WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood coagulation effect

  1. Effect of flomoxef on blood coagulation and alcohol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Matsubara, T

    1991-01-01

    The effect of flomoxef, a newly developed oxacephem antibiotic with an N-hydroxyethyltetrazolethiol (HTT) side chain, on blood coagulation and alcohol metabolism was compared with that of a series of cephalosporin antibiotics with N-methyltetrazolethiol (NMTT), thiadiazolethiol (TDT) or methylthiadiazolethiol (MTDT) side chains in position 3' of the cephalosporin nucleus known to cause hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding in patients who are malnourished, debilitated and/or of high age. A disulfiram-like effect caused by inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed for NMTT-containing antibiotics. Studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and on rats. Eight-day treatment with 2 g flomoxef i.v. once or twice daily in five and six healthy male volunteers, respectively, did not cause any significant changes in prothrombin time (PT), coagulation factors II, VII, IX or X, in hepaplastin values or fibrinogen levels, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet counts, bleeding time, or collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase was observed in rats treated with flomoxef, yet to a much lesser extent than observed for cephalosporins with NMTT, TDT or MTDT side chains. This defect was quickly normalized by vitamin K injection. There were no differences between oxacephem (1-O) and cephem (1-S) compounds with respect to effects on blood clotting and platelet aggregation. Flomoxef and its side chain HTT showed no influence on alcohol metbolism.

  2. Blood coagulation factor VIII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the ...

  3. Effect of fibrinogen on blood coagulation detected by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Teng, Xiangshuai

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that an optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique and the parameter 1/e light penetration depth (d 1/e ) were able to characterize the whole blood coagulation process in contrast to existing optical tests that are performed on plasma samples. To evaluate the feasibility of the technique for quantifying the effect of fibrinogen (Fbg) on blood coagulation, a dynamic study of d 1/e of blood in various Fbg concentrations was performed in static state. Two groups of blood samples of hematocrit (HCT) in 35, 45, and 55% were reconstituted of red blood cells with: 1) treated plasma with its intrinsic Fbg removed and commercial Fbg added (0–8 g L −1 ); and 2) native plasma with commercial Fbg added (0–8 g L −1 ). The results revealed a typical behavior due to coagulation induced by calcium ions and the clotting time is Fbg concentration-dependent. The clotting time was decreased by the increasing amount of Fbg in both groups. Besides, the blood of lower HCT with various levels of Fbg took shorter time to coagulate than that of higher HCT. Consequently, the OCT method is a useful and promising tool for the detection of blood-coagulation processes induced with different Fbg levels. (paper)

  4. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation. PMID:25341004

  5. The effects of nanomaterials on blood coagulation in hemostasis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simak, Jan; De Paoli, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The blood coagulation balance in the organism is achieved by the interaction of the blood platelets (PLTs) with the plasma coagulation system (PCS) and the vascular endothelial cells. In healthy organism, these systems prevent thrombosis and, in events of vascular damage, enable blood clotting to stop bleeding. The dysregulation of hemostasis may cause serious thrombotic and/or hemorrhagic pathologies. Numerous engineered nanomaterials are being investigated for biomedical purposes and are unavoidably exposed to the blood. Also, nanomaterials may access vascular system after occupational, environmental, or other types of exposure. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the effects of engineered nanomaterials on hemostasis. This review focuses on investigations of nanomaterial interactions with the blood components involved in blood coagulation: the PCS and PLTs. Particular emphases include the pathophysiology of effects of nanomaterials on the PCS, including the kallikrein-kinin system, and on PLTs. Methods for investigating these interactions are briefly described, and a review of the most important studies on the interactions of nanomaterials with plasma coagulation and platelets is provided. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1448. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1448 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-11-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c

  7. Effect of chitosan and coagulation factors on the wound repair phenotype of bioengineered blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Marchand, Catherine; Rivard, Georges-Etienne; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Poubelle, Patrice E

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the blood clot phenotype in a surgically prepared wound is an evolving concept in scaffold-guided tissue engineering. Here, we investigated the effect of added chitosan (80% or 95% Degree of Deacetylation, DDA) or coagulation factors (recombinant human Factor VIIa, Tissue Factor, thrombin) on inflammatory factors released by blood clots. We tested the hypothesis that 80% DDA chitosan specifically enhances leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) production. Human or rabbit whole blood was combined with isotonic chitosan solutions, coagulation factors, or lipopolysaccharide, cultured in vitro at 37°C, and after 4hours the serum was assayed for LTB 4 or inflammatory factors. Only 80% DDA chitosan clots produced around 15-fold more LTB 4 over other clots including 95% DDA chitosan clots. All serum contained high levels of PDGF-BB and CXCL8. Normal clots produced very low type I cytokines compared to lipopolysaccharide clots, with even lower IL-6 and IL-12 and more CCL3/CCL4 produced by chitosan clots. Coagulation factors had no detectable effect on clot phenotype. Conclusion In blood clots from healthy individuals, 80% DDA chitosan has a unique influence of inducing more LTB 4 , a potent neutrophil chemoattractant, with similar production of PDGF-BB and CXCL8, and lower type I cytokines, compared to whole blood clots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Theories of blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddel, James P; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Miaskowski, Christine; Lillicrap, David P

    2007-01-01

    Although the concept of the coagulation cascade represented a significant advance in the understanding of coagulation and served for many years as a useful model, more recent clinical and experimental observations demonstrate that the cascade/waterfall hypothesis does not fully and completely reflect the events of hemostasis in vivo. The goal of this article is to review the evolution of the theories of coagulation and their proposed models to serve as a tool when reviewing the research and practice literature that was published in the context of these different theories over time.

  9. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  10. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Bladbjerg, E.-M.; Jespersen, J.

    1997-01-01

    , monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats differed regarding postprandial activation of FVII. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. On 6 separate days each participant consumed two meals (times, 0 and 1 3/4 hours) enriched with 70 g (15 and 55 g) of either rapeseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil......, palm oil, or butter (42% of energy from fat) or isoenergetic low-fat meals (6% of energy from fat). Fasting and series of nonfasting blood samples (the last at time 8 1/2 hours) were collected. Plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, FVIIa, and free fatty acids were analyzed. There were marked effects of the fat......Acute elevation of the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) is observed after consumption of high-fat meals. This elevation is caused by an increase in the concentration of activated FVII (FVIIa). In a randomized crossover study, we investigated whether saturated...

  11. Blood coagulation factors as inflammatory mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Saskia H. H. F.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2005-01-01

    After the first observations about blood coagulation by Hippocrates, it took until the early 1900s before the classic theory of blood coagulation was presented. As more and more other coagulation factors were discovered, the four-factor coagulation scheme became more complex, but better understood,

  12. Postprandial triglycerides and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A

    2001-01-01

    Most of our lifetime we spend in the postprandial state. Postprandial triglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances of both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in particular due to elevation of the plasma levels of activated factor VII (VIIa) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). Therefore, disturbances of the hemostatic system might, at least partly, account for by the link between hypertriglyceridemia and coronary heart disease (CHD). Factor VIIa is the first enzyme of the blood coagulation system and serves a priming function for triggering of the clotting cascade. The coagulant activity of factor VII (VIIc, total activity of factor VII in plasma) was identified as an independent predictor of myocardial infarction in initially healthy middle-aged men, and particularly of fatal coronary events, and both serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations correlated positively with the VIIc level. Addition of fat to diet has been consistently shown to cause a rapid conversion of the factor VII zymogen into its active form (VIIa) whereas the concentration of total protein is unaffected. Postprandial activation of factor VII is dependent on lipolytic activity and it is mainly supported by large triglyceride-rich lipoprotein of the VLDL class. Studies in vivo with specific coagulation factor-deficient patients indicate that factor IX is essential for the postprandial activation of factor VII. The basal generation of thrombin seems to be unaffected by increased plasma levels of VIIa. However, since VIIa-tissue factor complex is responsible for the initiation of the coagulation cascade, increased generation of VIIa in the postprandial state would increase the potential for thrombin production in the event of plaque rupture. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major physiological inhibitor of the plasminogen activators in the circulation and thereby the principal inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system. Postprandial

  13. Purification and characterization of a heteromultimeric glycoprotein from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex with an inhibitory effect on human blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2011-01-01

    Plant latex has many health benefits and has been used in folk medicine. In this study, the biological effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) latex on human blood coagulation was investigated. By a combination of heat precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, a heat stable heteromultimeric glycoprotein (HSGPL1) was purified from jackfruit milky latex. The apparent molecular masses of the monomeric proteins on SDS/PAGE were 33, 31 and 29 kDa. The isoelectric points (pIs) of the monomers were 6.63, 6.63 and 6.93, respectively. Glycosylation and deglycosylation tests confirmed that each subunit of HSGPL1 formed the native multimer by sugar-based interaction. Moreover, the multimer of HSGPL1 also resisted 2-mercaptoethanol action. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis indicated that HSGPL1 was a complex protein related to Hsps/chaperones. HSGPL1 has an effect on intrinsic pathways of the human blood coagulation system by significantly prolonging the activated partial thrombin time (APTT). In contrast, it has no effect on the human extrinsic blood coagulation system using the prothrombin time (PT) test. The prolonged APTT resulted from the serine protease inhibitor property of HSGPL1, since it reduced activity of human blood coagulation factors XI(a) and α-XII(a).

  14. The effect of a new impregnated gauze containing bentonite and halloysite minerals on blood coagulation and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mehrosadat; Totonchi, Alireza; Okhovat, Mohammad Ali; Motazedian, Motahareh; Rezaei, Peyman; Atefi, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of research has been carried out in the field of novel technologies to stop severe bleeding. In several studies, coagulation properties of minerals such as zeolite, bentonite and halloysite have been proven. In this study, the effect of a new impregnated sterile gauze containing bentonite and halloysite minerals was studied on blood coagulation and wound healing rate in male Wistar rats. Initially, impregnated sterile gauze was prepared from the mixture of bentonite and halloysite minerals and petroleum jelly (Vaseline). Then, the effect of gauze was studied on the blood coagulation time and wound healing process in 40 Wistar rats. SPSS software was used for data analysis and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The coagulation time of 81.10 ± 2.532 s in the control group and 33.00 ± 1.214 s in the study group (bentonite-halloysite treated) were reported (P halloysite impregnated sterile gauze significantly decreases the clotting time and increase the wound healing rate.

  15. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  16. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya, E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  17. Bio-responsive polymer hydrogels homeostatically regulate blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Manfred F; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Fischer, Marion; Beyrich, Theresa; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, which--in turn--becomes inactivated due to released heparin. The bio-responsive hydrogel quantitatively quenches blood coagulation over several hours in the presence of pro-coagulant stimuli and during repeated incubation with fresh, non-anticoagulated blood. These features enable the introduced material to provide sustainable, autoregulated anticoagulation, addressing a key challenge of many medical therapies. Beyond that, the explored concept may facilitate the development of materials that allow the effective and controlled application of drugs and biomolecules.

  18. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation on Platelet-activating Factor and Blood Coagulation Function in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangkun; Sheng Chunyong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP) on platelet-activating factor (PAF) expression and blood coagulation function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS), the blood sample of 40 patients with OSAS were taken before treatment and on the day 30 after treatment respectively. PAF, thromboxane B 2 (TXB2), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrin(FIB) in patients and 37 health controls were detected. The results showed that PAF, TXB2, FIB in OSAS patients before treatment were significantly higher than those of after treatment and control group (P 0.05). There were abnormal expression of PAF and hypercoagulability in OSAS patients. CPAP could effectively decrease the expression of PAF, TXB 2 and could also correct dysfunction of blood coagulation. It had certain effect in lightening the clinical symptoms in OSAS patients. (authors)

  19. Effect of Dan seven soft capsule adjuvant therapy on serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes in patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Gui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Dan seven soft capsule on the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease and the influence of serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes. Methods: A total of 112 cases of patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, according to the random data table were divided into the control group (n=57 and observation group (n=55, the patients in the control group received routine treatment combined with edaravone, on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the observation group was treated with Dan seven soft capsule. The serum levels of inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant difference in the inflammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6, blood coagulation function (FIB, PT and APTT and hemorheology (high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity levels between the control group and observation group. Compared with the levels of the same group before treatment, two groups of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, FIB, high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity level after treatment were significantly decreased, and levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group; Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of PT and APTT in the two groups were significantly increased, and the observation group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Dan seven soft capsule in the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease can effectively reduce the level of serum inflammatory factors, improve coagulation function and blood rheology index, it has an important clinical value.

  20. In-vitro effects of tri-iodinated X-ray contrast media on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and complement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanke, D.

    1982-01-01

    In-vitro experiments with Jodipamid, Jothalamat and Diatrizoat served the purpose of determining influences of contrast media on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and the complement system. For all three contrast media investigated the effect noted was dose-dependent and was only brought about by concentrations higher than physiological ones. Liver-pathway Jodipamid was seen to have a much stronger effect than the two renal-pathway contrast media Jothalamat and Diatrizoat, which is probably due to the different protein binding capacities. In detail, the results with Jodipamid were as follows: a sharp fall in thrombinogen, a distinct decrease in fibrinogen both in the immunological and functional test, but only delayed decrease in complement factor C 4. Fibrinolytic fission products were found after applying the dose of 30 mM, as compared to 400 mM for the renal-pathway contrast media. Furthermore the functional tests (F I and F II) with Jothalamat and Diatrizoat showed only slight effects, the immunological ones (F I and C 4) none at all. The influence of the contrast media on factors I and II is interpreted by the author as an inhibition of fibrin polymerization. What seems to be the verification of fibrinolytic fission products is explained by a non-specific agglutination reaction, the decrease in C 4 by contrast-medium-induced protein denaturation. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Effects of Blood Coagulate Removal Method on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Life Table Characteristics and Vector Competence for Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Blood viscosity during coagulation at different shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Laddomada, Tommaso; Ranucci, Matteo; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the coagulation process, blood changes from a liquid to a solid gel phase. These changes are reflected by changes in blood viscosity; however, blood viscosity at different shear rates (SR) has not been previously explored during the coagulation process. In this study, we investigated the viscosity changes of whole blood in 10 subjects with a normal coagulation profile, using a cone‐on‐plate viscosimeter. For each subject, three consecutive measurements were performed, at a SR of 20, 40, 80 sec−1. On the basis of the time‐dependent changes in blood viscosity, we identified the gel point (GP), the time‐to‐gel point (TGP), the maximum clot viscosity (MCV), and the clot lysis half‐time (CLH). The TGP significantly (P = 0.0023) shortened for increasing SR, and was significantly associated with the activated partial thromboplastin time at a SR of 20 sec−1 (P = 0.038) and 80 sec−1 (P = 0.019). The MCV was significantly lower at a SR of 80 sec−1 versus 40 sec−1 (P = 0.027) and the CLH significantly (P = 0.048) increased for increasing SR. These results demonstrate that measurement of blood viscosity during the coagulation process offers a number of potentially useful parameters. In particular, the association between the TGP and the activated partial thromboplastin time is an expression of the clotting time (intrinsic and common pathway), and its shortening for increasing SR may be interpreted the well‐known activating effects of SR on platelet activation and thrombin generation. Further studies focused on the TGP under conditions of hypo‐ or hypercoagulability are required to confirm its role in the clinical practice. PMID:24994896

  3. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  4. Blood coagulation and the risk of atherothrombosis: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Voort Danielle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principles of Virchov's triad appear to be operational in atherothrombosis or arterial thrombosis: local flow changes and particularly vacular wall damage are the main pathophysiological elements. Furthermore, alterations in arterial blood composition are also involved although the specific role and importance of blood coagulation is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review we provide support for the hypothesis that activated blood coagulation is an essential determinant of the risk of atherothrombotic complications. We distinguish two phases in atherosclerosis: In the first phase, atherosclerosis develops under influence of "classical" risk factors, i.e. both genetic and acquired forces. While fibrinogen/fibrin molecules participate in early plaque lesions, increased activity of systemic coagulation is of no major influence on the risk of arterial thrombosis, except in rare cases where a number of specific procoagulant forces collide. Despite the presence of tissue factor – factor VII complex it is unlikely that all fibrin in the atherosclerotic plaque is the direct result from local clotting activity. The dominant effect of coagulation in this phase is anticoagulant, i.e. thrombin enhances protein C activation through its binding to endothelial thrombomodulin. The second phase is characterized by advancing atherosclerosis, with greater impact of inflammation as indicated by an elevated level of plasma C-reactive protein, the result of increased production influenced by interleukin-6. Inflammation overwhelms protective anticoagulant forces, which in itself may have become less efficient due to down regulation of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR expression. In this phase, the inflammatory drive leads to recurrent induction of tissue factor and assembly of catalytic complexes on aggregated cells and on microparticles, maintaining a certain level of thrombin production and fibrin formation. In advanced

  5. The effect of tobacco snuff on blood coagulation parameters in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the effect of tobacco snuff on platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in adult Wistar rats weighing between 150-300g and divided into four group (A - D; n=12 each). Group A served as control, while B, C and D served as test groups. The test groups were further ...

  6. Effects of dietary fish oil on serum lipids and blood coagulation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, K D; Rogers, J S; Albrink, M J

    1988-02-01

    The effects of a daily fish oil supplement rich in eicosapentaenoic acid were studied in 11 stable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Serum lipids, platelet aggregation studies, and template bleeding times were determined before and after 4 weeks of fish oil treatment. The lipid studies were repeated approximately 20 weeks after stopping fish oil supplement. At the end of the treatment period, serum triglycerides (mean +/- SEM) decreased from 297 +/- 42 to 211 +/- 29 mg/dL (P less than .01), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol fell from 45 +/- 3 to 41 +/- 3 mg/dL (P less than .05), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased from 172 +/- 16 to 208 +/- 19 mg/dL (P less than .05). After discontinuing the fish oil supplement, the triglycerides increased to 278 +/- 39 mg/dL, which was no different than the value before fish oil treatment. No significant changes occurred in template bleeding time (TBT), platelet count, hematocrit, or platelet aggregation response. Clinically important uremic bleeding was not apparent. We conclude that in CAPD patients a fish oil supplement favorably effects hypertriglyceridemia and can be ingested without promoting uremic bleeding. The likely beneficial impact on atherogenesis resulting from the lowering of the triglycerides may, however, be counteracted by concomitant changes in HDL- and LDL-cholesterol.

  7. Imaging of blood plasma coagulation at supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxälv, Lars; Hume, Jasmin; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-12-15

    The blood coagulation system relies on lipid membrane constituents to act as regulators of the coagulation process upon vascular trauma, and in particular the 2D configuration of the lipid membranes is known to efficiently catalyze enzymatic activity of blood coagulation factors. This work demonstrates a new application of a recently developed methodology to study blood coagulation at lipid membrane interfaces with the use of imaging technology. Lipid membranes with varied net charges were formed on silica supports by systematically using different combinations of lipids where neutral phosphocholine (PC) lipids were mixed with phospholipids having either positively charged ethylphosphocholine (EPC), or negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) headgroups. Coagulation imaging demonstrated that negatively charged SiO(2) and membrane surfaces exposing PS (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of PS) had coagulation times which were significantly shorter than those for plain PC membranes and EPC exposing membrane surfaces (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of EPC). Coagulation times decreased non-linearly with increasing negative surface charge for lipid membranes. A threshold value for shorter coagulation times was observed below a PS content of ∼6%. We conclude that the lipid membranes on solid support studied with the imaging setup as presented in this study offers a flexible and non-expensive solution for coagulation studies at biological membranes. It will be interesting to extend the present study towards examining coagulation on more complex lipid-based model systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does whole blood coagulation analysis reflect developmental haemostasis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hanne Berg; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    .05), but there was no sign of developmental changes in whole blood coagulation assessment when applying ROTEM, apart from clotting time in the EXTEM assay (P reach statistical significance. Citrate-anticoagulated blood showed...

  9. Network-Based Biomarkers for Cold Coagulation Blood Stasis Syndrome and the Therapeutic Effects of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reverse docking methodology was applied to predict the action targets and pathways of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM cold coagulation blood stasis (CCBS syndrome was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an ice-water bath and epinephrine, and SFZYD was used to treat CCBS syndrome. A metabolomic approach was used to evaluate changes in the metabolic profiles and to analyze the pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD actions. Twenty-three potential protein targets and 15 pathways were discovered, respectively; among these, pathways are associated with inflammation and immunological stress, hormone metabolism, coagulation function, and glycometabolism. There were also changes in the levels of endogenous metabolites of LysoPCs and glucuronides. Twenty endogenous metabolites were identified. Furthermore, the relative quantities of 6 endogenous metabolites in the plasma and 5 in the urine were significantly affected by SFZYD (P<0.05. The pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD was partially associated with glycerophospholipid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that TCM CCBS pattern induced by ice water and epinephrine was complex and related to multiple metabolic pathways. SFZYD did regulate the TCM CCBS by multitargets, and biomarkers and SFZYD should be used for the clinical treatment of CCBS syndrome.

  10. Neutralisation of the anti-coagulant effects of heparin by histones in blood plasma and purified systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Colin; Hogwood, John; Gray, Elaine; Komorowicz, Erzsebet; Varjú, Imre; Varga, Zoltán; Kolev, Krasimir

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed primarily of DNA and histones are a link between infection, inflammation and coagulation. NETs promote coagulation and approaches to destabilise NETs have been explored to reduce thrombosis and treat sepsis. Heparinoids bind histones and we report quantitative studies in plasma and purified systems to better understand physiological consequences. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) was investigated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and alongside low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) in purified systems with thrombin or factor Xa (FXa) and antithrombin (AT) to measure the sensitivity of UFH or LMWH to histones. A method was developed to assess the effectiveness of DNA and non-anticoagulant heparinoids as anti-histones. Histones effectively neutralised UFH, the IC50 value for neutralisation of 0.2 IU/ml UFH was 1.8 µg/ml histones in APTT and 4.6 µg/ml against 0.6 IU/ml UFH in a purified system. Histones also inhibited the activities of LMWHs with thrombin (IC50 6.1 and 11.0 µg/ml histones, for different LMWHs) or FXa (IC50 7.8 and 7.0 µg/ml histones). Direct interactions of UFH and LMWH with DNA and histones were explored by surface plasmon resonance, while rheology studies showed complex effects of histones, UFH and LMWH on clot resilience. A conclusion from these studies is that anticoagulation by UFH and LMWH will be compromised by high affinity binding to circulating histones even in the presence of DNA. A complete understanding of the effects of histones, DNA and heparins on the haemostatic system must include an appreciation of direct effects on fibrin and clot structure.

  11. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Débora Santos da; Teixeira, Lisandra Antonia Castro; Beghini, Daniela Gois; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Pinho, Márcia de Berredo Moreira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Ribeiro, Marli Rambaldi; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Tovar, Ana Maria Freire; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Perales, Jonas; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Esquenazi, Danuza; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2018-03-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  12. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Santos da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities.In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48% which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7% belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP. In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro.We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  13. [Influence of Gentiana lutea L extract on blood coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuridze, A D; Nikolaev, S M; Tsagarenshvili, N T; Kurdiani, N G; Mikaia, G A

    2009-01-01

    The dry extract from the terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea was received in accordance to the developed by us general technological scheme. Study of the pharmacological influence of obtained extract on the coagulating properties of blood revealed that after its per os instillation into experimental animals the time of the formation of active thromboplastin reliably increases, while the time of thrombin and fibrinous cluster formation is shortened in comparison with those indices in the animals, that did not receive phyto-preparation, at the same time morphological appearance of the peripheral blood remains unchanged. Dry extract of terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea prepared in accordance to the technology recommended by us, together with widely known pharmacological effects, is characterized with new activity - influence on haemostasis. Obtained preliminary data concerning influence of the extract on coagulation of the blood request further deep studies of its mechanism. Revealed new activity of the terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea and the studies of the mechanism of its activity will serve in future as a basis for the recommendation of its use in new nosology. Terrestrial parts of Gentiana lutea L. are proposed as an alternative of the underground parts of the plant. Alongside with that, it is expedient to continue the studies devoted to the development of the haemostatic remedies of plant origin with systemic and local action (sponges, films, skin glues) from terrestrial parts of Gentiana lutea L.

  14. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, D.; Gemmell, C.H.; Guha, A.; Turitto, V.T.; Nemerson, Y.; Broze, G.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec -1 . The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2 endash-to 3 endash fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia

  15. Blood coagulation in hemophilia A and hemophilia C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawthern, K. M.; van 't Veer, C.; Lock, J. B.; DiLorenzo, M. E.; Branda, R. F.; Mann, K. G.

    1998-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF)-induced coagulation was compared in contact pathway suppressed human blood from normal, factor VIII-deficient, and factor XI-deficient donors. The progress of the reaction was analyzed in quenched samples by immunoassay and immunoblotting for fibrinopeptide A (FPA),

  16. Whole blood coagulation time, haematocrit, haemoglobin and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the values of whole blood coagulation time (WBCT), haematocrit (HM), haemaglobin (HB) and total protein (TP) of one hundred and eighteen apparently healthy turkeys reared under an extensive management system in Zaria. The mean values for WBCT, HM, HB and TP were 1.12 ...

  17. Measurement of blood coagulation with considering RBC aggregation through a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Nam, Jeonghun; Xue, Shubin; Shin, Sehyun

    2011-01-01

    Even though blood coagulation can be tested by various methods and techniques, the effect of RBC aggregation on blood coagulation is not fully understood. The present study monitored clot formation in a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer. Citrated blood samples with and without the addition of calcium ion solution were initially disaggregated by rotating a stirrer in the microchip. After abrupt stop of the rotating stirrer, the transmitted light intensity over time was recorded. The syllectogram (light intensity vs. time graph) manifested a rapid increase that is associated with RBC aggregation followed by a decrease that is associated with blood coagulation. The time to reach the peak point was used as a new index of coagulation time (CT) and ranged from 200 to 500 seconds in the present measurements. The CT was inversely proportional to the concentration of fibrinogen, which enhances RBC aggregation. In addition, the CT was inversely proportional to the hematocrit, which is similar to the case of the prothrombin time (PT), as measured by a commercial coagulometer. Thus, we carefully concluded that RBC aggregation should be considered in tests of blood coagulation.

  18. Effects of different progestin regimens in hormone replacement therapy on blood coagulation factor VII and tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Skouby, S O.; Andersen, L F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces cardiovascular risk, but an early increased risk was reported in women with coronary heart disease. In such women the arterial intima can express tissue factor, and changes in coagulation factor VII (factor VII) and tissue factor...... pathway inhibitor (TFPI) may be deleterious. METHODS: We measured factor VII clotting activity, activated factor VII, and concentrations of factor VII and TFPI during 12 months in healthy post-menopausal women randomized to: (i). cyclic oral estrogen/progestin (n = 25); (ii). long-cycle oral estrogen......: No variations were observed in the reference group. There was a substantial decrease in TFPI concentrations in the HRT groups irrespective of the type of progestin. In women receiving long-cycle treatment, all factor VII measures increased during the unopposed estrogen periods, and the increase was reversed...

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Coagulation Dynamics of Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bodnár

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of platelet activation and blood coagulation is quite complex and not yet completely understood. Recently, a phenomenological meaningful model of blood coagulation and clot formation in flowing blood that extends existing models to integrate biochemical, physiological and rheological factors, has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present results from a computational study of a simplified version of this coupled fluid-biochemistry model. A generalized Newtonian model with shear-thinning viscosity has been adopted to describe the flow of blood. To simulate the biochemical changes and transport of various enzymes, proteins and platelets involved in the coagulation process, a set of coupled advection–diffusion–reaction equations is used. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out for the whole model in a straight vessel with circular cross-section, using a finite volume semi-discretization in space, on structured grids, and a multistage scheme for time integration. Clot formation and growth are investigated in the vicinity of an injured region of the vessel wall. These are preliminary results aimed at showing the validation of the model and of the numerical code.

  20. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis of the whole-body irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1984-01-01

    To study the effects of irradiation on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, rabbits were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays (whole-body: 0, 100, 400, 800, 1200 rads). Clotting time, activity of plasmin and plasminogen, and fibrinogen contents of irradiated rabbit plasma were measured at 4 days before, immediately after, and at 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after irradiation. Both clotting times obtained by addition of (kaolin+phospholipid) which expressed effects on the total intrinsic coagulation system, and by addition of (Ca 2+ ) which expressed effects on the total extrinsic coagulation system, were prolonged with small dose irradiation (100 rads) immediately and 3 days after irradiation. However, with high dose irradiation (400-1200 rads), these clotting times were prolonged 1 day after irradiation. The times of manifestation of irradiation effects on clotting time were different in small and high dose irradiation. Plasmin activity was decreased immediately, 1 day after and recovered 3 days after irradiation. Plasminogen activity was markedly increased in 800 and 1200 rads irradiated groups from 3 days after irradiation. Conversion of plasminogen into plasmin was impaired by irradiation. Fibrinogen contents increased rapidly in all irradiated rabbits except for 100 rads from 1 day after irradiation. These results revealed decreased coagulation and fibrinolysis activities in rabbit blood, irradiation injury of both coagulation and fibrinolysis activation systems, and accumulation of the precursors of fibrin and plasmin (i.e., fibrinogen and plasminogen). (author)

  1. Early markers of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis activation in Argentine hemorrhagic fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M. V.; Marta, R. F.; Sturk, A.; Maiztegui, J. I.; Hack, C. E.; Cate, J. W.; Molinas, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Junin virus, an arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. In addition to thrombocytopenia, patients present several alterations in both the blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system, but diffuse intravascular coagulation could not be demonstrated. To investigate

  2. The effect of tranexamic acid on blood coagulation in total hip replacement arthroplasty: rotational thromboelastographic (ROTEM®) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, H S; Shin, H J; Lee, Y J; Kim, J H; Koo, K H; Do, S H

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated changes in rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®) ) parameters and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing total hip replacement arthroplasty, with concomitant infusions of tranexamic acid and of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4. Fifty-five patients were randomly assigned to either the tranexamic acid (n = 29) or the control (n = 26) group. Hydroxyethyl starch was administered in the range of 10-15 ml.kg(-1) during the operation in both groups. In the control group, the clot formation time and maximum clot firmness of APTEM showed significant differences when compared with those of EXTEM at one hour postoperatively, suggestive of fibrinolysis. In the tranexamic acid group, there was no significant difference between each postoperative EXTEM and APTEM parameter. In the tranexamic acid and control group, postoperative blood loss was 308 ml (210-420 [106-745]) and 488 ml (375-620 [170-910], p = 0.002), respectively, and total blood loss was 1168 ml (922-1470 [663-2107]) and 1563 ml (1276-1708 [887-1494], p = 0.003). Haemoglobin concentration was higher in the tranexamic acid group on the second postoperative day (10.5 (9.4-12.1 [7.9-14.0]) vs. 9.6 (8.9-10.5[7.3-16.0]) g.dl(-1) , p = 0.027). In patients undergoing total hip replacement arthroplasty, postoperative fibrinolysis aggravated by hydroxyethyl starch was attenuated by co-administration of 10 mg.kg(-1) tranexamic acid, which may have led to less postoperative blood loss. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part I: benefits of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2013-05-01

    Nanotechnology is proven to provide certain benefits in drug delivery by improving solubility, increasing uptake to target sites and changing pharmacokinetics profiles of traditional drugs. Since properties of many materials change tremendously at the nanoscale levels, nanotechnology is also being explored in various industrial applications. As such, nanoparticles are rapidly entering various areas of industry, biology and medicine. The benefits of using nanotechnology for industrial and biomedical applications are often tempered by concerns about the safety of these new materials. One such area of concern includes their effect on the immune system. While nanoparticle interactions with various constituents of the immune system have been reviewed before, little attention was given to nanoparticle effects on the blood coagulation system. Nanoparticle interface with the blood coagulation system may lead to either benefits to the host or adverse reactions. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of nanoparticle interactions with plasma coagulation factors, platelets, endothelial cells and leukocytes. Part I is focused on desirable interactions between nanoparticles and the coagulation system, and discusses benefits of using nanotechnology to intervene in coagulation disorders. Undesirable interactions posing safety concerns are covered in part II, which will be published in the June issue of Nanomedicine.

