and also in the need for blood transfusion in the control group; 12 % of the patients in the control group had to stay for more than 3 days compared to 2 % in the study group. Tranexamic acid injection, an antifibrinolytic

  1. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  2. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  3. DOES INTRAVENOUS TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS DURING SURGICALLY ASSISTED RAPID PALATAL EXPANSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine AKBAŞ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA in reducing blood loss during surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE procedure. Subjects and Methods: A total of 34 patients (12 male, 22 female who had been treated surgically under general anesthesia with SARPE including pterygoid disjunction for transverse maxillary deficiency (TMD were included in this study. The study group (n=17 received intravenous (IV TXA 10 mg/kg as a preoperative bolus; the control group (n=17 received normal saline solution. Preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit values, intraoperative blood loss, and any blood product transfusion were recorded. Results: Blood loss during SARPE was statistically significantly less in the study group than the control group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Preoperative IV administration of TXA can effectively control blood loss during when SARPE with pterygoid disjunction is performed.

  4. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilcher, Ronald O; McCombs, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    This review is designed to help readers understand seasonal blood shortages and provide solutions through the use of technology that can increase the number of red blood cell units collected and the use of recruitment and marketing initiatives that appeal to the increasingly diverse donor base. Seasonal shortages are, in reality, mostly shortages of group O red blood cells and occur most commonly during midsummer and early winter. The shortages occur primarily from increased use of group O red blood cells at times of decreased donor availability. While reducing the disproportionate use of red cells will help, blood centers can more quickly reduce the seasonal deficits by using automated red cell technology to collect double red blood cell units; targeted marketing programs to provide effective messages; seasonal advertising campaigns; and recognition, benefits, and incentives to enhance the donor motivation donation threshold. A multi-level approach to increasing blood donations at difficult times of the year can ensure that donations are increased at a time when regular donor availability is decreased. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated by understanding the nature of the shortages, why and when they occur, and using more sophisticated recruitment and marketing strategies as well as automated collection technologies to enhance the blood supply.

  5. Tranexamic Acid Reduced the Percent of Total Blood Volume Lost During Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen E; Butler, Elissa K; Barrack, Tara; Ledonio, Charles T; Forte, Mary L; Cohn, Claudia S; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel posterior spine fusion is associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces intraoperative blood loss. The goal of this study was to compare the percent of total blood volume lost during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with or without tranexamic acid in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Thirty-six AIS patients underwent PSF in 2011-2014; the last half (n=18) received intraoperative tranexamic acid. We retrieved relevant demographic, hematologic, intraoperative and outcomes information from medical records. The primary outcome was the percent of total blood volume lost, calculated from estimates of intraoperative blood loss (numerator) and estimated total blood volume per patient (denominator, via Nadler's equations). Unadjusted outcomes were compared using standard statistical tests. Tranexamic acid and no-tranexamic acid groups were similar (all p>0.05) in mean age (16.1 vs. 15.2 years), sex (89% vs. 83% female), body mass index (22.2 vs. 20.2 kg/m2), preoperative hemoglobin (13.9 vs. 13.9 g/dl), mean spinal levels fused (10.5 vs. 9.6), osteotomies (1.6 vs. 0.9) and operative duration (6.1 hours, both). The percent of total blood volume lost (TBVL) was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid-treated vs. no-tranexamic acid group (median 8.23% vs. 14.30%, p = 0.032); percent TBVL per level fused was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than without it (1.1% vs. 1.8%, p=0.048). Estimated blood loss (milliliters) was similar across groups. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the percentage of total blood volume lost versus no tranexamic acid in AIS patients who underwent PSF using a standardized blood loss measure.Level of Evidence: 3. Institutional Review Board status: This medical record chart review (minimal risk) study was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.

  6. Controlled lecithin release from a hierarchical architecture on blood-contacting surface to reduce hemolysis of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2014-06-25

    Hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) caused by implant devices in vivo and nonpolyvinyl chloride containers for RBC preservation in vitro has recently gained much attention. To develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term antihemolysis capability, we present a facile method to construct a hydrophilic, 3D hierarchical architecture on the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/lecithin nano/microfibers. The strategy is based on electrospinning of PEO/lecithin fibers onto the surface of poly [poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] [P(PEGMEMA)]-modified SEBS, which renders SEBS suitable for RBC storage in vitro. We demonstrate that the constructed 3D architecture is composed of hydrophilic micro- and nanofibers, which transforms to hydrogel networks immediately in blood; the controlled release of lecithin is achieved by gradual dissolution of PEO/lecithin hydrogels, and the interaction of lecithin with RBCs maintains the membrane flexibility and normal RBC shape. Thus, the blood-contacting surface reduces both mechanical and oxidative damage to RBC membranes, resulting in low hemolysis of preserved RBCs. This work not only paves new way to fabricate high hemocompatible biomaterials for RBC storage in vitro, but provides basic principles to design and develop antihemolysis biomaterials for implantation in vivo.

  7. Reducing risks of Transfusion-transmitted infections in a resource-limited hospital-based blood bank: the case of the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagny, C. T.; Ndoumba, A.; Laperche, S.; Murphy, E.; Mbanya, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although interest in assessing risk of TTIs, very few trends in blood safety epidemiological data from resource-limited blood services are reported in the literature. This analysis aims at reporting trends in seroprevalences of TTIs in blood donations in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (UTH) from 2011 to 2015 and to describe reasons for these changes. Materials and Methods All donations of 2015 were tested for HIV 1&2 antibodies and the P24 antigen, HBsAg, HCV antibody and the Treponema pallidum antibody. Screening for HIV uses a national algorithm based on the systematic use of two assays of different principles: a rapid determination testing assay and an EIA HIV 1 & 2 Ab-Ag. The tests used for HBsAg and HCVAb screening were all based on EIA techniques. Treponema pallidum antibody screening was based on Treponema Pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) and rapid immunochromatographic test (RIT). Screening techniques and results from 2015 were compared to retrospective data from 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. Results In 2015, 13·4% (n = 214) of 1,596 blood donations were seropositive for at least one screened TTIs. The most frequent serological marker was HBsAg with 123 (7·7%) blood units contaminated. Nineteen (1·2%) and 18 (1·1%) blood units was positive for HIV and syphilis, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the total number of blood donations (P < 10−4) and HIV, HBsAg and syphilis seroprevalences and an increase in the proportion of voluntary non-remunerated blood donor (P < 0·05). HCVAb seroprevalence was 3·8% in 2015 and has not decreased significantly over the years (P = 0·09). Conclusion Significant progress is noted in reduction in seroprevalences of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis since the beginning of a regular registration of data in 1990. PMID:28484511

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  9. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Reduces Vitamin D3 in the Blood Stream and Respiratory Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just for Kids Library School Tools Videos Virtual Allergist Education & Training Careers in ... Support the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search navigation ...

  10. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Economic analysis versus the principle of guaranteed safety in blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatti, J P; Loubière, S; Rotily, M

    2000-06-01

    This article shows that policies aimed at reducing risks of infectious agents transmissible through blood unfortunately follow a law of 'diminishing returns': increasing marginal costs have to be devoted for limited reductions in the risks of contamination through blood donations. Therefore, the economic cost-effectiveness analysis is appropriate to identify screening strategies which may minimize costs to reach a certain level of safety. Moreover, economic analysis can contribute to public debates about the level of residual risk that society is willing to accept. Empirical results from French studies about screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in individuals who have received blood transfusions and in blood donations are presented to illustrate these points.

  12. Autologous blood transfusion in open heart surgeries under cardio-pulmonary bypass - Clinical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sartaj Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous blood withdrawal before instituting cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB protects the platelets, preserve red cell mass and reduce allogeneic transfusion requirements. Ideal condition for autologous blood donation is elective cardiac surgery where there is a high probability of blood transfusion. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of preoperative autologous blood donation in cardiac surgeries. Out of 150 patients registered, 50 cases were excluded on the basis of hemoglobin content ( [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 48-54

  13. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Wen-yuan; Ye, Fang; Yang, Jun-lin

    2016-04-27

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery usually require prolonged operative times with extensive soft tissue dissection and significant perioperative blood loss, and allogeneic blood products are frequently needed. Methods to reduce the requirement for transfusion would have a beneficial effect on these patients. Although many previous studies have revealed the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in spinal surgery, there is still a lack of agreement concerning the reduction of both blood loss and transfusion requirements of large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The objective of this study was to elevate the efficacy and safety of a large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery using a retrospective study designed with historical control group. One hundred thirty seven consecutive AIS patients who underwent surgery treatment with posterior spinal pedicle systems from August 2011 to March 2015 in our scoliosis center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups, the TXA group and the historical recruited no TXA group (NTXA). Preoperative demographics, radiographic parameters, operative parameters, estimated blood loss (EBL), total irrigation fluid, number of patients requiring blood transfusion, mean drop of Hb (Pre-op Hb-Post-op Hb), haematocrit pre and post-surgery, mean volume of blood transfusion, hospitalization time, and adverse effect were recorded and compared. All the patients were successfully treated with satisfied clinical and radiographic outcomes. There were 71 patients in the TXA group and 66 patients in the NTXA group. The preoperative demographics were homogeneity between two groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant difference in average operative time between two groups (209 min vs 215 min, p >0.05). Number of patients in the TXA group showed a significant decrease in

  14. [HTLV and "donating" milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigourd, V; Meyer, V; Kieffer, F; Aubry, S; Magny, J-F

    2011-08-01

    In France, the screening for human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) during the donation of human milk has been carried out from 1992 with the application of the circular DGS 24 November 1992. The screening for antibodies against these viruses is regulated and done systematically during every donation of milk. Breast feeding being the main mode of transmission of the HTLV-1, the last ministerial decree of 25 August 2010 has made the screening test compulsory for the anonymous donation and for the personalized donation (of a mother for her own child) from all women including those affected by the infection. The milk delivered by milk banks is pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 minutes) before freezing at -18 °C, which inactivates the pathogens. This double means of prevention of the transmission of the HTLV-1 paradoxically seems disproportionate in the absence of any precautionary measure in the case of direct breast-feeding and the use of mother's raw milk. Indeed, in most neonatal intensive care units in maternity hospitals, unpasteurized milk is administered to the neonates without any systematic preliminary testing of the serological HTLV-1 status of the mother. An increased sensitization of the community of the obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists by the Association of the Milk Banks of France (ADLF) and the Société de pathologie exotique could address the issue of screening for HTLV-1 in "donated" milk and breast-feeding.

  15. Reducing blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy by temporary uterine artery clamping using bulldog clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jo Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine myoma is the most common benign gynecologic tumor worldwide. Mini-invasive surgery has become popular for myomectomy, with advantages over laparotomy. However, reducing blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy is a major concern for the surgeon because of the limitation in making a quick control bleeding during the operation. Several methods have proved to decrease blood flow, but are not always effective or available. We present a case of uterine myoma with the uterine arteries clamped by bulldog clamps during laparoscopic myomectomy. The myoma was removed successfully with minimal blood loss (<50 ml during the operation. This is an effective, safe, and reliable method for reducing bleeding during laparoscopic myomectomy that does not require ligation of the uterine artery.

  16. The value of area-based analyses of donation patterns for recruitment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adelbert B; Josephson, Cassandra D; Shaz, Beth H; Schreiber, George B; Hillyer, Christopher D; Roback, John D

    2014-12-01

    Lack of ready access to a donation site may be a potential barrier to or influence the frequency of blood donations. In this study, we applied geographic analysis to blood donor behavior and use of different donation sites. The study population consisted of blood donors who gave whole blood in Georgia between 2004 and 2008. Zip code, city, and county of donor's residence were matched with the addresses of their donation sites. Donors were dichotomized as either nonmetro Atlanta or metro Atlanta residents. Six donation site categories were defined: donation within the same or a different zip code, within the same or a different city, and within the same or a different county. Logistic regression was used to compare donations by zip code, city, and county. The study population consisted of 402,692 blood donors who donated 1,147,442 whole blood units between 2004 and 2008, more than half of whom (56.4%) resided in the metro Atlanta area. The majority of donors were white (75.0%) and female (55.7%). In nonmetro Atlanta, repeat donors were more likely to have donated at fixed sites (p recruitment strategies. © 2014 AABB.

  17. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  18. An assessment of differences in costs and health benefits of serology and NAT screening of donations for blood transfusion in different Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M. P.; van Hulst, M.; Custer, B.; Bennett, Judie Leach; McDonald, Peter; Menitove, Jay; Tomasulo, Peter; Viner, Tina; Ward, Sheila; Brailsford, Su; Chu, Kwei; Georgsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Morten Bagge; Heney, Patrick; Keller, Anthony; Krusius, Tom; Marsh, Daniel C.; Nyberg-Oksanen, Eeva; O'Brien, Sheila; Prunier, Nina; Stramer, Susan L.; Tiberghien, Pierre; van Weert, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The cost-utility of safety interventions is becoming increasingly important as a driver of implementation decisions. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-utility of different blood screening strategies in various settings, and to analyse the extent and cause of

  19. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  20. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  1. Where are We on Organ Donation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Uludağ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to present the acceptance rate of organ donation of cases that were diagnosed with brain death and evaluated in terms of their demographic and clinical properties retrospectively in Adıyaman University Training and Research Hospital. Material and Method: In the intensive care unit of our hospital, cases that were diagnosed with brain death between the dates of January 2008 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases were evaluated in terms of age, sex, cause of brain death, blood groups, donation status, reasons for acceptance or rejection of donation, cardiac arrest, vasopressin treatment, laboratory test results, arterial blood gas values before and after the apnea test, intensive care unit follow-up durations, apnea test, seasonal and annual distribution. Also, potential donors and recipients were analyzed in accordance with their demographic characteristics. Results: The diagnosis of brain death was made in totally 57 cases; of those, 34 (59.6% were men and 23 (40.4% were women. The most common causes for brain death were traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intracerebral hematoma. Most of the cases had A Rh+ blood type (n=18, 31.5% and the rate of brain death was 4.7 times higher in Rh (+ patients in comparison to Rh (- patients. The rate of incidence of cardiac arrest was 12.3% (n=7, and it was more common in traumatic SAH patients. The rate of receiving vasopressor therapy was 21.1% (n=12, and the mean duration of therapy was 1.3±0.8 days. It was more commonly used in traumatic SAH patients (n=10. The follow-up period was 2.7±3.2 (minimum: 1, maximum: 17 days. Five patients were considered to be organ donors. The most common reason for acceptance of donation was the effect of organ transplantation coordinator during family interviews (n=3, 60%. In total, 4 livers, 5 kidneys and 1 heart transplantation operations were performed to 10 patients. Conclusion: Due to problems in organ donation

  2. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1.We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  3. Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Juliann C; Welsby, Ian J; Green, Cynthia L; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Wellman, Samuel S

    2018-01-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) are associated with significant blood loss and some patients require postoperative blood transfusion. While tranexamic acid has been studied extensively among this population, we tested the hypothesis that epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) can reduce blood loss and transfusion after joint arthroplasty. In April 2014, our Veterans Affairs Medical Center introduced a protocol to administer EACA during THA and TKA. No antifibrinolytics were used previously. We retrospectively compared blood loss and incidence of transfusion among patients who underwent primary arthroplasty in the year before standardized administration of EACA with patients having the same procedures the following year. Blood loss was measured as delta hemoglobin (preoperative hemoglobin - hemoglobin on postoperative day 1). All patients undergoing primary THA or TKA were included. Patients having revision surgery were excluded. We identified 185 primary arthroplasty patients from the year before and 184 from the year after introducing the EACA protocol. There were no changes in surgical technique or attending surgeons during this period. Delta hemoglobin was significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared to the control group (3.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL) (P blood transfusion was also significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7%) compared to the control group (25.4%) (P transfusion following introduction of the EACA protocol in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. EACA offers a lower cost alternative to TXA for reducing blood loss and transfusion in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Donations After Circulatory Death in Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Emre A; Latchana, Nicholas; Beal, Eliza; Hayes, Don; Whitson, Bryan; Black, Sylvester M

    2016-10-01

    The supply of liver grafts for treatment of end-stage liver disease continues to fall short of ongoing demands. Currently, most liver transplants originate from donations after brain death. Enhanced utilization of the present resources is prudent to address the needs of the population. Donation after circulatory or cardiac death is a mechanism whereby the availability of organs can be expanded. Donations after circulatory death pose unique challenges given their exposure to warm ischemia. Technical principles of donations after circulatory death procurement and pertinent studies investigating patient outcomes, graft outcomes, and complications are highlighted in this review. We also review associated risk factors to suggest potential avenues to achieve improved outcomes and reduced complications. Future considerations and alternative techniques of organ preservation are discussed, which may suggest novel strategies to enhance preservation and donor expansion through the use of marginal donors. Ultimately, without effective measures to bolster organ supply, donations after circulatory death should remain a consideration; however, an understanding of inherent risks and limitations is necessary.

  5. Does dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system affect success of renal denervation in reducing blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Lisa; Petroff, David; Desch, Steffen; Lurz, Philipp; Reinhardt, Sebastian; Sonnabend, Melanie; Classen, Joseph; Baum, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Renal denervation is an interventional approach aiming to reduce high blood pressure. Its efficacy is subject of controversial debate. We analyzed autonomic function in patients undergoing renal denervation to identify responders. A total of 21 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension scheduled for renal denervation were included. Heart rate variability, pupillary function and sympathetic skin response were examined prior to intervention. Before and 1 or 3 months after intervention, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure readings were taken. Patients were stratified according to sympathetic nervous system function. Sympathetic activity was reduced in 12 participants (group 1) and normal or enhanced in nine patients (group 2). The mean of daytime systolic blood pressure decreased in groups 1 and 2 from 168 to 157 mmHg (95% confidence interval for difference, 1-21 mmHg, p = 0.035) and from 166 to 145 mmHg (8-34 mmHg, p = 0.005), respectively. In a linear model, blood pressure reduction was 11.3 mmHg (0.3-22 mmHg) greater in group 2 than in group 1 (p = 0.045). Patients with preexisting reduced activity of the sympathetic nervous system benefited less from renal denervation.

  6. Does dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system affect success of renal denervation in reducing blood pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fricke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Renal denervation is an interventional approach aiming to reduce high blood pressure. Its efficacy is subject of controversial debate. We analyzed autonomic function in patients undergoing renal denervation to identify responders. Methods: A total of 21 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension scheduled for renal denervation were included. Heart rate variability, pupillary function and sympathetic skin response were examined prior to intervention. Before and 1 or 3 months after intervention, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure readings were taken. Results: Patients were stratified according to sympathetic nervous system function. Sympathetic activity was reduced in 12 participants (group 1 and normal or enhanced in nine patients (group 2. The mean of daytime systolic blood pressure decreased in groups 1 and 2 from 168 to 157 mmHg (95% confidence interval for difference, 1–21 mmHg, p = 0.035 and from 166 to 145 mmHg (8–34 mmHg, p = 0.005, respectively. In a linear model, blood pressure reduction was 11.3 mmHg (0.3–22 mmHg greater in group 2 than in group 1 (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Patients with preexisting reduced activity of the sympathetic nervous system benefited less from renal denervation.

  7. Novel Applications of Modified Ultrafiltration and Autologous Priming Techniques to Reduce Blood Product Exposure on ECMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, James R; Blau, Caitlin L; Cornelius, Amanda M; Pike, Roxann B; Dearani, Joseph A; Mora, Bassem N

    2016-03-01

    Patients needing the assistance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at risk of hemodilution and, in some instances, may require exposure to large amounts of allogeneic blood products. Patient outcomes can be improved by taking steps to reduce transfusions and hemodilution. Currently, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used across the world to reduce hemodilution after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Another common technique during bypass initiation is autologous priming. By applying modified versions of these techniques, ECMO patients may potentially benefit. Usually, patients requiring immediate transition from CPB to ECMO are not stable enough to tolerate MUF. Through alterations of the CPB and ECMO circuit tubing, MUF can be performed once on ECMO. Another technique to potentially lower the transfusion requirements for ECMO patients is a complete circuit blood transfer during an ECMO circuit exchange. While selective component changes are preferred if possible, occasionally a complete circuit change must be done. To minimize hemodilution or prevent priming with blood products, the original ECMO circuit's blood can be transferred to the new ECMO circuit before connecting to the patient. Both of these techniques, in our opinion, helped to reduce the number of transfusions that our ECMO patients have seen during these critical time periods.

  8. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since

  9. Significance of irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Eisuke; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1992-01-01

    Many reports of fatal GVHD occurring in non-immunocompromised patients after blood transfusion have been published in Japan. One explantation is that transfused lymphocytes were simulated and attack the recipient organs recognized as HLA incompatible. That is so called 'one-way matching'. To reduce the risk of post-transfusion GVHD, one of the most convenient methods is to irradiate the donated blood at an appropriate dose for inactivation of lymphocytes. Because no one knows about the late effect of irradiated blood, it is necessary to make the prospective safety control. (author)

  10. Is reducing variability of blood glucose the real but hidden target of intensive insulin therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Moritoki; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Reade, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Since the first report that intensive insulin therapy reduced mortality in selected surgical critically ill patients, lowering of blood glucose levels has been recommended as a means of improving patient outcomes. In this initial Leuven trial, blood glucose control by protocol using insulin was applied to 98.7% of patients in the intensive group but to only 39.2% (P dimension of glucose management, a possible mechanism by which an intensive insulin protocol exerts its putative beneficial effects, and an important goal of glucose management in the intensive care unit. Clinicians need to be aware of this controversy when considering the application of intensive insulin therapy and interpreting future trials.

  11. Effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Supoken, Amornrat; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake

    2016-01-23

    Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynaecological cancer worldwide, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 6.1 per 10,000 women. Standard therapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) includes a combination of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Cytoreductive surgery aims to remove as much of the visible tumour as possible. As extensive intraperitoneal metastases are typical of advanced EOC, cytoreductive surgery is usually an extensive procedure with the risk of excessive bleeding. Tranexamic acid given perioperatively is effective in reducing blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion requirements in a variety of surgical settings. Therefore, tranexamic acid seems to be a promising agent for minimising blood loss and the need for blood transfusion among women with advanced EOC undergoing cytoreductive surgery. To assess the effects of tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss associated with cytoreductive surgery in women with advanced EOC (stage III to IV). We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological, Neuro-oncology and Orphan Cancers Trial Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference proceedings to May 2015. We also checked registers of clinical trials, citation lists of included studies, key textbooks and previous systematic reviews for potentially relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tranexamic acid given during surgery versus placebo or no treatment, in adult women diagnosed with advanced EOC. Two review authors (CK, AS) independently selected potentially relevant trials, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, compared results and resolved disagreements by discussion. We found only one study that met our inclusion criteria. This was a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of intravenous tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) versus

  12. Changes in pre- and post-donation platelet function in plateletpheresis donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Yu, X; Cai, Y; Liu, L