  4. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Efendiev, Messoud A.

    2010-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking...... and flow equations, which guarantee non negative concentrations at all times. The criteria is applied to the model of the blood coagulation cascade....

  5. Influence of ionizing radiation and 12-crown-4 on coagulation system components of rat blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratenko, R.Yi.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of 12-crown-4 and ionizing radiation on some components of blood coagulation system: Ca 2+ contents and prostaglandin concentrations in the blood serum, and erythrocyte contents in the blood plasma are studied. The influence of 12-crown-4 and ionizing radiation increases the coagulational properties of erythrocytes. The synergism of ionizing irradiation and 12-crown-4 influence blood coagulation process points out at the occurrence of radiomimetic properties of the latter

  6. Rational and timely haemostatic interventions following cardiac surgery - coagulation factor concentrates or blood bank products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mariann; Fenger-Eriksen, Christian; Wierup, Per; Greisen, Jacob; Ingerslev, Jørgen; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Sørensen, Benny

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac surgery may cause a serious coagulopathy leading to increased risk of bleeding and transfusion demands. Blood bank products are commonly first line haemostatic intervention, but has been associated with hazardous side effect. Coagulation factor concentrates may be a more efficient, predictable, and potentially a safer treatment, although prospective clinical trials are needed to further explore these hypotheses. This study investigated the haemostatic potential of ex vivo supplementation of coagulation factor concentrates versus blood bank products on blood samples drawn from patients undergoing cardiac surgery. 30 adults were prospectively enrolled (mean age=63.9, females=27%). Ex vivo haemostatic interventions (monotherapy or combinations) were performed in whole blood taken immediately after surgery and two hours postoperatively. Fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) were investigated. The haemostatic effect was evaluated using whole blood thromboelastometry parameters, as well as by thrombin generation. Immediately after surgery the compromised maximum clot firmness was corrected by monotherapy with fibrinogen or platelets or combination therapy with fibrinogen. At two hours postoperatively the coagulation profile was further deranged as illustrated by a prolonged clotting time, a reduced maximum velocity and further diminished maximum clot firmness. The thrombin lagtime was progressively prolonged and both peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential were compromised. No monotherapy effectively corrected all haemostatic abnormalities. The most effective combinations were: fibrinogen+rFVIIa or fibrinogen+PCC. Blood bank products were not as effective in the correction of the coagulopathy. Coagulation factor concentrates appear to provide a more optimal haemostasis profile following cardiac surgery compared to blood bank products. Copyright © 2017

  7. Alterations of blood and blood coagulation by extracorporeal irradiation in leukemia and radiophosphor therapy in polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, D.; Kaboth, W.; Theml, H.; Murr, H.; Schramm, W.; Leisner, B.

    1974-01-01

    Animal experiments prove a high radiation resistance of megakaryocytes and thrombocytes. Radiophosphorus is thought to influence mainly the megakaryocytes in their beginnings; an effect on the vessel system of the bone marrow is particularly to be discussed in the case of very early and quickly reversible drop in thrombocytes. In the very first week after radiophosphorus administration, a considerable drop in thrombocytes is already seen in some patients, the number of patients remaining the same during the following 3 weeks. After blood irradiation, the thrombocytes are for a certain period reduced due to the influence of the extracorporal circulation, but in general their number increases again during the following months. A considerable disfunction of the thrombocytes or a disturbed coagulation is not found either after radiophosphorus treatment or after extracorporal blood irradiation. (orig.) [de

  8. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  9. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) after the menopause is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Tibolone has pharmacodynamic properties different from other hormone preparations. We compared the effect of a combined HT and tibolone on the inhibition of haemostasis. METHODS......: Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  10. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation...

  11. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor vii in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Bladbjerg, E. M.; Kornerup Hansen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In humans, high fat meals cause postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), but human studies have not provided definite evidence for a prothrombotic effect of dietary FVII activation. An animal model would be an attractive way to pursue this question and therefore we tested...... the LEW/Mol rat. We gavaged 3 mL of a fat emulsion (n = 42) or 3 mL isotonic glucose (n = 42). Blood was sampled by heart puncture 2, 4 and 6 h (n = 14/group at each time) after the fat/glucose load. Furthermore, blood was sampled from 16 untreated rats to determine the baseline levels. Triglyceride...

  12. Air quality improvement during 2010 Asian games on blood coagulability in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zili; Wang, Jian; Guo, Meihua; Xiong, Mingmei; Zhou, Qipeng; Li, Defu; Shu, Jiaze; Lu, Wenju; Sun, Dejun

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Perturbation of the coagulation balance is one of the potential mechanisms. However, evidence regarding the impact of improvement in air pollution on blood coagulability in COPD patients has never been reported. Coagulation processes are known to be of relevance for cardiovascular pathology; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood marker (D-dimer) of coagulation. A 3-year (through the Asian game) cohort study based on the GIRD COPD Biobank Project was conducted in 36 COPD patients to estimate whether changes in measurements of D-dimer were associated with changes in pollutant concentration, comparing for 51 intervention days (November 1-December 21) in 2010 with the same calendar date of baseline years (2009 and 2011). Daily mean concentrations of air pollutants and meteorological variables were measured during the time. Daily PM10 decreased from 65.86 μg/m(3) during the baseline period to 62.63 μg/m(3) during the Asian Games period; daily NO2 decreased from 51.33 to 42.63 μg/m(3). SO2 and other weather variables did not differ substantially. We did not observe statistically significant improvements in D-dimer levels by 9.86% from a pre-Asian game mean of 917 ng/ml to a during-Asian game mean of 1007 ng/ml, platelet number by 11.66%, PH by -0.15%, PCO2 by -6.54%, and PO2 by -1.16%. In the post-Asian game period, when pollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Asian game levels, and similar effects were also demonstrated in D-dimer, platelet number, and arterial blood gas. For D-dimer and platelet number, we observed statistically significant increases associated with increases in NO2 at lag 1-3 and SO2 at lag 2-4. For PH, PCO2, and PO2, any significant effect was not demonstrated. This study gives no support to the hypothesis that reduction in air pollution levels during the

  13. A review of studies of the activation of the blood coagulation mechanism in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, H.; Schenk, B. E.; Biemond, B. J.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; van der Poll, T.; Buller, H. R.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent studies of blood coagulation activation in the chimpanzee which were carried out employing sensitive immunoassays that measure activation markers of blood coagulation in plasma. Infused factor VIIa activated both factors IX and X in vivo; this reaction depended on the

  14. EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON COAGULATING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty young, healthy, nonsmoking women (mean age approximately 28 years taking low-dose oral contraceptive pills were recruited for the study of the effects of these pills on coagulating factors. Twenty subjects were taking LD pill (Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and 10 others were taking Cilest (Ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, Norgestimate 0.25 mg for six months. The control subjects did not receive any oral contraceptives or other medications. Our results showed that:"n1. There is no significant difference between the effects of LD and Cilest (with a different progestin content on coagulating factors."n2. No significant changes were observed between both LD users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n3. No significant changes were observed between both Cilest users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n

  15. Coagulation measurement from whole blood using vibrating optical fiber in a disposable cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraş, Yusuf Samet; Gündüz, Ali Bars; Sağlam, Gökhan; Ölçer, Selim; Civitçi, Fehmi; Baris, İbrahim; Yaralioğlu, Göksenin; Urey, Hakan

    2017-11-01

    In clinics, blood coagulation time measurements are performed using mechanical measurements with blood plasma. Such measurements are challenging to do in a lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system using a small volume of whole blood. Existing LoC systems use indirect measurement principles employing optical or electrochemical methods. We developed an LoC system using mechanical measurements with a small volume of whole blood without requiring sample preparation. The measurement is performed in a microfluidic channel where two fibers are placed inline with a small gap in between. The first fiber operates near its mechanical resonance using remote magnetic actuation and immersed in the sample. The second fiber is a pick-up fiber acting as an optical sensor. The microfluidic channel is engineered innovatively such that the blood does not block the gap between the vibrating fiber and the pick-up fiber, resulting in high signal-to-noise ratio optical output. The control plasma test results matched well with the plasma manufacturer's datasheet. Activated-partial-thromboplastin-time tests were successfully performed also with human whole blood samples, and the method is proven to be effective. Simplicity of the cartridge design and cost of readily available materials enable a low-cost point-of-care device for blood coagulation measurements. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  16. Benign intracranial hypertension associated to blood coagulation derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niglio Alferio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH may be caused, at least in part, by intracranial sinus thrombosis. Thrombosis is normally due to derangements in blood coagulation cascade which may predispose to abnormal clotting activation or deficiency in natural inhibitors' control. The aim of the study is to examine the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. Patients and methods The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a randomly investigated cohort of 17 patients with BIH, was compared with 51 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, body mass index, height and social background. Results The number of subjects with protein C deficiency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (3 vs 1, p Increased plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated in patients group (5.7 ± 1.15 nM vs 0.45 ± 0.35 nM; 8.7 ± 2.5 ng/mL vs 2.2 ± 1.25 ng/mL; 45.7 ± 12.5 ng/mL vs 8.5 ± 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; p Discussion In agreement with other authors our data suggest a state of hypercoagulability in BIH associated with gene polymorphisms. Our findings also showed that mutations in cardiovascular genes significantly discriminate subjects with a BIH history. The association between coagulation and gene derangements, usually regarded to as cryptogenic, may suggest a possible pathogenetic mechanism in BIH. So, a prothrombotic tendency may exist that would, at least in part, explain some cases of BIH. Although based on a small population, these findings raise the exciting possibility of using these haemostatic factors as markers for selecting high-risk subjects in BIH disease.

  17. Origin of serpin-mediated regulation of coagulation and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved an endothelium-lined hemostatic system and a pump-driven pressurized circulation with a finely-balanced coagulation cascade and elaborate blood pressure control over the past 500 million years. Genome analyses have identified principal components of the ancestral coagulation system, however, how this complex trait was originally regulated is largely unknown. Likewise, little is known about the roots of blood pressure control in vertebrates. Here we studied three members of the serpin superfamily that interfere with procoagulant activity and blood pressure of lampreys, a group of basal vertebrates. Angiotensinogen from these jawless fish was found to fulfill a dual role by operating as a highly selective thrombin inhibitor that is activated by heparin-related glycosaminoglycans, and concurrently by serving as source of effector peptides that activate type 1 angiotensin receptors. Lampreys, uniquely among vertebrates, thus use angiotensinogen for interference with both coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation. Heparin cofactor II from lampreys, in contrast to its paralogue angiotensinogen, is preferentially activated by dermatan sulfate, suggesting that these two serpins affect different facets of thrombin's multiple roles. Lampreys also express a lineage-specific serpin with anti-factor Xa activity, which demonstrates that another important procoagulant enzyme is under inhibitory control. Comparative genomics suggests that orthologues of these three serpins were key components of the ancestral hemostatic system. It appears that, early in vertebrate evolution, coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation crosstalked through antiproteolytically active angiotensinogen, a feature that was lost during vertebrate radiation, though in gnathostomes interplay between these traits is effective.

  18. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  19. Metabolism and toxicity of therapeutic chelating agents Pt. 15. Effect of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA on blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohbreier, J [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Genetik und fuer Toxikologie von Spaltstoffen

    1977-10-01

    Single subcutaneous injection of Ca-DTPA by a toxic dosage results in rats in a short-term moderate reduction of the plasma concentration of factors belonging to the endogenous coagulation system and of the prothrombin complex. Neither the temporary fibrinolysis nor the thrombocytopenia occurring later deeply affect coagulation as a whole. By fractionation of the daily dose or by continuous infusion of Ca-DTPA-damage to the plasmatic coagulation system is not further increased, although the intensity of thrombocytopenia is enhanced which is minimum after a single administration of the chelate. The platelet functions, on the other hand, are not influenced by Ca-DTPA. The much better compatibility of Zn-DTPA as compared to Ca-DTPA was fully confirmed also with respect to the hematological and coagulation parameters.

  20. Coagulants modulate the hypocholesterolemic effect of tofu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... The recent increase in soymilk and tofu (coagulated soymilk) consumption especially in western countries is due to the recognition of the health benefits of soy foods. The amount and the type of coagulated biomolecules (such as isoflavones) vary with the type of coagulant, and this will inevitable alter their ...

  1. Effect of Centrifuge Temperature on Routine Coagulation Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Hayrullah; Özdemir, Fatma; Köse, Elif

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cooled and standard centrifuges on the results of coagulation tests to examine the effects of centrifugation temperature. Equal-volume blood samples from each patient were collected at the same time intervals and subjected to standard (25°C) and cooled centrifugation (2-4°C). Subsequently, the prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, and D-dimer values were determined in runs with the same lot numbers in the same coagulation device using the Dia-PT R (PT and INR), Dia-PTT-liquid (aPTT), Dia-FIB (fibrinogen), and Dia-D-dimer kits, respectively. The study enrolled 771 participants. The PT was significantly (p centrifuges were as follows: PT 10.30 versus 10.50 s; PT (INR) 1.04 versus 1.09 s; APTT 28.90 versus 29.40 s; fibrinogen 321.5 versus 322.1 mg/dL; and D-dimer 179.5 versus 168.7 µg FEU/mL. There were significant differences (p centrifuges. Centrifuge temperature can have a significant effect on the results of coagulation tests. However, broad and specific disease-based studies are needed. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Biomarkers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial function, and inflammation in arterialized venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Skov, Jane; Ploug, Thorkil

    2014-01-01

    Effects of venous blood arterialization on cardiovascular risk markers are still unknown. We evaluated biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and endothelial function in arterialized compared with regular venous blood. Cubital venipunctures were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers....... Arterialization was generated by 10 min heating of the contralateral hand. Concentrations of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured by validated assays. Concentrations of albumin......, CRP, and vWF were significantly lower in arterialized than in venous blood (albumin: 43.8 g/l and 44.8 g/l, P = 0.02). Differences in CRP and vWF became insignificant after adjusting for albumin. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was significantly higher in arterialized than in venous blood...

  3. Lowering blood glucose during hip surgery does not influence coagulation activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein K. Sechterberger

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide moderately reduced post-operative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and prediabetic obese patients undergoing elective hip surgery, no changes were observed with respect to coagulation activation.

  4. Photoacoustic discrimination of viable and thermally coagulated blood using a two-wavelength method for burn injury monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, Robert J; Holan, Scott H; Viator, John A

    2007-01-01

    Discriminating viable from thermally coagulated blood in a burn wound can be used to profile burn depth, thus aiding the removal of necrotic tissue. In this study, we used a two-wavelength photoacoustic imaging method to discriminate coagulated and non-coagulated blood in a dermal burn phantom. Differences in the optical absorption spectra of coagulated and non-coagulated blood produce different values of the ratio of peak photoacoustic amplitude at 543 and 633 nm. The absorption values obtained from spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ratio of photoacoustic pressure for 543 and 633 nm for non-coagulated blood was 15.7:1 and 1.6:1 for coagulated blood. Using planar blood layers, we found the photoacoustic ratios to be 13.5:1 and 1.6:1, respectively. Using the differences in the ratios of coagulated and non-coagulated blood, we propose a scheme using statistical classification analysis to identify the different blood samples. Based upon these distinctly different ratios, we identified the planar blood samples with an error rate of 0%. Using a burn phantom with cylindrical vessels containing coagulated and non-coagulated blood, we achieved an error rate of 11.4%. These results have shown that photoacoustic imaging could prove to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of burns

  5. Neuro-Coagulopathy: Blood Coagulation Factors in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Ciro; Virtuoso, Assunta; Maggio, Nicola; Papa, Michele

    2017-10-12

    Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix. The pleiotropy of these effects is produced through different receptors, expressed in various cell types, in a dose- and time-dependent pattern. We reviewed how these pathways may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and post-ischemic epilepsy, CNS cancer, addiction, and mental health. These data open up a new path for the potential therapeutic use of the agonist/antagonist of these proteins in the management of several central nervous system diseases.

  6. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  7. Temperature effects on flocculation, using different coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C S B; Fradin, E; Gregory, J

    2004-01-01

    Temperature is known to affect flocculation and filter performance. Jar tests have been conducted in the laboratory, using a photometric dispersion analyser (PDA) to assess the effects of temperature on floc formation, breakage and reformation. Alum, ferric sulphate and three polyaluminium chloride (PACI) coagulants have been investigated for temperatures ranging between 6 and 29 degrees C for a suspension of kaolin clay in London tap water. Results confirm that floc formation is slower at lower temperatures for all coagulants. A commercial PACl product, PAX XL 19, produces the largest flocs for all temperatures; and alum the smallest. Increasing the shear rate results in floc breakage in all cases and the flocs never reform to their original size. This effect is most notable for temperatures around 15 degrees C. Breakage, in terms of floc size reduction, is greater for higher temperatures, suggesting a weaker floc. Recovery after increased shear is greater at lower temperatures implying that floc break-up is more reversible for lower temperatures.

  8. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  9. Effects of Puff-Adder Venom on Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo haematological effects of puffadder (Bitis arietans) venom in the baboon (Papio ursinus) with regard to its effect on coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation were studied. There is a delay in the intrinsic coagulation mechanism with fibrinolysis and in vitro fibrinogenolysis. Normal human ...

  10. The effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on coagulation and fibrinolysis. An assessment using thromboelastography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Porter, J M

    2012-02-03

    Amide local anaesthetics impair coagulation by inhibition of platelet function and enhanced fibrinolysis. The potential therefore exists that the presence of amide local anaesthetics in the epidural space could contribute to the therapeutic failure of an epidural autologous blood patch. Ropivacaine is an aminoamide local anaesthetic increasingly used for epidural analgesia and anaesthesia, particularly in obstetric practice. This study was undertaken to investigate whether concentrations of ropivacaine in blood, which could occur clinically in the epidural space, alter coagulation or fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography was used to assess clotting and fibrinolysis of blood to which ropivacaine had been added. Although modest alterations in maximum amplitude, coagulation time and alpha angle were observed, the effect of ropivacaine on clotting and fibrinolysis was not clinically significant. We conclude that it is unlikely that the presence of ropivacaine in the epidural space would reduce the efficacy of an early or prophylactic epidural blood patch.

  11. Blood coagulation in lead poisoning and the influence of specific treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levantovskaya, O M; Lyubcenko, P N; Dayhin, I S; Sorkina, N S

    1974-07-01

    Results of blood coagulation studies in 104 workers with long-term exposure in a storage-battery plant. Over-all coagulation activity is unchanged in cases of mild lead poisoning, but long-term exposure gives rise to increased fibrinogen levels, activated fibrinolysis, and reduced serum accelerator globulin and prothrombin activities. 13 workers were given D-penicillamine (oral doses of 450 mg daily). All coagulation indices had become normal after 10 days' treatment. The changes observed are thought to be due to protein synthesis disturbances in the liver and to inhibition of enzymes by lead which combines with their sulfhydryl and disulfide groups. (CIS Abstr. Vol. 2)

  12. The effects of transport by car on coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Merve; Erdogan, Serpil; Akturk, Onur; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-10-26

    This research investigated the effects of the transport of blood samples between centers/laboratories by car on coagulation tests. Five tubes of blood samples were taken from 20 healthy volunteers. The samples consisted of a baseline (control) group, centrifuged and noncentrifuged transported samples; centrifuged and noncentrifuged untransported samples. The groups of centrifuged and noncentrifuged samples were transported by car for 2 h. The centrifuged and noncentrifuged untransported samples were incubated in the laboratory until the transported samples arrived. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests were conducted for all samples. Significant differences between the baseline group and the centrifuged and noncentrifuged transported samples and the noncentrifuged untransported samples were found for APTT levels (pcar.

  13. Untangling the complexity of blood coagulation network: use of computational modelling in pharmacology and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeko, Alexey M; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2016-05-01

    Blood coagulation is a complex biochemical network that plays critical roles in haemostasis (a physiological process that stops bleeding on injury) and thrombosis (pathological vessel occlusion). Both up- and down-regulation of coagulation remain a major challenge for modern medicine, with the ultimate goal to correct haemostasis without causing thrombosis and vice versa. Mathematical/computational modelling is potentially an important tool for understanding blood coagulation disorders and their treatment. It can save a huge amount of time and resources, and provide a valuable alternative or supplement when clinical studies are limited, or not ethical, or technically impossible. This article reviews contemporary state of the art in the modelling of blood coagulation for practical purposes: to reveal the molecular basis of a disease, to understand mechanisms of drug action, to predict pharmacodynamics and drug-drug interactions, to suggest potential drug targets or to improve quality of diagnostics. Different model types and designs used for this are discussed. Functional mechanisms of procoagulant bypassing agents and investigations of coagulation inhibitors were the two particularly popular applications of computational modelling that gave non-trivial results. Yet, like any other tool, modelling has its limitations, mainly determined by insufficient knowledge of the system, uncertainty and unreliability of complex models. We show how to some extent this can be overcome and discuss what can be expected from the mathematical modelling of coagulation in not-so-far future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban using a computer model for blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Burghaus

    Full Text Available Rivaroxaban is an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor approved in the European Union and several other countries for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery and is in advanced clinical development for the treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Its mechanism of action is antithrombin independent and differs from that of other anticoagulants, such as warfarin (a vitamin K antagonist, enoxaparin (an indirect thrombin/Factor Xa inhibitor and dabigatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor. A blood coagulation computer model has been developed, based on several published models and preclinical and clinical data. Unlike previous models, the current model takes into account both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade, and possesses some unique features, including a blood flow component and a portfolio of drug action mechanisms. This study aimed to use the model to compare the mechanism of action of rivaroxaban with that of warfarin, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different rivaroxaban doses with other anticoagulants included in the model. Rather than reproducing known standard clinical measurements, such as the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time clotting tests, the anticoagulant benchmarking was based on a simulation of physiologically plausible clotting scenarios. Compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban showed a favourable sensitivity for tissue factor concentration inducing clotting, and a steep concentration-effect relationship, rapidly flattening towards higher inhibitor concentrations, both suggesting a broad therapeutic window. The predicted dosing window is highly accordant with the final dose recommendation based upon extensive clinical studies.

  15. Hydroxyethyl Starch Reduces Coagulation Competence and Increases Blood Loss During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. BACKGROUND: Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius...

  16. Expression of human blood coagulation factor XI: characterization of the defect in factor XI type III deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, J. C.; Davie, E. W.; Chung, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human factor XI (FXI) is a blood coagulation factor participating in the early phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It circulates in blood as a glycoprotein composed of two identical chains held together by a single disulfide bond between the fourth apple domains. FXI has been

  17. In-traffic air pollution exposure and CC16, blood coagulation, and inflammation markers in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Meliefste, Kees; Krop, Esmeralda; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events, probably involving mechanisms of inflammation and coagulation. Little is known about effects of the short exposures encountered while participating in traffic. The objective of the study was to examine effects of exposure of commuters to air pollution on cardiovascular biomarkers. Thirty-four healthy adult volunteers commuted for 2 hr by bus, car, or bicycle during the morning rush hour. During the commute, exposure to particle number, particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), PM ≤ 10 µm in diameter (PM10), and soot was measured. We estimated inhaled doses based on heart rate monitoring. Shortly before exposure and 6 hr after exposure, blood samples were taken and analyzed for CC16 (Clara cell protein 16), blood cell count, coagulation markers, and inflammation markers. Between June 2007 and June 2008, 352 pre- and postexposure blood samples were collected on 47 test days. We used mixed models to analyze the associations between exposure and changes in health parameters. We observed no consistent associations between the air pollution exposures and doses and the various biomarkers that we investigated. Air pollution exposure during commuting was not consistently associated with acute changes in inflammation markers, blood cell counts, or blood coagulation markers.

  18. Blood Coagulation and Acid-Base Balance at Craniocerebral Hypothermia in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Avakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic therapeutic hypothermia has gained a negative reputation in treating multiple trauma patients and is regarded as one of the factors in the lethal triad of shock, acidosis, and hypothermia. This fact owes to no relationship between acidosis and hypothermia; the effects of the latter on coagulation are evident and complexly reversible in the presence of acidosis.Objective: to determine the impact of noninvasive local brain cooling on the metabolic and blood coagulation indicators of a patient with acute cerebral ischemia.Subjects and methods. The subjects of the study were 113 patients with severe brain injury, including that complicated by the involvement of stem structures, who underwent brain cooling in different modifications. In so doing, the val ues of acidbase balance and coagulation system in arterial and venous blood were investigated.Results. Local brain hypother mia was not found to affect coagulation while the baseline negative values of excess buffer bases showed positive values (a right shift by the end of cooling. Recommendations were given to prevent metabolic shifts.Conclusion. Patients at very high risk for bleeding may be safely cooled to a brain temperature of 32—34°C even in the presence of moderatetosevere acidosis. This is a great advantage of local hypothermia over systemic one.

  19. Pulsed cold plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in stanching bleeding during rat hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keping, YAN; Qikang, JIN; Chao, ZHENG; Guanlei, DENG; Shengyong, YIN; Zhen, LIU

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in rat hepatectomy by using a home-made pulsed cold plasma jet. Experiments were conducted on blood coagulation in vitro, the influence of plasma on tissue in vivo, and the pilot application of rat hepatectomy. Experimental results show that the cold plasma can lead to rapid blood coagulation. Compared with the control sample, the plasma-induced agglomerated layer of blood is thicker and denser, and is mostly composed of broken platelets. When the surface of the liver was treated by plasma, the influence of the plasma can penetrate into the liver to a depth of about 500 μm. During the rat hepatectomy, cold plasma was proved to be effective for stanching bleeding on incision. No obvious bleeding was found in the abdominal cavities of all six rats 48 h after the hepatectomy. This implies that cold plasma can be an effective modality to control bleeding during surgical operation.

  20. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial rennet) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of white pickled cheese.

  1. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and Its Receptors: A Mutual Link between Blood Coagulation and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Mahajan-Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a versatile lipid signaling molecule and key regulator in vascular inflammation. S1P is secreted by platelets, monocytes, and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. It binds specifically to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors, S1P receptors 1 to 5, resulting in downstream signaling and numerous cellular effects. S1P modulates cell proliferation and migration, and mediates proinflammatory responses and apoptosis. In the vascular barrier, S1P regulates permeability and endothelial reactions and recruitment of monocytes and may modulate atherosclerosis. Only recently has S1P emerged as a critical mediator which directly links the coagulation factor system to vascular inflammation. The multifunctional proteases thrombin and FXa regulate local S1P availability and interact with S1P signaling at multiple levels in various vascular cell types. Differential expression patterns and intracellular signaling pathways of each receptor enable S1P to exert its widespread functions. Although a vast amount of information is available about the functions of S1P and its receptors in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological conditions, S1P-mediated mechanisms in the vasculature remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of S1P and its receptors in vascular wall and blood cells, which link the coagulation system to inflammatory responses in the vasculature.

  2. The role of stress hormones in the relationship between resting blood pressure and coagulation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Emini, Luljeta; Rüdisüli, Katharina; Groessbauer, Sara; Mausbach, Brent T; von Känel, Roland

    2006-12-01

    Systemic hypertension confers a hypercoagulable state. We hypothesized that resting mean blood pressure (MBP) interacts with stress hormones in predicting coagulation activity at rest and with acute mental stress. We measured plasma clotting factor VII activity (FVII:C), FVIII:C, fibrinogen, D-dimer, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and saliva cortisol in 42 otherwise healthy normotensive and hypertensive medication-free men (mean age 43 +/- 14 years) at rest, immediately after stress, and twice during 60 min of recovery from stress. At rest, the MBP-by-epinephrine interaction predicted FVII:C (beta = -0.33, P AUC) predicted D-dimer AUC (beta = 0.34, P = 0.04) independent of MBP. The MBP-by-epinephrine AUC interaction predicted FVII:C AUC (beta = 0.28) and fibrinogen AUC (beta = -0.30), and the MBP-by-norepinephrine AUC interaction predicted FVIII:C AUC (beta = -0.28), all with borderline significance (Ps < 0.09) and independent of age and BMI. MBP significantly altered the association between stress hormones and coagulation activity at rest and, with borderline significance, across the entire stress and recovery interval. Independent of MBP, catecholamines were associated with procoagulant effects and cortisol reactivity dampened the acute procoagulant stress response.

  3. Synthesis of Phosphatidylserine and Its Stereoisomers: Their Role in Activation of Blood Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Suman; Prasad, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Anindita; Sen, Prosenjit

    2018-05-10

    Natural phosphatidylserine (PS), which contains two chiral centers, enhances blood coagulation. However, the process by which PS enhanced blood coagulation is not completely understood. An efficient and flexible synthetic route has been developed to synthesize all of the possible stereoisomers of PS. In this study, we examined the role of PS chiral centers in modulating the activity of the tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa coagulation initiation complex. Full length TF was relipidated with phosphatidylcholine, and the synthesized PS isomers were individually used to estimate the procoagulant activity of the TF-FVIIa complex via a FXa generation assay. The results revealed that the initiation complex activity was stereoselective and had increased sensitivity to the configuration of the PS glycerol backbone due to optimal protein-lipid interactions.

  4. Microwave tissue coagulation: effects of power and treatment time on coagulation size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seung Pyung; Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Dong Man; Kim, Jeong Seok; Park, Seo Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of power and coagulation time on lesion size of ex-vivo bovine liver using microwaves. Six bovine livers were divided into two groups (first group : 30W output, second group : 60W output) and microwave coagulation was performed for 30, 60, and 120 sec. Thermal injury site was then observed by means of sonography, and the maximal transverse diameter of the echo-change portion after microwave coagulation was measured. On the section of specimen, maximal transverse diameters of the thermal injury site were measured by gross inspection and compared with the result of sonographic measurement. Maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions of the first group, as seen on sonography, were 8.3mm, 12.2mm, and 15.6mm, and the maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites on gross specimens were 9.1mm, 12.0mm, and 15.1mm, respectively. Maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions of the second group, as seen on sonography, were 12.1mm, 17.4mm, and 21.2mm and maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites on gross specimens were 13.2mm, 16.0mm, and 20.0mm, respectively. Statistically maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions, as seen on sonography, correlated closely with the gross findings of maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites (P < .05). Maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites were significantly increased as the output of the microwave coagulator and the duration of coagulation time increased (P < .05)

  5. Tulathromycin disturbs blood oxidative and coagulation status | Er ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (white and red blood cells) and arterial blood gas parameters (packed cell volume, ... excess in vitro, oxygen saturation, sodium and potassium) were also determined. Tulathromycin increased (P < 0.05) the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric ...