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes of platelet (PLT) function and coagulation time before and after plateletpheresis donation. The healthy donors were divided into four groups according to the annual number of plateletpheresis donation: 20 times group, 15 times group, 10 times group and 5 times group. The healthy non-blood donors were selected as controls. The donation interval was 14 days. The blood samples were collected before plateletpheresis donation and after 30min, 7 d, and 14 d of donation for determination of coagulation time, PLT function, plasma protein, serum iron and blood routine change. After 30min of plateletpheresis donation, the PLT function decreased and the coagulation time was prolonged. However, PLT function recovered to the pre-collection after 7 d of plateletpheresis donation and coagulation time recovered to the pre-collection after 14 d of plateletpheresis donation. Additionally, there was no difference regarding blood coagulation time and PLT function among blood donors and controls. The plasma protein and serum iron levels in 20 times and 15 times groups were within the normal reference range. The frequency of plateletpheresis donation will not affect PLT function, coagulation time, plasma protein and serum iron in donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Antenatal steroid exposure in the late preterm period is associated with reduced cord blood neurotrophin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Crawford, Tara M; McKerracher, Lorna; Lawrence, Andrew; Pitcher, Julia B; Stark, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Neurotrophins are proteins critically involved in neural growth, survival and differentiation, and therefore important for fetal brain development. Reduced cord blood neurotrophins have been observed in very preterm infants (neurotrophin concentrations, yet studies to date have not examined whether this occurs in the late preterm infant (33-36weeks gestation), despite increasing recognition of subtle neurodevelopmental deficits in this population. To assess the impact of antenatal steroids on cord blood neurotrophins in late preterm infants following antenatal steroid exposure. Retrospective analysis. Late preterm infants (33-36weeks; n=119) and term infants (37-41weeks; n=129) born at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide. Cord blood neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), NT-4, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations measured by ELISA. Cord blood NT-4 and NGF were increased at term compared to the late preterm period (p24h prior to delivery (p<0.01). This study identified an association between reduced cord blood NT-3 and antenatal steroid exposure in the late preterm period. The reduced NT-3 may be a consequence of steroids inducing neuronal apoptosis, thereby reducing endogenous neuronal NT3 production, or be an action of steroids on other maternal or fetal NT-3 producing cells, which may then affect neuronal growth, differentiation and survival. Regardless of the specific mechanism, a reduction in NT-3 may have long term implications for child neurodevelopment, and emphasizes the ongoing vulnerability of the fetal brain across the full preterm period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  16. Mediterranean diet reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids: one-year randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Mónica; Roman, Pilar; Lapetra, José; García de la Corte, Francisco J; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de la Torre, Rafael; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa-María; Toledo, Estefania; Estruch, Ramón; Coca, Antonio; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) supplemented with either extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, compared with a control, lower fat diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection remain unclear. We evaluated the 1-year effects of supplemented MedDiets on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, and lipids. Randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial was conducted in 2 PREDIMED sites. Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on increasing physical activity or reducing sodium intake was given. Participants were 235 subjects (56.5% women; mean age, 66.5 years) at high cardiovascular risk (85.4% with hypertension). Adjusted changes from baseline in mean systolic BP were -2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -0.5) mm Hg and -2.6 (95% CI, -4.3 to -0.9) mm Hg in the MedDiets with olive oil and the MedDiets with nuts, respectively, and 1.7 (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.5) mm Hg in the control group (P<0.001). Respective changes in mean diastolic BP were -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), and 0.7 (95% CI, -0.4 to 1.7) mm Hg (P=0.017). Daytime and nighttime BP followed similar patterns. Mean changes from baseline in fasting blood glucose were -6.1, -4.6, and 3.5 mg/dL (P=0.016) in the MedDiets with olive oil, MedDiets with nuts, and control diet, respectively; those of total cholesterol were -11.3, -13.6, and -4.4 mg/dL (P=0.043), respectively. In high-risk individuals, most with treated hypertension, MedDiets supplemented with extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced 24-hour ambulatory BP, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Dengue viremia in blood donors in Northern India: Challenges of emerging dengue outbreaks to blood transfusion safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Mangwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backdround: Emerging infectious diseases pose threats to the general human population; including recipients of blood transfusions. Dengue is spreading rapidly to new areas and with increasing frequency of major outbreaks. Screening blood for dengue antigens in dengue-endemic countries would be costly and should, therefore, be recommended only after careful assessment of risk for infection and cost. Aim: A prospective study was conducted to establish the magnitude of the threat that dengue poses to blood safety where it is sporadic with seasonal variations, to quantify risk and to assess that whether screening is feasible and cost-effective. Materials and Methods: Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen test was done on 1709 donations during dengue outbreak in the months August to November 2013 as an additional test using Bio-Rad Platelia Dengue NS1AG test kit which is one step sandwich format microplate enzyme immunoassay using murine monoclonal antibodies for capture and revelation. Chi-square test was used to find statistical significance. Results and Conclusions: Majority cases were whole blood, replacement, male donors with 76.10% donors in <35 years age group. About 17.85% were single donor platelet donations. NS1 antigen in all donors was negative. In the past, dengue affected mainly children who do not donate blood. With the changing trend, mean age of infection increased affecting the population that does donate blood, further reducing blood donation pool. Further studies need to be done in different geographic regions of the country during dengue transmission season to establish maximum incidence of viremic donations, rates of transfusion transmission and clinical consequences in recipients. If risk is found to be substantial, decision will be taken by the policymakers at what threshold screening should be instituted to ensure safe blood transfusion.

  18. Combined exercise reduces arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and blood markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Won-Mok; Sung, Ki-Dong; Cho, Jae-Min; Park, Song-Young

    2017-03-01

    Postmenopausal women exhibit elevated brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular fitness in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. Twenty postmenopausal women (age, 75 ± 2 y; systolic BP, 152 ± 2 mm Hg, diastolic BP, 95 ± 3 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to a "no-exercise" (CON, n = 10) or combined exercise (EX, n = 10) group. The EX group performed resistance and aerobic exercise for 12 weeks, 3 times per week. Exercise intensity was increased gradually, from 40% to 70% of heart rate reserve, every 4 weeks. BaPWV, BP, blood nitrite/nitrate, endothelin-1 (ET-1), cardiovascular fitness, and body composition were measured before and after the 12-week intervention. BP, baPWV (-1.2 ± 0.4 m/s), ET-1 (-2.7 ± 0.3 μmol/mL), nitrite/nitrate (+4.5 ± 0.5 μM), functional capacity, and body composition were significantly improved (P exercise training improves arterial stiffness, BP, ET-1, blood nitrite/nitrate, functional capacity, and body composition in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. Thus, this study provides evidence that combined exercise training is a useful therapeutic method to improve cardiovascular health which can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension.

  19. Defaults and Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Heidhues, Paul

    We study how website defaults affect consumer behavior in the domain of charitable giving. In a field experiment that was conducted on a large platform for making charitable donations over the web, we exogenously vary the default options in two distinct choice dimensions. The first pertains...

  20. Promoting High-Value Practice by Reducing Unnecessary Transfusions With a Patient Blood Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Divyajot; Pratzer, Ariella; Scher, Lauren J; Saag, Harry S; Adler, Nicole; Volpicelli, Frank M; Auron, Moises; Frank, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Although blood transfusion is a lifesaving therapy for some patients, transfusion has been named 1 of the top 5 overused procedures in US hospitals. As unnecessary transfusions only increase risk and cost without providing benefit, improving transfusion practice is an effective way of promoting high-value care. Most high-quality clinical trials supporting a restrictive transfusion strategy have been published in the past 5 to 10 years, so the value of a successful patient blood management program has only recently been recognized. We review the most recent transfusion practice guidelines and the evidence supporting these guidelines. We also discuss several medical societies' Choosing Wisely campaigns to reduce or eliminate overuse of transfusions. A blueprint is presented for developing a patient blood management program, which includes discussion of specific methods for optimizing transfusion practice.

  1. Priority needs and wisdom strategy for blood transfusion safety in developing low-resource countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrazik, Abeer Mohamed; Ezzat Ahmed, Ghada M

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the implementation of alternative safety measures that reduce the risk of transfusion transmissible infections as an affordable measure in low resource countries. It is still difficult in developing countries with limited resources to mandate nucleic acid testing due to its high cost. Although NAT reduces the window period of infection, the developing countries are still in need of an efficient and effective transfusion programme before implementing the complex high cost NAT. Two thousand eight hundred eighty sero-negative first-time and repeat donations from Fayoum University Hospital blood bank were individually analysed by NAT for HIV, HBV and HCV. Only discriminatory-positive NAT were classified comparing the non-remunerated and family replacement donations. Significant discriminatory-positive differences were observed for HBV NAT results, 2 remunerated donations compared to 0 non-remunerated sero-negative donations. The discriminatory positive differences were also significant for HCV NAT results, 4 remunerated donations compared to 1 non-remunerated sero-negative donation. No sero-negative, discriminatory-positive NAT HIV case was found. Seven out of 8 discriminatory positive cases were from first time donations. In order to ensure blood safety, the recruitment and retention of voluntary, non-remunerated repeat donors should be a major commitment for low resource countries in which NAT implementation is costly and not feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy reduces blood pressure and hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K. McGavigan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, causes remarkable improvements in cardiometabolic health, including hypertension remission. However, the mechanisms responsible remain undefined and poorly studied. Therefore, we developed and validated the first murine model of VSG that recapitulates the blood pressure-lowering effect of VSG using gold-standard radiotelemetry technology. We used this model to investigate several potential mechanisms, including body mass, brain endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling and brain inflammatory signaling, which are all critical contributors to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated hypertension. Mice fed on a high-fat diet underwent sham or VSG surgery and radiotelemeter implantation. Sham mice were fed ad libitum or were food restricted to match their body mass to VSG-operated mice to determine the role of body mass in the ability of VSG to lower blood pressure. Blood pressure was then measured in freely moving unstressed mice by radiotelemetry. VSG decreased energy intake, body mass and fat mass. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was reduced in VSG-operated mice compared with both sham-operated groups. VSG-induced reductions in MAP were accompanied by a body mass-independent decrease in hypothalamic ER stress, hypothalamic inflammation and sympathetic nervous system tone. Assessment of gut microbial populations revealed VSG-induced increases in the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Enterococcus, and decreases in Adlercreutzia. These results suggest that VSG reduces blood pressure, but this is only partly due to the reduction in body weight. VSG-induced reductions in blood pressure may be driven by a decrease in hypothalamic ER stress and inflammatory signaling, and shifts in gut microbial populations.

  3. Riboflavin and ultraviolet light reduce the infectivity of Babesia microti in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnetti, Laura; Thorp, Aaron M; Reddy, Heather L; Keil, Shawn D; Goodrich, Raymond P; Leiby, David A

    2013-04-01

    Babesia microti is the parasite most frequently transmitted by blood transfusion in the United States. Previous work demonstrated the efficacy of riboflavin (RB) and ultraviolet (UV) light to inactivate B.microti in apheresis plasma and platelet units. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of RB and UV light to reduce the levels of B.microti in whole blood (WB). WB units were spiked with B. microti-infected hamster blood. Spearman-Karber methods were used to calculate infectivity of each sample in terms of hamster infectious dose 50% (HID50 ) value. After RB addition, the units were illuminated with 80 J/mLRBC UV light. Two samples were collected: one before illumination and one after illumination. The samples were serially diluted and dilutions injected into a group of five naive hamsters. Four weeks postinoculation (PI), blood was collected from the animals and evaluated by microscopic observation. One pilot study showed a good dose response in the animals and demonstrated that sample infectivity could be calculated in terms of an HID50 . Three additional replicates were performed in the same manner as the pilot study, but with fewer dilutions. Infectivity values were consistent between the experiments and were used to calculate log reduction. The posttreatment reduction of B. microti for all the experiments was more than 5 log. The data collected indicate that use of RB and UV is able to decrease the parasite load in WB units thus reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted B. microti from blood components containing B. microti-infected RBCs. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. First Zika-positive donations in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Stanek, Danielle; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Lu, Kai; Jones, Scott; Rossmann, Susan N; Pate, Lisa Lee

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in the Americas, including parts of the southern United States, and infection can be associated with serious complications, including congenital brain abnormalities. Probable transfusion transmission of ZIKV has been documented in Brazil. Preemptive testing of blood donations for ZIKV RNA was implemented in southern US states at risk of local transmission using a test approved under a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational new drug application, cobas Zika. Screening was expanded after issuance of an updated FDA guidance. Donations reactive on initial screening were further tested by nucleic acid and antibody tests to determine the donor status. Of 358,786 donations from US states screened by individual donation testing, 23 were initially reactive on cobas Zika. Fourteen of these represented probable ZIKV infection based on reactivity on additional nucleic acid testing or anti-Zika immunoglobulin M. Ten of the 14 donors reported travel to an identified ZIKV-active area within 90 days before donation (median time from end of travel to donation, 25 days; range, 6-71 days). Three donors with travel history also had a potential sexual exposure. Only seven of the 14 donations with probable ZIKV infection were detectable upon 1:6 dilution to simulate minipool testing. The estimated specificity of the cobas Zika test was 99.997%. Screening of donations for ZIKV RNA can interdict ZIKV-infected donors. Donor risk factors include travel more than 4 weeks before donation and sexual exposure. Minipool screening would have detected only 50% of the RNA-positive donations. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  5. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  6. Effectiveness of a Novel Specimen Collection System in Reducing Blood Culture Contamination Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary; Bogar, Catherine; Plante, Jessica; Rasmussen, Kristen; Winters, Sharon

    2018-04-20

    False-positive blood-culture results due to skin contamination of samples remain a persistent problem for health care providers. Our health system recognized that our rates of contamination across the 4 emergency department campuses were above the national average. A unique specimen collection system was implemented throughout the 4 emergency departments and became the mandatory way to collect adult blood cultures. The microbiology laboratory reported contamination rates weekly to manage potential problems; 7 months of data are presented here. There was an 82.8% reduction in false positives with the unique specimen collection system compared with the standard method (chi-squared test with Yates correction, 2-tailed, P = 0.0001). Based on the historical 3.52% rate of blood-culture contamination for our health facilities, 2.92 false positives were prevented for every 100 blood cultures drawn, resulting from adoption of the unique specimen collection system as the standard of care. This unique collection system can reduce the risk of blood culture contamination significantly and is designed to augment, rather than replace, the standard phlebotomy protocol already in use in most health care settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced blood flow increases the in vivo ammonium ion concentration in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, Ioannis; Gamcsik, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that pooling of ammonium in tumor tissues may be caused by its inefficient removal due to the poor vasculature commonly found in tumors. The purpose of these experiments was to validate the relationship between tumor ammonium ion concentration and tumor blood flow, and to determine whether large concentrations of ammonium ion detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are either produced within the tumor or simply imported into the tumor through the blood stream. Methods and Materials: To test this hypothesis, we reduced blood flow in subcutaneously grown Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) tumors, either by creating partial ischemia with a bolus injection of hydralazine or by occlusion with surgical sutures. 14 N and 31 P NMR spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of ammonium, and to assess the bioenergetic status of the tumors, respectively. Results: A correlation between ammonium ion concentration and (PCr(P i )) ratio was established for untreated tumors. An increase in the in vivo tumor ammonium ion concentration was observed for every tumor that experienced a reduction in blood flow caused by either hydralazine injection or suture ligation. Changes in ammonium ion concentration paralleled changes in the bioenergetics of hydralazine-treated tumors. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that a reduction in tumor blood flow is responsible for the accumulation of ammonium in tumors, and that detected ammonium originated from within the tumor

  8. Watermelon extract reduces blood pressure but does not change sympathovagal balance in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nayara Moreira Lacerda; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Toscano, Luciana Tavares; Silva, Joanna D'arc Gomes Rodrigues; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; Gonçalves, Maria Da Conceição Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that watermelon extract reduces blood pressure through vasodilation. However, those studies have not verified whether sympathetic nervous activity is influenced by watermelon extract. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with watermelon extract for 6 weeks on blood pressure and sympathovagal balance of prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Forty volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, experimental and placebo-controlled study. They consumed 6 g of watermelon extract daily (n = 20; age 48.7 ± 1.9 years, 10 men) or a placebo (n = 20; age 47.4 ± 1.2 years, 11 men) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation were measured. Watermelon extract promoted a significant reduction in systolic (137.8 ± 3.9 to 126.0 ± 4.0 mmHg, p watermelon extract reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals, but does not alter the cardiac autonomic modulation of these individuals.

  9. Implementation of a new blood cooler insert and tracking technology with educational initiatives and its effect on reducing red blood cell wastage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Emery, Wanda; Simmons, Julie H; Jones, Mary Rose; Pomper, Gregory J

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to report a successful implementation of a blood cooler insert and tracking technology with educational initiatives and its effect on reducing red blood cell (RBC) wastage. The blood bank database was used to quantify and categorize total RBC units issued in blood coolers from January 2010 to December 2015 with and without the new inserts throughout the hospital. Radiofrequency identification tags were used with special software to monitor blood cooler tracking. An educational policy on how to handle the coolers was initiated. Data were gathered from the software that provided a real-time location monitoring of the blood coolers with inserts throughout the institution. The implementation of the blood cooler with inserts and tracking device reduced mean yearly RBC wastage by fourfold from 0.64% to 0.17% between 2010 and 2015. The conserved RBCs corresponded to a total cost savings of $167,844 during the 3-year postimplementation period. The implementation of new blood cooler inserts, tracking system, and educational initiatives substantially reduced the mean annual total RBC wastage. The cost to implement this initiative may be small if there is an existing institutional infrastructure to monitor and track hospital equipment into which the blood bank intervention can be adapted when compared to the cost of blood wastage. © 2017 AABB.

  10. Minority donation in the United States: challenges and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaz, Beth H; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2010-11-01

    In the United States, blood donation rates of African-Americans are 25-50% of that of white individuals. As African-Americans make up an ever increasing and now substantial minority, and African-American recipients of blood transfusion, both specialized, such as sickle cell disease patients, and general hospitalized patients, have a better chance of receiving phenotype-matched or appropriate red blood cell units when there is a significant percentage of products in the inventory from African-American donors, it is important to understand the reason for the observed difference. Possible reasons for this discrepancy in donation rates include increased rates of donor deferral and ineligibility; increased barriers to donation, such as fear and distrust; and different marketing and education strategies. Thus, to increase the blood availability to African-American recipients, the reasons for these donation rate differences must be better understood and subsequently addressed through improved blood donor recruitment programs. The majority of African-American donor recruitment programs have focused on donating for sickle cell disease patients, particularly children, which have been of limited success. Significant improvements in African-American donor recruitment are needed to adequately meet the demand of African-American patients as well as the entire population.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of alternative changes to a national blood collection service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; De Corte, K; Cairns, J A; Zia Sadique, M; Hawkins, N; Pennington, M; Cho, G; Roberts, D J; Miflin, G; Grieve, R

    2018-05-16

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of changing opening times, introducing a donor health report and reducing the minimum inter-donation interval for donors attending static centres. Evidence is required about the effect of changes to the blood collection service on costs and the frequency of donation. This study estimated the effect of changes to the blood collection service in England on the annual number of whole-blood donations by current donors. We used donors' responses to a stated preference survey, donor registry data on donation frequency and deferral rates from the INTERVAL trial. Costs measured were those anticipated to differ between strategies. We reported the cost per additional unit of blood collected for each strategy versus current practice. Strategies with a cost per additional unit of whole blood less than £30 (an estimate of the current cost of collection) were judged likely to be cost-effective. In static donor centres, extending opening times to evenings and weekends provided an additional unit of whole blood at a cost of £23 and £29, respectively. Introducing a health report cost £130 per additional unit of blood collected. Although the strategy of reducing the minimum inter-donation interval had the lowest cost per additional unit of blood collected (£10), this increased the rate of deferrals due to low haemoglobin (Hb). The introduction of a donor health report is unlikely to provide a sufficient increase in donation frequency to justify the additional costs. A more cost-effective change is to extend opening hours for blood collection at static centres. © 2018 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. Role of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between caesarean section and intra operative and post operative bleeding is known. Post-partum hemorrhage is still a leading cause for maternal morbidity and mortality. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following lower segment caesarean section (LSCS and note any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 41 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 50 did not receive tranexamic acid. Statistical Analysis: For quantitative outcomes, the t-test was used to test for difference in the two groups. For categorical outcomes, chi square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used as applicable. Results: The patient characteristics, namely age, height, weight, gestational age and gravidity in two groups were similar which was statistically insignificant. Hemoglobin decreased slightly after birth in both groups but no statistical difference between two groups was noticed. There was no episode of thrombosis in the study. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001 and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001. However, there was no statistical difference in quantity of blood loss from time of placental delivery to end of LSCS in both groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction. Thus, drug can be used effectively in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality during LSCS.

  13. A structured blood conservation programme reduces transfusions and costs in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternström, Lisa; Hyllner, Monica; Backlund, Erika; Schersten, Henrik; Jeppsson, Anders

    2014-11-01

    Transfusions of blood products can be lifesaving, but they are also associated with considerable risks and adverse effects, including immune response and infections. In cardiac surgery, transfusions have also been associated with increased mortality. We prospectively studied the effects of a structured programme to reduce transfusions and transfusion-associated costs in cardiac surgery. The programme included: (i) education of all staff about the risks and benefits of blood transfusions; (ii) revised guidelines for transfusions; and (iii) a transfusion log where indication for transfusion, status of the patient and prescribing physician were registered. Transfusion prevalence, complications and costs for blood products were registered for all acute and elective cardiac operations during a 12-month period before (n = 1128) and after (n = 1034) the programme was started. The two time periods were compared. In addition, the prevalence of transfusions was registered for 2 more years after the programme was initiated. The first year after the programme was initiated the proportion of patients transfused with red blood cell concentrate decreased by 21.8% (from 58.2 to 45.5%, P platelets by 21.0% (from 20.5 to 16.2%, P = 0.010). Reoperations for bleeding (5.8 vs 5.0%), early complication rate and 30-day mortality (2.5 vs 2.6%) were not significantly different before and after the start date. Based on the 2009 institutional prices for red blood cell concentrate (102 €/unit), plasma (35 €/unit) and platelets (290 €/unit), the savings on blood products were €161,623 during the first 12 months after the programme was launched. The proportion of patients transfused with any blood product was 60.9% before the programme was started and 48.3, 54.0 and 50.7% 1-3 years after its start (all P conservation programme reduces transfusions and costs for blood products in cardiac surgery, without any signs of compromised medical safety. The effects of introducing such a programme

  14. Blood pressure reducing effects of Phalaris canariensis in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Clévia Santos; Carvalho, Lucimeire Nova; Pontes, Roberto Braz; Campos, Ruy Ribeiro; Ikuta, Olinda; Boim, Mirian Aparecida

    2012-02-01

    The birdseed Phalaris canariensis (Pc) is popularly used as an antihypertensive agent. The aqueous extract of Pc (AEPc) was administered in adult normotensive Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in prehypertensive young SHR (SHR(Y), 3 weeks old). Animals received AEPc (400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), by gavage) for 30 days, then groups were divided into 2 subgroups: one was treated for another 30 days and the other received water instead of AEPc for 30 days. AEPc reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) in both adult groups; however, treatment interruption was followed by a gradual return of the SBP to baseline levels. SHR(Y) became hypertensive 30 days after weaning. AEPc minimized the increase in SBP in SHR(Y), but blood pressure rose to levels similar to those in the untreated group with treatment interruption. There were no changes in renal function, diuresis, or Na(+) excretion. Pc is rich in tryptophan, and the inhibition of the metabolism of tryptophan to kynurenine, a potential vasodilator factor, prevented the blood pressure reducing effect of AEPc. Moreover, AEPc significantly reduced sympathoexcitation. Data indicate that the metabolic derivative of tryptophan, kynurenine, may be a mediator of the volume-independent antihypertensive effect of Pc, which was at least in part mediated by suppression of the sympathetic tonus.

  15. Concomitant administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil reduces oral tissue blood flow without decreasing blood pressure during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Masataka; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Okamoto, Sota; Okada, Reina; Kanbe, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Nobuyuki

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether continuous administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil—either alone or together—alters blood flow in oral tissues during sevoflurane anesthesia. Eight male tracheotomized Japanese white rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane under mechanical ventilation. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), common carotid arterial blood flow (CCBF), tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), mandibular bone marrow blood flow (BBF), masseter muscle blood flow (MBF), upper alveolar tissue blood flow (UBF), and lower alveolar tissue blood flow (LBF) were recorded in the absence of all test agents and after administration of the test agents (50 % nitrous oxide, 0.4 μg/kg/min remifentanil, and their combination) for 20 min. Nitrous oxide increased SBP, DBP, MAP, CCBF, BBF, MBF, UBF, and LBF relative to baseline values but did not affect HR or TMBF. Remifentanil decreased all hemodynamic variables except DBP. Combined administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil recovered SBP, DBP, MAP, and CCBF to baseline levels, but HR and oral tissue blood flow remained lower than control values. Our findings suggest that concomitant administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil reduces blood flow in oral tissues without decreasing blood pressure during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

  16. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence of human herpes virus-6 and human cytomegalovirus infections in donated bone marrow and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad-Behbahani A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the incidence of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections that are potentially transmitted to haematopoietic stem cells (HSC transplant recipients via bone marrow (BM or umbilical cord blood (UCB. Bone marrow progenitor cells were collected from 30 allogenic BM donors. UCB HSC were collected from 34 subjects. The extracted DNA was then processed using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR technique. HCMV and HHV-6 serological status were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Nested PCR identified HCMV in 22 (73% of 30 samples of BM progenitor cells but in only eight (23.5% of 34 samples of UBC HSC ( P = 0.001. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 11 (36.6% of 30 BM progenitor cells and in only one (2.9% of 34 UBC cells ( P = 0.002. Both HHV-6 and HCMV infections were determined in nine (26.5% of 34 bone marrow samples. The results indicate that, the risk of HCMV and HHV-6 via BM progenitor cells is higher than transmission by UCB cells ( P= 0.04.