  6. Structural characterization of coagulant Moringa oleifera Lectin and its effect on hemostatic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana de Andrade; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Santana, Lucimeire Aparecida; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Paiva, Patricia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2013-07-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate recognition proteins. cMoL, a coagulant Moringa oleifera Lectin, was isolated from seeds of the plant. Structural studies revealed a heat-stable and pH resistant protein with 101 amino acids, 11.67 theoretical pI and 81% similarity with a M. oleifera flocculent protein. Secondary structure content was estimated as 46% α-helix, 12% β-sheets, 17% β-turns and 25% unordered structures belonging to the α/β tertiary structure class. cMoL significantly prolonged the time required for blood coagulation, activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT) and prothrombin times (PT), but was not so effective in prolonging aPTT in asialofetuin presence. cMoL acted as an anticoagulant protein on in vitro blood coagulation parameters and at least on aPTT, the lectin interacted through the carbohydrate recognition domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A ¤high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor vii in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Larsen, L. F.; Bladbjerg, E.-M.

    2001-01-01

    It is a matter of debate whether postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To clarify this question, an animal model in which consequences of dietary FVII activation can be studied in a more detailed way would be an important...

  8. Tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation is enhanced following delivery irrespective of the mode of delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; den Hollander, I. A.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of thrombosis is clearly increased in the postpartum period. Mice with a targeted deletion of the transmembrane domain of tissue factor (TF) develop serious activation of blood coagulation and widespread thrombosis after delivery. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We hypothesized that TF,

  9. Bioassay-directed fractionation of a blood coagulation factor Xa inhibitor, betulinic acid from Lycopus lucidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yin-Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders, including acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, peripheral arterial occlusion, ischemic stroke, deep-vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics can reduce the risks of these clinical events. Especially, the blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa inhibitor is a proven anticoagulant. Promoting blood circulation, using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, for the treatment of these diseases has been safely used for thousands of years in clinical practice. Therefore, highly safe and effective anticoagulant ingredients, including FXa inhibitors, could be found in TCM for activating the blood circulation. One FXa inhibitor, a pentacyclic triterpene (compound 1, betulinic acid characterized by IR, MS and NMR analyses, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Lycopus lucidus by bioassay-directed fractionation. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on FXa with IC50 25.05 μmol/L and reduced the thrombus weight in an animal model at 25-100 mg/kg. These results indicate that betulinic acid could be the potential for anticoagulant therapy.

  10. EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL TISSUES CONDITION IN CHILDREN WITH BLOOD COAGULABILITY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in children with blood pathology (100%. Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is the risk of bleeding during both home oral hygiene and professional hygiene. Exogenous prevention (fluoride-containing gels, varnishes, solutions, sealants also has its own peculiarities in these children. On the other hand, the impossibility of preventive measures implementation is the significant factor in the pathogenesis of gingivitis and subsequently periodontitis in children with disorders of blood coagulability. Aim. To examine the status of oral hygiene in children with blood coagulability disorders. To examine the severity of inflammatory and destructive changes in the periodontal tissues in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To investigate timing and frequency of oral hygiene implementation in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To reveal the interrelations between the intensity, prevalence of periodontal tissues disorders in children with blood coagulability pathology and the periods of tooth development, taking into account the influence of risk factors and frequency of oral hygiene. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood coagulability disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into following age groups: I – 2-5 years old (40 children, II – 6-10 years old (40 children, III – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Hygiene index value was determined according to

  11. Evaluation of periodontal tissues condition in children with blood coagulability pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in children with blood pathology (100%. Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is the risk of bleeding during both home oral hygiene and professional hygiene. Exogenous prevention (fluoride-containing gels, varnishes, solutions, sealants also has its own peculiarities in these children. On the other hand, the impossibility of preventive measures implementation is the significant factor in the pathogenesis of gingivitis and subsequently periodontitis in children with disorders of blood coagulability. Aim.To examine the status of oral hygiene in children with blood coagulability disorders.To examine the severity of inflammatory and destructive changes in the periodontal tissues in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To investigate timing and frequency of oral hygiene implementation in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To reveal the interrelations between the intensity, prevalence of periodontal tissues disorders in children with blood coagulability pathology and the periods of tooth development, taking into account the influence of risk factors and frequency of oral hygiene. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood coagulability disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into following age groups: I – 2-5 years old (40 children, II – 6-10 years old (40 children, III – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Hygiene index value was determined according to Fedorov

  12. The involvement of ginseng berry extract in blood flow via regulation of blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Kim

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest the possibility that GBx can ameliorate blood flow by decreasing intima-media thickness via the regulation of blood coagulation factors related to lipid metabolites in rats fed a HFD.

  13. An assessment of thromboelastometry to monitor blood coagulation and guide transfusion support in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Annabel; Beltran, Joan; Pereira, Arturo; Martinez-Palli, Graciela; Torrents, Abiguei; Balust, Jaume; Zavala, Elizabeth; Taura, Pilar; Garcia-Valdecasas, Juan-Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Rotation thromboelastometry (TEM) has been proposed as a convenient alternative to standard coagulation tests in guiding the treatment of coagulopathy during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This study was aimed at assessing the value of TEM in monitoring blood coagulation and guide transfusion support in OLT. Standard coagulation and TEM (EXTEM and FIBTEM) tests were performed at four preestablished intraoperative time points in 236 OLTs and prospectively recorded in a dedicated database together with the main operative and transfusion data. Transfusion thresholds were based on standard coagulation tests. Spearman's rank correlation (ρ), linear regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used when appropriate. EXTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF(EXTEM)) was the TEM variable that best correlated with the platelet (PLT) and fibrinogen levels (ρ = 0.62 and ρ = 0.69, respectively). MCF(FIBTEM) correlated with fibrinogen level (ρ = 0.70). EXTEM clot amplitude at 10 minutes (A10(EXTEM)) was a good linear predictor of MCF(EXTEM) (R(2) =0.93). The cutoff values that best predicted the transfusion threshold for PLTs and fibrinogen were A10(EXTEM) = 35 mm and A10(FIBTEM) = 8 mm. At these values, the negative and positive predictive accuracies of TEM to predict the transfusion thresholds were 95 and 27%, respectively. A10(EXTEM) is an adequate TEM variable to guide therapeutic decisions during OLT. Patients with A10(EXTEM) of greater than 35 mm are unlikely to bleed because of coagulation deficiencies, but using A10(EXTEM) of not more than 35 mm as the sole transfusion criterion can lead to unnecessary utilization of PLTs and fibrinogen-rich products. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. The Effects of L-Asparaginase on Blood Triglycerides, Glucose, and Albumin Levels and Coagulation State in ALL Patients in Pediatric Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarian Farhad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginase is one of the most important agents in the treatment of ALL. However, it has some side effects including dislipidemia, hyperglycemia, coagulopathy and hepatotoxicity. We studied its side ef-fects on our patients. The effects of L-asparaginase were assessed on 25 new ALL patients (case group and 25 patients with known ALL who had completed their treatment before. Sixty two percent of cases were male and remainder was female. The mean age of patients was 7.2 ± 3.8 years. In our patients, there was a rise in triglycerides (TG was seen following L- asparaginase administration (P = 0.02. Also, PT prolongation (P = 0.02 and hypoalbominemia (P = 0.002 were detected which could PT prolongation and hypoalbuminemia may be seen with L-asparaginase therapy that can be prevented with transfusion of FFP. Hypertriglyceridemia is often asymptomatic with no need for therapy.

  15. Predictive Value of Whole Blood and Plasma Coagulation Tests for Intra- and Postoperative Bleeding Risk: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Brogaard; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    review of the existing literature assessing the ability of whole blood coagulation (thromboelastography [TEG]/thromboelastometry [ROTEM]/Sonoclot), platelet function tests, and standard plasma-based coagulation tests to predict bleeding in the perioperative setting. We searched PubMed and Embase...... value of testing in patients receiving antithrombotic medication. In general, studies reported low positive predictive values for perioperative testing, whereas negative predictive values were high. The studies yielded moderate areas under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (for the majority...... recommend that both whole blood and plasma-based coagulation tests are primarily used in case of bleeding and not for screening in unselected patients prior to surgery....

  16. Comparison of two blood sampling techniques for the determination of coagulation parameters in the horse: Jugular venipuncture and indwelling intravenous catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C J; McGowan, C M; Pinchbeck, G; Carslake, H B

    2018-05-01

    Evaluation of coagulation status is an important component of critical care. Ongoing monitoring of coagulation status in hospitalised horses has previously been via serial venipuncture due to concerns that sampling directly from the intravenous catheter (IVC) may alter the accuracy of the results. Adverse effects such as patient anxiety and trauma to the sampled vessel could be avoided by the use of an indwelling IVC for repeat blood sampling. To compare coagulation parameters from blood obtained by jugular venipuncture with IVC sampling in critically ill horses. Prospective observational study. A single set of paired blood samples were obtained from horses (n = 55) admitted to an intensive care unit by direct jugular venipuncture and, following removal of a presample, via an indwelling IVC. The following coagulation parameters were measured on venipuncture and IVC samples: whole blood prothrombin time (PT), fresh plasma PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and stored plasma antithrombin activity (AT) and fibrinogen concentration. D-dimer concentration was also measured in some horses (n = 22). Comparison of venipuncture and IVC results was performed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Agreement between paired results was assessed using Bland Altman analysis. Correlation was substantial and agreement was good between sample methods for all parameters except AT and D-dimers. Each coagulation parameter was tested using only one assay. Sampling was limited to a convenience sample and timing of sample collection was not standardised in relation to when the catheter was flushed with heparinised saline. With the exception of AT and D-dimers, coagulation parameters measured on blood samples obtained via an IVC have clinically equivalent values to those obtained by jugular venipuncture. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize the removal of natural organic matter in water (Case study: drinking water of Mashhad's ... and in addition to giving taste, color and odor to the water, they can intervene in the oxidization and removal of heavy metals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.

  18. Prognostic significance of blood coagulation tests in carcinoma of the lung and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtukiewicz, M Z; Zacharski, L R; Moritz, T E; Hur, K; Edwards, R L; Rickles, F R

    1992-08-01

    Blood coagulation test results were collected prospectively in patients with previously untreated, advanced lung or colon cancer who entered into a clinical trial. In patients with colon cancer, reduced survival was associated (in univariate analysis) with higher values obtained at entry to the study for fibrinogen, fibrin(ogen) split products, antiplasmin, and fibrinopeptide A and accelerated euglobulin lysis times. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer, reduced survival was associated (in univariate analysis) with higher fibrinogen and fibrin(ogen) split products, platelet counts and activated partial thromboplastin times. In patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung, only higher activated partial thromboplastin times were associated (in univariate analysis) with reduced survival in patients with disseminated disease. In multivariate analysis, higher activated partial thromboplastin times were a significant independent predictor of survival for patients with non-small cell lung cancer limited to one hemithorax and with disseminated small cell carcinoma of the lung. Fibrin(ogen) split product levels were an independent predictor of survival for patients with disseminated non-small cell lung cancer as were both the fibrinogen and fibrinopeptide A levels for patients with disseminated colon cancer. These results suggest that certain tests of blood coagulation may be indicative of prognosis in lung and colon cancer. The heterogeneity of these results suggests that the mechanism(s), intensity, and pathophysiological significance of coagulation activation in cancer may differ between tumour types.

  19. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P; Chen, C Y; Fan, H W; Tarasenko, O; Scott, A; Lahiani, M; Alusta, P; Chang, J; Popovic, S; Drake, J D; Nikolic, M

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  20. Overuse of preoperative laboratory coagulation testing and ABO blood typing: a French national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloeil, H; Ruchard, D; Drewniak, N; Molliex, S

    2017-12-01

    Following publication of guidelines on routine preoperative tests, the French Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (SFAR), in association with French national public health insurance, conducted a survey to evaluate adherence to guidelines and the economic consequences. Using the French Hospital Discharge Database and National Health Insurance Information system, tests performed during the 30 days before surgery were analysed for two situations: (1) standard laboratory coagulation tests and ABO blood typing in children able to walk and scheduled for tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy; and (2) ABO blood typing in adults before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, thyroidectomy, lumbar discectomy or breast surgery. Guidelines do not recommend any preoperative tests in these settings. Between 2013 and 2015, a coagulation test was performed in 49% of the 241 017 children who underwent tonsillectomy and 39% of the 133 790 children who underwent adenoidectomy. A similar pattern was observed for ABO blood typing although re-operation rates for bleeding on the first postoperative day were very low (0.12-0.31% for tonsillectomy and 0.01-0.02% for adenoidectomy). Between 2012 and 2015, ABO blood typing was performed in 32-45% of the 1 114 082 patients who underwent one of the four selected procedures. The transfusion rate was very low (0.02-0.31%). The mean cost for the four procedures over the 4 yr period was €5 310 000 (sd €325 000). Standard laboratory coagulation tests and ABO blood typing are still routinely prescribed before surgery and anaesthesia despite current guidelines. This over-prescription represents a high and unnecessary cost, and should therefore be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate as a Link between Blood Coagulation and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hermann Rauch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P is a multifunctional signaling lipid generated from sphingosine by sphingosine kinases. S1P formation has been shown in numerous cells in the circulation, including platelets, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and monocytes. S1P also exerts multiple effects on these cells, i.e. cell proliferation and migration, activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways and release of additional inflammatory mediators. Similar activities and targets have also been identified for activated clotting factors such as thrombin or the activated factor-X (FXa, suggesting a possible involvement of S1P in thrombus-associated cellular signaling and thrombin-induced inflammatory reactions. Several levels of S1P-mediated, thrombin /FXa-induced signaling have already been identified: regulation of sphingosine kinase expression and activity, stimulation of S1P release from platelets and other cells and, possibly regulation of S1P-receptors on target cells. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about S1P as a clotting factor-regulated molecular link between blood coagulation and inflammation. It is concluded that S1P might represent an until now underestimated lipid mediator of inflammatory reactions following activation of the clotting system and, in this context, also involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  2. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  3. In vitro investigation of the effects of exogenous sugammadex on coagulation in orthopedic surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il Ok; Kim, Young Sung; Chang, Hae Wone; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Mido

    2018-05-24

    Previous studies have shown that sugammadex resulted in the prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of exogenous sugammadex on the coagulation variables of whole blood in healthy patients who underwent orthopedic surgery. The effects of sugammadex on coagulations were assessed using thromboelastography (TEG) in kaolin-activated citrated blood samples taken from 14 healthy patients who underwent orthopedic surgery. The in vitro effects of three different concentrations of sugammadex (42, 193, and 301 μg mL - 1 ) on the TEG profiles were compared with those of the control (0 μg mL - 1 ). Previous studies indicated that these exogenous concentrations correspond to the approximate maximum plasma concentrations achieved after the administration of 4, 16, and 32 mg kg - 1 sugammadex to healthy subjects. Increased sugammadex concentrations were significantly associated with reduced coagulation, as evidenced by increases in reaction time (r), coagulation time, and time to maximum rate of thrombus generation (TMRTG), and decreases in the angle, maximum amplitude, and maximum rate of thrombus generation. Compared with the control, the median percentage change (interquartile range) in the TEG values of the samples treated with the highest exogenous sugammadex concentration was the greatest for r, 53% (26, 67.3%), and TMRTG, 48% (26, 59%). This in vitro study suggests that supratherapeutic doses of exogenous sugammadex might be associated with moderate hypocoagulation in the whole blood of healthy subjects. identifier:  UMIN000029081 , registered 11 September 2017.

  4. Perioperative coagulation management and blood conservation in cardiac surgery: a Canadian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Ravi; Fernandes, Philip; Marwaha, Gulshan; Cheng, Davy; Bainbridge, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    To determine which strategies are currently used for (anti)coagulation management and blood conservation during cardiac surgery in Canada. Institutional survey. University hospital. All sites performing cardiac surgery in Canada. None. The response rate was 85%. Anticoagulation with heparin is monitored routinely through the activated coagulation time (ACT). Less than 10% of centers use heparin concentrations (Hepcon HMS, Medtronic), thromboelastography, or other point-of-care tests perioperatively. Eighty percent of centers routinely use tranexamic acid as the primary antifibrinolytic agent; however aprotinin until recently, was used more commonly for patients at increased risk for bleeding. Retrograde autologous prime is commonly used (62%); however, cell savers are uncommon for routine patients undergoing cardiac surgery (29%). Although most hospitals use a hematocrit of 20% to 21% for transfusing red blood cells, more than 50% of intensive care units do not have written guidelines for the administration of protamine, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, or factor VIIa. At least one third of centers do not audit their transfusion practices regularly. The majority of Canadian institutions do not use point-of-care tests other than ACT. Most institutions do not have algorithms for management of bleeding following cardiac surgery and at least 30% do not monitor their transfusion practice perioperatively. Cardiac surgery patients in Canada may benefit from a standardized approach to blood conservation in the perioperative period.

  5. Association of air pollution sources and aldehydes with biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary inflammation, and systemic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Robson, Mark G; Kipen, Howard M; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Gong, Jicheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Rich, David Q; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-05-01

    Using data collected before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, this study examines associations between biomarkers of blood coagulation (vWF, sCD62P and sCD40L), pulmonary inflammation (EBC pH, EBC nitrite, and eNO), and systemic oxidative stress (urinary 8-OHdG) with sources of air pollution identified utilizing principal component analysis and with concentrations of three aldehydes of health concern. Associations between the biomarkers and the air pollution source types and aldehydes were examined using a linear mixed effects model, regressing through seven lag days and controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, gender, and day of week for the biomarker measurements. The biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation, particularly EBC pH and eNO, were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The biomarkers for blood coagulation, particularly vWF and sCD62p, were most consistently associated with oil combustion. Systemic oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG) was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. The associations of the biomarkers were generally not significant or consistent with secondary formation of pollutants and with the aldehydes. The findings support policies to control anthropogenic pollution sources rather than natural soil or road dust from a cardio-respiratory health standpoint.

  6. Interaction of blood coagulation factor Va with phospholipid vesicles examined by using lipophilic photoreagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, U.C.; Isaacs, B.S.; Yemul, S.S.; Esmon, C.T.; Bayley, H.; Johnson, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two different lipophilic photoreagents, [ 3 H]adamantane diazirine and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)diazirine (TID), have been utilized to examine the interactions of blood coagulation factor Va with calcium, prothrombin, factor Xa, and, in particular, phospholipid vesicles. With each of these structurally dissimilar reagents, the extent of photolabeling of factor Va was greater when the protein was bound to a membrane surface than when it was free in solution. Specifically, the covalent photoreaction with Vl, the smaller subunit of factor Va, was 2-fold higher in the presence of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS, 3:1) vesicles, to which factor Va binds, than in the presence of 100% PC vesicles, to which the protein does not bind. However, the magnitude of the PC/PS-dependent photolabeling was much less than has been observed previously with integral membrane proteins. It therefore appears that the binding of factor Va to the membrane surface exposes Vl to the lipid core of the bilayer, but that only a small portion of the Vl polypeptide is exposed to, or embedded in, the bilayer core. Addition of either prothrombin or active-site-blocked factor Xa to PC/PS-bound factor Va had little effect on the photolabeling of Vl with TID, but reduced substantially the covalent labeling of Vh, the larger subunit of factor Va. This indicates that prothrombin and factor Xa each cover nonpolar surfaces on Vh when the macromolecules associate on the PC/PS surface. It therefore seems likely that the formation of the prothrombinase complex involves a direct interaction between Vh and factor Xa and between Vh and prothrombin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Theories About Blood Coagulation in the Writings of Ancient Greek Medico-philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Anaxagoras and Empedocles both established during the Presocratic era a pioneering theory for the creation of everything in the universe. Macrocosmos' impact through the "Four Elements Theory" explained the conglomeration of the blood inside the vessels. Hippocrates, who instituted the "Four Humours theory", clearly understood blood's coagulation and introduced the term "thrombus". Plato, Aristotle and Galen, all engaged with the clotting phenomenon trying to interpret it. After eons of inquiry, it was the innovative thinking of the ancient Greek medico philosophers that set the scientific bases towards the understanding of a process that had been analyzing until our era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Early Blood Transfusion and Resolution of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Associated with Massive Subgaleal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modanlou, Houchang; Hutson, Shandee; Merritt, Allan Thurman

    2016-01-01

    A male infant delivered to a primipara woman following vacuum applications. He was vigorous at birth, with small caput and scalp bruising. His head was enlarging; he became pale with respiratory distress. Subgaleal hemorrhage (SGH) was suspected. His hematocrit was noted to be 26.2 percent prior to transfusion of O, Rh-negative blood (40 mL/kg). Moderate disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was noted at 12 hours of age. Posttransfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), his condition became stable, and DIC gradually resolved. Head magnetic resonance imaging did not show intracranial hemorrhage. Although one episode of seizures was noted, electroencephalogram was normal. With the application of obstetric vacuum, we recommend that the neonatal health care professionals frequently evaluate the infant's condition. In light of developing fluctuant subgaleal fluid associated with pallor, anemia, metabolic acidosis, and respiratory distress, immediate blood transfusion is warranted. In the presence of DIC, transfusion of FFP is beneficial.

  9. Improved coagulation and blood conservation in the golden hours after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Scott R; Carlile, Dee; Bissinger, Randall C; Burrell, M; Winkler, Thomas; Shely, William W

    2007-06-01

    The Hemobag (HB) technique allows the open-heart team to safely concentrate the residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit contents and return a high volume of concentrated clotting factors and blood cells back to the patient as autotransfusion. Hematocrit, platelet count, fibrinogen concentration ([Fib]), prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) were compared between two prospective convenience groups of cardiac surgical patients whose residual circuit blood was processed by the HB (n=10) or by the Cell Saver (CS; n=10) at two times after CPB: (a) after acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) infusion and protamine administration and (b) after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), approximately 1 hour after CPB and HB content infusion. Minimal cell processing was also used in the HB patients to conserve blood. "Golden hours" is defined as the first few hours after CPB and protamine sulfate administration and extend into the ICU, when maintaining hemostasis is vital during cardiac surgery and is the most susceptible period for blood product administration and the opportunity to improve patient outcome. Except for PTT, all parameters changed significantly from the ANH infusion and protamine administration to approximately 1 hour after HB blood infusion and arrival in the ICU. Fibrinogen (p = .048) and hematocrit (p = .046) were significantly higher in the HB group compared with the CS group at the end of the golden hour despite infusion of significantly more allogeneic blood products (p = .070) and more washed red blood cells (RBCs; p = .001) in the CS group. All but one of the HB patients did not receive any allogeneic blood products during the golden hours. Use of the HB technique for salvaging blood is associated with significant increases in the patient's protein and cellular concentrations and lowered coagulation times in the important, first few golden hours after CPB, and except for one patient

  10. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  11. Acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography of coagulating blood: theoretical viscoelasticity modeling and ex vivo experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Destrempes, François; Chayer, Boris; Kazemirad, Siavash; Cloutier, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is a common vascular disease that can lead to pulmonary embolism and death. The early diagnosis and clot age staging are important parameters for reliable therapy planning. This article presents an acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography method for the viscoelastic characterization of clotting blood. The physical concept of this method relies on the mechanical resonance of the blood clot occurring at specific frequencies. Resonances are induced by focusing ultrasound beams inside the sample under investigation. Coupled to an analytical model of wave scattering, the ability of the proposed method to characterize the viscoelasticity of a mimicked venous thrombosis in the acute phase is demonstrated. Experiments with a gelatin-agar inclusion sample of known viscoelasticity are performed for validation and establishment of the proof of concept. In addition, an inversion method is applied in vitro for the kinetic monitoring of the blood coagulation process of six human blood samples obtained from two volunteers. The computed elasticity and viscosity values of blood samples at the end of the 90 min kinetics were estimated at 411  ±  71 Pa and 0.25  ±  0.03 Pa · s for volunteer #1, and 387  ±  35 Pa and 0.23  ±  0.02 Pa · s for volunteer #2, respectively. The proposed method allowed reproducible time-varying thrombus viscoelastic measurements from samples having physiological dimensions.

  12. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K [University of Washington, Department of Bioengineering, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  13. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  14. From blood coagulation to innate and adaptive immunity: the role of platelets in the physiology and pathology of autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Zuzanna Małgorzata; Makowski, Marcin; Makowska, Joanna Samanta

    2018-02-28

    Thrombosis and cardiovascular complications are common manifestations of a variety of pathological conditions, including infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. Hence, there is great interest in determining the hitherto unforeseen immune role of the main blood coagulation executor-the platelet. Platelets store and release a plethora of immunoactive molecules, generate microparticles, and interact with cells classically belonging to the immune system. The observed effects of platelet involvement in immune processes, especially in autoimmune diseases, are conflicting-from inciting inflammation to mediating its resolution. An in-depth understanding of the role of platelets in inflammation and immunity could open new therapeutic pathways for patients with autoimmune disorders. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on the role of platelets in the patomechanisms of autoimmune disorders and suggests directions for future research.

  15. The influence of hydraulic conditions on coagulation process effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambor Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact that small changes in the hydraulic installation between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tanks have on coagulation process effectiveness. This study has shown significant improvements in the parameters of the treated water. The research was conducted in two treatment systems: reference and test, in order to compare the changes that were introduced in the time period between January and May 2016. The hydraulic conditions between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tank were changed in the test system, leaving the reference system unchanged for comparative purposes. The height-wise positioning of the sedimentation tank relative to the flocculation chamber resulted in a formation of a cascade at the flocculation chamber drain at a height of 0.60m. Air was therefore introduced into the water, forming an air-water mixture, which disturbed the flow between the devices. It was found that floc transported by the pipeline was broken down, which hampered sedimentation in the sedimentation tank. This was confirmed by the analysis of chosen parameters from treated water. After changes in the hydraulic system, changes in water turbidity were noticed, indicating an increase in post-coagulation suspension separation effectiveness. Consequently, an increase in organic carbon removal was found relative to the reference system. This change influenced changes in UV254 absorbance to a much lesser extent.

  16. The influence of hydraulic conditions on coagulation process effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambor, Aleksandra; Ferenc, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the impact that small changes in the hydraulic installation between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tanks have on coagulation process effectiveness. This study has shown significant improvements in the parameters of the treated water. The research was conducted in two treatment systems: reference and test, in order to compare the changes that were introduced in the time period between January and May 2016. The hydraulic conditions between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tank were changed in the test system, leaving the reference system unchanged for comparative purposes. The height-wise positioning of the sedimentation tank relative to the flocculation chamber resulted in a formation of a cascade at the flocculation chamber drain at a height of 0.60m. Air was therefore introduced into the water, forming an air-water mixture, which disturbed the flow between the devices. It was found that floc transported by the pipeline was broken down, which hampered sedimentation in the sedimentation tank. This was confirmed by the analysis of chosen parameters from treated water. After changes in the hydraulic system, changes in water turbidity were noticed, indicating an increase in post-coagulation suspension separation effectiveness. Consequently, an increase in organic carbon removal was found relative to the reference system. This change influenced changes in UV254 absorbance to a much lesser extent.

  17. The pro-coagulant fibrinogenolytic serine protease isoenzymes purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom coagulate the blood through factor V activation: role of glycosylation on enzymatic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis K Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Proteases from Russell's viper venom (RVV induce a variety of toxic effects in victim. Therefore, four new RVV protease isoenzymes of molecular mass 32901.044 Da, 333631.179 Da, 333571.472 Da, and 34594.776 Da, were characterized in this study. The first 10 N-terminal residues of these serine protease isoenzymes showed significant sequence homology with N-terminal sequences of snake venom thrombin-like and factor V-activating serine proteases, which was reconfirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. These proteases were found to be different from previously reported factor V activators isolated from snake venoms. These proteases showed significantly different fibrinogenolytic, BAEE-esterase and plasma clotting activities but no fibrinolytic, TAME-esterase or amidolytic activity against the chromogenic substrate for trypsin, thrombin, plasmin and factor Xa. Their Km and Vmax values towards fibrinogen were determined in the range of 6.6 to 10.5 µM and 111.0 to 125.5 units/mg protein, respectively. On the basis of fibrinogen degradation pattern, they may be classified as A/B serine proteases isolated from snake venom. These proteases contain ∼ 42% to 44% of N-linked carbohydrates by mass whereas partially deglycosylated enzymes showed significantly less catalytic activity as compared to native enzymes. In vitro these protease isoenzymes induce blood coagulation through factor V activation, whereas in vivo they provoke dose-dependent defibrinogenation and anticoagulant activity in the mouse model. At a dose of 5 mg/kg, none of these protease isoenzymes were found to be lethal in mice or house geckos, suggesting therapeutic application of these anticoagulant peptides for the prevention of thrombosis.

  18. Effect of intravenous administration of dextrose on coagulation in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Jennifer L; Hanel, Rita M; Hansen, Bernie D; Marks, Steve L

    2011-04-01

    To investigate effects of IV administration of dextrose on coagulation in healthy dogs. 7 dogs. Thromboelastography and coagulation panel analysis were used to assess coagulation. Samples (S1 through S9) were collected during the study phases: phase 0 (S1 [baseline]); phase 1 (S2 and S3), infusion of crystalloid fluid without dextrose; phase 2 (S4 and S5), high-rate dextrose infusion; phase 3 (S6, S7, and S8), moderate-rate dextrose infusion; and phase 4 (S9), discontinuation of fluids for 24 hours. In phase 3, dogs were allocated to 2 groups; 1 was administered dextrose at a rate comparable to total parental nutrition (40% of resting energy requirement; group A), and 1 was administered dextrose at rates equaling 70% to 90% of resting energy requirement (group B). Blood glucose concentration was measured every 2 hours. No dogs had clinically relevant sustained hyperglycemia. Maximum amplitude and elastic shear modulus were significantly lower at S6 than at S1 through S4. Concentration of D-dimer was significantly higher at S6 than at S1, S3, and S4 and significantly higher at S5 than at S3. Prothrombin time was significantly prolonged at S3, S5, S7, S8, and S9, compared with the value at S1. Activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly prolonged at S5 and S6, compared with values at S1, S2, S3, S4, and S9. IV administration of dextrose to healthy dogs at rates comparable to or higher than those for conventional parenteral nutrition resulted in mild but clinically unimportant interference with coagulation.

  19. Extraction of mRNA from coagulated horse blood and analysis of inflammation-related cytokine responses to coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    the peripheral blood mononuclear cells present in the blood clot, homogenizing the clot by rotating knife homogenization (GentleMACS, Miltenyi Biotec) in the presence of QIAzol extraction buffer (Qiagen). The RNA extracted yielded high concentrations of total RNA (50-265 ng/μl) and quality measures (RIN=8...

  20. Effect of Sugammadex on Postoperative Bleeding and Coagulation Parameters After Septoplasty: A Randomized Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, Nilay; Korkmaz, Hakan; Yağan, Özgür; Korkmaz, Mukadder

    2015-01-01

    Backround Sugammadex is a reversal agent with well known advantages but it’s effects on haemostasis and bleeding have been a topic of interest. Septoplasty is a common surgical procedure with postoperative respiratory complications and bleeding. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of sugammadex on postoperative coagulation parameters and bleeding after septoplasty procedure. Material/Methods In this randomized controlled study, fifty patients were grouped into two groups; neostigmine (Group N) vs. sugammadex (Group S). For the evaluation of PT, aPTT and INR, blood samples were taken for at the postoperative 120th minutes and alteration of these values with respect to preoperative values were documented. Postoperative bleeding was measured by evaluating the amount of blood absorbed on the nasal tip dressing during 3 hours postoperatively. Results Postoperative bleeding amount was significantly higher in the Group S compared to Group N (p=0.013). No significant difference was observed between two groups according to coagulation parameters (PT; p=0.953, aPTT; p=0.734, INR; p=0.612). Conclusions Sugammadex was associated with higher amount of postoperative bleeding than neostigmine in septoplasty patients. In surgical procedures having high risk of bleeding the safety of sugammadex need to be verified. PMID:26271275

  1. Massive Exploration of Perturbed Conditions of the Blood Coagulation Cascade through GPU Parallelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cazzaniga

    2014-01-01

    high-performance computing solutions is motivated by the need of performing large numbers of in silico analysis to study the behavior of biological systems in different conditions, which necessitate a computing power that usually overtakes the capability of standard desktop computers. In this work we present coagSODA, a CUDA-powered computational tool that was purposely developed for the analysis of a large mechanistic model of the blood coagulation cascade (BCC, defined according to both mass-action kinetics and Hill functions. coagSODA allows the execution of parallel simulations of the dynamics of the BCC by automatically deriving the system of ordinary differential equations and then exploiting the numerical integration algorithm LSODA. We present the biological results achieved with a massive exploration of perturbed conditions of the BCC, carried out with one-dimensional and bi-dimensional parameter sweep analysis, and show that GPU-accelerated parallel simulations of this model can increase the computational performances up to a 181× speedup compared to the corresponding sequential simulations.

  2. Pulsed electric field extraction enhanced anti-coagulant effect of fungal polysaccharide from Jew's ear (Auricularia auricula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changtian; Mao, Xinxin; Xu, Baojun

    2013-01-01

    As a Chinese herbal medicine, Jew's ear has been known for its anti-coagulant effects. Hence it is worthwhile developing an effective technique to extract active components. To find the optimal extraction condition and to identify the best strain to yield fungal polysaccharide with anti-coagulant activity. Three strains of Jew's ear from Jilin Province, named as 988, DY 18 and FS 02, and three extraction techniques, namely, high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF), microwave-assisted extraction method (MAEM) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction method (UAEM), were applied to optimise the extraction conditions. The crude extracts and polysaccharides were further determined for anti-coagulant activities. All extracts prolonged blood clotting time as compared to reagent control. The HIPEF exhibited the most remarkable effect among the three extraction techniques. The anti-coagulant activities of extracts were enhanced with increasing electric field strength when the field strength reached 24 kV/cm. Current results suggest that the HIPEF technique will be an effective method in the manufacture of bioactive natural polysaccharide. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [The pathogenesis of subclinical laminitis in dairy cattle: studies of the hoof status, rumen status and blood coagulation factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandejsky, F; Stanek, C; Schuh, M

    1994-02-01

    In 50 dairy cows of the breed "Braunvieh" (36 heifers, 14 cows) of one herd the claw score was recorded over a period of 2 months before parturition until 6 months after parturition. The claw scores were correlated with the clinical findings, the ruminal function and the blood coagulation factors calcium-thromboplastin (TPZ), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), thrombin time (TZ) and antithrombin III (AT III) evaluated one day and one week after calving. The claw score increased from the first to the second examination, remaining on the same level in the postpartal period. No correlation between the claw scores and the ruminal function was evident. In comparison with a control group, TPZ and PTT were found higher one day and one week after parturition in the experimental group. Blood coagulation factors and claw scores were found uncorrelated.

  4. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aysegul

    2013-09-11

    clotting enzyme in traditional cheese-making world- wide (Fox, 1987 ... Following pre-brining, the cheeses were packaged in plastic cups (1 kg) containing ..... study the differential degradation of αs-casein by various coagulants.

  5. Effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with AMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Kuang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: A total of 39 patients with AMI who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2016 to November, 2016 were included in the study and served as the observation group. The peripheral venous blood before and after thrombolysis was collected. The plasma NTproBNP level, related coagulation factors, and fibrinolysis indicators were detected. The cardiac function before treatment was evaluated. A total of 30 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group for contrastive analysis. Results: The plasma NT-proBNP, Fg, and D-D levels before thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while PT, APTT, and TT in the observation group were significantly shortened. The plasma NT-proBNP and D-D levels 2-48 h after thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly elevated first and reduced later and reached the peak 4 h after treatment, while PT, APTT, and TT were significantly extended first and shortened later. The plasma Fg level was significantly reduced first and elevated later and reached the minimum 4 h after treatment. During the treatment process, in the observation group, 2 had mucocutaneous hemorrhage, 3 had nasal hemorrhage, and 1 had gingival bleeding, but no gastrointestinal bleeding or cerebral hemorrhage occurred. Conclusions: The thrombolytic therapy can effectively reduce the coagulation activity in patients with AMI, strengthen the fibrinolysis activity, and improve the cardiac function.

  6. Effect of sugammadex on coagulation as detected by rotational thromboelastometry in morbidly obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Michele; Bertini, Diana; Prandini, Tancredi; Fanton, Francesca; Foletto, Mirto; Ori, Carlo; Perissinotto, Egle; Simioni, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Sugammadex, which is used to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, has a limited and transient effect on activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time. However, no data are available on the effects of sugammadex on coagulation in morbidly obese patients, as assessed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®). Sixty patients received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg to reverse moderate or deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (N.=30/group) at the end of surgery under desflurane anesthesia. Arterial blood samples were collected before and 3 min and 30 min after sugammadex administration for ROTEM® analysis, including measurements of clotting time (CT), clot formation time, α angle, and maximum clot firmness in INTEM, EXTEM, and FIBTEM assays. Major and minor bleeding events were also monitored during the postoperative period. Sugammadex 2 and 4 mg/kg has a limited and transient (sugammadex dose (500 mg) on the INTEM CT (P=0.002). A regression analysis showed a positive relationship between sugammadex dose and INTEM CT value at 3 min after administration (coefficient = 0.052 s; 95% CI: 0.005-0.098 s; P=0.03). No major or minor bleeding events were observed in either group during the postoperative period. Sugammadex produces a slight effect on coagulation in morbidly obese patients, without increasing the risk for postoperative bleeding.

  7. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components: protein adsorption, coagulation, activation of the complement system and hemolysis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-04-14

    The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising alternative for delivery of drugs to specific cells. However, studies on their interaction with diverse blood components using different techniques are still lacking. Therefore, in the present work, the interaction of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components was described using different complementary techniques. The influence of different encapsulated compounds/functionalizing agents on these interactions was also reported. It is worth noting that all these techniques can be simply performed, without the need for highly sophisticated apparatus or skills. Moreover, their transference to industries and application of quality control could be easily performed. Serum albumin was adsorbed onto all types of tested nanoparticles. The saturation concentration was dependent on the nanoparticle size. In contrast, fibrinogen aggregation was dependent on nanoparticle surface charge. The complement activation was also influenced by the nanoparticle functionalization; the presence of a functionalizing agent increased complement activation, while the addition of an encapsulated compound only caused a slight increase. None of the nanoparticles influenced the coagulation cascade at low concentrations. However, at high concentrations, cationized nanoparticles did activate the coagulation cascade. Interactions of nanoparticles with erythrocytes did not reveal any hemolysis. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood proteins depended both on the nanoparticle properties and the protein studied. Independent of their loading/surface functionalization, PLGA nanoparticles did not influence the coagulation cascade and did not induce hemolysis of erythrocytes; they could be defined as safe concerning induction of embolization and cell lysis.

  8. Coagulation defects in experimental hepatic injury in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbaldiston, G W; Hoffman, M W

    1971-04-01

    Alteration in activity of blood coagulation factors in dogs with acute hepatic injury caused by oral carbon tetrachloride dosing was studied. Coagulation Factors II, VII and IX were dramatically reduced within 48 hours but recovered to normal in the next five days. Because surgery is rarely performed on dogs with hepatic necrosis, the use of fresh whole blood tranfusion to improve the coagulation defect in hepatic injury was also studied. Transfusion was found to have only a temporary beneficial effect.

  9. Effect of THI on milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Beux

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI on the milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle from northeast part of Italy. A total of 592 individual milk samples from six dairy herds were evaluated. The milk coagulation properties traits analysed were milk rennet coagulation time and curd firmness, as well as the fat, protein, and casein contents, pH, milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC, and the somatic cell count. The THI was determined during the periods of sample collection. The THI results showed that values of up to 75 did not significantly change the IAC values; however, when the THI values were above 75, the IAC decreased significantly. The control of THI can be used to guarantee appropriate milk coagulation properties.

  10. Blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices: changes in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and predictive values for preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE.We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE.Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79, mild preeclampsia (mPE (n = 53 and severe preeclampsia (sPE (n = 42, were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis.During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, thrombin time (TT and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05. However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743 and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671 and ideal predictive efficiency.Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring markers for the onset and severity of PE

  11. A combined structural dynamics approach identifies a putative switch in factor VIIa employed by tissue factor to initiate blood coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole H; Rand, Kasper D; Østergaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) requires tissue factor (TF) to attain full catalytic competency and to initiate blood coagulation. In this study, the mechanism by which TF allosterically activates FVIIa is investigated by a structural dynamics approach that combines molecular dynamics (MD......) simulations and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HX) mass spectrometry on free and TF-bound FVIIa. The differences in conformational dynamics from MD simulations are shown to be confined to regions of FVIIa observed to undergo structural stabilization as judged by HX experiments, especially implicating activation...... in the presence of TF or an active-site inhibitor. Based on MD simulations, a key switch of the TF-induced structural changes is identified as the interacting pair Leu305{163} and Phe374{225} in FVIIa, whose mutual conformations are guided by the presence of TF and observed to be closely linked to the structural...

  12. The prospects of application of natural antioxidants in correction of blood coagulation in patients with breast cancer during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syimonova, L.Yi.; Byilogurova, L.V.; Gertman, V.Z.; Pushkar, S.M.; Muzikant, P.M.; Nesterenko, G.Yi.

    2008-01-01

    As an accompanying therapy of the patients with BC Bipolan produced positive effect on coagulation homeostasis. By the end of the course of treatment the indices of homeostasis normalized in the experimental group of the patients; manifestations of DIC syndrome and thromboembolic complications were controlled

  13. Importance of levonorgestrel dose in oral contraceptives for effects on coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluft, C.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Heinemann, L.A.J.; Spannagl, M.; Schramm, W.

    1999-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives show clear differences in effect on the tissue factor-initiated coagulation test of activated protein C resistance, which is dependent on the presence and dosage of levonorgestrel. Multiphasic levonorgestrol oral contraceptives differ from monophasic contraceptives and

  14. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of chemical oxidation demand (COD), soap oil and grease (SOG), total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity from the MOW were used as the response variables for the coagulation flotation process. This was done with a standard dissolved air flotation jar test. The results show that the actual COD, SOG, TSS ...

  15. The effects of continuous venovenous hemofiltration on coagulation activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Catherine S. C.; de Pont, Anne-Cornélie J. M.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Bakhtiari, Kamran; Roem, Dorina; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wolbink, Gertjan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Levi, Marcel; de Jonge, Evert

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mechanism of coagulation activation during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) has not yet been elucidated. Insight into the mechanism(s) of hemostatic activation within the extracorporeal circuit could result in a more rational approach to anticoagulation. The aim of the

  16. Effect of cyanobacterial peptides and proteins on coagulation of kaolinite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Kateřina; Barešová, Magdalena; Čermáková, Lenka; Načeradská, Jana; Pivokonský, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 83-89 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : cellular organic matter * coagulation * complex formation * Microcystis aeruginosa * water treatment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/271/123

  17. Condutivity effect in electro-coagulation-flotation applied to physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán; Mário Luiz Rodrigues Foco

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of conductivity on the simultaneous applicability of water electrolysis , chemical coagulation and flotation fundamentals in the treatment of wastewater with large amounts of suspended matter, characterizing electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) . Results from experiments carried out in a pilot study implanted and operated in the Laboratory of Environment Control (LCA), at the State University of Campinas in Limeira are presented. ECF was developed in an electro...

  18. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: a key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and factor IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. Our earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were ma...

  19. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa...... is important for understanding the mechanism of activation and for the stability and activity of the pharmaceutical product. However, crystal structures of FVIIa in complex with TF and of truncated free FVIIa reveal different overall conformations while previous small-angle scattering studies suggest FVIIa...... causing resistance to activation, thereby emphasizing the connection between the distribution of different conformations of FVII and the mechanism of activation....

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Triterpenoids from Panax ginseng on Coagulation Factor X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxin Xiong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes involved in the coagulation process have received great attention as potential targets for the development of oral anti-coagulants. Among these enzymes, coagulation factor Xa (FXa has remained the center of attention in the last decade. In this study, 16 ginsenosides and two sapogenins were isolated, identified and quantified. To determine the inhibitory potential on FXa, the chromogenic substrates method was used. The assay suggested that compounds 5, 13 and 18 were mainly responsible for the anti-coagulant effect. Furthermore, these three compounds also possessed high thrombin selectivity in the thrombin inhibition assay. Furthermore, Glide XP from Schrödinger was employed for molecular docking to clarify the interaction between the bioactive compounds and FXa. Therefore, the chemical and biological results indicate that compounds 5 (ginsenoside Rg2, 13 (ginsenoside Rg3 and 18 (protopanaxtriol, PPT are potential natural inhibitors against FXa.

  1. Surface Potential and Particle Size Effect on the Rate of Perikinetic Coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Bolivar, J. A.; Galisteo-Gonzalez, F.; Cabrerizo-Vilchez, M.; Hidalgo-alvarez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The diffusion-controlled rapid coagulation rate of monodisperse polystyrene particles in aqueous solutions has been measured with a low angle scattering apparatus (nephelometer). We have refined this technique by using a narrow scattering flow cell and a pneumatic addicting-mixing device to introduce the salt solution and the latex sample in the cell. Coagulation rate constants were determined from analysis of the scattered light intensity dependence with time at an angle of 4.5 degree centigrade ± 1 degree centigrade. Experiments were designed to check the effects of particle size, surface potential and counterion valency on rapid coagulation constant. The particle ranged in diameter from 151 nm to 530 nm. The results are compared with the predictions of Smoluchowski's theory. Experiments to obtain the stability diagrams and the critical coagulation concentration of latexes have been performed. (Author) 31 refs

  2. Effects of oversulfated and fucosylated chondroitin sulfates on coagulation. Challenges for the study of anticoagulant polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Roberto J C; Oliveira, Stephan-Nicollas M C G; Pomin, Vitor H; Mecawi, André S; Araujo, Iracema G; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2010-05-01

    We report the effects of a chemically oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and a naturally fucosylated chondroitin sulfate on the coagulation system. The former has been recently identified as a contaminant of heparin preparations and the latter has been proposed as an alternative anticoagulant. The mechanism of action of these polymers on coagulation is complex and target different components of the coagulation system. They have serpin-independent anticoagulant activity, which preponderates in plasma. They also have serpin-dependent anticoagulant activity but differ significantly in the target coagulation protease and preferential serpin. Their anticoagulant effects differ even more markedly when tested as inhibitors of coagulation proteases using plasma as a source of serpins. It is possible that the difference is due to the high availability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate whereas oversulfated chondroitin sulfate has strong unspecific binding to plasma protein and low availability for the binding to serpins. When tested using a venous thrombosis experimental model, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is less potent as an antithrombotic agent than fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. These highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates activate factor XII in in vitro assays, based on kallikrein release. However, only fucosylated chondroitin sulfate induces hypotension when intravenously injected into rats. In conclusion, the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the action of highly sulfated polysaccharides in coagulation requires their analysis by a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Our results are relevant due to the urgent need for new anticoagulant drugs or alternative sources of heparin.

  3. Analysis of the complex formation of heparin with protamine by light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation: implications for blood coagulation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen; Haselbach, Stephanie; Klein, Oliver; Baykut, Doan; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner

    2011-02-02

    Heparin, a linear glycosaminoglycan, is used in different forms in anticoagulation treatment. Protamine, a highly positive charged peptide containing about 32 amino acids, acts as an antagonist for heparin to restore normal blood coagulation. The complex formation of protamine with heparin was analyzed by a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering. Titration of heparin with protamine in blood plasma preparations results in a drastic increase of turbidity, indicating the formation of nanoscale particles. A similar increase of turbidity was observed in physiological saline solution with or without human serum albumin (HSA). Particle size analysis by analytical ultracentrifugation revealed a particle radius of approximately 30 nm for unfractionated heparin and of approximately 60 nm for low molecular weight heparin upon complexation with excess protamine, in agreement with atomic force microscopy data. In the absence of HSA, larger and more heterogeneous particles were observed. The particles obtained were found to be stable for hours. The particle formation kinetics was analyzed by light scattering at different scattering angles and was found to be complete within several minutes. The time course of particle formation suggests a condensation reaction, with sigmoidal traces for low heparin concentrations and quasi-first-order reaction for high heparin concentrations. Under all conditions, the final scattering intensity reached after several minutes was found to be proportional to the amount of heparin in the blood plasma or buffer solution, provided that excess protamine was available and no multiple scattering occurred. On the basis of a direct relation between particle concentration and the heparin concentration present before protaminization, a light scattering assay was developed which permits the quantitative analysis of the heparin concentration in blood plasma and which could complement or even replace the activated clotting time test

  4. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, L.V.M.; Rapaport, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125 I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  5. Characterization and blood coagulation evaluation of the water-soluble chitooligosaccharides prepared by a facile fractionation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Jui-Che

    2003-01-01

    Water-soluble chitooligosaccharides have been reported to have specific biological activities. In this study, the chitosan samples with different degree of acetylation were used separately to prepare chitooligosaccharide (COS) and highly deacetylated chitooligosaccharide (HDCOS) through the nitrous acid depolymerization. Rather than using the conventional fractionation schemes commonly employed, such as dialysis and ultrafiltration which require a large amount of deionized water as well as a fair long dwell time, an unique fractionation scheme is explored to recover and desalt these nitrous-acid depolymerized chitosan with different molecular weights. This fractionation scheme is based on the differential solubility variation of depolymerized products within the aqueous solutions that contain various ratios of methanol. It was noted that chitosan with different molecular weight can be successfully recovered and fractionated with methanol added sequentially up to a volume of four times of original depolmerized product. In addition, chemical characterization of the fractionated water-soluble COS and HDCOS by 1H NMR spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) indicated that the chitosan depolymerization reaction is greatly influenced by the degree of acetylation of the parental chitosan reactant. Moreover, the modified whole blood clotting time assay and the platelet coagulation test suggested that the 1:2 fractionated water-soluble COS and HDCOS obtained are much less procoagulant than their parental chitosan compound and can be of use in biomedical applications in which blood coagulation is not desired.

  6. Assessment of the effects of dalteparin on coagulation variables and determination of a treatment schedule for use in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönig, Jette C; Mischke, Reinhard H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine a treatment protocol for SC administration of dalteparin to cats on the basis of currently available detailed pharmacokinetic data and to assess the effect of SC administration of dalteparin to cats on coagulation variables such as activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time, and results for thromboelastometry, compared with effects on anti-activated coagulation factor X (anti-Xa) activity. ANIMALS 6 healthy domestic shorthair cats. PROCEDURES Cats received 14 injections of dalteparin (75 anti-Xa U/kg, SC) at 6-hour intervals. Blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after the first and second injections on days 1, 2, and 4. Anti-Xa activity was measured by use of a chromogenic substrate assay, aPTT and thrombin time were measured by use of an automated coagulometer, and viscoelastic measurements were obtained with thromboelastrometry. RESULTS 2 hours after the second injection, the target peak anti-Xa activity range of 0.5 to 1.0 U/mL was achieved in all cats, whereas median trough values remained below this range. Peak anti-Xa activity had only minimal effects on coagulation variables; the maximum median ratio for aPTT (in relationship to the value before the first dalteparin injection) was 1.23. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study indicated that this treatment protocol resulted in reproducible anti-Xa activity in cats that was mostly within the targeted peak range of anti-Xa activity recommended for humans. Treatment in accordance with this protocol may not require routine coagulation monitoring of cats, but this must be confirmed in feline patients.

  7. A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate: reevaluating the effect of coagulation scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate is proposed. It is derived from the aerosol general dynamic equation in the discrete form and then converted into an approximately continuous form for analyzing data from new particle formation (NPF field campaigns. The new formula corrects the underestimation of the coagulation scavenging effect that occurred in the previously used formulae. It also clarifies the criteria for determining the upper size bound in measured aerosol size distributions for estimating new particle formation rate. An NPF field campaign was carried out from 7 March to 7 April 2016 in urban Beijing, and a diethylene glycol scanning mobility particle spectrometer equipped with a miniature cylindrical differential mobility analyzer was used to measure aerosol size distributions down to ∼ 1 nm. Eleven typical NPF events were observed during this period. Measured aerosol size distributions from 1 nm to 10 µm were used to test the new formula and the formulae widely used in the literature. The previously used formulae that perform well in a relatively clean atmosphere in which nucleation intensity is not strong were found to underestimate the comparatively high new particle formation rate in urban Beijing because of their underestimation or neglect of the coagulation scavenging effect. The coagulation sink term is the governing component of the estimated formation rate in the observed NPF events in Beijing, and coagulation among newly formed particles contributes a large fraction to the coagulation sink term. Previously reported formation rates in Beijing and in other locations with intense NPF events might be underestimated because the coagulation scavenging effect was not fully considered; e.g., estimated formation rates of 1.5 nm particles in this campaign using the new formula are 1.3–4.3 times those estimated using the formula neglecting coagulation among particles in the nucleation mode.

  8. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormoen, Garth W; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  9. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  10. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: a comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Alexander A; Staib, A; Görlinger, K; Perrey, M; Dirkmann, D; Kienbaum, P

    2010-02-26

    Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24), triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22), and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22) were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM). Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP) by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19). CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4%) without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8%) and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3%) and TRI (+57.5%). While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  11. Coagulation effectiveness of graphene oxide for the removal of turbidity from raw surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubaraka, Abdelmeguid E; Aboelfetoh, Eman F; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M

    2017-08-01

    This study presents the performance of graphene oxide (GO) as a coagulant in turbidity removal from naturally and artificially turbid raw surface water. GO is considered an excellent alternative to alum, the more common coagulant used in water treatment processes, to reduce the environmental release of aluminum. Effects of GO dosage, pH, and temperature on its coagulation ability were studied to determine the ideal turbidity removal conditions. The turbidity removal was ≥95% for all levels of turbid raw surface water (20, 100, and 200 NTU) at optimum conditions. The role of alkalinity in inducing turbidity removal by GO coagulation was much more pronounced upon using raw surface water samples compared with that using artificially turbid deionized water samples. Moreover, GO demonstrated high-performance removal of biological contaminants such as algae, heterotrophic bacteria, and fecal coliform bacteria by 99.0%, 98.8% and 96.0%, respectively, at a dosage of 40 mg/L. Concerning the possible environmental release of GO into the treated water following filtration process, there was no residual GO in a wide range of pH values. The outcomes of the study highlight the excellent coagulation performance of GO for the removal of turbidity and biological contaminants from raw surface water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of changes in the activation of blood coagulation tests at different variants of thromboprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Миколаївна Клигуненко

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study an influence of the different variants of thromboprophylaxis on activation of blood coagulation test on the background of surgical aggression. D-dimer concentration in serum is in direct proportion to fibrinolysis activity and to an amount of lysed fibrin. At the same time fibrinolysis activation is followed with an increase of formation of products of fibrin degradation (PFD that interact with fibrin-monomers and increase the number of SFMC.Materials and methods: After informed consent 200 patients were prospectively divided into groups depending on preparation and regimen of thromboprophylaxis. 1 group (n=30 – ungraded heparin (UGH (5000 ОD for 2 hours before surgery 2 times during 7 days after it. 2 group(n=30 nadraparin calcium 9500 anti-Ха МO (0,3 ml for 2 hours before surgery 2500 МО 1 time for a day 7 days after surgery; 3 group(n=48 – endoxaparin sodium(0,2 ml for 2 hours before surgery 1 time a day 7 days; 4 group(n=29 endoxaparin sodium(0,2ml for 8 hours before surgery, 0,2 ml 1 time a day 7 days; 5 group(n=34 – bemiparin sodium(0,2 ml for 2 hours before surgery 0,2 ml 1 time a day 7 days; 6 group(n=29 bemiparin sodium(0,2ml in 6 hours after surgery 1 time a day 7 days. Patients were comparable on sex, concomitant pathology, class АSA (1-2 and type of surgical intervention. There were studied the number of thrombocytes, prothrombin time (PT, INR AFTT, fibrinogen, Х-а factor activity, antithrombin, 111 (AT111, protein C, SFMC, d-dimer before surgery, on 1,5 and 7 day after it.Results and discussions: On the 1 day of postsurgical period the most influence on D-dimer level had presurgical thromboprophylaxis (TPP with UGH and nadroparin calcium. So the D-dimer level exceeded norm respectively by 67 % (р=0,017 and 65,9 % (р<0,05. In patients of 3 and 4 groups D-dimer level was the lowest that formed deficiency by 56 % (р<0,05 and 52,7 % (р<0,05 from the norm respectively. At the same time an analysis of

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF CHITOSAN AS NATURAL COAGULANT AID IN TREATING TURBID WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bina ، M. H. Mehdinejad ، M. Nikaeen ، H. Movahedian Attar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants such as chitosan. Chitosan, a natural linear biopolyaminosaccharide, is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitosan as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The optimum pH was observed between 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. The optimum doses of alum and chitosan when used in conjunction, were 10mg/L and 1mg/L, 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L, and 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L in low, medium and high turbidities, respectively. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between %74.3 to %98.2 by alum in conjunction with chitosan. Residual Al+3 in treated water was less than 0.2 mg/L, meeting the international guidelines. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 2-4 log units within the first 1 to 2 hr of treatment. Hardness removal efficiency decreased when the total hardness increased from 102 to 476mg/L as CaCO3. At low initial turbidity, chitosan showed marginally better performance on hardness, especially at the ranges of 100 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3. In conclusion, coagulant aid showed a useful method for coagulation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

  14. Sodium citrate blood contamination by K2 -ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): impact on routine coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, G; Salvagno, G L; Danese, E; Favaloro, E J; Guidi, G C; Lippi, G

    2015-06-01

    The potential cross-contamination of additives between primary blood tubes is a well-known problem during sample collection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of citrated blood contamination with different amounts of dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic (K2 EDTA blood) on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen. Blood was collected from 15 ostensibly healthy volunteers into four 0.109 m citrate blood tubes followed by one K2 EDTA blood tube. The citrate tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in five aliquots. The whole blood of the K2 EDTA tube was then added in scalar amounts to autologous citrated blood aliquots, to obtain K2 EDTA contamination ranging from 0% to 43%, and thus mimic potential pre-analytical contamination. A statistically and clinically significant prolongation was observed for both APTT and PT between 29% and 43% K2 EDTA contamination, whereas the decrease of fibrinogen values became statistically and clinically significant at 43% K2 EDTA contamination. The results of this investigation show that contamination of citrated blood with as much as 29% of K2 EDTA blood generates a significant bias in results of routine clotting assays. This has serious implications for patient safety and management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clinical review: Thyroid dysfunction and effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Romualdi, E.; Buller, H. R.; Gerdes, V. E. A.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Various changes in the coagulation-fibrinolytic system have been described in patients with an excess or deficiency of thyroid hormones. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on these systems. Evidence Acquisition: All

  16. In vitro evaluation of the effect of haemodilution with dextran 40 on coagulation profile as measured by thromboelastometry and multiple electrode aggregometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Pca; Liou, Jpc; Yang, Kxf

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of haemodilution with either dextran 40 or 0.9% normal saline on coagulation in vitro using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®, Pentapharm Co., Munich, Germany) and multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate® Platelet Function Analyser, Dynabyte, Munich, Germany). Venous blood samples obtained from 20 healthy volunteers were diluted in vitro with dextran 40 or normal saline by 5%, 10% and 15%. Fibrinogen concentration, ROTEM-EXTEM® (screening test for the extrinsic coagulation pathway), FIBTEM® (an EXTEM-based assay of the fibrin component of clot) parameters including coagulation time, clot formation time, alpha angle, maximum clot firmness and lysis index were measured in the undiluted sample and at each level of haemodilution. Dextran 40 at 15% haemodilution significantly prolonged coagulation time, clot formation time and significantly decreased the alpha angle and maximal clot firmness (EXTEM amplitude at five minutes [A5] and ten minutes [A10]) compared with normal saline. The FIBTEM assay (maximal clot firmness and FIBTEM A5 and A10) showed a marked decrease in maximal clot firmness at all dilutions suggesting impaired fibrinogen activity and a risk of bleeding. Multiple electrode aggregometry did not demonstrate any platelet dysfunction. Haemodilution with dextran 40 causes significant impairment in clot formation and strength compared to saline haemodilution and undiluted blood. At the levels of in vitro haemodilution designed to reflect the clinical use of dextran infusions, no significant fibrinolysis or platelet inhibition was observed.

  17. Influences of ABO blood group, age and gender on plasma coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 levels in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongkui; Dou, Miaomiao; Du, Xi; Ma, Li; Sun, Pan; Cao, Haijun; Ye, Shengliang; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fengjuan; Lin, Fangzhao; Zhang, Rong; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood group is a hereditary factor of plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Age and gender have been shown to influence FVIII, VWF, fibrinogen (Fbg), and ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We investigated the effects of ABO type, age, and gender on plasma levels of FVIII, Fbg, VWF, and ADAMTS13 in a Chinese population. A total of 290 healthy volunteers were eligible for this study. ABO blood group was determined by indirect technique. FVIII:C and Fbg were measured by clotting assays. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), collagen-binding activity (VWF:CBA), and ADAMTS13 antigen were assessed by ELISA, whereas VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof) was performed by agglutination of platelets with ristocetin. Mean FVIII:C and VWF levels (VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof) were significantly higher in non-O than in O type subjects ( p  blood group, age, and gender showed different effects on plasma levels of FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, VWF:Rcof, and ADAMTS13 antigen. These new data on a Chinese population are quite helpful to compare with other ethnic groups.

  18. Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Sturfelt, G; Junker, A

    1992-01-01

    Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays...

  19. Effect of Chitosan as a Coagulant Aid Combined With Poly Aluminum Chloride Removing of Turbidity From Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a biodegradable polymer, is used as an eco-friendly coagulant in a wide variety of applications in water and wastewater treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan as a coagulant aid combined with poly aluminum chloride (PAC to enhance coagulating efficiency for bentonite suspensions. A conventional jar test apparatus was used for the tests. The effect of various operational parameters, such as initial pH of the solution (5-9.5, dosage of chitosan (0.5-3.5 mg/L, dosage of PAC (5-35 mg/L and initial turbidity (50-200 NTU were investigated. The maximum turbidity removal rates were obtained as pH 8.5 for PAC and pH 7.5 for combined PAC and chitosan (CPC. The coagulating efficiency of bentonite using PAC and CPA was found to decrease with an increase in the pH value of the solutions. The maximum turbidity removal rate was achieved in coagulating by PAC (30 mg/L alone, and PAC (20 mg/L combined with chitosan (2.5 mg/L as coagulant aid with the removal rate of 87% and 96%, respectively. The optimum dosage of chitosan required to obtain the highest removal rate was 2.5 mg/L. Hence, using chitosan as a coagulant aid can not only reduce the required amount of coagulant (35% but can also enhance the removal turbidity efficiency.