  18. Adverse reactions in voluntary whole blood donors: Experience at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole blood donation, generally considered as a safe procedure, may be sometimes associated with adverse reactions and injuries of variable severity during or after the blood donation process. There are few reports of adverse events related to blood donation in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  19. Surgical treatment reduces blood pressure in children with unilateral congenital hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Nevéus, Tryggve; Stenberg, Arne; Karanikas, Birgitta; Persson, A Erik G; Carlström, Mattias; Wåhlin, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Renal disorders can cause hypertension, but less is known about the influence of hydronephrosis on blood pressure. Hydronephrosis due to pelvo-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) is a fairly common condition (incidence in newborns of 0.5-1%). Although hypertensive effects of hydronephrosis have been suggested, this has not been substantiated by prospective studies in humans [1-3]. Experimental studies with PUJO have shown that animals with induced hydronephrosis develop salt-sensitive hypertension, which strongly correlate to the degree of obstruction [4-7]. Moreover, relief of the obstruction normalized blood pressure [8]. In this first prospective study our aim was to study the blood pressure pattern in pediatric patients with hydronephrosis before and after surgical correction of the ureteral obstruction. Specifically, we investigated if preoperative blood pressure is reduced after surgery and if split renal function and renographic excretion curves provide any prognostic information. Twelve patients with unilateral congenital hydronephrosis were included in this prospective study. Ambulatory blood pressure (24 h) was measured preoperatively and six months after surgery. Preoperative evaluations of bilateral renal function by Tc99m-MAG3 scintigraphy, and renography curves, classified according to O'Reilly, were also performed. As shown in the summary figure, postoperative systolic (103 ± 2 mmHg) and diastolic (62 ± 2 mmHg) blood pressure were significantly lower than those obtained preoperatively (110 ± 4 and 69 ± 2 mmHg, respectively), whereas no changes in circadian variation or pulse pressure were observed. Renal functional share of the hydronephrotic kidney ranged from 11 to 55%. There was no correlation between the degree of renal function impairment and the preoperative excretory pattern, or between the preoperative excretory pattern and the blood pressure reduction postoperatively. However, preoperative MAG3 function of the affected kidney correlated

  20. Crowdfunding as 'Donations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    For a wide class of crowdfunding approaches, we argue that the reward structure (for funders) is closer to that of charitable donations to public goods than it is to traditional entrepreneurial finance. Many features of the design of crowdfunding platforms can therefore be understood as attempts...... to deal with attendant “free-rider” problems in motivating contributions. Reviewing institutional features of today’s crowdfunding, we clarify that there are often limits in the extent to which tangible rewards can be used to motivate contributions. Drawing on analogies with charitable donations, we...... theorize that intangible sources of motivation — (i) direct psychological rewards, (ii) reciprocity and (iii) social interactions — can play a role in entrepreneurial crowdfunding. In our detailed empirical analysis of a representative project we find abundant evidence consistent with this characterization...

  1. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry reduces the need for blood sampling in neonates with visible jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S; Chawla, D; Agarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K; Bhutani, V K

    2009-12-01

    We determined usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubinometry to decrease the need for blood sampling to assay serum total bilirubin (STB) in the management of jaundiced healthy Indian neonates. Newborns, > or =35 weeks' gestation, with clinical evidence of jaundice were enrolled in an institutional approved randomized clinical trial. The severity of hyperbilirubinaemia was determined by two non-invasive methods: i) protocol-based visual assessment of bilirubin (VaB) and ii) transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) determination (BiliCheck). By a random allocation, either method was used to decide the need for blood sampling, which was defined to be present if assessed STB by allocated method exceeded 80% of hour-specific threshold values for phototherapy (2004 AAP Guidelines). A total of 617 neonates were randomized to either TcB (n = 314) or VaB (n = 303) groups with comparable gestation, birth weight and postnatal age. Need for blood sampling to assay STB was 34% lower (95% CI: 10% to 51%) in the TcB group compared with VaB group (17.5% vs 26.4% assessments; risk difference: -8.9%, 95% CI: -2.4% to -15.4%; p = 0.008). Routine use of transcutaneous bilirubinometry compared with systematic visual assessment of bilirubin significantly reduced the need for blood sampling to assay STB in jaundiced term and late-preterm neonates. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00653874).

  2. Wolbachia infection reduces blood-feeding success in the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Andrew P; Moreira, Luciano A; O'Neill, Scott L; McGraw, Elizabeth A

    2009-09-15

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop) as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a "bendy" proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.

  3. Wolbachia infection reduces blood-feeding success in the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Turley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a "bendy" proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.

  4. Cord Blood and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... donate their baby’s umbilical cord blood to a public cord blood bank. We have more than 249,000 cord blood ... stored as a cord blood unit at a public cord blood bank for future use. It can then be listed ...

  5. Attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from the University Hospital of Rabat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayou, Kaoutar; Kouam, Nada; Miara, H; Raoundi, O; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Benamar, Loubna; Bayahia, Rabiaa; Rhou, Hakima

    2016-01-01

    The medical staff could play a major role in promoting for organ donation. The aim of our study was to assess the attitudes of the medical staff toward organ donation. It is a prospective study conducted over a period of six months. A questionnaire was distributed and explained to the medical staff in our institute. Fifteen questions were designed to include four main themes: sociodemographic information, attitude toward organ donation, perceived knowledge about organ donation, and reasons for refusal or acceptance of organ donation. Among the 245 respondents, 36.3% had prior knowledge about organ transplantation, 31.8% knew about the law of organ donation, 43.2% had already donated blood sometimes, 65.7% expressed their consent to organ donation during their lifetime, and 82.8% expressed their agreement to donation after their death. The grounds for refusal were generally: a misunderstanding of risks, desire for respect of corpse. The religious and the ethical motive were present too as a ground for decision making. The medical staff is the key for organ donation. To promote organ transplantation, personnel should be well informed about ethical, moral, and religious dimensions of organ donation and transplantation.

  6. Brazilian blood donation eligibility criteria for dermatologic patients Critérios brasileiros de elegibilidade à doação de sangue para pacientes dermatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo Wambier

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A focused and commented review on the impact of dermatologic diseases and interventions in the solidary act of donating blood is presented to dermatologists to better advise their patients. This is a review of current Brazilian technical regulations on hemotherapeutic procedures as determined by Ministerial Directive #1353/2011 by the Ministry of Health and current internal regulations of the Hemotherapy Center of Ribeirão Preto, a regional reference center in hemotherapeutic procedures. Criteria for permanent inaptitude: autoimmune diseases (>1 organ involved, personal history of cancer other than basal cell carcinoma, severe atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, pemphigus foliaceus, porphyrias, filariasis, leprosy, extra pulmonary tuberculosis or paracoccidioidomycosis, and previous use of etretinate. Drugs that impose temporary ineligibility: other systemic retinoids, systemic corticosteroids, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, vaccines, methotrexate, beta-blockers, minoxidil, anti-epileptic, and anti-psychotic drugs. Other conditions that impose temporary ineligibility: occupational accident with biologic material, piercing, tattoo, sexually transmitted diseases, herpes, and bacterial infections, among others. Discussion: Thalidomide is currently missing in the teratogenic drugs list. Although finasteride was previously considered a drug that imposed permanent inaptitude, according to its short halflife current restriction of 1 month is still too long. Dermatologists should be able to advise their patients about proper timing to donate blood, and discuss the impact of drug withdrawal on treatment outcomes and to respect the designated washout periods.Uma revisão centrada no impacto de doenças e intervenções dermatológicas no ato solidário de doar sangue é apresentada aos dermatologistas para melhor aconselhamento dos seus pacientes. Esta é uma revisão das atuais normas técnicas brasileiras sobre procedimentos hemoterápicos conforme

  7. [Living kidney donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Motivations for Deceased Organ Donation Among Volunteers in China: A Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhike; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Liu, Jia

    2016-06-09

    BACKGROUND To align with guiding principles on human organ and tissue transplantation published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) launched a new nationwide organ donation program in 2010 to recruit organ donation volunteers. Despite severe shortage of donated organs, there is a very low rate of volunteering for organ donation among the Chinese population (only 0.03 donors per million population) in the national program. Motivating organ donation is the key to the success of organ transplantation in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Semi-structured 45- to 60-min interviews were conducted among 34 volunteers. Data analysis was performed with Nvivo 8.0 software. RESULTS Six motivations for organ donation were identified: helping others/altruism, fulfilling long-cherished wishes, reducing the burdens, making the best use of everything, giving back to society, and life extension. Factors affecting the motivation of organ donation among volunteers in China included traditional values, personal experiences, role model effect, family support, and problems in the donation system. Possible strategies to improve organ donation included fostering a scientific concept of the body and death, focusing donation promotion efforts on certain groups, and simplifying the process of organ donation. CONCLUSIONS There are multiple reasons for Chinese people to register for organ donation, with helping others as the central motivation.

  9. Topical terlipressin (Glypressin) gel reduces nasal mucosal blood flow but leaves ongoing nose-bleeding unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, M; Pipkorn, U

    1990-01-01

    Nasal bleeding where the lesion cannot clearly be localized is today usually treated with different forms of nasal packings which are traumatizing to the nasal mucosa and often causes the patient discomfort. In an attempt to develop a more convenient form of treatment the effect of two vasoconstrictor gels on nasal mucosal blood flow was evaluated. Terlipressin gel was shown to reduce nasal blood flow in a dose-dependent way. Therefore, this gel was chosen in a double-blind comparison with placebo in the treatment of 44 patients with posterior epistaxis. Although 50% of the patients did stop bleeding after topical gel administration into the nose there was no statistically significant difference in effect between those who received terlipressin gel and those who received placebo gel. We cannot disregard the fact, however, that the gel in itself has a beneficial effect on nose-bleeding.

  10. A population-based longitudinal study on the implications of demographics on future blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinacher, Andreas; Weitmann, Kerstin; Lebsa, Anne; Alpen, Ulf; Gloger, Doris; Stangenberg, Wolfgang; Kiefel, Volker; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Changes in demographics with increases in older age groups and decreases in younger age groups imply an increased demand for blood transfusions paralleled by a decrease in the population eligible for blood donation. However, more restrictive transfusion triggers and the patient blood management initiative also reduce the demand for red blood cells (RBCs). Eastern Germany is a model region for the impact of demographic changes, which manifest in this region approximately 10 years earlier than in other regions due to the 50% birth rate decline after 1989. We report the 2010 longitudinal 5-year follow-up of the study assessing all whole blood donations and RBC transfusions in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. We compared the projections that were made 5 years ago with: 1) the current age structure of the blood donor and transfusion recipient populations and 2) its impact on blood demand and blood donation numbers in specific age groups. Transfusion rates were lower and blood donation rates were higher than predicted in 2005. Although transfusion rates/1000 decreased in nearly all age groups, the overall annual transfusion rate increased to 66.4 RBC units/1000 (in 2005, 62.2/1000) due to the absolute increase in the elderly population. Despite a 7.4% decline in the population 18 to 65 years of age, whole blood donations increased by 11.7% between 2005 and 2010, but thereafter decreased by 21% (first-time donors by 39.4%), reflecting the effect of the post-1990 birth rate decline on the donor population. Changes in demography and medical practice impact the delicate balance between available blood supply and potential future transfusion needs. In times of pronounced demographic changes, regular monitoring of the blood demand and age structure of blood recipients and donors is required to allow strategic planning to prevent blood shortages or overproduction. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8; sedentary diabetic (n = 8; and trained diabetic (n = 8. Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2% and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3% without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  12. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão [Departamento de Educação Física - UFS, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  13. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2014-01-01

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats

  14. Placental Growth Factor Reduces Blood Pressure in a Uteroplacental Ischemia Model of Preeclampsia in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Angela; Yeung, Kristen R; Lim, Shirlene M; Sunderland, Neroli; Heffernan, Scott; Thompson, John F; Iliopoulos, Jim; Killingsworth, Murray C; Yong, Jim; Xu, Bei; Ogle, Robert F; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    An imbalance in the angiogenesis axis during pregnancy manifests as clinical preeclampsia because of endothelial dysfunction. Circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT-1) increases and placental growth factor (PlGF) reduces before and during disease. We investigated the clinical and biochemical effects of replenishing the reduced circulating PlGF with recombinant human PlGF (rhPlGF) and thus restoring the angiogenic balance. Hypertensive proteinuria was induced in a nonhuman primate (Papio hamadryas) by uterine artery ligation at 136 days gestation (of a 182-day pregnancy). Two weeks after uteroplacental ischemia, rhPlGF (rhPlGF, n=3) or normal saline (control, n=4) was administered by subcutaneous injection (100 μg/kg per day) for 5 days. Blood pressure was monitored by intra-arterial radiotelemetry and sFLT-1 and PlGF by ELISA. Uteroplacental ischemia resulted in experimental preeclampsia evidenced by increased blood pressure, proteinuria, and endotheliosis on renal biopsy and elevated sFLT-1. PlGF significantly reduced after uteroplacental ischemia. rhPlGF reduced systolic blood pressure in the treated group (-5.2±0.8 mm Hg; from 132.6±6.6 mm Hg to 124.1±7.6 mm Hg) compared with an increase in systolic blood pressure in controls (6.5±3 mm Hg; from 131.3±1.5 mm Hg to 138.6±1.5 mm Hg). Proteinuria reduced in the treated group (-72.7±55.7 mg/mmol) but increased in the control group. Circulating levels of total sFLT-1 were not affected by the administration of PlGF; however, a reduction in placental sFLT-1 mRNA expression was demonstrated. There was no significant difference between the weights or lengths of the neonates in the rhPlGF or control group; however, this study was not designed to assess fetal safety or outcomes. Increasing circulating PlGF by the administration of rhPlGF improves clinical parameters in a primate animal model of experimental preeclampsia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Using the area under the curve to reduce measurement error in predicting young adult blood pressure from childhood measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nancy R; Rosner, Bernard A; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2004-11-30