  20. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  1. Effects on coagulation factor production following primary hepatomitogen-induced direct hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kohei; Ohashi, Kazuo; Taminishi, Sanae; Takagi, Soichi; Utoh, Rie; Yoshioka, Akira; Shima, Midori; Okano, Teruo

    2009-11-14

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in coagulation factor expression and/or function during direct hyperplasia (DH)-mediated liver regeneration. Direct hyperplasia-mediated liver regeneration was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by administering 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP), a representative hepatomitogen. Mice were weighed and sacrificed at various time points [Day 0 (D0: prior to injection), 3 h, D1, D2, D3, and D10] after TCPOBOP administration to obtain liver and blood samples. Using the RNA samples extracted from the liver, a comprehensive analysis was performed on the hepatic gene expression profiling of coagulation-related factors by real-time RT-PCR (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIIIbeta, plasminogen, antithrombin, protein C, protein S, ADAMTS13, and VWF). The corresponding plasma levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and VWF) were also analyzed and compared with their mRNA levels. Gavage administration of TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a marked and gradual increase in the weight of the mouse livers relative to the total body weight to 220% by D10 relative to the D0 (control) ratios. At the peak of liver regeneration (D1 and D2), the gene expression levels for most of the coagulation-related factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII, XIIIbeta, plasminogen, antithrombin, protein C, ADAMTS13, VWF) were found to be down-regulated in a time-dependent manner, and gradually recovered by D10 to the basal levels. Only mRNA levels of factor X and protein S failed to show any decrease during the regenerative phase. As for the plasma levels, 5 clotting factors (prothrombin, factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) demonstrated a significant decrease (Pfactors, factor IX and factor XI showed the most dramatic decline in their activities by about 50% at D2 compared to the basal levels, and these reductions in

  2. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) on murine coagulation gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum-Asfar, Salam; Boelen, Anita; Reitsma, Pieter H; van Vlijmen, Bart J M

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) production. Under these conditions, the impact of exogenous T3 on plasma coagulation, and hepatic and vessel-wall-associated coagulation gene transcription was studied in a short- (4 hours) and long-term (14 days) setting. Comparing euthyroid conditions (normal mice), with hypothyroidism (conditions of a shortage of thyroid hormone) and those with replacement by incremental doses of T3, dosages of 0 and 0.5 μg T3/mouse/day were selected to study the impact of T3 on coagulation gene transcription. Under these conditions, a single injection of T3 injection increased strongly hepatic transcript levels of the well-characterized T3-responsive genes deiodinase type 1 (Dio1) and Spot14 within 4 hours. This coincided with significantly reduced mRNA levels of Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, and Serpin10, and the reduction of the latter three persisted upon daily treatment with T3 for 14 days. Prolonged T3 treatment induced a significant down-regulation in factor (F) 2, F9 and F10 transcript levels, while F11 and F12 levels increased. Activity levels in plasma largely paralleled these mRNA changes. Thbd transcript levels in the lung (vessel-wall-associated coagulation) were significantly up-regulated after a single T3 injection, and persisted upon prolonged T3 exposure. Two-week T3 administration also resulted in increased Vwf and Tfpi mRNA levels, whereas Tf levels decreased. These data showed that T3 has specific effects on coagulation, with Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, Serpin10 and Thbd responding rapidly, making these likely direct thyroid hormone receptor targets. F2, F9, F10, F11, F12, Vwf, Tf and Tfpi are late responding genes and probably indirectly

  3. Plasma fractionation for blood products: isolation and purification of coagulating factors, albumin and immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Shaharuddin Mohd; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 12 million liters of human plasma are fractionated world-wide annually. However, with the market for clotting factors and other haemoderivatives steadily increasing from year to year, the amount processed will also increase correspondingly to keep up with the demand. In Malaysia, part of the need for the blood products are obtained commercially but a major portion of the requirement involves sending the plasma collected by the National Blood Centre to Australia for processing. Following purification and isolation of the blood products, they are sent back to Malaysia for local consumption. As yet there are no plasma fractionation plants in the South East Asia region, it would be advantageous to establish a local fractionation plant as it would be able to cater for local demands of the haemoderivatives and thus reduces the cost of importing these products. Besides, this facility will be able to provide contract fractionation services to the surrounding region. Early work in MINT has started in trying to purify plasma obtained from rats. Purification of the plasma was performed by using Sephadex G-25 column. Short term objective of this project is to develop the technique of extraction, fractionation and purification of blood products such as albumin, globulin and clotting factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX). The long term emphasis will be to scale up the production facility to a pilot plant stage and eventually to a national fractionation and purification plant. (Author)

  4. Epsilon aminocaproic acid reduces blood transfusion and improves the coagulation test after pediatric open-heart surgery: a meta-analysis of 5 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Meng, Haoyu; Meng, Zhaoyi; Sun, Ying; Pribis, John P; Zhu, Chunyan; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Excessive postoperative blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass is a common problem, especially in patients suffering from congenital heart diseases. The efficacy of epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) as a prophylactic treatment for postoperative bleeding after pediatric open-heart surgery has not been determined. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of EACA in the minimization of bleeding and blood transfusion and the maintenance of coagulation tests after pediatric open-heart surgery. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify all randomized clinical trials on the subject. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Medical Journal Network were screened. The primary outcome used for the analysis was postoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes included postoperative blood transfusion, re-exploration rate and postoperative coagulation tests. The mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as summary statistics. Five trials were included in this meta-analysis of 515 patients. Prophylactic EACA was associated with a reduction in postoperative blood loss, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (MD: -7.08; 95% CI: -16.11 to 1.95; P = 0.12). Patients treated with EACA received fewer postoperative blood transfusions, including packed red blood cells (MD: -8.36; 95% CI: -12.63 to -4.09; P = 0.0001), fresh frozen plasma (MD: -3.85; 95% CI: -5.63 to -2.08; P open-heart surgery. Prophylactic EACA minimizes postoperative blood transfusion and helps maintain coagulation in pediatric patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that adjunctive EACA is a good choice for the prevention of postoperative blood transfusion following pediatric cardiac surgery.

  5. Long-term correction of canine hemophilia B by gene transfer of blood coagulation factor IX mediated by adeno-associated viral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, R W; Yang, E Y; Couto, L B; Hagstrom, J N; Elwell, D; Fields, P A; Burton, M; Bellinger, D A; Read, M S; Brinkhous, K M; Podsakoff, G M; Nichols, T C; Kurtzman, G J; High, K A

    1999-01-01

    Hemophilia B is a severe X-linked bleeding diathesis caused by the absence of functional blood coagulation factor IX, and is an excellent candidate for treatment of a genetic disease by gene therapy. Using an adeno-associated viral vector, we demonstrate sustained expression (>17 months) of factor IX in a large-animal model at levels that would have a therapeutic effect in humans (up to 70 ng/ml, adequate to achieve phenotypic correction, in an animal injected with 8.5x10(12) vector particles/kg). The five hemophilia B dogs treated showed stable, vector dose-dependent partial correction of the whole blood clotting time and, at higher doses, of the activated partial thromboplastin time. In contrast to other viral gene delivery systems, this minimally invasive procedure, consisting of a series of percutaneous intramuscular injections at a single timepoint, was not associated with local or systemic toxicity. Efficient gene transfer to muscle was shown by immunofluorescence staining and DNA analysis of biopsied tissue. Immune responses against factor IX were either absent or transient. These data provide strong support for the feasibility of the approach for therapy of human subjects.

  6. Reaction mechanisms and evaluation of effective process operation for catalytic oxidation and coagulation by ferrous solution and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Moon, H.J.; Kim, Y.M. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Sangmyung Univ., Cheonan (Korea); Bae, W.K. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang Univ., Ansan, Kyounggi (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the removal efficiencies of COD{sub cr} and colour for the dyeing wastewater by ferrous solution and the different dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in Fenton process. In the case of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} divided dosage, 7:3 was more effective than 3:7 to remove COD{sub cr} and colour. The results showed that COD was mainly removed by Fenton coagulation, where the ferric ions are formed in the initial step of Fenton reaction. On the other hand colour was removed by Fenton oxidation rather than Fenton coagulation. This paper also aims at pursuing to investigate the effective removal mechanisms using ferrous ion coagulation, ferric ion coagulation and Fenton oxidation process. The removal mechanism of COD{sub cr} and colour was mainly coagulation by ferrous ion, ferric ion and Fenton oxidation. The removal efficiencies were dependent on the ferric ion amount at the beginning of the reaction. However the final removal efficiency of COD and colour was in the order of Fenton oxidation, ferric ion coagulation and ferrous ion coagulation. The reason of the highest removal efficiency by Fenton oxidation can be explained by the chain reactions with ferrous solution, ferric ion and hydrogen peroxide. (orig.)

  7. Effects of conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene on lipid and coagulation variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Sven O; Pan, Kaijie; Thompson, John R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects of conjugated estrogens (CE)/bazedoxifene (BZA) on lipid and coagulation variables in a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase 3 study of nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women. METHODS: The Selective estrogens, Menopause......, And Response to Therapy (SMART)-5 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of CE/BZA in postmenopausal women (N = 1,843) with menopausal symptoms. Lipid (N = 1,843) and coagulation (N = 590) variables were assessed in women receiving daily CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg, CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg, BZA 20 mg, CE 0.45 mg...... reassurance that CE/BZA does not adversely affect lipid metabolism or hemostatic balance. In accordance, the incidences of venous thromboembolic events and cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women are similar to those observed with placebo....

  8. Effects of perceived stress and uplifts on inflammation and coagulability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shamini; Mills, Paul J; von Känel, Roland; Hong, Suzi; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether depressed mood and chronic hassles and uplifts predicted levels of hemostasis markers D-Dimer and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), as well as the proinflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in 108 healthy individuals. One hundred eight African-American and Euro-American men and women were studied (58 men, 50 women; mean age = 36.5 +/- 8 years). D-Dimer, PAI-1, IL-6, and sICAM-1 plasma levels were analyzed from fasting venous blood samples. Data were analyzed via hierarchical linear regression and followed with partial correlation analysis. Regression analyses combined with partial correlation analyses suggested that increases in hassle frequency predicted elevated levels of sICAM-1 (p= .034), and increases in hassle severity predicted elevated levels of D-Dimer (p= .017). Increases in uplift intensity predicted lower levels of PAI-1 (p= .004) as well as showed a trend for decreased IL-6 (p= .069). Depressed mood did not significantly predict any dependent variable. These results were independent of sociodemographic, biological, and other related mood variables. The findings suggest that for even relatively healthy persons, increased perceptions of hassles are independently associated with greater inflammation and hypercoagulability, whereas increased perceptions of uplifts are independently associated with decreased hypercoagulability.

  9. Vitamin K: from coagulation to calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkari, Ilari

    Vitamin K is not only essential for the synthesis of coagulation factors in the liver, but it also strengthens the bones and prevents calcification of the arteries. These effects are mediated through the same mechanism, i.e. carboxylation of Gla target proteins. The discovery of novel Gla proteins that are not associated with blood coagulation or calcium metabolism indicates that vitamin K has additional effects in the pancreas and the central nervous system, for example. As dietary supplements, vitamin K1 of plant origin and vitamins K2 of bacterial origin may exert different effects.

  10. Effects of long-term head-down-tilt bed rest and different training regimes on the coagulation system of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Thomas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Matteucci-Gothe, Raffaella; Sottara, Elke; Griesmacher, Andrea; Belavý, Daniel L; Felsenberg, Dieter; Werner, Andreas; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Immobility plus preexisting chronic disease or acute trauma can activate the coagulation system, thus increasing the risk for thromboembolic events. The effects of long-term bed-rest immobility and microgravity on the coagulation system of healthy persons (e.g., during crewed Mars missions) have not yet been studied. The main objective of the second Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2) "Coagulation Part" was to investigate adaptations of the hemostatic system during long-term bed rest (60 days) under simulated microgravity (6° head-down-tilt [6°HDT]) and after mobilization in three different volunteer groups (randomly assigned to CTR= inactive control group; RE= resistive exercise only group; and RVE= resistive exercise with whole-body vibration group). In 24 males (aged 21-45 years), before, during, and after long-term bed rest, key parameters of coagulation were measured from venous blood samples: D-dimer (DD), thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT), and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 (PT-F1 + 2). Additionally, modified rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM (®) ) analysis was performed. Times of exploratory analyses were as follows: baseline data collection 2 days before bed rest (BDC-2); eight different days of 6°HDT bed rest (HDT1-HDT60), and two different days after reambulation (R + 3 and R + 6). We found significant changes in DD, TAT, and PT-F1 + 2 over the total time course, but no consistent effect of physical interventions (RE, RVE) on these parameters. Notably, no parameter reached levels indicative of intravascular thrombin formation. All ROTEM® parameters remained within the normal range and no pathological traces were found. Sixty days of 6°HDT bed rest are not associated with pronounced activation of the coagulation system indicative of intravascular thrombus formation in healthy volunteers independent of the training type during the bed rest.

  11. A contribution to the pathophysiology of blood coagulation in rats after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klir, P.; Pospisil, J.; Dienstbier, Z.

    1978-01-01

    The athrombocytic blood plasma antiheparin activity in rats increased following whole-body irradiation with doses of 25, 50, 100, 500 and 800 rads, the increase being directly proportional to the exposure time used. The antiheparin activity remained increasing for 360 minutes after exposure with the exception of animals irradiated with 800 R, where it increased for merely 180 minutes after exposure. An increase in the antiheparin activity of the plasma following a 4-hour stress induced by the immobilization of 18 animals was found within 24 hours of the immobilization, although there was no such increase 30 minutes after the immobilization. The possibility is discussed of the diagnostic uses of the antiheparin activity test. (author)

  12. Studying Effect of Water Quality Parameters on Coagulation Efficiency by Moringa Oleifera Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Parvini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and efficiency of Moringa seeds from different sources on turbidity. A protein analysis test was done for each source; then two different methods of extraction were compared to examine the coagulation activity for the Moringa's active ingredient. The results of sodium chloride (NaCI extraction in comparison to distilled water extraction of the Moringa olifera seeds showed that the salt solution extraction technique was more efficient than the distilled water for extracting the active coagulant ingredient.  The above mentioned findings were used to examine the effects of other parameters such as pH, calcium and magnesium hardness, bicarbonate-alkalinity, and salinity independently on turbidity removal with an optimum dosage of 1% NaCI extract of dry shelled Moringa seeds. The obtained results showed that the water quality parameters had no significant effect on the coagulation potential of the NaCI extract of the shelled Moringa seeds and was almost amenable to a wide range of water environment condition.

  13. [Evaluation of selected parameters of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis system in patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery with normovolemic hemodilution procedure and standard enoxaparine prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Wiesław; Sokołowska, Bozena; Dmoszyńska, Anna; Furmanik, Franciszek

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate selected blood coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters in patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery with normovolemic hemodilution and standard enoksaparine profilaxis. The study included 66 patients undergoing hip replacement surgery. The group consisted of 51 women and 15 men, within the age range of 47-78, the mean age was 64. In 32 (subgroup II) patients the surgery was performed with the use of normovolemic hemodilution, in 34 (subgroup I) the hemodilution procedure was not applied. The enoksaparine as prophylaxis started 12 hours prior to surgery and continued during hospitalisation. The examination of the coagulation system was performed: on the day of the operation in the morning, on the day of the operation in the evening and on the first day after operation. We determined the concentrations of TAT and PAP complexes, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and d-dimers (DD). 1) during total hip replacement surgery and particularly in the period of the first 12 hours after the procedure marked activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis occurRed; 2) the application of the hemodilution procedure does not influence significantly the degree of coagulation and fibrinolysis disorders in the perioperative period, but could reduced incidence of thromboembolic complications in the postoperative period.

  14. [The activity of formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde, peracetic acid, chloramine T (N-chlor-4-toluolsulfonamide), m-cresol, ethanol and benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide against bacteria which are found in coagulated blood. (Model studies for chemical disinfection of instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, G; Peters, J

    1991-05-01

    The experiments were performed using frosted glass as carrier with its surface being contaminated with whole blood containing Staphylococcus aureus as test organism. At the time of sampling, a heparin preparation was added to the blood to prevent premature coagulation. After addition of the staphylococci, coagulation was initiated by means of a heparin antagonist. 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 microliters, respectively, of the blood were homogeneously spread on rectangular test areas of 10 x 20 mm. After the blood had coagulated, each of the test objects was placed in 15 ml of the solution (20 degrees C) containing the active ingredient tested for 60 min. After that, the test objects were removed from the disinfectant and, in order to inactivate any adhering active components, treated with a neutralizing solution of suitable composition. The number of viable germs (colony-forming units) was determined quantitatively. The blood samples were ground together with quartz sand. Aliquots of the diluted suspensions were mixed with molten agar medium. The plates then were incubated at 37 degrees C over a period of 14 days. The relative number of viable germs (N/No) per test object was calculated from the number of colonies. Plotting of the microbicidal effects obtained (log N/No] versus the concentration of the active substance (see Figs. 1-3) yielded curves differing in some characteristics as e.g. curvature, slope of the lower curve section (log N/No). less than -3), concentration range according to the layer thickness of the contamination. To visualize the reduction of the efficacy of the respective disinfectants caused by blood, the concentrations of active components were determined which are necessary to achieve a microbicidal effect of log (N/No) = -4. These concentrations were plotted versus the amounts of blood per test area (Fig. 4). The resulting curve for formaldehyde was slightly U-shaped. With a raising amount of blood, the concentration required slightly

  15. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wastewater treatment using response surface methodology (RSM). E Kweinor Tetteh* and S ... wastewater systems for separating oil from water, due to their effectiveness ..... cost, and evaluating and making decisions for the process response ...

  16. In vitro effect of the herbicide glyphosate on human blood platelet aggregation and coagulation Efeito in vitro do herbicida glifosato na agregação plaquetária e coagulação sanguínea em humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha de Jesus C. Neiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl-glycine] is a broad-spectrum, non-selective, post-emergence herbicide that is extensively used in agriculture. Published data referring to the effects of this product on human health are contradictory. We showed previously that long-term treatment of rats with low doses of Glyphosate-Biocarb® may induce hepatic histological changes and bleeding without decreasing platelet counts. The aim of the current study was to investigate, in vitro, the effect of glyphosate on human blood platelet aggregation and coagulation. Materials and methods: Platelet aggregation was determined in the platelet-rich plasma using the agents: 6µM-adenosine diphosphate, 6µM-epinephrine and 4µg/mL-collagen. Pretreatment with 500µg/mL glyphosate showed significant hypofunction of the three aggregating agents. The inhibitory effect was dose-dependent at concentrations from 50 to 500 µg/mL. The release of ATP was lower for glyphosate-treated platelets after stimulation by collagen. On the other hand, glyphosate did not promote any inhibitory effects on prothrombin time, thromboplastin time and thrombin time. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that glyphosate promotes changes in the platelet metabolism with an inhibitory effect on primary hemostasis.O glifosato [N-(phosphonomethyl-glycine] é um herbicida pós-emergente não seletivo de amplo espectro muito utilizado na agricultura. Dados da literatura referentes aos efeitos desse produto na saúde humana são contraditórios. Em estudos prévios demonstramos que ratos previamente tratados com glifosato apresentavam lesões hepáticas e sangramento sem alterações quantitativas de plaquetas. O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar os efeitos in vitro do glifosato (GP na agregação plaquetária e coagulação sanguínea em humanos. A agregação plaquetária foi determinada em plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP usando os agentes adenosina difosfato (ADP 6µM, epinefrina 6µM e col

  17. A PK-PD model-based assessment of sugammadex effects on coagulation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Rolien; van Lierop, Marie-José; de Kam, Pieter-Jan; Kruithof, Annelieke C; Burggraaf, Jacobus; de Greef, Rik; Visser, Sandra A G; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Kleijn, Huub-Jan

    2016-03-10

    Exposure-response analyses of sugammadex on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT(INR)) were performed using data from two clinical trials in which subjects were co-treated with anti-coagulants, providing a framework to predict these responses in surgical patients on thromboprophylactic doses of low molecular weight or unfractionated heparin. Sugammadex-mediated increases in APTT and PT(INR) were described with a direct effect model, and this relationship was similar in the presence or absence of anti-coagulant therapy in either healthy volunteers or surgical patients. In surgical patients on thromboprophylactic therapy, model-based predictions showed 13.1% and 22.3% increases in respectively APTT and PT(INR) within 30min after administration of 16mg/kg sugammadex. These increases remain below thresholds seen following treatment with standard anti-coagulant therapy and were predicted to be short-lived paralleling the rapid decline in sugammadex plasma concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Storage Duration and Temperature Effects of Strychnos potatorum Stock Solutions on its Coagulation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha R Warrier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effects of storage duration and temperature of Strychnos potatorum stock solution on its coagulation efficiency. Coagulation efficiency of the seed extracts on water samples depended on the initial turbidity of the water sample. The stock solutions could clarify only highly turbid solutions. The optimum dosage of the stock solutions was 5% and optimal time required was 50 minutes. S. potatorum stock solutions, which were kept at room temperature (28 °C, had a shelf life of only five days and were able to remove turbidity from high and low turbidity water samples and no coagulation activity was observed for medium turbidity. The highest turbidity removals were observed for stock solutions, which were kept for three days. For stock solutions which were stored in refrigerator, shelf life was extended upto seven days, and the turbidity removal efficiencies improved from 45.9 to 63.8 for low and 43.7 to 64.9 % for high turbidity water samples, respectively.

  19. Blood coagulation factor XII drives adaptive immunity during neuroinflammation via CD87-mediated modulation of dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Kerstin; Pankratz, Susann; Asaridou, Chloi-Magdalini; Herrmann, Alexander M.; Bittner, Stefan; Merker, Monika; Ruck, Tobias; Glumm, Sarah; Langhauser, Friederike; Kraft, Peter; Krug, Thorsten F.; Breuer, Johanna; Herold, Martin; Gross, Catharina C.; Beckmann, Denise; Korb-Pap, Adelheid; Schuhmann, Michael K.; Kuerten, Stefanie; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Ruppert, Clemens; Nolte, Marc W.; Panousis, Con; Klotz, Luisa; Kehrel, Beate; Korn, Thomas; Langer, Harald F.; Pap, Thomas; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Wiendl, Heinz; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses represent the underlying cause of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence implicated the crosstalk between coagulation and immunity in CNS autoimmunity. Here we identify coagulation factor XII (FXII), the initiator of the intrinsic coagulation cascade and the kallikrein–kinin system, as a specific immune cell modulator. High levels of FXII activity are present in the plasma of MS patients during relapse. Deficiency or pharmacologic blockade of FXII renders mice less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (a model of MS) and is accompanied by reduced numbers of interleukin-17A-producing T cells. Immune activation by FXII is mediated by dendritic cells in a CD87-dependent manner and involves alterations in intracellular cyclic AMP formation. Our study demonstrates that a member of the plasmatic coagulation cascade is a key mediator of autoimmunity. FXII inhibition may provide a strategy to combat MS and other immune-related disorders. PMID:27188843

  20. Production and properties of monoclonal antibodies to human blood coagulation factor VII and factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, P.; Nesbitt, J.A.; Ge, M.; Kisiel, W.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor VII is a trace vitamin K-dependent protein that circulates in blood as a single-chain precursor to a serine protease. Upon activation, two-chain factor VIIa activates factor x in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. Purified preparations of single-chain (SC) human factor VII and two-chain (TC) factor VIIa were utilized to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were fused to a non-secreting NS-1 derivative of X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and grown in selective medium. Analysis of culture supernatants by EIA revealed several hybridomas that were secreting IgG specific for Sc-factor VII and TC-factor VIIa. In addition, several hybridomas secreted IgG that reacted equally well with factor VII and factor VIIa. One of the latter McAb (A-29) reacted with the heavy chain of factor VIIa and the intact factor VII molecule equally as judged by Western blotting. A-29 was produced in ascites fluid, purified and coupled to activated CH-Sepharose. Application of one liter of normal human plasma to 10 ml of this immunoadsorbent column, elution of factor VII and subsequent Western blot using 125 I-rabbit anti-human factor VII indicated a single species of factor VII(M/sub r/ = 50 KDa) in normal plasma. These specific factor VII/VIIa McAbs may prove useful in the analysis of these factors, and in the separation of SC-factor VII from TC-factor VIIa

  1. Evaluation of coagulation factors and platelet function from an off-line modified ultrafiltration technique for post-cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, S; Lynn, P; Miller, S; Harris, R; DiMarco, R F; Ross, J E

    2013-05-01

    Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is a technique that hemoconcentrates residual CPB circuit blood and the patient at the same time. Hemoconcentration and MUF are Class 1-A recommendations in the anesthesia and surgical blood conservation guidelines. This study evaluated the off-line MUF process of the Hemobag (HB, Global Blood Resources, Somers, CT, USA) to quantitate coagulation factor levels, platelet (PLT) count and function in one facility and cellular growth factor concentrations of the final product that were transfused to the patient in another facility In two cardiac surgery facilities, after decannulation, the extracorporeal circuit (ECC) blood from 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgery was processed with the HB device. In eleven patients from the first facility by the study design, blood samples for coagulation factor levels and PLT aggregation were drawn from the reservoir of the MUF device pre- and post-processing. The samples (n = 11) were sent to a reference laboratory where testing for prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), reptilase time, fibrinogen, clotting factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, ADAMTS-13, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and platelet (PLT) aggregation were performed. A portion of the final concentrated HB blood samples (n = 5-10) from the second facility by design were evaluated for transforming and platelet-derived cellular growth factor concentrations. On average, approximately 800 - 2000 mls of whole blood were removed from the ECC post-CPB for processing in the HB device. After processing, there was, on the average, approximately 300 - 950 mls of concentrated whole blood salvaged for reinfusion. The PT and INR were significantly lower in the post-processing product compared to the pre-processing samples while the aPTT times were not significantly different. All coagulation factors and natural anti-coagulants were significantly

  2. Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for human factor VII, a vitamin K-dependent protein participating in blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, P.J.; Grant, F.J.; Haldeman, B.A.; Gray, C.L.; Insley, M.Y.; Hagen, F.S.; Murray, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Activated factor VII (factor VIIa) is a vitamin K-dependent plasma serine protease that participates in a cascade of reactions leading to the coagulation of blood. Two overlapping genomic clones containing sequences encoding human factor VII were isolated and characterized. The complete sequence of the gene was determined and found to span about 12.8 kilobases. The mRNA for factor VII as demonstrated by cDNA cloning is polyadenylylated at multiple sites but contains only one AAUAAA poly(A) signal sequence. The mRNA can undergo alternative splicing, forming one transcript containing eight segments as exons and another with an additional exon that encodes a larger prepro leader sequence. The latter transcript has no known counterpart in the other vitamin K-dependent proteins. The positions of the introns with respect to the amino acid sequence encoded by the eight essential exons of factor VII are the same as those present in factor IX, factor X, protein C, and the first three exons of prothrombin. These exons code for domains generally conserved among members of this gene family. The comparable introns in these genes, however, are dissimilar with respect to size and sequence, with the exception of intron C in factor VII and protein C. The gene for factor VII also contains five regions made up of tandem repeats of oligonucleotide monomer elements. More than a quarter of the intron sequences and more than a third of the 3' untranslated portion of the mRNA transcript consist of these minisatellite tandem repeats

  3. Vitamin K: the effect on health beyond coagulation – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees Vermeer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is essential for the synthesis of proteins belonging to the Gla-protein family. To the members of this family belong four blood coagulation factors, which all are exclusively formed in the liver. The importance of vitamin K for hemostasis is demonstrated from the fact that vitamin K-deficiency is an acute, life-threatening condition due to excessive bleeding. Other members of the Gla-protein family are osteocalcin, matrix Gla-protein (MGP, and Gas6 that play key functions in maintaining bone strength, arterial calcification inhibition, and cell growth regulation, respectively. In total 17 Gla-proteins have been discovered at this time. Recently, it was observed that the dietary vitamin K requirement for the synthesis of the coagulation factors is much lower than for that of the extra-hepatic Gla-proteins. This forms the basis of the triage theory stating that during poor dietary supply, vitamins are preferentially utilized for functions that are important for immediate survival. This explains why in the healthy population all clotting factors are synthesized in their active form, whereas the synthesis of other Gla-proteins is sub-optimal in non-supplemented subjects. Prolonged sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Present recommendations for dietary intake are based on the daily dose required to prevent bleeding. Accumulating scientific data suggests that new, higher recommendations for vitamin K intake should be formulated.

  4. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  5. Overview of the coagulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Palta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ′coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  6. Overview of the coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Palta, Anshu

    2014-09-01

    Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms 'coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  7. The interplay between platelets and coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeterings, C.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet activation and blood coagulation are two processes often studied separately, but which cannot be seen independently from each other. Platelets play a pivotal role in coagulation, not only by providing negatively charged phospholipids, but also in localizing the coagulation process from a

  8. Coagulation of highly turbid suspensions using magnesium hydroxide: effects of slow mixing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, George M; BinAhmed, Sara W; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Azizi, Fouad

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of slow mixing conditions on magnesium hydroxide floc size and strength and to determine the turbidity and total suspended solid (TSS) removal efficiencies during coagulation of highly turbid suspensions. A highly turbid kaolin clay suspension (1,213 ± 36 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) was alkalized to pH 10.5 using a 5 M NaOH solution; liquid bittern (LB) equivalent to 536 mg/L of Mg(2+) was added as a coagulant, and the suspension was then subjected to previously optimized fast mixing conditions of 100 rpm and 60 s. Slow mixing speed (20, 30, 40, and 50 rpm) and time (10, 20, and 30 min) were then varied, while the temperature was maintained at 20.7 ± 1 °C. The standard practice for coagulation-flocculation jar test ASTM D2035-13 (2013) was followed in all experiments. Relative floc size was monitored using an optical measuring device, photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA 2000). Larger and more shear resistant flocs were obtained at 20 rpm for both 20- and 30-min slow mixing times; however, given the shorter duration for the former, the 20-min slow mixing time was considered to be more energy efficient. For slow mixing camp number (Gt) values in the range of 8,400-90,000, it was found that the mixing speed affected floc size and strength more than the time. Higher-turbidity removal efficiencies were achieved at 20 and 30 rpm, while TSS removal efficiency was higher for the 50-rpm slow mixing speed. Extended slow mixing time of 30 min yielded better turbidity and TSS removal efficiencies at the slower speeds.

  9. Combined effects of coagulation and adsorption on ultrafiltration membrane fouling control and subsequent disinfection in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiajian; Liang, Heng; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Haiyan; Xu, Daliang; Gan, Zhendong; Luo, Xinsheng; Zhu, Xuewu; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-02

    This study investigated the combined effects of coagulation and powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption on ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling control and subsequent disinfection efficiency through filtration performance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, and disinfectant curve. The fouling behavior of UF membrane was comprehensively analyzed especially in terms of pollutant removal and fouling reversibility to understand the mechanism of fouling accumulation and disinfectant dose reduction. Pre-coagulation with or without adsorption both achieved remarkable effect of fouling mitigation and disinfection dose reduction. The two pretreatments were effective in total fouling control and pre-coagulation combined with PAC adsorption even decreased hydraulically irreversible fouling notably. Besides, pre-coagulation decreased residual disinfectant decline due to the removal of hydrophobic components of natural organic matters (NOM). Pre-coagulation combined with adsorption had a synergistic effect on further disinfectant decline rate reduction and decreased total disinfectant consumption due to additional removal of hydrophilic NOM by PAC adsorption. The disinfectant demand was further reduced after membrane. These results show that membrane fouling and disinfectant dose can be reduced in UF coupled with pretreatment, which could lead to the avoidance of excessive operation cost disinfectant dose for drinking water supply.

  10. The protein concentration of blood coagulation factor VII can be measured equally well in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Overgaard, K; Gram, J

    1995-01-01

    In the Northwick Park Heart Study, the coagulant activity of factor VII (FVII:C) has been identified as a risk marker of ischaemic heart disease. In the fasting state, the protein concentration of FVII (FVII:Ag) might be an even better risk marker, because of the low coefficient of variation...

  11. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  12. [Warming acupuncture combined with conventional acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guoqing; Ye, Ting; Sun, Zhongren

    2018-03-12

    To compare the clinical efficacy differences between warming acupuncture and conventional acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis. A total of 64 patients were randomly divided into a warming acupuncture group and a conventional acupuncture group, 32 cases in each one. Based on basic treatment of blood glucose regulation, warming acupuncture was applied at Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Zusanli (ST 36), Chongyang (ST 42), Quchi (LI 11) and Hegu (LI 4) in the warming acupuncture group, while acupuncture was applied at the identical acupoints in the conventional acupuncture group. Both the treatments were given once a day with an interval of one day every six days; totally the treatment was given for 4 weeks. The TCM symptom score, Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) before and after treatment were compared in the two groups. After treatment, the TCM symptom scores in the two groups were significantly reduced (both P nervus peroneus communis, as well as sensory nerve of tibial nerve and sural nerve was improved in the warming acupuncture group (all P 0.05). Warming acupuncture and conventional acupuncture could both increase TCM symptom score, improve NCV in patients of DPN with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis; warming acupuncture has advantage in symptom improvement.

  13. Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Raed A; Aravinthan, Vasantha; Yusaf, Talal; Bowtell, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    The application of pulsed mode ultrasound (PMU) as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation was investigated at various alum dosages and pH levels. The effects of the treatments on turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and residual Al were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the operating conditions of the applied treatments. The results showed that PMU pre-treatment increased turbidity and DOC removal percentages from maximum of 96.6% and 43% to 98.8% and 52%, respectively. It also helped decrease the minimum residual Al from 0.100 to 0.094 ppm. The multiple response optimization was carried out using the desirability function. A desirability value of >0.97 estimated respective turbidity removal, DOC removal and Al residual of 89.24%, 45.66% and ∼ 0.1 ppm for coagulation (control) and 90.61%, >55% and ∼ 0 for coagulation preceded by PMU. These figures were validated via confirmatory experiments. PMU pre-treatment increased total coliform removal from 80% to >98% and decreased trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 250 to 200 ppb CH3Cl. Additionally, PMU application prior to coagulation improved the settleability of sludge due to the degassing effects. The results of this study confirms that PMU pre-treatment can significantly improve coagulation performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of starters and ripening time on the physicochemical, nitrogen fraction and texture profile of goat's cheese coagulated with a vegetable coagulant (Cynara cardunculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Víctor; Rovira, Silvia; Boutoial, Khalid; Ferrandini, Eduardo; López Morales, María B

    2014-02-01

    The increase in the demand for goat's cheese throughout the world has encouraged research into the development of new related products with different textural characteristics. The aim of this work was to study the effect of three commercial starter cultures through the assessment of physicochemical and textural characteristics of goat's milk cheeses made with vegetable coagulant (Cynara cardunculus) during ripening. Use of the different starter cultures produced a significant effect (P starters ensures the correct acidification rate and produced cheeses with lower pH values and greater hardness. Use of thermophilic starter cultures produces cheeses with less instrumental hardness and the use of mixed cultures produced less proteolysis. These results are found useful for selecting the most suitable starter for the development of new goat's cheeses. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Condutivity effect in electro-coagulation-flotation applied to physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the effect of conductivity on the simultaneous applicability of water electrolysis , chemical coagulation and flotation fundamentals in the treatment of wastewater with large amounts of suspended matter, characterizing electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF . Results from experiments carried out in a pilot study implanted and operated in the Laboratory of Environment Control (LCA, at the State University of Campinas in Limeira are presented. ECF was developed in an electrolytic reactor where water passed through aluminum electrodes connected to a power supply. Electrochemical reactions promoted Al3+ ions emission from anode, neutralizing repulsive pollutant forces, forming flakes. An evolution of micro hydrogen bubbles occurred, carrying the flakes to the top of the solution, causing flotation and polluter removal. System monitoring aimed at reaching optimal operation conditions regarding time of liquid permanence in the reactor, influence of the NaC1 addition on the increase of affluent conductivity, and influence of polarity inversion over cathodic passivation. Results from carwash wastewater treatment reported 86% efficiency rate for color, 90,15% for turbidity and 85,43% for oil and axle-grease removal.

  16. Effect of water coagulation by seeds of Moringa oleifera on bacterial concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, M; Schlundt, J; Omer, E F

    1987-06-01

    The effects of a Sudanese water purification method traditionally used in Sudan to treat turbid waters were studied with respect to turbidity reduction and removal of faecal indicator bacteria as well as selected enteric bacterial pathogens. Water treatment was performed at 30 degrees C with Moringa oleifera seed material as a coagulant, and the technique employed corresponded closely to that used to clarify turbid water in Sudanese villages. A turbidity reduction of 80.0-99.5% paralleled by a primary bacterial reduction of 1-4 log units (90.00-99.99%) was obtained within the first 1 to 2 h of treatment, the bacteria being concentrated in the coagulated sediment. During the 24 h observation period a secondary bacterial increase due to regrowth in the supernatant water was consistently observed for Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, in some cases for Escherichia coli, but not for Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens. The potential of the method when compared with some alternative for the improvement of rural drinking water supplies is discussed.

  17. An Easy Method to Eliminate the Effect of Lupus Anticoagulants in the Coagulation Factor Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Yin, Shiyu

    2016-07-01

    To build and evaluate intrinsic coagulation factor assays which can eliminate the effect of lupus anticoagulants (LAC). Commercial silica clotting time confirmatory (SCT-C) reagent containing sufficient synthetic phospholipid and routine activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagent were each used for one-stage detection of FVIII, FIX, and FXI activities, in samples with or without LAC, and the results were compared. For samples without LAC, consistent results of FVIII, FIX, and FXI using both SCT-C reagent and APTT reagent were obtained. For samples with LAC, the assays with SCT-C reagent not only could eliminate the effect of strong lupus anticoagulants but also needed fewer dilutions than that with routine APTT reagent. The intrinsic factor detections by SCT-C reagent are credible and convenient to be used for samples with LAC.

  18. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) on murine coagulation gene transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salloum-Asfar, Salam; Boelen, Anita; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Vlijmen, Bart J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine

  19. Effects of the oral, direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on five common coagulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Baghaei, Fariba; Blixter, Inger Fagerberg; Gustafsson, Kerstin M; Stigendal, Lennart; Sten-Linder, Margareta; Strandberg, Karin; Hillarp, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Dabigatran is an oral, reversible thrombin inhibitor that has shown promising results in large clinical trials. Laboratory monitoring is not needed but the effects on common coagulation assays are incompletely known. Dabigatran was added to plasma from healthy subjects in the concentration range 0-1,000 μg/l and analysed using several reagents for activated thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen, antithrombin, and activated protein C resistance. Typical trough concentrations are about 50 μg/l, peak concentrations 100-300 μg/l. At 100 μg/l all APTT-results were prolonged. The concentration required to double APTT ranged between 227 and 286 μg/l, the responses for all five reagents were similar. PT-reagents were much less affected with almost no samples above INR 1.2 at 100 μg/l. The effect was sample dilution dependent with PT Quick type more sensitive than PT Owren type methods. If a patient on dabigatran has prolonged APTT, >90 seconds, and Quick PT INR>2 or Owren PT INR>1.5 over-dosing or accumulation of dabigatran should be considered. Two of four fibrinogen reagents underestimated the fibrinogen concentration considerably at expected peak concentration. Methods based on inhibition of thrombin over-estimated the antithrombin concentration, but not Xa-based. The APC-resistance methods over-estimated the APC-ratio, which may lead to miss-classification of factor V Leiden patients as being normal. Different coagulation assays, and even different reagents within an assay group, display variable effects at therapeutic concentrations of dabigatran. Some of these assay variations are of clinical importance, thus knowledge is needed for a correct interpretation of results.

  20. Effect of solvent evaporation and coagulation on morphology development of asymmetric membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Neelakandan; Kyu, Thein

    2008-03-01

    Miscibility behavior of blends of amorphous polyamide (PA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was studied in relation to membrane formation. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and water were used as solvent and non-solvent, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and cloud point measurements revealed that the binary PA/PVP blends as well as the ternary PA/PVP/DMSO system were completely miscible at all compositions. However, the addition of non-solvent (water) to this ternary system has led to phase separation. Visual turbidity study was used to establish a ternary liquid-liquid phase diagram of the PA-PVP/DMSO/water system. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the development of finger-like and sponge-like cross sectional morphologies during coagulation. Effects of polymer concentration, PA/PVP blend ratio, solvent/non-solvent quality, and evaporation time on the resulting membrane morphology will be discussed.

  1. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    -, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. Results: Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority......Background: Knowledge about the impact of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH) on the coagulation system in patients undergoing minimal invasive lung cancer surgery is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing Video......-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) lobectomy for primary lung cancer. Methods: Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomized to either subcutaneous injection with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily or no intervention. Coagulation was assessed pre-, peri...

  2. Effects of argon plasma coagulation on human stomach tissue: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Young Soo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a safe alternative treatment for gastrointestinal neoplasms and precancerous lesions. However, the extent of thermal damage after APC is difficult to predict. We investigated the effects of APC on human stomach tissue. Argon plasma coagulation was performed on 10 freshly resected human stomachs that were obtained after total gastrectomy. The effects on tissue were compared across power settings (40, 60, and 80 W), durations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 s), and between injection (submucosal injection of normal saline) and control (without injection) groups. Success was defined as complete mucosal necrosis without damaging the muscularis propria. Without submucosal injection, the incidence of damaging the muscularis propria increased as the power and duration increased. Tissue damage in the injection group was mostly confined to the submucosa, even when using the high-power setting. In the injection group, ablations at 40 W for 20 s, 60 W for 15 s, and 80 W for 15 or 20 s produced success rates ≥80%. In the control group, ablations at 60 W for 10 s, and 80 W for 5, or 10 s produced success rates ≥80%. The optimal energy levels to achieve complete mucosal and submucosal necrosis without damaging the muscularis propria were 800-1600 and 600-800 J in the injection and control groups, respectively. Application of APC produces good results with a low risk of perforation. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Efeitos da dexmedetomidina sobre a coagulação sangüínea avaliada através do método da tromboelastografia Efectos de la dexmedetomidina sobre la coagulación sanguínea evaluada a través del método de la tromboelastografía Effects of dexmedetomidine on blood coagulation evaluated by thromboelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Romão Martins

    2003-12-01

    four patients were randomly distributed in 3 groups: Group 1 patients received saline solution (control group, Group 2 patients received 1 µg.kg-1 dexmedetomidine in 10 minutes, followed by 0.4 µg.kg-1.h-1 infusion for 20 minutes and Group 3 patients received 0.05 mg.kg-1 midazolam. Sedated patients maintained scores 3 or 4 in Ramsay’s sedation scale. Blood samples were collected before and 30 minutes after the treatment for thromboelastography. RESULTS: Dexmedetomidine has significantly increased reaction time (parameter R and decreased coagulation index in final curves as compared to initial ones. Values, however, have remained within ranges accepted as normal. This phenomenon was not observed in remaining groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine pro and anti-platelet aggregation mechanisms interaction determines mild hypocoagulation, however maintaining coagulation within normal ranges. Dexmedetomidine effects on coagulation are probably not mediated by anxiolysis, since sedation was equivalent to the midazolam group.

  4. Effect of elevated levels of coagulation factors on the risk of venous thrombosis in long-distance travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2009-01-01

    Risk of venous thrombosis is increased after long-distance travel. Identifying high-risk groups may provide a basis for targeted prevention. We assessed the effect of increased levels of coagulation factors and combinations of risk factors in travelers in a large case-control study. We calculated

  5. Comparison of infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation, two simple and cost effective office procedures in the treatment of internal haemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surath C Patra

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Rubber Band Ligation was more effective but more painful, while Infrared coagulation was less painful but their efficacy was also lower. Therefore, It is concluded that Infrared coagulation could be considered a suitable alternative office procedure for early stage haemorrhoids as this office procedure can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence.

  6. The Role of Yeast Beta Glucan on Blood Coagulation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kashoury, M.M.A.; Abdel Fattah, S.M.; Ramadan, L.A.; El-Denshary, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Clotting abnormalities are observed after exposure to ionizing radiation as well as in diabetes melittus. The objective of this study is to elucidate the role of yeast beta glucan (YBG) in the modulation of some biochemical variations observed in γ-irradiated, diabetic and diabeticγγ-irradiated rats. Gamma-irradiation was performed through the whole body exposure of rats to 6 Gy administered in four fractions of 1.5 Gy two times per week for two weeks. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight). YBG was given orally to male albino rats (1 g/kg body weight) for two weeks post irradiation and/or induction of diabetes. Animals were divided into 4 main groups: 1- control, 2- γ-irradiated, 3- diabetic and 4- diabetic-γ-irradiated rats. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups (a) untreated and (b) treated. The 3rd and 14th day, after the last dose of radiation in the irradiated groups and after the induction of diabetes in diabetic groups, were chosen to evaluate the effect of oral YBG in irradiated and/or diabetic rats. The results revealed that the body weight decreased significantly in irradiated, diabetic and diabetic–irradiated rats. The loss of weight was accompanied by a reduction in the pancreas weight. Glucose concentration was significantly increased in diabetic group at the two time intervals. It is worth noting that, radiation ameliorated blood glucose level in diabetic-γ-irradiated group. Radiation exposure and/or diabetes caused an oxidative stress manifested by a significant increase of malondialdhyde (MDA) accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) level. This oxidative stress caused disturbances in the measured clotting parameters by enhancing platelet aggregation (PA) induced by arachidonic acid and increased thrombin level as concluded from the significant shortening of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Also, exposure to radiation

  7. Thromboelastometry versus standard coagulation tests versus restrictive protocol to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous catheterization in cirrhosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Neto, Ary Serpa; do Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto; Silva, Eliezer; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Correa, Thiago Domingos

    2017-02-27

    Liver failure patients have traditionally been empirically transfused prior to invasive procedures. Blood transfusion is associated with immunologic and nonimmunologic reactions, increased risk of adverse outcomes and high costs. Scientific evidence supporting empirical transfusion is lacking, and the best approach for blood transfusion prior to invasive procedures in cirrhotic patients has not been established so far. The aim of this study is to compare three transfusion strategies (routine coagulation test-guided - ordinary or restrictive, or thromboelastometry-guided) prior to central venous catheterization in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. Design and setting: a double-blinded, parallel-group, single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial in a tertiary private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. adults (aged 18 years or older) admitted to the intensive care unit with cirrhosis and an indication for central venous line insertion. Patients will be randomly assigned to three groups for blood transfusion strategy prior to central venous catheterization: standard coagulation tests-based, thromboelastometry-based, or restrictive. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients transfused with any blood product prior to central venous catheterization. The primary safety endpoint will be the incidence of major bleeding. Secondary endpoints will be the proportion of transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate; infused volume of blood products; hemoglobin and hematocrit before and after the procedure; intensive care unit and hospital length of stay; 28-day and hospital mortality; incidence of minor bleeding; transfusion-related adverse reactions; and cost analysis. This study will evaluate three strategies to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous line placement in severely ill patients with cirrhosis. We hypothesized that thromboelastometry-based and/or restrictive protocols are safe and would significantly

  8. Characterization of core/shell Cu/Ag nanopowders synthesized by electrochemistry and assessment of their impact on hemolysis, platelet aggregation, and coagulation on human blood for potential wound dressing use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, Julie; Haguet, Hélène; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mancier, Valérie; Mejia, Jorge; Levi, Samuel; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane; Rousse, Céline; Fricoteaux, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Copper/silver core/shell nanopowders with different metal ratio have been elaborated by electrochemistry (ultrasound-assisted electrolysis followed by a displacement reaction). Characterization was performed by several methods (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, centrifugal liquid sedimentation, and zeta potential measurements). The mean diameter of all nanoparticles is around 10 nm. The impact of each nanopowder on hemolysis, platelet aggregation, and coagulation has been studied on whole human blood. Hemolysis assays were performed with spectrophotometric measurement and platelet aggregation, with light transmission aggregometry and was compared to Cu/Pt core/shell nanoparticles with similar size as negative control. Calibrated thrombin generation test has been used for a coagulation study. They neither impact platelet aggregation nor hemolysis and have a procoagulant effect whatever their composition (i.e., metal ratio). These results highlight that such nanopowders have a potential use in medical applications (e.g., wound dressing).

  9. Coagulation parameters as a guide for fresh frozen plasma transfusion practice: A tertiary hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Haslindawani W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appropriate use of blood and blood products means the transfusion of safe blood products only to treat a condition leading to significant morbidity or mortality, which cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. The safety and effectiveness of transfusion depend on the appropriate clinical use of blood and blood products. This study was conducted to review the practice of fresh frozen plasma usage (FFP for transfusion, based on the coagulation profile, requested by various departments in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM. Methodology: A retrospective review of blood bank records and coagulation profile results of the patients given FFP from October to December 2006, in Hospital USM was undertaken. The criteria set by the College of American Pathologists in 1994, were used as the guidelines. Results: One thousand six hundred and ninety-eight units of FFP were used during this study period. Only 806 (47.47% FFP units were deemed appropriate. 20.38% were based on studies without any coagulation tests prior to transfusion and 21.13% were transfused for mild prolongation of coagulation test results. About 6.41% requested FFP in the setting of normal coagulation results. Conclusion: Our results showed that a significant proportion of the FFP transfusion was not guided by the coagulation profile. We recommend that a continuous education on FFP transfusion may help to guide the appropriate request for FFP.

  10. Expression of the human blood coagulation protein factor XIIIa in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence of the expression levels from host-vector systems and medium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, M; Bäuml, O; Göttig, A; Ochs, J; Bodenbenner, M; Amann, E

    1991-03-01

    The human blood coagulation protein Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae employing Escherichia coli-yeast shuttle vectors based on a 2-mu plasmid. Several factors affecting high production yield of recombinant FXIIIa were analysed. The use of the regulatable GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter resulted in higher FXIIIa expression when compared with the constitutive ADCI promoter. Screening for suitable yeast strains for expression of FXIIIa under the transcriptional control of the GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter revealed a broad spectrum of productivity. No obvious correlation between the expression rate and the genetic markers of the strains could be identified. The medium composition markedly influenced the FXIIIa expression rates. The expression of FXIIIa was strictly regulated by the carbon source. Glucose as the only sugar and energy source repressed the synthesis of FXIIIa, whereas addition of galactose induced FXIIIa expression. Special feeding schemes resulted in a productivity of up to 100 mg FXIIIa/l in shake flasks.

  11. Effects of storage conditions of Moringa oleifera seeds on its performance in coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayon, S; Noor, M J Megat Mohd; Asma, M; Ghani, L A Abdul; Thamer, A M; Azni, I; Ahmad, J; Khor, B C; Suleyman, A M

    2006-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature (28 degrees C) and refrigerator (3 degrees C) for durations of 1, 3 and 5 months. Comparison between turbidity removal efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature revealed that there was no significant difference between them. The Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature for one month showed higher turbidity removal efficiency, compared to those kept for 3 and 5 months, at both containers. The coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found to be dependent on initial turbidity of water samples. Highest turbidity removals were obtained for water with very high initial turbidity. In summary coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found independent of storage temperature and container, however coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera decreased as storage duration increased. In addition, Moringa oleifera can be used as a potential coagulant especially for very high turbidity water.

  12. Enhanced Coagulation-Flocculation Performance of Iron-Based Coagulants: Effects of PO4(3-) and SiO3(2-) Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Teng, Houkai; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhao, Chuanliang; Liao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    PO4(3-) and SiO3(2-) are often used as modifier to improve stability and aggregating ability of the iron-base coagulants, however, there are few reports about their detailed comparison between the coagulation performance and mechanisms. In this study, three coagulants--polyferric phosphoric sulfate (PFPS), polysilicon ferric sulfate (PFSS), and polyferric sulfate (PFS) were synthesized; their structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Alkali titration and Ferron species analysis were employed to investigate the hydrolysis performance and species distribution. Jar test was conducted to measure their coagulation behaviors at different dosage, pH, and temperatures in which the flocs properties were measured. The results showed that a number of new compounds were formed due to the presence of PO4(3-) and SiO3(2-). Moreover, PFPS and PFSS had similar level in Fea as well as Feb. Among them, PFPS produced more multi-core iron atoms polymer and content of Feb, and the formed flocs were larger and denser. It exhibited superior coagulation performance in terms of turbidity reduction, UV254 removal and residual ferric concentration. Jar test and floc breakage/regrowth experiments indicated other than charge neutrality, the dominated mechanism involved in PFSS was the adsorption between polysilicic acid and solution particle, while PFPS was sweeping, entrapment/adsorption resulting from larger polymer colloid of Fe-P chemistry bond.

  13. Enhanced Coagulation-Flocculation Performance of Iron-Based Coagulants: Effects of PO4(3- and SiO3(2- Modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available PO4(3- and SiO3(2- are often used as modifier to improve stability and aggregating ability of the iron-base coagulants, however, there are few reports about their detailed comparison between the coagulation performance and mechanisms. In this study, three coagulants--polyferric phosphoric sulfate (PFPS, polysilicon ferric sulfate (PFSS, and polyferric sulfate (PFS were synthesized; their structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning electron microscope (SEM. Alkali titration and Ferron species analysis were employed to investigate the hydrolysis performance and species distribution. Jar test was conducted to measure their coagulation behaviors at different dosage, pH, and temperatures in which the flocs properties were measured. The results showed that a number of new compounds were formed due to the presence of PO4(3- and SiO3(2-. Moreover, PFPS and PFSS had similar level in Fea as well as Feb. Among them, PFPS produced more multi-core iron atoms polymer and content of Feb, and the formed flocs were larger and denser. It exhibited superior coagulation performance in terms of turbidity reduction, UV254 removal and residual ferric concentration. Jar test and floc breakage/regrowth experiments indicated other than charge neutrality, the dominated mechanism involved in PFSS was the adsorption between polysilicic acid and solution particle, while PFPS was sweeping, entrapment/adsorption resulting from larger polymer colloid of Fe-P chemistry bond.

  14. The Effect of LiCl and Coagulation Bath Temperature on the Structure and Performance of PVDF Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sedaghat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membranes are widely used in microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes for their excellent mechanical and chemical resistance and thermal stability in comparison with other polymeric membranes. Non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS is the most important method by which the PVDF membranes are prepared. The structure of the membranes prepared by NIPS method depends on different parameters including the concentration of the polymer solution, polymer molecular weight, the composition and temperature of coagulation bath, type of solvent and the presence of additives in the initial solution. In the present work, the effects of coagulation bath temperature and LiCl content of the dope solution were studied with respect to the structure and performance of PVDF membranes. N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone and water were used as solvent and coagulation bath, respectively. A set of analytical techniques including: scanning electron microscopy, mechanical test, pure water permeability and mean pore radius of pores was used to characterize the membranes. Moreover, the separation of humic acid, a main biological contaminant in surface water resources, was studied to determine membranes performance. The results show that at constant coagulation bath temperature, presence of LiCl in the dope solution increased the number as well as the mean pore radius of the pores at the surface of membranes and consequently, pure water permeability of the membranes was increased, whereas, the mechanical strength and humic acid rejection of the membranes were dropped. Moreover, at a constant content of LiCl, increasing the coagulation bath temperature decreased the size of macrovoids so that the mechanical strength as well as humic acid rejection of the membranes was increased.

  15. Effects of surface chemistry on coagulation of submicron iron oxide particles (α-Fe_2O_3) in water

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Liyuan

    1988-01-01

    Particles in the colloidal size range, i.e. smaller than 10^(-6) meter, are of interest in environmental science and many other fields of science and engineering. Since aqueous oxide particles have high specific surface areas they adsorb ions and molecules from water, and may remain stable in the aqueous phase with respect to coagulation. Submicron particles collide as a result of their thermal energy, and the effective collision rate is slowed by electric repulsion forces. A key to understan...

  16. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G’ value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese. PMID:25938823

  17. Effects of pentastarch and albumin infusion on cardiorespiratory function and coagulation in patients with severe sepsis and systemic hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, E C; Mecher, C; Astiz, M E; Griffel, M; Falk, J L; Weil, M H

    1989-05-01

    Twenty consecutive patients with severe sepsis were randomized to fluid challenge with 5% albumin or 10% low MW hydroxyethyl starch (pentastarch) solutions. Fluid challenge was administered iv as 250 ml of test colloid every 15 min until the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (WP) was greater than or equal to 15 mm Hg or a maximum dose of 2000 ml was infused. Hemodynamic, respiratory, and coagulation profiles were measured before and after fluid infusion. The amount of colloid required to achieve a WP of 15 mm Hg was comparable between groups. Both colloid infusions resulted in similar increases in cardiac output, stroke output, and stroke work. The effect of fluid infusion with pentastarch on coagulation was not significantly different from albumin, although pentastarch was associated with a 45% decrease in factor VIII:c. We conclude that pentastarch is equivalent to albumin for fluid resuscitation of patients with severe sepsis.

  18. Plasma triacylglycerol and coagulation factor concentrations predict the anticoagulant effect of dietary fish oil in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Feijge, Marion A H; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-01-01

    fish-oil effects. In study 1, 54 overweight subjects consumed 3.1 g (n-3) PUFA daily. In study 2, which involved 42 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, 20 subjects consumed (n-3) PUFA, whereas 22 others ingested a preparation rich in (n-6) PUFA. Tissue factor-induced thrombin generation (thrombin...... potential) was determined as an integrated measure of plasma coagulant activity. In both studies, multivariate analysis indicated a strong clustering of fasting concentrations of triacylglycerols, prothrombin, factor V, factor VII, and factor X with one another at baseline. This cluster of factors......-induced lowering of triacylglycerol and coagulation factor V, VII, and X concentrations, and thrombin generation. We conclude that high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations predict high procoagulant activity and a lowering of thrombin potential with dietary fish oil....

  19. Effect of perioperative crystalloid or colloid fluid therapy on hemorrhage, coagulation competence, and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Secher, Niels H.; Pedersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background: A meta-analysis concerning perioperative coagulation competence, hemorrhage, and outcome was conducted including the use of hydroxyethyl starches (HESs), dextran, or albumin versus administration of a crystalloid as control to assess the efficacy and safety of colloids and crystalloids...

  20. Perspectives of transurethral robotic laser resection of the prostate: vaporization and coagulation effects with the Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gideon; Teo, Ming Y.; Kwoh, Chee K.; Ng, Wan S.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2000-05-01

    A longer operating time and steeper learning curve in mastering the techniques for transurethral laser resection of the prostate are the main problems faced by surgeons compared to standard transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, these disadvantages can be solved with the introduction of a treatment modality designed and developed based on an integrated system of computer, robotics and laser technology. In vitro experiments were carried out to determine variables affecting the vaporization and coagulation lesions, in order to identify the parameters that could optimize this modality. Human cadaveric prostate and fresh chicken breast tissues were irradiated with different parameters using continuous wave Nd:YAG laser fiber in contact with the tissue. The effects of irrigant flowrate, fiber/tissue angle of inclination, number of passes, direction, speed and power of lase on the volume of tissue vaporized and coagulated, were assessed. A non-contact optical coordinate measuring machine was used to measure the depth and width of the vaporized and coagulated lesion. Results reveal that for each directional vaporization path (forward, clockwise and counter-clockwise), power and speed of lase are the most significant parameters influencing the volume of the vaporized and coagulated lesion. Optimized values of the power and speed of lase at 100 W and 1 - 3 mm/s respectively were obtained from the experiments when the tissues were irradiated in the forward, clockwise and counter-clockwise directions. It was concluded from our study to quantify tissue removal and damage, optimized values of irradiation power and speed could be obtained and implemented in the procedure of transurethral robotic laser resection of the prostate.

  1. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  2. [Comparative study on promoting blood effects of Danshen-Honghua herb pair with different preparations based on chemometrics and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cheng; Tang, Yu-Ping; Shi, Xu-Qin; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Shang, Er-Xin; Shang, Li-Li; Guo, Jian-Ming; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of Danshen-Honghua(DH) herb pair with different preparations (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) on blood rheology and coagulation functions in acute blood stasis rats, and optimize the best preparation method of DH based on principal component analysis(PCA), hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods. Ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline were both used to establish the acute blood stasis rat model. Then the blood stasis rats were administrated intragastrically with DH (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) extracts. The whole blood viscosity(WBV), plasma viscosity(PV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and haematocrit(HCT) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations and doses on hemorheology of blood stasis rats; the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), and plasma fibrinogen(FIB) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations on blood coagulation function and platelet aggregation of blood stasis rats. Then PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods were all used to comprehensively evaluate the total promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of DH herb pair with different preparations. The hemorheological indexes and coagulation parameters of model group had significant differences with normal blank group. As compared with the model group, the DH herb pair with different preparations at low, middle and high doses could improve the blood hemorheology indexes and coagulation parameters in acute blood stasis rats with dose-effect relation. Based on the PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods, the high dose group of 50% alcohol extract had the best effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood

  3. Effect of general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia on the postoperative immune function, stress state and coagulation function in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia on the postoperative immune function, stress state and coagulation function in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: 98 patients undergoing selective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our hospital between May 2014 and August 2016 were selected and randomly divided into the combined anesthesia group who accepted the general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and the general anesthesia group who accepted the total intravenous anesthesia (n=49, peripheral blood was collected after operation to detect the number of CD3+CD4+CD8-T cells, CD3+CD4-CD8+T cells, CD16+CD56+NK cells and CD3- CD19+B cells, serum was collected to detect the levels of stress-related endocrine hormones norepinephrine (NE, cortisol (Cor, insulin (Ins, C-peptide (C-P, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4 as well as coagulation function indexes rostaglandin I2 (PGI2, thromboxane A2 (TXA2, 6-ketone-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGI1α and thromboxane B2 (TXB2. Results: The number of CD3+CD4+CD8-T cells, CD3+CD4-CD8+T cells, CD16+CD56+NK cells and CD3-CD19+B cells in peripheral blood of combined anesthesia group were significantly higher than those of intravenous anesthesia group (P<0.05; serum NE, Cor, Ins, C-P, FT3, FT4, TXA2 and TXB2 levels of combined anesthesia group were significantly lower than those of intravenous anesthesia group (P<0.05 while PGI2 and 6-K-PGI1α levels were significantly higher than those of intravenous anesthesia group (P<0.05. Conclusions: General anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia can improve the postoperative immune function, stress state and hypercoagulable state in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  4. Networks of enzymatically oxidized membrane lipids support calcium-dependent coagulation factor binding to maintain hemostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauder, S.N.; Allen-Redpath, K.; Slatter, D.A.; Aldrovandi, M.; O'Connor, A.; Farewell, D.; Percy, C.L.; Molhoek, J.E.; Rannikko, S.; Tyrrell, V.J.; Ferla, S.; Milne, G.L.; Poole, A.W.; Thomas, C.P.; Obaji, S.; Taylor, P.R.; Jones, S.A.; Groot, P.G. de; Urbanus, R.T.; Horkko, S.; Uderhardt, S.; Ackermann, J.; Jenkins, P.V.; Brancale, A.; Kronke, G.; Collins, P.W.; O'Donnell, V.B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation functions as part of the innate immune system by preventing bacterial invasion, and it is critical to stopping blood loss (hemostasis). Coagulation involves the external membrane surface of activated platelets and leukocytes. Using lipidomic, genetic, biochemical, and mathematical

  5. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...... by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride...