    Tracking correlations of blood pressure, particularly childhood measures, may be attenuated by within-person variability. Combining multiple measurements can reduce this error substantially. The area under the curve (AUC) computed from longitudinal growth curve models can be used to improve the prediction of young adult blood pressure from childhood measures. Quadratic random-effects models over unequally spaced repeated measures were used to compute the area under the curve separately within the age periods 5-14 and 20-34 years in the Bogalusa Heart Study. This method adjusts for the uneven age distribution and captures the underlying or average blood pressure, leading to improved estimates of correlation and risk prediction. Tracking correlations were computed by race and gender, and were approximately 0.6 for systolic, 0.5-0.6 for K4 diastolic, and 0.4-0.6 for K5 diastolic blood pressure. The AUC can also be used to regress young adult blood pressure on childhood blood pressure and childhood and young adult body mass index (BMI). In these data, while childhood blood pressure and young adult BMI were generally directly predictive of young adult blood pressure, childhood BMI was negatively correlated with young adult blood pressure when childhood blood pressure was in the model. In addition, racial differences in young adult blood pressure were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for childhood blood pressure, childhood BMI, and young adult BMI, suggesting that other genetic or lifestyle factors contribute to this difference. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Modification method to reduce the impact of blood vessel on noncontact discrimination of human blood based on ;M+N; theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Ding, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Wang, Yimin; Guo, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Noncontact discriminating human blood is significantly crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. We had already demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize noncontact human blood discrimination. However, the circulated blood vessels may be produced with different materials. The use of various kinds of blood tubes may have a negative effect on the discrimination, based on ;M+N; theory (Li et al., 2016). In this research, we explored the impact of different material of blood vessels, such as glass tube and plastic tube, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. Furthermore, we searched for the modification method to reduce the influence from the blood tubes. Our work indicated that generalized diffuse reflectance method can greatly improve the discrimination accuracy. This research can greatly facilitate the application of noncontact discrimination method based on visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

  17. Blood conservation strategies reduce the need for transfusions in ascending and aortic arch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M W A; Losenno, K L; Moore, K; Berta, D; Hewitt, J; Ralley, F

    2013-07-01

    Ascending and aortic arch surgery is associated with higher levels of blood loss and subsequent need for allogeneic blood transfusions. We hypothesized that aggressive, comprehensive blood conservation strategies may limit the need for transfusions and, subsequently, improve postoperative outcomes. Over a five-year period, 189 patients underwent proximal aortic surgery at our institution. Fifty-one patients underwent surgery using a comprehensive blood conservation strategy (BCS), including preoperative hemoglobin optimization, antifibrinolytic therapy, intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution, cell salvage and meticulous surgical technique. The remaining 138 patients underwent surgery using conventional techniques (CONV). Patients in the BCS group required fewer transfusions during their hospital stay compared to the conventional group (56.9% vs. 72.5%, p=0.041). When examining elective cases, this trend widens, with 40.0% of BCS patients requiring any transfusions compared to 72.9% patients in the conventional group (p=0.001). Red cell (47.1% vs. 62.3%, p=0.06), plasma (43.1% vs. 61.6%, p=0.02) and platelets (27.5% vs. 47.8%, p=0.01) were also less frequently required in the BCS group than the conventional group, respectively. When a transfusion was required, patients in the BCS group received significantly fewer units of red blood cells (2.8 ± 7.0 units) than the conventional group (5.81 ± 9.5 units; p=0.039). Mortality was similar in both groups (BCS 7.8%, conventional 10.9%, p=0.54); however, there was significantly less morbidity in the BCS group, using a composite of any of 10 major postoperative complications (23.5% vs. 39.1%; p=0.046). Median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay were 2 and 7 days in the BCS group and 2 and 8 days in the CONV group (p=0.15), respectively. The aggressive use of a comprehensive blood conservation strategy in ascending and aortic arch surgery can significantly reduce the need for blood transfusions

  18. Hypothermia reduces cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in newborn pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busija, D.W.; Leffler, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined effects of hypothermia on cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in anesthetized, newborn pigs (1-4 days old). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined with 15-μm radioactive microspheres. Regional CBF ranged from 44 to 66 ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , and cerebral metabolic rate was 1.94 ± 0.23 ml O 2 ·100 g -1 ·min -1 during normothermia (39 degree C). Reduction of rectal temperature to 34-35 degree C decreased CBF and cerebral metabolic rate 40-50%. In another group of piglets, they examined responsiveness of the cerebral circulation to arterial hypercapnia during hypothermia. Although absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic CBF were reduced by hypothermia and absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic cerebrovascular resistance were increased, the percentage changes from control in these variables during hypercapnia were similar during normothermia and hypothermia. In another group of animals that were maintained normothermic and exposed to two episodes of hypercapnia, there was no attenuation of cerebrovascular dilation during the second episode. They conclude that hypothermia reduces CBF secondarily to a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate and that percent dilator responsiveness to arterial hypercapnia is unaltered when body temperature is reduced

  19. [Factor XIII-guided treatment algorithm reduces blood transfusion in burn surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, João Miguel Gonçalves Valadares de Morais; Alves, Joana; Conde, Patrícia; Xambre, Fátima; Almeida, Emanuel; Marques, Céline; Luís, Mariana; Godinho, Ana Maria Mano Garção; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    Major burn surgery causes large hemorrhage and coagulation dysfunction. Treatment algorithms guided by ROTEM ® and factor VIIa reduce the need for blood products, but there is no evidence regarding factor XIII. Factor XIII deficiency changes clot stability and decreases wound healing. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of factor XIII correction and its repercussion on transfusion requirements in burn surgery. Randomized retrospective study with 40 patients undergoing surgery at the Burn Unit, allocated into Group A those with factor XIII assessment (n = 20), and Group B, those without assessment (n = 20). Erythrocyte transfusion was guided by a hemoglobin trigger of 10g.dL -1 and the other blood products by routine coagulation and ROTEM ® tests. Analysis of blood product consumption included units of erythrocytes, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and fibrinogen. The coagulation biomarker analysis compared the pre- and post-operative values. Group A (with factor XIII study) and Group B had identical total body surface area burned. All patients in Group A had a preoperative factor XIII deficiency, whose correction significantly reduced units of erythrocyte concentrate transfusion (1.95 vs. 4.05, p = 0.001). Pre- and post-operative coagulation biomarkers were similar between groups, revealing that routine coagulation tests did not identify factor XIII deficiency. There were no recorded thromboembolic events. Correction of factor XIII deficiency in burn surgery proved to be safe and effective for reducing perioperative transfusion of erythrocyte units. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Mozart, but not the Beatles, reduces systolic blood pressure in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhlke, Luiza Carolina; Patrício, Marcelo Coelho; Moreira, Daniel Medeiros

    2015-12-01

    Music reduces systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) in various clinical situations, but it is unclear whether these changes occur in post-infarction patients. The aim is to evaluate the effects of music on patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated patients with MI and we measured SBP, DBP, HR and double product (DP) two times before the intervention and one time every fifteen minutes with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. We divided the patients into 3 groups: a group listening to music by Mozart; another listening to a Beatles collection and a third one listening to the radio news. Outcomes were the change in mean SBP, DBP, HR and DP with intervention. We enrolled 60 patients (20 in each group). SBP was significantly reduced in the Mozart group (variation of –7.2 ± 8.5 mmHg) compared to the Beatles group (–1.3 ± 6.2 mmHg) (P = 0.021) and the radio news group (0.6 ± 8.7 mmHg) (P = 0.003). DP was significantly reduced in the Mozart group compared with the News group (–668.5 ± 773.2 vs 31.6 ± 722.1 mmHg) (P = 0.006). There were no differences in DBP and HR. Patients with MI who listened Mozart had a reduction in SBP and DP compared to those who listened to the Beatles or the news.

  1. Religious perspectives on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, J

    1999-11-01

    A donor's or family's religious beliefs are to be ascertained in discussions about organ donation. The positions of the major faith groups about donation are reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large majority of faiths take a positive stance toward donation. Other factors such as the emotional response, the cultural values, and the spiritual issues may be even more compelling for family members than religious beliefs. Conflicts between one's personal beliefs and the position of one's faith group about donation are to be assessed and processed.

  2. A novel redox-active metalloporphyrin reduces reactive oxygen species and inflammatory markers but does not improve marginal mass engraftment in a murine donation after circulatory death islet transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Antonio; Pepper, Andrew R; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Pawlick, Rena; Abualhassan, Nasser; Crapo, James D; Piganelli, Jon D; Shapiro, A M James

    2016-07-03

    Islet transplantation is a highly effective treatment for stabilizing glycemic control for select patients with type-1 diabetes. Despite improvements to clinical transplantation, single-donor transplant success has been hard to achieve routinely, necessitating increasing demands on viable organ availability. Donation after circulatory death (DCD) may be an alternative option to increase organ availability however, these organs tend to be more compromised. The use of metalloporphyrin anti-inflammatory and antioxidant (MnP) compounds previously demonstrated improved in vivo islet function in preclinical islet transplantation. However, the administration of MnP (BMX-001) in a DCD islet isolation and transplantation model has yet to be established. In this study, murine donors were subjected to a 15-min warm ischemic (WI) period prior to isolation and culture with or without MnP. Subsequent to one-hour culture, islets were assessed for in vitro viability and in vivo function. A 15-minute WI period significantly reduced islet yield, regardless of MnP-treatment relative to yields from standard isolation. MnP-treated islets did not improve islet viability compared to DCD islets alone. MnP-treatment did significantly reduce the presence of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p islets (200 islets) transplanted under the renal capsule exhibited similar in vivo outcomes regardless of WI or MnP-treatment. DCD islet grafts harvested 7 d post-transplant exhibited sustained TNF-α and IL-10, while MnP-treated islet-bearing grafts demonstrated reduced IL-10 levels. Taken together, 15-minute WI in murine islet isolation significantly impairs islet yield. DCD islets do indeed demonstrate in vivo function, though MnP therapy was unable to improve viability and engraftment outcomes.

  3. Evidence-based blood pressure reducing actions of electroacupuncture: mechanisms and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C

    2017-10-25

    Hypertension is a serious world-wide health problem as it increases cardiovascular atherosclerotic risk, stroke and attending morbidity and mortality. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures and particularly systolic pressure increase with aging. The downsides from pharmacological therapy have led to consideration of additional treatments, including acupuncture, which evokes endogenous neural-hormonal systems to lower blood pressure. Using basic science studies to guide clinical approaches to research, it is apparent that low frequency, low intensity electroacupuncture reduces sympathetic outflow in approximately 70% of patients with mild to moderate hypertension who are off antihypertensive drugs. Systolic and, to a lesser extent, diastolic arterial blood pressures can be lowered over two to four weeks for prolonged periods, lasting as long as one month, after cessation of an eight weeks of once weekly stimulation. Many questions about long-term therapy, treatment of resistant patients and efficacy in patients on medication remain to be studied. Current data, however, suggest that there may be a role of acupuncture in treatment of hypertension.