  6. Trauma and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding and coagulation disorders related to trauma are pathological processes which are frequently seen and increase mortality. For the purpose, trauma patients should be protected from hypoperfusion, hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution which may aggravate the increase in physiological responses to trauma as anticoagulation and fibrinolysis. Performing damage control surgery and resuscitation and transfusion of adequate blood and blood products in terms of amount and content as stated in protocols may increase the rate of survival. Medical treatments augmenting fibrin formation (fibrinogen, desmopressin, factor VIIa or preventing fibrin degradation (tranexamic acid have been proposed in selected cases but the efficacy of these agents in trauma patients are not proven. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:71-6

  7. Blood markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in lacunar stroke versus non-lacunar stroke and non-stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Stewart; Marlborough, Fergal; Doubal, Fergus; Webb, David J; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The cause of cerebral small vessel disease is not fully understood, yet it is important, accounting for about 25% of all strokes. It also increases the risk of having another stroke and contributes to about 40% of dementias. Various processes have been implicated, including microatheroma, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. A previous review investigated endothelial dysfunction in lacunar stroke versus mostly non-stroke controls while another looked at markers of inflammation and endothelial damage in ischaemic stroke in general. We have focused on blood markers between clinically evident lacunar stroke and other subtypes of ischaemic stroke, thereby controlling for stroke in general. We systematically assessed the literature for studies comparing blood markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in lacunar stroke versus non-stroke controls or other ischaemic stroke subtypes. We assessed the quality of included papers and meta-analysed results. We split the analysis on time of blood draw in relation to the stroke. We identified 1,468 full papers of which 42 were eligible for inclusion, including 4,816 ischaemic strokes, of which 2,196 were lacunar and 2,500 non-stroke controls. Most studies subtyped stroke using TOAST. The definition of lacunar stroke varied between studies. Markers of coagulation/fibrinolysis (tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), fibrinogen, D-dimer) were higher in lacunar stroke versus non-stroke although fibrinogen was no different to non-stroke in the acute phase. tPA and PAI were no different between lacunar and non-lacunar stroke. Fibrinogen and D-dimer were significantly lower in lacunar stroke compared to other ischaemic strokes, both acutely and chronically. Markers of endothelial dysfunction (homocysteine, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM)) were higher or

  8. Coagulation of some humic acid solutions by Moringa oleifera lam seeds: effect on chlorine requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Bawa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to study humic acid solutions and surface waters coagulation by Moringa oleifera Lam seeds aqueous extract. High amounts of such extract (up to 10 g/L were required to clarify humic acid solutions whereas 0.5 g/L were used to remove 90% of initial turbidity of a surface water. The treatment of water with low turbidity (Moringa oleifera Lam seeds extract released a high amount of organic compounds in treated solutions leading to a high chlorine requirement.

  9. 凝血检验、血常规的影响因素及控制变异方法分析%The analysis of coagulation tests, blood routine test inlfuence factors and the variation control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祥丽; 代治国

    2016-01-01

    (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT) were (24.60±1.85)s, (16.54±4.18)s and (9.80±2.96)s, which were significantly lower than the pressure pulse with immediate level (P<0.05), and the red blood cell (RBC) and hemoglobin (HGB) respectively was (5.28±0.64)×1012/L and (165.29±5.58)×109/L, that was significantly higher than that of pulse pressure with immediate level. The white blood cell (WBC) and blood platelet (PLT) were (4.26±0.28)×109/L and (165.29±5.58)×109/L, that were significantly lower than the pressure pulse with immediate (P<0.05). Before and after centrifugation placed 2 hours APTT were (37.18±2.68)s and(30.05±3.19)s, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Before and after centrifugation placed 4 hours APTT, PT and TT difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The specimens after placed 24 hours RBC, and PLT were (4.17±0.30)×1012/L and (165.29±5.58)×109/L, obviously lower than other time points, while WBC was (5.32±0.26)×109/L, higher than the other time points (P<0.05).Conclusion Sample collection and sample standing time and manner has effects on blood coagulation and blood test analysis, attention to the control method of variation, can greatly improve the reliability of detection data.

  10. Effect of diffusion losses on the size growth of nanoparticles by coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, M.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The size growth rate of aerosol particles by Brownian coagulation is significantly reduced in the case of nanometer-sized particles, for which deposition losses are extremely high. A simplified model, assuming that the coagulation rate constant and the deposition loss rate constant are both independent of particle size, is proposed. The size growth rate reduction predicted by the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results.

    La velocidad de crecimiento de partículas de aerosol por coagulación browniana se reduce considerablemente en el caso de nanopartículas, para las que las pérdidas por difusión son extremadamente altas. Se propone un modelo simplificado en el que las constantes de velocidad, tanto de coagulación como de pérdida por difusión, se suponen independientes del tamaño de partícula. Las predicciones del modelo están en buen acuerdo con los resultados experimentales.

  11. Inventive activity of the Department of Protein Structure and Function of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine. Part I. Development of the diagnostic methods for detection of hemostasis disorders and characterization of certain blood coagulation factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Danilova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The practical aspects of inventive activity of the Department of Protein Structure and Function of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NAS of Ukraine are highlighted in this article. Through years of fundamental and applied researches of blood coagulation system proteins, initiated by luminaries of the world biochemistry O. V. Palladin and V. O. Belitser, the Department staff have developed a considerable number of methods, techniques and tests for the assessment of the state of the hemostasis system, which were approved in many clinics. In the first part of this work the authors describe the development of the diagnostic methods for identifying the homeostasis system disorders in detail, as well as characterize certain coagulation factors.

  12. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  13. Impact of Silver Nanoparticles on Haemolysis, Platelet Function and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Laloy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their large antimicrobial spectrum. Data in the literature on the ability of Ag NPs to perform their desired function without eliciting undesirable effects on blood elements are very limited and contradictory. We studied the impact of Ag NPs on erythrocyte integrity, platelet function and blood coagulation. Erythrocyte integrity was assessed by spectrophotometric measurement of haemoglobin release. Platelet adhesion and aggregation was determined by light transmission aggregometry and scanning electron microscopy. The calibrated thrombin generation test was used to study the impact on coagulation cascade. We demonstrated that Ag NPs induced haemolysis. They also increase platelet adhesion without having any impact on platelet aggregation. Finally, they also had procoagulant potential. Bringing all data from these tests together, the no observed effect concentration is 5 μg/mL.

  14. Effect of estrogen-progestin hormonal replacement therapy on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal estroprogestativa sobre o sistema de coagulação e de fibrinólise em mulheres na pós-menopausa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio E Bonduki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antithrombin III (AT, thrombin (Fragment 1+2 [F1+2] and thrombin-antithrombin [TAT] generation markers, as well as other coagulation parameters, such as prothrombin time, partial activated thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, euglobulin lysis time, and platelet count, in postmenopausal women after hormonal therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five patients who received either 0.625 mg/day unopposed oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE, 0.625 mg/day oral CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MP, or 50 µg/day transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP, were included. Tests were performed before (T0 and after 3 (T3, 6 (T6 and 12 (T12 months of treatment. AT was determined by an amidolytic method, whereas F1+2 and TAT complex were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the AT level of patients who received oral CEE plus MP at T3. There was no AT reduction in patients taking either oral CEE alone or transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP. F1+2 increased in all patients, but it reached statistical significance only in patients receiving transdermal 17beta-estradiol MP at T3. CONCLUSIONS: The CEE associated with MP treatment may reduce AT levels, whereas unopposed CEE or transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP does not change AT. These changes might not be clinically relevant in the general population; however, hormonal replacement therapy may increase the risk of thrombosis in women with congenital or acquired thrombophilia.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os marcadores antitrombina III (AT, fragmento 1 + 2 da trombina (F1+2 e complexo trombina-antitrombina (TAT, bem como outros parâmetros da coagulação, como tempo de pró-trombina, tempo parcial de tromboplastina ativado, tempo de trombina, fibrinogênio e tempo de lise da euglobulina em mulheres na pós-menopausa após terapia hormonal. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Foram incluídas 45 voluntárias que receberam estrogênios conjugados eqüinos (ECE 0,625 mg/dia, isoladamente ou

  15. Initiator Systems Effect on Particle Coagulation and Particle Size Distribution in One-Step Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijun Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Particle coagulation is a facile approach to produce large-scale polymer latex particles. This approach has been widely used in academic and industrial research owing to its higher polymerization rate and one-step polymerization process. Our work was motivated to control the extent (or time of particle coagulation. Depending on reaction parameters, particle coagulation is also able to produce narrowly dispersed latex particles. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to investigate the role of the initiator system in determining particle coagulation and particle size distribution. Under the optimal initiation conditions, such as cationic initiator systems or higher reaction temperature, the time of particle coagulation would be advanced to particle nucleation period, leading to the narrowly dispersed polymer latex particles. By using a combination of the Smoluchowski equation and the electrostatic stability theory, the relationship between the particle size distribution and particle coagulation was established: the earlier the particle coagulation, the narrower the particle size distribution, while the larger the extent of particle coagulation, the larger the average particle size. Combined with the results of previous studies, a systematic method controlling the particle size distribution in the presence of particle coagulation was developed.

  16. Multipurpose HTS Coagulation Analysis: Assay Development and Assessment of Coagulopathic Snake Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina B. M. Still

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation assays currently employed are often low throughput, require specialized equipment and/or require large blood/plasma samples. This study describes the development, optimization and early application of a generic low-volume and high-throughput screening (HTS assay for coagulation activity. The assay is a time-course spectrophotometric measurement which kinetically measures the clotting profile of bovine or human plasma incubated with Ca2+ and a test compound. The HTS assay can be a valuable new tool for coagulation diagnostics in hospitals, for research in coagulation disorders, for drug discovery and for venom research. A major effect following envenomation by many venomous snakes is perturbation of blood coagulation caused by haemotoxic compounds present in the venom. These compounds, such as anticoagulants, are potential leads in drug discovery for cardiovascular diseases. The assay was implemented in an integrated analytical approach consisting of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC for separation of crude venom components in combination with parallel post-column coagulation screening and mass spectrometry (MS. The approach was applied for the rapid assessment and identification of profiles of haemotoxic compounds in snake venoms. Procoagulant and anticoagulant activities were correlated with accurate masses from the parallel MS measurements, facilitating the detection of peptides showing strong anticoagulant activity.

  17. Effect of a Tibetan herbal mixture on microvascular endothelial function, heart rate variability and biomarkers of inflammation, clotting and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Daniela; Lambrecht, Julia; Radtke, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Saner, Hugo

    2015-08-01

    In this 6-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind study, we investigated the effects of a natural herbal remedy based on a recipe from Tibet (Padma® 28), on microvascular endothelial function, heart rate variability and biomarkers of inflammation, clotting and coagulation in 80 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (age 66 ± 8 years) on guideline-based medication for secondary prevention. We found no significant effects of Padma 28 and conclude that the addition of Padma 28 to guideline-based secondary prevention treatment of CAD did not lead to significant effects on important surrogate markers in elderly male CAD patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  18. Effect of non-solvents used in the coagulation bath on morphology of PVDF membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Beatriz Thürmer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to prepare a poly (vinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane using different non-solvents in the coagulation bath for the phase inversion method. In order to increase the mechanical strength of membranes, facing the pressure of work, was used a macro-porous polyester support. The morphology and structure of the resulting membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, water and 1-octanol uptake, contact angle, pure water flux, hydraulic permeability and hydraulic resistance. The morphology and pure water flux changed significantly using ethanol (symmetric membrane and/or water (asymmetric membrane as the non-solvent. The symmetric membrane presented a high hydrophobic surface (water contact angle ~136º and a higher pure water flux and porosity than the asymmetric membrane, which presented a lower hydrophobicity surface (water contact angle ~90º. The morphologies obtained suggest different applications.

  19. Pretreatment of algae-laden and manganese-containing waters by oxidation-assisted coagulation: Effects of oxidation on algal cell viability and manganese precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jr-Lin; Hua, Lap-Cuong; Wu, Yuting; Huang, Chihpin

    2016-02-01

    Preoxidation is manipulated to improve performance of algae and soluble manganese (Mn) removal by coagulation-sedimentation for water treatment plants (WTPs) when large amount of soluble Mn presents in algae-laden waters. This study aimed to investigate the effects of preoxidation on the performance of coagulation-sedimentation for the simultaneous removal of algae and soluble Mn, including ionic and complexed Mn. NaOCl, ClO2, and KMnO4 were used to pretreat such algae-laden and Mn containing waters. The variation of algal cell viability, residual cell counts, and concentrations of Mn species prior to and after coagulation-sedimentation step were investigated. Results show that NaOCl dosing was effective in reducing the viability of algae, but precipitated little Mn. ClO2 dosing had a strongest ability to lower algae viability and oxidize ionic and complexed soluble Mn, where KMnO4 dosing oxidized ionic and complexed Mn instead of reducing the viability of cells. Preoxidation by NaOCl only improved the algae removal by sedimentation, whereas most of soluble Mn still remained. On the other hand, ClO2 preoxidation substantially improved the performance of coagulation-sedimentation for simultaneous removal of algae and soluble Mn. Furthermore, KMnO4 preoxidation did improve the removal of algae by sedimentation, but left significant residual Mn in the supernatant. Images from FlowCAM showed changes in aspect ratio (AR) and transparency of algae-Mn flocs during oxidation-assisted coagulation, and indicates that an effective oxidation can improve the removal of most compact algae-Mn flocs by sedimentation. It suggests that an effective preoxidation for reducing algal cell viability and the concentration of soluble Mn is a crucial step for upgrading the performance of coagulation-sedimentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Review Blood coagulation factor VIII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the development of inhibitors in patients with hemophilia A. 2. Lifespan. 2.1 FVIII gene .... intron 22 inversion is principally an error of DNA repli- cation during ..... Pittman D D, Wang J H and Kaufman R J 1992 Identification and functional ...

  1. The donor line break cannula: effect on the donation process, blood component quality and transfusion microbiology testing of an important new blood bag safety feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, M J; Beard, M J; Bennett, J; Hambleton, R; Ramskill, S; Thomas, S

    2013-08-01

    The use of blood packs with an integral sampling system can result in anti-coagulant from the main bag reaching the sample pouch via the donor line, causing delayed coagulation of blood samples. In NHS Blood and Transplant, this has prevented the use of serum, the preferred matrix for transfusion microbiology (TM) testing, which has led to an increased false positive rate with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma. There is also a remote possibility of false negative results owing to sample dilution. Manufacturers have responded by offering packs with a donor line break cannula (DLBC) to prevent these adverse effects. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of DLBC packs on donation, blood component quality and of the potential return to serum for TM testing. DLBC packs from three manufacturers were assessed against control packs of the same dimensions and configuration. Donation duration, flow rate, platelet factor 4, prothrombin fragment 1+2, haemolysis and collection and processing incidents were compared. Results indicated no clinically significant adverse effect from the DLBC on the activation state of platelets, the coagulation cascade or increased haemolysis. Donation duration and blood collection and processing incident rates for DLBC packs were not significantly different to controls. The use of DLBC packs would reduce the complexity of manipulations during blood collection and therefore the likelihood of microbially contaminated donations (incorrect skin core diversion) and false negative TM tests. DLBC packs would enable the use of serum for TM testing with a significant reduction in false positive tests compared to EDTA plasma. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. The effects of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera and alum in wastewater treatment at the Bandar Abbas Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dehghani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The refining process generates large volumes of wastewater containing a variety of chemical contaminants. The use of natural substitutes in treating wastewater which have fewer harmful effects is considered an effective step towards protecting the environment and sustaining the development of these industries. This study focused on the use of Moringa oleifera and alum at the Wastewater Unit at Bandar Abbas Refinery. Methods: This study was performed in 2014 in a laboratory using jar apparatus. These experiments were conducted in batch system and effective parameters including pH, coagulant dose and contact time were investigated on the wastewater obtained from Bandar Abbas Oil Refinery. Results: The jar test experiment showed that M. oleifera at 70 mg/L, optimum temperature, pH, and mixing speed could remove 38.60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD, 63.70% of turbidity, and 62.05% of total suspended solids (TSS. Also, alum at 40 mg/L removed COD, turbidity, and TSS by 51.72%, 92.16%, and 85.26% respectively from the refinery wastewater. Moreover, when M. oleifera and alum was used together with a 2:1 dosage ratio (alum at 80 mg/L and M. oleifera at 70 mg/L, they will remove COD, turbidity, and TSS by up to 50.41%, 86.14%, and 81.52% respectively. Conclusion: The use of M. oleifera as a natural coagulant is important in treating refinery wastewater not only from an environmental but also an economic point of view.

  3. Relative effects of plasma, fibrinogen concentrate, and factor XIII on ROTEM coagulation profiles in an in vitro model of massive transfusion in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David E; Halmin, Märit; Wikman, Agneta; Östlund, Anders; Ågren, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Massive traumatic haemorrhage is aggravated through the development of trauma-induced coagulopathy, which is managed by plasma transfusion and/or fibrinogen concentrate administration. It is yet unclear whether these treatments are equally potent in ensuring adequate haemostasis, and whether additional factor XIII (FXIII) administration provides further benefits. In this study, we compared ROTEM whole blood coagulation profiles after experimental massive transfusion with different transfusion regimens in an in vitro model of dilution- and transfusion-related coagulopathy. Healthy donor blood was mixed 1 + 1 with six different transfusion regimens. Each regimen contained RBC, platelet concentrate, and either fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or Ringer's acetate (RA). The regimens were further augmented through addition of a low- or medium-dose fibrinogen concentrate and FXIII. Transfusion with FFP alone was insufficient to maintain tissue-factor activated clot strength, coincidental with a deficiency in fibrin-based clot strength. Fibrinogen concentrate conserved, but did not improve coagulation kinetics and overall clot strength. Only combination therapy with FFP and low-dose fibrinogen concentrate improved both coagulation kinetics and fibrin-based clot strength. Administration of FXIII did not result in an improvement of clot strength. In conclusion, combination therapy with both FFP and low-dose fibrinogen concentrate improved clotting time and produced firm clots, representing a possible preferred first-line regimen to manage trauma-induced coagulopathy when RBC and platelets are also transfused. Further research is required to identify optimal first-line transfusion fluids for massive traumatic haemorrhage.

  4. A refractory case of radiation proctitis. Effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation therapy and the rectal stenosis after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Katsunobu; Morita, Akihiko; Terada, Itsuro

    2006-01-01

    A 75-years-old man received external radiation with a cumulative dose of 60 Gy for prostatic cancer. Severe hematochezia occurred approximately 16 months after irradiation. A extensive and circumferential telangiectatic lesion in the lower segment of the rectum was detected, then he was diagnosed as having radiation proctitis. Pharmacotherapy was employed at first, but the bleeding was uncontrollable. Colostomy was performed, but the bleeding could not be controlled. Argon plasma coagulation therapy (APC) was applied, and the bleeding ceased after first session of APC. But the severe rectal stricture appeared three months after APC. APC is effective treatment for refractory radiation proctitis, but the rectal stenosis was occurred three months after APC. (author)

  5. Effects of anti-aggregant, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant drug consumption on the preparation and therapeutic potential of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Troya, María; Zalduendo, Mar; Orive, Gorka

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence and incidence of trauma-related injuries, coronary heart disease and other chronic diseases increase dramatically with age. This population sector is therefore a regular consumer of different types of drugs that may affect platelet aggregation and the coagulation cascade. We have evaluated whether the consumption of acetylsalicylic acid, acenocoumarol, glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, and therefore their presence in blood, could interfere with the preparation and biological outcomes of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Clotting time, clot retraction and platelet activation of PRGF was evaluated. PRGF growth factor content and the release of different biomolecules by tendon fibroblasts were also quantified, as well as cell proliferation and cell migration. The preparation and biological potential of PRGF is not affected by the intake of the evaluated drugs, and solely its angiogenic potential and its capacity to induce HA and fibronectin synthesis, is reduced in patients taking anti-coagulants.

  6. Argon Beam Coagulator in Breast Surgery: Effect on the Incidence of Breast Seroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefemine, Valentina; Cornish, Julie A; Abou-Samra, Walid

    2011-12-01

    Although Argon Beam Coagulators (ABCs) are widely used in urological and gynecological procedures, there have been only two studies published so far on their use and benefits in breast surgery. This study compares the incidence of breast seroma following mastectomy upon the use of ABC versus standard monopolar diathermy. This is a retrospective cohort study, with data collected from January 2006 to August 2008 for all patients who underwent a simple mastectomy and axillary surgery. Outcomes included incidence of seroma, amount of drainage on day of discharge, and timing of seroma formation. Fifty-six patients were studied, with 30 undergoing simple mastectomy using ABC diathermy and 25 using simple diathermy. The incidence of postoperative breast seroma development was 30% (n = 9) in the former group and 36% (n = 9) in the latter. In the ABC group, a high postoperative drainage at discharge was predictive of developing a seroma; this was not observed in the monopolar group. The search for methods to reduce the incidence of seroma in breast surgery is ongoing worldwide. Despite a previous report, this study failed to show any significant difference between ABC and monopolar diathermy in the incidence of breast seroma formation following simple mastectomy and axillary surgery. ABC diathermy is more costly, and its use needs to be carefully considered in an era of a stretched National Health Service financial budget.

  7. The Evaluation of Hydroxyethyl Starch (6% HES 130/0.4 Solution’s Potential Preventive Effects on Coagulation Status in Women with Gynecologic Malignancies Using Rotation Thromboelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Olga Akay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vitro hemodilution with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4 solution on the coagulation status of women with gynecologic malignancies by using rotation thromboelastogram (ROTEM®. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with gynecological tumors scheduled for anesthesia were enrolled. Blood samples were diluted by 20% with 6% HES (130/0.4 solution. RESULTS: In the INTEM assay, clotting time (CT (p<0.01 and clot formation time (CFT (p<0.001 were significantly increased and maximum maximum clot formation (MCF (p< 0.001 was significantly decreased in HES hemodilution compared with the undiluted control samples. In the EXTEM assay, there was a similar significant increase in increase in CFT (p<0.01 and a decrease in maximum a decrease in MCF (p<0.01 in HES hemodilution when compared with control samples. CONCLUSION: HES 130/0.4 solution causes significant hypocoagulable changes in the thromboelastographic profile of gynecologic cancer patients in vitro.

  8. Effect of coagulation on treatment of municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate by UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, Muhammad; Roddick, Felicity, E-mail: felicity.roddick@rmit.edu.au; Fan, Linhua

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Alum coagulation is an effective pre-treatment for UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of high salinity ROC. • Comparable DOC in samples but different coagulation success due to different nature of organics. • Comparable mineralization obtained for two different ROCs with UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} only treatment. • UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment led to increased biodegradability with and without coagulation. • Significant reduction in energy consumption obtained after pre- and biological post-treatment. -- Abstract: Disposal of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) is a growing concern due to potential health and ecological risks. Alum coagulation was investigated as pre-treatment for the UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of two high salinity ROC samples (ROC A and B) of comparable organic and inorganic content. Coagulation removed a greater fraction of the organic content for ROC B (29%) than ROC A (16%) which correlated well with the reductions of colour and A{sub 254}. Although the total reductions after 60 min UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment with and without coagulation were comparable, large differences in the trends of reduction were observed which were attributed to the different nature of the organic content (humic-like) of the samples as indicated by the LC-OCD analyses and different initial (5% and 16%) biodegradability. Coagulation and UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment preferentially removed humic-like compounds which resulted in low reaction rates after UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of the coagulated samples. The improvement in biodegradability was greater (2–3-fold) during UVC/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of the pre-treated samples than without pre-treatment. The target DOC residual (≤15 mg/L) was obtained after 30 and 20 min irradiation of pre-treated ROC A and ROC B with downstream biological treatment, corresponding to reductions of 55% and 62%, respectively.

  9. Effect of one session endurance exhausting exercise on some coagulation markers of mature and immature wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadmehr MirdarHarijani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thrombosis is lower in children and prepubertal period than adults. But its incidence increases in adolescence.The aim of this study was comparing the effect of one session of endurance exhaustive exercise in different times on some of coagulation systems markers in pre and after maturation wistar rats. Material and Methods: 27mature male wistar rats with 241±5 grams mean weight and 27 immature male rats with 97±5 grams mean weight which were 14 and 5 weeks old, respectively, after two weeks getting accustomed to the new environment and treadmill, were divided into one control and two exercising groups. Then, sampling was performed immediately and after 24 hours after exercise. Exhausting endurance exercise program involved increasing the speed of treadmill until getting exhausted. Fibrinogen, APTT, and PT were measured with the Clause and coagulation methods. The analysis was performed by using independent t-test, one-way variance analysis and tukey test. Significance level was assigned for all statistical analysis (p≤0.050. Results: Results in immature and mature rats groups indicated that amounts of fibrinogen has had significant reduction immediately after exercise (p=0.004, p=0.047, and 24 hours after exercise were significantly increased only in mature rats (p=0.000. Also, APTT in all groups decreased immediately and 24 hours after exercise but it was significant just 24 hours after exercise. Conclusion: Due to the increased fibrinogen and decreased APTT at 24 hours after exhaustive endurance exercise in mature and immature rats, it seems that performing such activities in children and inactive adults must be accompanied with special considerations.

  10. Harvesting Microalgal Biomass grown in Anaerobic Sewage Treatment Effluent by the Coagulation-Flocculation Method: Effect of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servio Tulio Cassini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Harvesting is a critical step in microalgal biomass production process for many reasons. Among the existing techniques available for harvesting and dewatering microalgal biomass, recovery from aqueous medium by coagulation-flocculation has been the most economically viable process, althoughit is highly dependent on pH. This study aims to assess alternative coagulants compared to the standard coagulant aluminum sulfate for microalgal biomass recovery from anaerobic effluent of domestic sewage treatment. The effluent quality was also analyzed after biomass recovery. Coagulants represented by modified tannin, cationic starch and aluminum sulfate recovered more than 90% of algae biomass, at concentrations greater than 80 mg/L, in the pH range 7-10. Cationic starch promoted higher microalgal biomass recovery with a wider pH range. Powdered seeds of Moringa oleifera and Hibiscus esculentus(okra gum promoted biomass removal of 50%, only in the acidic range of pH. After sedimentation of the microalgal biomass, the effluents showed a removal of >80% for phosphorus and nitrogen values and >50% for BOD and COD when using aluminum sulfate, cationic starch and modified tannin as coagulants. Natural organic coagulants in a wide pH range can replace aluminum sulfate, a reference coagulant in microalgal biomass recovery, without decreasing microalgal biomass harvesting efficiency and the quality of the final effluent.

  11. Effect of laser on human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalsamad, Amuna Nagash Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the effect of He-Ne (632.8 nm), N2 (337.1 nm), LED (450 nm) on the human blood, and blood component was studied by using CBC machine ( complete blood count) and UV -visible spectroscopy. Blood samples platoon A+ were collected and irradiated for different periods of time (10 minute, 20 minute, and 30 minute), to varied types of light source ( He- Ne laser and LED). Blood parameters of samples were measured by using complete Blood Count Machine (CBC). The absorption spectrum of blood samples were examined by using UV-visible spectrometer. The obtained results have shown different values of Complete Blood Counts and absorption spectrum due to different laser types and periods of time. We conclude that the laser light has clear effect on blood samples. (Author)

  12. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Decker Christensen

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the impact of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing minimal invasive lung cancer surgery is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS lobectomy for primary lung cancer.Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomized to either subcutaneous injection with dalteparin (Fragmin® 5000 IE once daily or no intervention. Coagulation was assessed pre-, peri-, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM® and thrombin generation.Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority of the assessed coagulation parameters after LMWH, except that the no intervention group had a higher peak thrombin and a shorter INTEM clotting time on the first postoperative day and a lower fibrinogen level on the second postoperative day. A lower level of fibrin d-dimer in the LMWH group was found on the 1. and 2.postoperative day, although not statistical significant. No differences were found between the two groups in the amount of bleeding or number of thromboembolic events.Use of LMWH administered once daily as thromboprophylaxis did not alter the coagulation profile per se. As the present study primarily evaluated biochemical endpoints, further studies using clinical endpoints are needed in regards of an optimized thromboprophylaxis approach.