  4. Blood-derived small Dot cells reduce scar in wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Wuyi; Li Shaowei; Longaker, Michael T.; Lorenz, H. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Wounds in fetal skin heal without scar, however the mechanism is unknown. We identified a novel group of E-cadherin positive cells in the blood of fetal and adult mice and named them 'Dot cells'. The percentage of Dot cells in E16.5 fetal mice blood is more than twenty times higher compared to adult blood. Dot cells also express integrin β1, CD184, CD34, CD13 low and Sca1 low , but not CD45, CD44, and CD117. Dot cells have a tiny dot shape between 1 and 7 μm diameters with fast proliferation in vitro. Most of the Dot cells remain positive for E-cadherin and integrin β1 after one month in culture. Transplantation of Dot cells to adult mice heals skin wounds with less scar due to reduced smooth muscle actin and collagen expression in the repair tissue. Tracking GFP-positive Dot cells demonstrates that Dot cells migrate to wounds and differentiate into dermal cells, which also express strongly to FGF-2, and later lose their GFP expression. Our results indicate that Dot cells are a group of previously unidentified cells that have strong wound healing effect. The mechanism of scarless wound healing in fetal skin is due to the presence of a large number of Dot cells

  5. DOES TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehr-Aein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid is now used on a routine basis for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. We assessed the hemostatic effects of tranexamic acid to decrease bleeding tendency and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. A total of 66 patients were enrolled to elective OPCAB in a double-blind, prospective randomized study. Of these, 33 patients received tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg before the infusion of heparin and 15 mg/kg after protamin infusion, and 33 patients received only saline. Preoperative hematologic variables, postoperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusions were considered. D-dimer plasma levels were also evaluated to monitor the activation of fibrinolysis. Postoperative bleeding was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group compared with the control group (320 ± 38 mL vs. 480 ± 75 mL at 12 hour, P < 0.001. The tranexamic acid group had significantly lesser need for allogeneic blood products (0.46 units/patients vs. 0.94 units/patients, P < 0.001. They had also lower post-operative D-dimer plasma levels. No postoperative thrombotic complications were observed in either group. The defective hemostasis occurs even in the OPCABG. Tranexamic acid effectively reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood products after OPCAB is decreased.

  6. Novel method to leukoreduce murine blood for transfusion: how to reduce animal usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dania; Büssow, Julian; Meybohm, Patrick; Zacharowski, Kai; Jennewein, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Basic research on the pathomechanisms of transfusion-related adverse events depends on murine transfusion models, in which leukoreduction (LR) is a prevalent standard. The commonly used neonatal LR filter (LRF) is associated with considerable animal numbers. A more efficient method would help support the guiding principles of "replacement, reduction, refinement" (3Rs). Blood from C57BL/6 and C57BL/6-Tg(UBC-GFP)30Scha/J mice was leukoreduced using (1) a neonatal LRF, (2) a syringe LRF, or (3) CD45 microbeads. Product quality was assessed according to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards. White blood cell numbers were analyzed by flow cytometry; hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit were measured and in vivo posttransfusion recoveries were determined after 2 weeks of storage. Using the neonatal filter, a LR of 99.56% was achieved with wastage of 12.4 mL in comparison to 99.68% and 1-mL hold-up volume with the syringe filter and 99.11 ± 0.24% LR and 0.1-mL wastage using microbeads. All techniques achieved FDA quality standards, apart from posttransfusion recovery rate, which was only reached by the microbeads-based technique. LR with CD45 microbeads not only reduces animal usage but also provides a more efficacious method regarding posttransfusion red blood cell recovery and, hence, provides a promising alternative to commonly used methods. © 2015 AABB.

  7. Increased myocardial infarct size because of reduced coronary collateral blood flow in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, N.; Knight, D.R.; Shen, Y.T.; Nejima, J.; Cohen, M.V.; Thomas, J.X. Jr.; Vatner, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of permanent left circumflex coronary artery occlusion (CAO) were examined in conscious purebred beagles and mongrel dogs, instrumented with miniature left ventricular (LV) pressure gauges, wall thickness gauges in the ischemic zone, catheters in left atrium and aorta, and snares around the left circumflex coronary artery. Blood flow was measured using the radioactive microsphere technique before CAO and at 5 min, 1, 3, and 24 h after CAO. Although CAO reduced myocardial blood flow similarly in beagles and mongrels, significantly less (P less than 0.05) recovery of myocardial blood flow was observed over the following 24-h period in beagles. Infarct size, as determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and expressed as percentage of area at risk, was larger (P less than 0.05) in beagles (62.0 ± 5.1%) than mongrels (42.5 ± 4.2%). Thus beagles do not tolerate ischemia as well as mongrel dogs and possess fewer functional coronary collaterals resulting in larger infarcts after CAO

  8. Reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide in the blood of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhen-Hua; Tian, Guo-Li; Huang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Min; Xu, Hong-Ping

    2017-07-20

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly detected during mass screening for neonatal disease. We developed a method to measure reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for detecting G6PD deficiency. The concentration of GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio in newborn dry-blood-spot (DBS) screening and in blood plus sodium citrate for test confirmation were examined by MS/MS using labeled glycine as an internal standard. G6PD-deficient newborns had a lower GSH content (242.9 ± 15.9 μmol/L)and GSH/GSSG ratio (14.9 ± 7.2) than neonatal controls (370.0 ± 53.2 μmol/L and 46.7 ± 19.6, respectively). Although the results showed a significance of P blood measured using MS/MS on the first day of sample preparation are consistent with G6PD activity and are helpful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency.

  9. Psychological factors related to donation behaviour among Chinese adults: results from a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Wang, T; Fu, Q

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the psychological factors currently influencing blood donation in China. This study investigated the structure of psychological factors and their correlation with donation behaviour of adults in a transforming city in China over a 6-month period. Participants were recruited in Nanjing from May 2013 to April 2014. Preliminary focus group interviews with 102 participants were conducted to generate new items for a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by 300 participants, and responses were subjected to factor analysis. We confirmed the resulting factorial structure with 861 respondents and examined the associations between these factors and donation behaviour during the next 6 months using structural equation modelling. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling of the data supported an extended TPB model with self-reported past donation behaviour as a covariate. After controlling for past donation behaviour, attitudes towards blood donation (β = 0·288), subjective norm (β = 0·149), self-efficacy (β = 0·199), trust in third-party health professionals (β = 0·237), mistrust towards blood collection agencies (BCAs) (β = -0·085) and traditional Chinese beliefs (β = -0·046) were significantly related to donation intention, whilst donation intention was positively (β = 0·212) associated with donation behaviour. These findings confirm that psychological factors such as attitudes are predictors of blood donation. Recruitment efforts using public information campaigns and interpersonal communications should focus on strengthening positive attitudes, increasing trust in third-party health professionals, elevating self-efficacy, changing traditional Chinese beliefs and relieving mistrust in blood collection agencies (BCAs). © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  11. Reduced hypothalamic blood flow after radiation treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer: SPECT studies in 34 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieng, P.U.; Huang, T.S.; Chang, C.C.; Chong, P.N.; Tien, R.D.; Su, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effect of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic blood flow, the authors performed 44 regional cerebral blood flow studies with 99mTc hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) on four normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologically proved nasopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three men and 15 women, 30-65 years old, were divided into four study groups: group 1 served as a control and consisted of four normal volunteers and six patients studied prior to cranial irradiation; group 2 patients had cranial irradiation half a year before the SPECT study (n = 12, one from group 1); group 3 patients were irradiated 1 year before the study (n = 13, three from group 1 and two from group 2); and group 4 patients were irradiated at least 5 years before SPECT imaging (n = 9). Six patients were studied twice. Quantification of the 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies was done separately by three radiologists to obtain the hypothalamus/occipital (H/O) and hypothalamus/parasagittal (H/P) ratios. Endocrinologic studies were performed in all cases and the hypothalamus-thyrotroph-thyroid, hypothalamus-gonadotroph-testis (ovary), hypothalamus-lactotroph, hypothalamus-somatotroph, and hypothalamus-corticotroph-adrenal axes were evaluated separately. They determined that regional hypothalamic blood flow was reduced after cranial irradiation in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The H/O ratio of groups 3 and 4 did not differ from that of group 2 (one-half year after cranial irradiation). The H/O ratio was significantly reduced 6 months and 1 year after cranial irradiation; mean ± SD = 0.5801 ± 0.0829 (p less than .025), 0.5725 ± 0.0791 (p less than .01) versus 0.6477 ± 0.0458 before cranial irradiation, respectively

  12. Understanding non-return after a temporary deferral from giving blood: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillgrove Tessa L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons why deferral from blood donation reduces the likelihood of future return remain unclear. This aim of this study was to investigate possible reasons why deferral has such a dramatic impact on donation patterns. Methods Qualitative methods were used to explore donors’ motivations to give blood, their experiences of temporary deferral, and their intentions to return once eligible. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 donors in the two weeks following a temporary deferral due to a low haemoglobin concentration. The Framework approach was used to analyse data and identify themes associated with prompt return, ascertained from Blood Service records. Results We found that, predominantly, individuals give blood because it represents an easy and convenient way to help others, and provides personal rewards, such as enhancing positive self-concepts and valuable knowledge about health. Deferral disrupts the habit of regular donation, and additionally, introduces an element of practical and emotional hassle to what is generally seen as an undemanding activity. Return after deferral was related to four aspects of a person and their context: an individual’s other obligations, especially parenting; whether donation arrangements were facilitated by a range of supports; the presence of a strong “blood donor” identity; and whether deferral left the donor feeling valued and appreciated. Conclusions Aspects of the deferral process need to be improved to ensure individuals feel valued, and continued attention should be given to the convenience of donation, especially for those with competing obligations.

  13. [Guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.; Olthuis, G.J.; Siebelink, M.; Gerritsen, R; Heurn, E. van

    2017-01-01

    - The multidisciplinary guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia' was published in March 2017 at request of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport.- This guideline provides recommendations for the organisation and implementation of a request to donate organs expressed by a patient who asks

  14. Attitude toward living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was

  15. The new Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (SCANDAT2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus; Vasan, Senthil K

    2015-01-01

    : It is possible to create a binational, nationwide database with almost 50 years of follow-up of blood donors and transfused patients for a range of health outcomes. We aim to use this database for further studies of donor health, transfusion-associated risks, and transfusion-transmitted disease....... AND METHODS: We have previously created the anonymized Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database, containing data on blood donors, blood transfusions, and transfused patients, with complete follow-up of donors and patients for a range of health outcomes. Here we describe the re......-creation of SCANDAT with updated, identifiable data. We collected computerized data on blood donations and transfusions from blood banks covering all of Sweden and Denmark. After data cleaning, two structurally identical databases were created and the entire database was linked with nationwide health outcomes...

  16. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...... = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  17. Maca reduces blood pressure and depression, in a pilot study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, L; Law, C; Lai, B; Chung, T; Nelson, K; Day, S; Apostolopoulos, V; Haines, C

    2015-02-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been used for centuries for its fertility-enhancing and aphrodisiac properties. In an Australian study, Maca improved anxiety and depressive scores. The effects of Maca on hormones, lipids, glucose, serum cytokines, blood pressure, menopausal symptoms and general well-being in Chinese postmenopausal women were evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in 29 postmenopausal Hong Kong Chinese women. They received 3.3 g/day of Maca or placebo for 6 weeks each, in either order, over 12 weeks. At baseline, week 6 and week 12, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), full lipid profiles, glucose and serum cytokines were measured. The Greene Climacteric, SF-36 Version 2, Women's Health Questionnaire and Utian Quality of Life Scales were used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms and health-related quality of life. There were no differences in estradiol, FSH, TSH, SHBG, glucose, lipid profiles and serum cytokines amongst those who received Maca as compared to the placebo group; however, significant decreases in diastolic blood pressure and depression were apparent after Maca treatment. Maca did not exert hormonal or immune biological action in the small cohort of patients studied; however, it appeared to reduce symptoms of depression and improve diastolic blood pressure in Chinese postmenopausal women. Although results are comparable to previous similar published studies in postmenopausal women, there might be a cultural difference among the Chinese postmenopausal women in terms of symptom reporting.

  18. Hydroxyurea for reducing blood transfusion in non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Wai Cheng; Ho, Jacqueline J; Loh, C Khai; Viprakasit, Vip

    2016-10-18

    Non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia is a subset of inherited haemoglobin disorders characterised by reduced production of the beta globin chain of the haemoglobin molecule leading to anaemia of varying severity. Although blood transfusion is not a necessity for survival, it is required when episodes of chronic anaemia occur. This chronic anaemia can impair growth and affect quality of life. People with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia suffer from iron overload due to their body's increased capability of absorbing iron from food sources. Iron overload becomes more pronounced in those requiring blood transfusion. People with a higher foetal haemoglobin level have been found to require fewer blood transfusions. Hydroxyurea has been used to increase foetal haemoglobin level; however, its efficacy in reducing transfusion, chronic anaemia complications and its safety need to be established. To assess the effectiveness, safety and appropriate dose regimen of hydroxyurea in people with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia (haemoglobin E combined with beta thalassaemia and beta thalassaemia intermedia). We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of relevant journals. We also searched ongoing trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 30 April 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of hydroxyurea in people with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia comparing hydroxyurea with placebo or standard treatment or comparing different doses of hydroxyurea. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria in order to select trials for inclusion. Both authors assessed the risk of bias of trials and extracted the data. A third author verified these assessments. No trials comparing hydroxyurea with placebo or standard care were found. However, we included

  19. Eighteen years experience of granulocyte donations-acceptable donor safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axdorph Nygell, Ulla; Sollén-Nilsson, Agneta; Lundahl, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are given to patients with life-threatening infections, refractory to treatment. The donors are stimulated with corticosteroids ± granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, data regarding the donors' safety is sparse. The objective was therefore to evaluate short- and long-term adverse events (AE) in G-CSF stimulated donors. All consecutive granulocyte donors from 1994 to 2012 were identified through our registry. From the donation records, the number of aphereses, stimulation therapy, AE, blood values post donation, and recent status were evaluated. One hundred fifty-four volunteer donors were mobilized for 359 collections. Age at first granulocyte donation was 43 years (median; range 19-64 years). Follow-up was 60 months (median; range 0-229 months). The dose of G-CSF per collection was 3.8 ug/kg body weight (median; range 1.6-6.0 ug/kg). Sedimentation agent was HES. Short-term AE were mild. Blood values 4 weeks post donation with minor reductions/elevations mostly resolved in later donations. Fourteen donors were excluded from the registry due to hypertension (4), diabetes (2), atrial flutter (1), breast carcinoma (1), urethral carcinoma in situ (1), MGUS (1), thrombosis (1), anaphylaxis (1), primary biliary cirrhosis (1), and unknown (1). Three donors are deceased due to diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, and unknown cause. All excluded/deceased donors except one were excluded/died at least 6 months after first granulocyte donation. No serious short-term AE were observed. Due to the variability of diagnoses among excluded/deceased donors, we propose that it is less likely that granulocyte donations have a causative impact on these donors' exclusion or death. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  1. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  2. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  3. Detrimental effects of perioperative blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of infectious complications after major surgery and of cancer recurrence after curative operation. This has been attributed to immunosuppression. Several authors have suggested that filtered whole blood and/or red...... cell concentrate, or leucocyte- and buffy coat-reduced red cells in artificial medium or their own plasma, may reduce postoperative immunosuppression. It was also anticipated that the use of autologous blood might minimize the risk of perioperative transfusion, but studies have unexpectedly shown...... similar postoperative infectious complications and cancer recurrence and/or survival rates in patients receiving autologous blood donated before operation and those receiving allogeneic blood. Future studies should identify common risk factors associated with blood storage....

  4. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Enhances Effectiveness of Skin Antiseptics and Reduces Contamination Rates of Blood Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Paul R.; Han, Xiang-Yang; Rolston, Kenneth V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Effective skin antisepsis is of central importance in the prevention of wound infections, colonization of medical devices, and nosocomial transmission of microorganisms. Current antiseptics have a suboptimal efficacy resulting in substantial infectious morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Here, we introduce an in vitro method for antiseptic testing and a novel alcohol-based antiseptic containing 4 to 5% of the polar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The DMSO-containing antiseptic resulted in a 1- to 2-log enhanced killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and other microbes in vitro compared to the same antiseptic without DMSO. In a prospective clinical validation, blood culture contamination rates were reduced from 3.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine (control antiseptic) to 1.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine–5% DMSO (P antiseptics containing strongly polarized but nonionizing (polar aprotic) solvents. PMID:22378911

  5. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    in blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm...... neutrophil and monocyte TLR2 expression and TLR2-mediated blood cytokine responses were low relative to adults. ORA pigs showed enhanced blood neutrophil maturation with reduced cell size and CD172a expression. Only ORA pigs, but not SYS pigs, were protected from a high density of gut Gram-positive bacteria......, high gut permeability, Gram-positive bacteremia and NEC. Neonatal oral antibiotics may benefit mucosal and systemic immunity via delayed gut colonization and enhanced blood neutrophil maturation just after preterm birth....

  6. [Alternatives to allogenous blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Daniela; Vlădoianu, Alice; Stoica, Maria; Novac, M; Berteanu, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Blood transfusion is usually meant to lower morbidity and mortality rates. Allogenous blood transfusion implies certain risks that can be avoided by autologous blood transfusions techniques including: preoperatory autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage. Preoperatory blood donation and acute normovolemic hemodilution are used for planned interventions with an estimated blood loss higher than 20% of blood volume. These methods imply Erythropoietin and iron treatment. Intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage is performed by personnel trained in blood donation, handling and storage. Autologous blood transfusions are used for certain surgical procedures that commonly require transfusions: orthopedic surgery, radical prostatectomy, cardiovascular surgery, organ transplantation. An alternative to allogenous blood transfusion is the use of artificial oxygen transporters: human or animal hemoglobin solutions or pefluorocarbonate solutions. These solutions do not require cross reactions, do not carry diseases and are generally well tolerated and easily stored in the operating room, ambulance and other transport means. They have however a slight degree of toxicity.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account ... Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  10. A clinical pathway for the postoperative management of hypocalcemia after pediatric thyroidectomy reduces blood draws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neha A; Bly, Randall A; Adams, Seth; Carlin, Kristen; Parikh, Sanjay R; Dahl, John P; Manning, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Postoperative calcium management is challenging following pediatric thyroidectomy given potential limitations in self-reporting symptoms and compliance with phlebotomy. A protocol was created at our tertiary children's institution utilizing intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels to guide electrolyte management during hospitalization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a new thyroidectomy postoperative management protocol on two primary outcomes: (1) the number of postoperative calcium blood draws and (2) the length of hospital stay. Institutional review board approved retrospective study (2010-2016). Consecutive pediatric total thyroidectomy and completion thyroidectomy ± neck dissection cases from 1/1/2010 through 8/5/2016 at a single tertiary children's institution were retrospectively reviewed before and after initiation of a new management protocol. All cases after 2/1/2014 comprised the experimental group (post-protocol implementation). The pre-protocol control group consisted of cases prior to 2/1/2014. Multivariable linear and Poisson regression models were used to compare the control and experimental groups for outcome measure of number of calcium lab draws and hospital length of stay. 53 patients were included (n = 23, control group; n = 30 experimental group). The median age was 15 years. 41 patients (77.4%) were female. Postoperative calcium draws decreased from a mean of 5.2 to 3.6 per day post-protocol implementation (Rate Ratio = 0.70, p Hypocalcemia was also associated with a longer mean length of stay of 2.41 days compared to 1.60 days in patients who did not develop hypocalcemia (p < .01). The number of calcium blood draws was significantly reduced after introduction of a standardized protocol based on intraoperative PTH levels. The hospital length of stay did not change. Adoption of a standardized postoperative protocol based on intraoperative PTH levels may reduce the number of blood draws

  11. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by the...

  12. The failure of retrograde autologous priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to reduce blood use after cardiac surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Nitsun, Martin; Alspach, David A; Avram, Michael J; Vender, Jeffery S; Votapka, Timothy V; Rosengart, Todd K

    2004-05-01

    Hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a primary risk factor for blood transfusion in cardiac surgical patients. Priming of the CPB circuit with the patients' own blood (retrograde autologous priming, RAP) is a technique used to limit hemodilution and reduce transfusion requirements. We designed this study to examine the impact of RAP on perioperative blood product use. Using a retrospective cohort study design, the medical records of all patients undergoing CPB (excluding circulatory arrest cases) by a single surgeon were examined. Data were collected over a 24-mo period when RAP was routinely used as a blood conservation strategy (RAP group, n = 257). This group was compared with a cohort of patients during the 24 mo immediately preceding the introduction of RAP into clinical practice (no RAP group, n = 288). A small, statistically insignificant reduction in the percentage of patients receiving packed red blood cells was observed in the RAP group (44% versus 51% no RAP, P = 0.083). No differences were found between the groups in the number of units of packed red blood cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma transfused throughout the perioperative period. These results suggest that overall, RAP does not offer a clinically important benefit as a blood conservation technique. Priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit with the patients' own blood (retrograde autologous priming) resulted in insignificant reductions in blood use in a large, unselected group of patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures.

  13. Ethics Guide Recommendations for Organ-Donation-Focused Physicians: Endorsed by the Canadian Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.

  14. Incentive Policy Options for Product Remanufacturing: Subsidizing Donations or Resales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi

    2017-01-01

    Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated. PMID:29194411

  15. Incentive Policy Options for Product Remanufacturing: Subsidizing Donations or Resales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi

    2017-12-01

    Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated.

  16. Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics There are currently 121,678 people waiting for ... org/2015/view/v2_07.aspx Facts and statistics provided by the United States Renal Data System , ...

  17. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bosse, John D.; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E. Dale; Pereira, Troy J.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-...

  18. Onset of small intestinal atrophy is associated with reduced intestinal blood flow in TPN-fed neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niinikoski, Harri; Stoll, Barbara; Guan, Xinfu

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the speed of onset of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-induced mucosal atrophy, and whether this is associated with changes in intestinal blood flow and tissue metabolism in neonatal piglets. Piglets were implanted with jugular venous and duodenal catheters and either......-phenylalanine to measure crypt cell proliferation and protein synthesis, respectively. After 8 h of TPN, portal and SMA blood flow decreased 30% compared with enteral feeding (P reduced jejunal inducible nitric oxide...

  19. [Economic environment and blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Zaleski, I

    2015-08-01

    The increasing pressure on healthcare resources affects blood donation and transfusion. We attempted a survey of the efficiency of different strategies, actual or proposed to improve the management of blood products. We found an important disconnect between the cost effectiveness ratio of strategies and their uptake by policy makers. In other words, the least efficient strategies are those which increase transfusion safety by increasing the number of biological markers and are those preferred by health authorities in developed countries. Other more efficient strategies are more slowly implemented and included a systematic use of transfusion guidelines, reducing blood losses or increasing pre operative blood levels in elective surgeries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Traag

    Full Text Available Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  1. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  2. Reduced dose measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow using dynamic SPECT imaging in a porcine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, Rachel; Klein, Ran; Petryk, Julia; Marvin, Brian; Kemp, Robert A. de; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn; Wei, Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements provide important additional information over traditional relative perfusion imaging. Recent advances in camera technology have made this possible with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). Low dose protocols are desirable to reduce the patient radiation risk; however, increased noise may reduce the accuracy of MBF measurements. The authors studied the effect of reducing dose on the accuracy of dynamic SPECT MBF measurements. Methods: Nineteen 30–40 kg pigs were injected with 370 + 1110 MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin or 37 + 111 MBq of Tl-201 at rest + stress. Microspheres were injected simultaneously to measure MBF. The pigs were imaged in list-mode for 11 min starting at the time of injection using a Discovery NM 530c camera (GE Healthcare). Each list file was modified so that 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the original counts were included in the projections. Modified projections were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction and an energy window-based scatter correction and analyzed with FlowQuant kinetic modeling software using a 1-compartment model. A modified Renkin-Crone extraction function was used to convert the tracer uptake rate K1 to MBF values. The SPECT results were compared to those from microspheres. Results: Correlation between SPECT and microsphere MBF values for the full injected activity was r ≥ 0.75 for all 3 tracers and did not significantly degrade over all count levels. The mean MBF and MFR and the standard errors in the estimates were not significantly worse than the full-count data at 1/4-counts (Tc99m-tracers) and 1/2-counts (Tl-201). Conclusions: Dynamic SPECT measurement of MBF and MFR in pigs can be performed with 1/4 (Tc99m-tracers) or 1/2 (Tl-201) of the standard injected activity without significantly reducing accuracy and precision

  3. Reduced dose measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow using dynamic SPECT imaging in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmins, Rachel; Klein, Ran; Petryk, Julia; Marvin, Brian; Kemp, Robert A. de; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn, E-mail: gwells@ottawaheart.ca [Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada); Wei, Lihui [Nordion, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario K2K 1X8 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements provide important additional information over traditional relative perfusion imaging. Recent advances in camera technology have made t