  13. Effects of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation-aid treatment on the reduction of trihalomethanes precursors from high DOC and hardness water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrnourmohamadi, Mehrnaz; Gorczyca, Beata

    2015-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation aid on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the water with a high level of DOC (13.8 mgL(-1)) and calcium hardness (270 mgL(-1)) CaCO3. Natural water collected from the Assiniboine River (Manitoba, Canada) was used in this study. Effectiveness of ozone treatment was evaluated by measurement of DOC, DOC fractions, UV254, and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additionally, zeta potential and dissolved calcium concentration were measured to discern the mechanism of ozone reactions. Results indicated that 0.8 mg O3/mg DOC ozone stand-alone can cause up to 86% UV254 reduction and up to 27% DOC reduction. DOC fractionation results showed that ozone can change the composition of DOC in the water samples, converting the hydrophobic fractions into hydrophilic ones and resulting in the reduction of THMFP. Also, ozone caused a decrease in particle stability and dissolved calcium concentration. These simultaneous ozonation effects caused improved water flocculation and enhanced removal of DOC. This resulted in reduction of the coagulant dosage when ozone doses higher than 0.2 mg O3/mg DOC were applied prior to coagulation with ferric sulfate. Also, pre-ozonation-coagulation process achieved preferential THMFP removal for all of the ozone doses tested (0-0.8 mg O3/mg DOC), leading to a lower specific THMFP in pre-ozonated-coagulated waters than in the corresponding ozonated waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristic evolutions of drinking water treatment sludge and its impact on coagulation property of sludge recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing

    2015-11-01

    Large amounts of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) are produced during the flocculation or flotation process. The recycling of DWTS is important for reducing and reclaiming the waste residues from drinking water treatment. To improve the coagulation step of the DWTS recycling process, power ultrasound was used as a pretreatment to disintegrate the DWTS and degrade or inactivate the constituents that are difficult to remove by coagulation. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristics of DWTS, including the extent of disintegration, variation in DWTS floc characteristics, and DWTS dewaterability, were investigated. The capacity of the recycling process to remove particulates and organic matter from low-turbidity surface water compared to a control treatment process without DWTS was subsequently evaluated. The coagulation mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the formation, breakage, and re-growth of re-coagulated flocs. Our results indicated that under the low energy density applied (0.03-0.033 W/mL) for less than 15 min at a frequency of 160 kHz, the level of organic solubilization was less elevated, which was evidenced by the lower release of proteins and polysaccharides and lower fluorescence intensities of humic- and protein-like substances. The applied ultrasound conditions had an adverse effect on the dewaterability of the DWTS. Ultrasound pretreatment had no significant impact on the pH or surface charge of the DWTS flocs, whereas particle size decreased slightly and the specific surface area was moderately increased. The pollution removal capacity decreased somewhat for the recycled sonicated DWTS treatment, which was primarily ascribed to organic solubilization rather than variability in the floc characteristics of sonicated DWTS. The main coagulation mechanism was floc sweeping and physical adsorption. The breakage process of the flocs formed by the recycling process displayed distinct irreversibility, and the flocs were

  15. Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: Effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 activated by ultraviolet (UV light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1 or post illumination (EG2. Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (% we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 ± 4.52 vs 63.20 ± 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002, while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2 there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 ± 0.94 vs 31.94 ± 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002, but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Conclusion. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT sistem, Caridian BCT, USA keeps all the

  16. An in vitro analysis of the effect of acidosis on coagulation in chronic disease states - a thromboelastograph study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hayden; Bird, Robert; Sosnowski, Kellie; Jones, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Thrombosis is a complication of many chronic illnesses. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus are common medical conditions frequently associated with a hypercoagulable state. Acidaemia has been shown to reduce coagulation. COPD and diabetes mellitus during acute deterioration can present with a severe acidaemia. The impact of this acidaemia on coagulation is poorly studied. Patients presenting with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis or type II respiratory failure from COPD and a pH of less than 7.2 were included in our study. A coagulation screen and a thromboelastograph (TEG) were performed on admission and 24 hours later. The mean pH on admission was 7.07 and mean base excess was -16.3. The activated partial thromboplastin time was associated with pH change but remained within the normal range (26-41 s). All other coagulation and TEG parameters failed to show evidence of association (p>0.05). In the two models of non-haemorrhagic acidosis investigated, coagulation was not altered by the changes in pH. More work is needed to understand the complex relationship between factors affecting coagulation in individual disease processes. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  17. Anti-Coagulant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra): In Vitro and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Zhao, Kong-Nan; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Osborne, Simone A; Gobe, Glenda C

    2017-08-04

    Sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities have been found in various marine biota. In this study, a previously characterised anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant extract from blacklip abalone was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography (AEC), pooled (on a sulphated polysaccharide basis) and administered to Wistar rats via oral gavage (N = 8) for assessment as an oral therapeutic. To ensure that the preparation had anti-coagulant activity prior to oral administration, it was assessed in rat blood by thromboelastography (TEG) significantly increasing reaction (R) time (or time until clot formation). Following in vitro confirmation of anti-coagulant activity, 40 mg of the preparation was orally administered to rats with blood samples collected at 2, 4, and 6 h post-gavage. Assessment of all blood samples by TEG showed some prolongation of R time from 355 to 380 s after 4 h. Dosing of the post-gavage blood samples with the abalone preparation to confirm anti-thrombotic activity in vitro revealed residual anti-coagulant activity, further suggesting that oral administration did increase anti-coagulant potential in the collected blood but that bioavailability was low. Assessment of tissues and haematological parameters showed no obvious harmful effects of the abalone preparation in animals. In summary, even though oral administration of fractionated and pooled blacklip abalone extract to rats delayed clotting after 4 h, bioavailability of the preparation appeared to be low and may be more appropriate for intravenous administration as an anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant therapeutic.

  18. Upregulation of the coagulation factor VII gene during glucose deprivation is mediated by activating transcription factor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine R; Mangan, Thomas P; Carew, Josephine A

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive production of blood coagulation proteins by hepatocytes is necessary for hemostasis. Stressful conditions trigger adaptive cellular responses and delay processing of most proteins, potentially affecting plasma levels of proteins secreted exclusively by hepatocytes. We examined the effect of glucose deprivation on expression of coagulation proteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Expression of coagulation factor VII, which is required for initiation of blood coagulation, was elevated by glucose deprivation, while expression of other coagulation proteins decreased. Realtime PCR and ELISA demonstrated that the relative percentage expression +/- SD of steady-state F7 mRNA and secreted factor VII antigen were significantly increased (from 100+/-15% to 188+/-27% and 100+/-8.8% to 176.3+/-17.3% respectively, pfactor ATF4 and of additional stress-responsive genes. Small interfering RNAs directed against ATF4 potently reduced basal F7 expression, and prevented F7 upregulation by glucose deprivation. The response of the endogenous F7 gene was replicated in reporter gene assays, which further indicated that ATF4 effects were mediated via interaction with an amino acid response element in the F7 promoter. Our data indicated that glucose deprivation enhanced F7 expression in a mechanism reliant on prior ATF4 upregulation primarily due to increased transcription from the ATF4 gene. Of five coagulation protein genes examined, only F7 was upregulated, suggesting that its functions may be important in a systemic response to glucose deprivation stress.

  19. Effects of Thermal Status on Markers of Blood Coagulation During Simulated Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Generalized Estimating Equations. London: Chapman and Hall; 2003. 30. Ballinger GA : Using generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data analysis...Ventilatory parameters (ventilation, tidal volume and breathing rate) were measured (body temperature and pressure saturated) using an automated gas ...baroreceptors attenuates hyperthermic hyperventilation in some individuals. Nevertheless, this interparticipant variation may also be due to various behavioural

  20. Effects of Thermal Status on Markers of Blood Coagulation During Simulated Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Keywords Hemorrhage Hyperthermia Dehydration Hemostasis Exercise Heat stress Environment Pre- hospital Triage 3. Overall Project...Perspectives and significance The present study suggests that individuals performing physical work (e.g. exercise) in a hot environment will be likely to...3 6. Publications, Abstracts and Presentations ................................................. 4 7. Inventions, Patents and Licenses

  1. In vivo effects of Cannabis sativa L. extract on blood coagulation, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following metabolic changes were observed in Cannabis -treated rats: decreased growth rates (normal only), increased liver weights (diabetic only), decreased left rectus femorus muscle mass (normal only), increased total plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma triglyceride levels (diabetic only), reduced hepatic ...

  2. Anti-coagulation effect of Fc fragment against anti-β2-GP1 antibodies in mouse models with APS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Zhang, Yaou; Bu, Cunya; Sun, Shijing; Hu, Shaoliang; Cai, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Anti-beta (2)-glycoprotein I (anti-β2-GP1) is one of the important pathogenesis factors responsible for thrombosis formation in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a common method used to inhibit the abnormal antibody levels and decrease the mortality of APS in emergency situations. We hypothesize that the Fc fragment of IgG is the molecular structure responsible for these effects. The present study investigates the beneficial effects of both recombinant and natural human Fc fragments of heterogeneous IgG against human anti-β2-GP1 antibodies in mouse models with APS. Results showed that both recombinant and natural human Fc fragments moderately but significantly decreased the levels of serum anti-β2-GP1 antibodies and had anti-coagulation effects in human β2-GP1-immunized mice. Furthermore, both recombinant and natural human Fc fragments inhibited thrombosis formation and decreased mortality in mouse models infused intravenously with human anti-β2GP1 antibodies from patients with APS. Findings suggest that the Fc fragment might be one of the active structural units of heterogeneous IgG. Thus, recombinant human Fc fragment administration may be a useful treatment for individuals with APS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC): protocol and statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Haleema; Fawole, Bukola; Kuti, Modupe; Olayemi, Oladapo; Bello, Adenike; Ogunbode, Olayinka; Kotila, Taiwo; Aimakhu, Chris O; Huque, Sumaya; Gregg, Meghann; Roberts, Ian

    2016-12-16

    Background : Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized controlled trial of its effect on maternal health outcomes in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial) is ongoing. We will examine the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a subset of WOMAN trial participants. Methods . Adult women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion in the WOMAN trial. In a sub-group of trial participants, blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of tranexamic acid or matching placebo.  Our primary objective is to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis will be assessed by measuring D-dimers and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Secondary outcomes are international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, haemoglobin and platelets. We aim to include about 180 women from the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria. Discussion:  This sub-study of WOMAN trial participants should provide information on the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in women with postpartum haemorrhage. We present the trial protocol and statistical analysis plan. The trial protocol was registered prior to the start of patient recruitment. The statistical analysis plan was completed before un-blinding. Trial registration: The trial was registered: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00872469 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00872469; ISRCTN registry, Identifier ISRCTN76912190 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date: 22/03/2012).

  4. Comparison of the effects of spinal epidural and general anesthesia on coagulation and fibrinolysis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial: VSJ Competition, 2nd place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryas, Suleyman; Donmez, Turgut; Erdem, Vuslat Muslu; Erdem, Duygu Ayfer; Hatipoglu, Engin; Ferahman, Sina; Sunamak, Oguzhan; Zengin, Lale Yoldas; Kocakusak, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is usually performed under general anesthesia. Recently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy under regional anesthesia has become popular, but this creates a serious risk of thromboembolism because of pneumoperitoneum, anesthesia technique, operative positioning, and patient-specific risk factors. This randomized controlled trial compares the effects of two different anesthesia techniques in laparoscopic cholecystectomy on coagulation and fibrinolysis. This randomized prospective study included 60 low-risk patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) who underwent elective LC without thrombo-emboli prophylaxis. The patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the anesthesia technique: the general anesthesia (group 1, n = 30) and spinal epidural anesthesia (group 2, n = 30) groups. Measurement of the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and blood levels of D-dimer (DD) and fibrinogen (F) were recorded preoperatively (pre), at the first hour (post 1) and 24 h (post 24) after the surgery. These results were compared both between and within the groups. The mean age was 51.5 ±16.7 years (range: 19-79 years). Pneumoperitoneum time was similar between group 1 (33.8 ±7.8) and group 2 (34.8 ±10.4). The TT levels significantly declined postoperatively in both groups. The levels of PT, aPTT, INR, D-dimer and fibrinogen dramatically increased postoperatively in both groups. While there was not any DVT, there was a significant decline in TT. There was a dramatic rise in the PT, INR, D-dimer, fibrin degradation products (FDP), and fibrinogen following LC. This may be attributed to the effects of pneumoperitoneum and anesthesia techniques on portal vein flow.

  5. Effects of hormone therapy on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Zeinab; Seely, Ellen W; Rahme, Maya; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2015-04-01

    Although hormone therapy remains the most efficacious option for the management of vasomotor symptoms of menopause, its effects on blood pressure remain unclear. This review scrutinizes evidence of the mechanisms of action of hormone therapy on signaling pathways affecting blood pressure and evidence from clinical studies. Comprehensive Ovid MEDLINE searches were conducted for the terms "hypertension" and either of the following "hormone therapy and menopause" or "selective estrogen receptor modulator" from year 2000 to November 2013. In vitro and physiologic studies did not reveal a clear deleterious effect of hormone therapy on blood pressure. The effect of oral therapy was essentially neutral in large trials conducted in normotensive women with blood pressure as primary outcome. Results from all other trials had several limitations. Oral therapy had a neutral effect on blood pressure in hypertensive women. Transdermal estrogen and micronized progesterone had a beneficial effect on blood pressure in normotensive women and, at most, a neutral effect on hypertensive women. In general, tibolone and raloxifene had a neutral effect on blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive women. Large randomized trials are needed to assess the effect of oral hormone therapy on blood pressure as a primary outcome in hypertensive women and the effect of transdermal preparations on both normotensive and hypertensive women. Transdermal preparations would be the preferred mode of therapy for hypertensive women, in view of their favorable physiologic and clinical profiles. The decision regarding the use of hormone therapy should be individualized, and blood pressure should be monitored during the course of treatment.

  6. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  7. The effect of turbidity levels and Moringa oleifera concentration on the effectiveness of coagulation in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkurunziza, T; Nduwayezu, J B; Banadda, E N; Nhapi, I

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the water purification and antimicrobial properties of Moringa oleifera (MO). Hence different concentrations (25 to 300 mg/L) were prepared from a salt (1 M NaCl) extract of MO fine powder and applied to natural surface water whose turbidity levels ranged from 50 to 450 NTU. The parameters determined before and after coagulation were turbidity, pH, colour, hardness, iron, manganese and Escherichia coli. The experiments showed that turbidity removal is influenced by the initial turbidity since the lowest turbidity removal of 83.2% was observed at 50 NTU, whilst the highest of 99.8% was obtained at 450 NTU. Colour removal followed the same trend as the turbidity. The pH exhibited slight variations through the coagulation. The hardness removal was very low (0 to 15%). However, high removals were achieved for iron (90.4% to 100%) and manganese (93.1% to 100%). The highest E. coli removal achieved was 96.0%. Its removal was associated with the turbidity removal. The optimum MO dosages were 150 mg/L (50 NTU and 150 NTU) and 125 mg/L for the rest of the initial turbidity values. Furthermore all the parameters determined satisfied the WHO guidelines for drinking water except for E. coli.

  8. Effects of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on blood fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of blood fluidity may lead to improvements in skin problems resulting from unsmooth circulation or blood stagnation. Since a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits may be a useful ingredient in skin-whitening cosmetics, the present study was designed to examine the effect of CH-ext on blood fluidity. CH-ext concentration-dependently inhibited in vitro collagen-induced rabbit platelet aggregation and in vitro polybrene-induced rat erythrocyte aggregation. The CH-ext showed in vitro fibrinolysis activity in fibrin plate assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext using antiplatelet activity, inhibitory activity of erythrocyte aggregation, and fibrinolysis activity revealed that these activities of CH-ext were attributable to naringenin-7-glycoside (prunin). Successive oral administration of CH-ext to rats inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease of blood platelets and fibrinogen, and LPS-induced increase of fibrin degradation products (FDP) in LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) model rats. Effects of CH-ext on blood fluidity were analyzed by a micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). Preventive oral administration of CH-ext to rats showed dose-dependent reduction of the passage time of whole blood flow of the DIC model rats in comparison with that of the vehicle control rats. These results imply that CH-ext may have effects which improve effects on blood fluidity.

  9. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  10. Effect of biological and coagulation pre-treatments to control organic and biofouling potential components of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Kajol, Annaduzzaman; Suja, Fatihah; Md Zain, Shahrom

    2017-03-01

    Biological aerated filter (BAF), sand filtration (SF), alum and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic and biofouling potential component of an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the treatment of lake water. The carbohydrate content was mainly responsible for reversible fouling of the UF membrane compared to protein or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. All pre-treatment could effectively reduce these contents and led to improve the UF filterability. Both BAF and SF markedly led to improvement in flux than coagulation processes, and alum gave greater flux than M. oleifera. This was attributed to the effective removal and/or breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics by biofilters. BAF led to greater improvement in flux than SF, due to greater breakdown of high MW organics, and this was also confirmed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Coagulation processes were ineffective in removing biofouling potential components, whereas both biofilters were very effective as shown by the reduction of low MW organics, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents. This study demonstrated the potential of biological pre-treatments for reducing organic and biofouling potential component and thus improving flux for the UF of lake water treatment.

  11. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  12. Coagulation and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.

    2001-01-01

    Severe infection induces both activation of the coagulation system and multiple other inflammatory mediator cascades. This concise review summarizes the current knowledge of mechanisms that are considered to contribute to the procoagulant response to sepsis. Furthermore, evidence is discussed that

  13. Normal saline influences coagulation and endothelial function after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekker, Simone E; Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted

    2014-01-01

    ), colloids (Hextend [HEX]), and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation are associated with differential effects on coagulation and endothelial systems. METHODS: We subjected 15 Yorkshire swine to TBI and HS (40% blood volume), and kept in HS for 2 hours before resuscitation with NS, HEX, or FFP. Markers......BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of trauma-related deaths. These insults disrupt coagulation and endothelial systems. This study investigated whether previously reported differences in lesion size and brain swelling during normal saline (NS...... of endothelial activation (E-selectin, Intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1), coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2), and natural anticoagulation (activated protein C [aPC]) were determined in serum and brain whole cell lysates. RESULTS: Serum levels of aPC were greater in the NS group (203 ± 30...

  14. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  15. coagulation factors level in fresh frozen plasma in rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... Setting: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology in ... a major role in blood coagulation process. ... storage conditions and quality control prior to clinical ... instrumentation Laboratory Company USA made in.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radio Frequency Coagulation for Vascular Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    Purpose. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Coagulation employs the RF heating effect of MRI scanning to coagulate biomaterials for repair of vascular defects. Coagulation of a protein biomaterial by MR-induced RF heating is a novel means to effect repair of defects such as aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Our novel method is to coagulate a thermosetting material (such as egg white, which can be used for investigating heat coagulation behavior and MR relaxation properties) delivered endovascularly by catheter and coagulated by RF-induced heating of an intracatheter resonant wire antenna in the scanner. Methods. Experiments were performed on a Siemens 1.5 T MRI scanner and a Bruker 14T NMR spectrometer. Egg white was brought to equilibrium at seven temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 37 °C) in sequence. Measurement of the water spin-lattice relaxation time Ti, spin-spin relaxation time T2, spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame T1p, or full width at half maximum of the MT spectrum were performed at each temperature. Relaxation parameters of raw egg white and egg white after coagulation at 70 °C were measured in the scanner at 20 °C to determine optimum inversion time, echo time and offset frequency for good image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated protein. Finally, coagulation of egg white within a glass aneurysm phantom by RF heating in the scanner was performed to demonstrate the MR coagulation methodology and the ability to achieve image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated biomaterial. Results. Water T2, T1p and MT gave the most definitive indication of the change from uncoagulated at low temperature to fully coagulated at 60 °C, while water T1 showed only the expected gradual increase with temperature, and no response to coagulation. MT weighted imaging is expected to be the optimum method to establish the coagulation condition of the biomaterial.

  17. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliaritsi, E.; Zoumpoulakis, L.; Simitzis, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Hristoforou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications

  18. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  19. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  20. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-09-01

    Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q 10 , glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their

  1. Response of Coagulation Indices to Two Types of Exercise of Eccentric and Isometric in Male Bodybuilding Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Azimpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Although activation of blood coagulation system in response to physical activity has been identified to some extent, but the contribution of eccentric activity in comparison with isometric activity as resistance exercise, is not clear yet. Therefore, this research was carried out with the purpose of investigating the effect of one session of eccentric and isometric resistance exercise on some coagulation factors in male bodybuilders. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 28 volunteers were randomly selected from male bodybuilders and divided into two experimental groups and one control group. One of the experimental groups performed eccentric exercise [controlled return (extension of the elbow flexion movement involving an eccentric contraction] and another group performed isometric exercises (holding barbell while flexing elbows at 45 degrees. In order to assess coagulation indices, blood sampling was performed 15 minutes before and immediately after the exercise. Results: Thromboplastin and prothrombin times did not significantly change immediately after the exercise, but the number of platelets significantly increased in both isometric and eccentric types of exercise immediately after the exercise. Conclusion: The results of isometric and eccentric acute resistance exercise showed that the exercise had no negative impact on blood coagulation factors, and increased coagulation system activity reflects the increased number of platelets. The difference between the results of researches carried out in this direction can be resulted from the difference between the exercise protocols, methods and measurement time, and level of preparedness of the participants in the research.

  2. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  3. On the effective refractive index of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmad-Rohen, Alexander; Contreras-Tello, Humberto; Morales-Luna, Gesuri; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index {n}{eff} of blood as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm; we employed van de Hulst’s theory, together with the anomalous diffraction approximation, for the calculation. We modelled blood as a mixture of plasma and erythrocytes. Our results indicate that erythrocyte orientation has a strong effect on {n}{eff}, making blood an optically anisotropic medium except when the erythrocytes are randomly oriented. In the case in which their symmetry axis is perpendicular to the wave vector, {n}{eff} equals the refractive index of plasma at certain wavelengths. Furthermore, the erythrocytes’ shape affects their contribution to {n}{eff} in an important way, implying that studies on the effective refractive index of blood should avoid approximating them as spheres or spheroids. Finally, the effective refractive index of blood predicted by van de Hulst’s theory is different from what would be obtained by averaging the refractive indices of its constituents weighted by volume; such a volume-weighted average is appropriate only for haemolysed blood. We then measured the real part of the refractive index of various blood solutions using two different experimental setups. One of the most important results of our expriment is that {n}{eff} is measurable to a good degree of precision even for undiluted blood, although not all measuring apparatuses are appropriate. The experimental data is self-consistent and in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  4. Cholestatic liver injury as a side-effect of dabigatran and the use of coagulation tests in dabigatran intoxication and after reversal by idarucizumab in bleeding and sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comuth, Willemijn J; Haase, Anne-Mette; Henriksen, Linda Ø

    2018-01-01

    Idarucizumab, an antidote specific for dabigatran, became available recently. Dabigatran is not associated with increased risk of hepatotoxicity in comparison with warfarin, but it is seen as a rare side-effect. Cases of cholestatic liver injury due to dabigatran have not been reported previously...... and cholestatic liver injury was seen as a possible rare side-effect of dabigatran treatment........ We present a case of severe gastro-intestinal bleeding with underlying dabigatran intoxication in a patient with renal failure and the effect of reversal of dabigatran using idaruzicumab on coagulation assays. International normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT...

  5. Effect of coagulant bath on the gas permeation properties of cellulose acetate asymmetric membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, F.; Hasbullah, H.; Jami'an, W. N. R.; Salleh, W. N. H. W.; Ibrahim, N.; Ali, R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Membrane based gas separation process technology has been recognized as one of the most efficient and advanced unit operation for gas separation. One of the problems in membrane gas separation is membrane performance. This paper explores the application of cellulose acetate (CA) membrane for natural gas purification and separation by improving its permeability and selectivity. The main interest in this research is to study the effect of quench medium on the gas separation performance towards its physical characteristics and gas separation performance of CA membrane. Cellulose acetate polymer was dissolved in n- methyl-2-pyrrolidone solvent and casted onto a glass plate using a pneumatically controlled casting system with fixed shear rate and solvent evaporation times. The parameter varied was the non-solvent used as quench medium during membrane post treatment that were methanol and n-hexane. The different quench media as post treatment affected the O2 and N2 gas permeation and O2/N2 selectivity as well as the tensile strength of the flat sheet asymmetric membrane. Combination of methanol and n-hexane as quench media gave the best result than the other steps. This solvent exchange step influenced the morphology by producing thin skin layer and thus gives better gas separation performance than other steps

  6. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  7. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  8. Cloning of cDNAs coding for the heavy chain region and connecting region of human factor V, a blood coagulation factor with four types of internal repeats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, W.H.; Ichinose, A.; Hagen, F.S.; Davie, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    Human factor V is a high molecular weight plasma glycoprotein that participates as a cofactor in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by factor X/sub a/. Prior to its participation in the coagulation cascade, factor V is converted to factor V/sub a/ by thrombin generating a heavy chain and a light chain, and these two chains are held together by calcium ions. A connecting region originally located between the heavy and light chains is liberated during the activation reaction. In a previous study, a cDNA of 2970 nucleotides that codes for the carboxyl-terminal 938 amino acids of factor V was isolated and characterized from a Hep G2 cDNA library. This cDNA has been used to obtain additional clones from Hep G2 and human liver cDNA libraries. Furthermore, a Hep G2 cDNA library prepared with an oligonucleotide from the 5' end of these cDNAs was screened to obtain overlapping cDNA clones that code for the amino-terminal region of the molecule. The composite sequence of these clones spans 6911 nucleotides and is consistent with the size of the factor V message present in Hep G2 cells (approximately 7 kilobases). The cDNA codes for a leader sequence of 28 amino acids and a mature protein of 2196 amino acids. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA was in complete agreement with 139 amino acid residues that were identified by Edman degradation of cyanogen bromide peptides isolated from the heavy chain region and connecting region of plasma factor V. The domain structure of human factor V is similar to that previously reported for human coagulation factor VIII. Two types of tandem repeats (17 and 9 amino acids) have also been identified in the connecting region of factor V. The present data indicate that the amino acid sequence in the heavy and light chain regions of factor V is ∼ 40% identical with the corresponding regions of factor VIII

  9. Effects of preoperative aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Yong Seon; Oh, Young Jun; Bang, Sou Ouk; Yoo, Kyung Jong; Kwak, Young Lan

    2007-07-01

    Preoperative exposure to clopidogrel and aspirin significantly increases postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Off-pump coronary bypass grafting has been proposed as an alternative technique to attenuate postoperative bleeding associated with clopidogrel. This study aimed to determine the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. One hundred six patients scheduled for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were divided into three groups: aspirin and clopidogrel discontinued more than 6 days before surgery (group 1, n = 35), aspirin and clopidogrel continued until 3 to 5 days before surgery (group 2, n = 51), and both medications continued within 2 days of surgery (group 3, n = 20). Thromboelastographic tracings were analyzed before induction of anesthesia. Routine coagulation profiles were measured before and after surgery. A cell salvage device was used during surgery and salvaged blood was reinfused. Chest tube drainage and blood transfusion requirement were recorded postoperatively. Patient characteristics, operative data, and thromboelastographic tracings were similar among the groups. There were significant decreases in hematocrit level and platelet count and prolongation in prothrombin time postoperatively in all groups without any intergroup differences. The amounts of perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion required were all similar among the groups. Preoperative clopidogrel and aspirin exposure even within 2 days of surgery does not increase perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  10. Effect the nature of the coagulating agents and fiberfill on the properties of rubber compounds and vulcanized rubber-based SKS-30 ARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Pugacheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of applying textile waste for reception fibrous filler is considered. Fibrous filler influence on process of coagulation in the presence of various coagulation agents and property of received vulcanizates is considered.

  11. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  12. Coagulation profile in open and video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer patients are perceived to have a relatively high risk of venous thromboembolic events due to an activation of the coagulation system. In terms of activation of the coagulation system, the difference between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and open lobectomies...... for primary lung cancer has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the impact on the coagulation system in patients undergoing curative surgery for primary lung cancer by either VATS or open lobectomies. METHODS: In total, 62 patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer were allocated...... to either VATS (n = 32) or open lobectomies (n = 30). All patients received subcutaneous injections with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily. The coagulation was assessed pre- and intraoperatively, and the first 2 days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood tests, thromboelastometry (ROTEM...

  13. Interplay between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited hematologic disorder that leads to the irreversible damage of multiple organs. Although sickling of red blood cells and vaso-occlusion are central to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease the importance of hemolytic anemia and vasculopathy has been recently recognized. Hypercoagulation state is another prominent feature of sickle cell disease and is mediated by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. Growing evidence demonstrates that coagulation may not only contribute to the thrombotic complications, but also to vascular inflammation associated with this disease. This article summarizes the role of vascular inflammation and coagulation activation, discusses potential mechanisms responsible for activation of coagulation and reviews recent data demonstrating the crosstalk between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease. PMID:23593937

  14. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2015-12-16

    To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Crossover trial. Main meeting room of Leiden University's Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. The primary outcome measures were markers, or "fear factors" of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Klančnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  16. Damage control resuscitation using blood component therapy in standard doses has a limited effect on coagulopathy during trauma hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sirat; Davenport, Ross; Raza, Imran; Glasgow, Simon; De'Ath, Henry D; Johansson, Pär I; Curry, Nicola; Stanworth, Simon; Gaarder, Christine; Brohi, Karim

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of blood component therapy in the correction of trauma-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhage. Severe hemorrhage remains a leading cause of mortality in trauma. Damage control resuscitation strategies target trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) with the early delivery of high-dose blood components such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions. However, the ability of these products to correct TIC during hemorrhage and resuscitation is unknown. This was an international prospective cohort study of bleeding trauma patients at three major trauma centers. A blood sample was drawn immediately on arrival and after 4, 8 and 12 packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. FFP, platelet and cryoprecipitate use was recorded during these intervals. Samples were analyzed for functional coagulation and procoagulant factor levels. One hundred six patients who received at least four PRBC units were included. Thirty-four patients (32 %) required a massive transfusion. On admission 40 % of patients were coagulopathic (ROTEM CA5 ≤ 35 mm). This increased to 58 % after four PRBCs and 81 % after eight PRBCs. On average all functional coagulation parameters and procoagulant factor concentrations deteriorated during hemorrhage. There was no clear benefit to high-dose FFP therapy in any parameter. Only combined high-dose FFP, cryoprecipitate and platelet therapy with a high total fibrinogen load appeared to produce a consistent improvement in coagulation. Damage control resuscitation with standard doses of blood components did not consistently correct trauma-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhage. There is an important opportunity to improve TIC management during damage control resuscitation.

  17. Infrared coagulation: a new treatment for hemorrhoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicester, R.J.; Nicholls, R.J.; Mann, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    Many methods, which have effectively reduced the number of patients requiring hospital admission, have been described for the outpatient treatment of hemorrhoids. However, complications have been reported, and the methods are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In 1977 Neiger et al. described a new method that used infrared coagulation, which produced minimal side effects. The authors have conducted a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate infrared coagulation compared with more traditional methods of treatment. The authors' results show that it may be more effective than injection sclerotherapy in treating non-prolapsing hemorrhoids and that it compares favorably with rubber band ligation in most prolapsing hemorrhoids. No complications occurred, and significantly fewer patients experienced pain after infrared coagulation

  18. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively

  19. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  20. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  1. Hemorrhoidectomy: pedicle ligation vs pedicle coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, B.S.; Balaoch, I.B.; Sohu, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcome of pedicle ligation vs pedicle coagulation haemorrhoidectomy. Methodology: This comparative prospective study was carried out at Department of Surgery, Ghulam Muhammad Maher Medcial College Hospital, Sukkur, Pakistan from January 2011 to January 2013 and included 300 patients of hemorrhoids. After routine workup, patients were randomly divided into two equal groups with one group receiving pedicle ligation and other pedicle coagulation for hemorrhoidectomy. Postoperatively they were followed for a period of 8 weeks for complications including pain, urinary retention, bleeding and anal stricture. Pain was recorded up to 10th postoperative day on the basis of visual analogue scale. Results: Mean age was 45 years and male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Mean operative time in pedicle ligation group was 15 min (range 14-20 min) and 17 min (15-25 min) in pedicle coagulation group. In Pedicle ligation group, pain was worst in 35 patients, moderate in 85 and mild in 30 patients; on the other hand in pedicle coagulation group, just 09 patients experienced worst pain. Urinary retention was observed in 44 patients in pedicle ligation group and 19 in pedicle coagulation group. Five patients in pedicle ligation group developed bleeding after their discharge from hospital; 7 patients in pedicle coagulation group reported secondary bleeding. Anal stricture was a rare complication and was found equally common in both the groups. Conclusion: Conventional hemorrhoidectomy with pedicle coagulation is an effective treatment modality for hemorrhoids and is associated with less chance of postoperative anal pain and urinary retention. (author)

  2. A single-dose of oral nattokinase potentiates thrombolysis and anti-coagulation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Yuko; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Homma, Toshiyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Clark, Joseph F; Hamaoka, Takafumi

    2015-06-25

    Our aim was to determine the quantitative effects of a single-dose of Nattokinase (NK) administration on coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters comprehensively in healthy male subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over NK intervention study was carried out in 12 healthy young males. Following the baseline blood draw, each subject was randomized to receive either a single-dose of 2,000 FU NK (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or placebo with subsequent cross-over of the groups. Subjects donated blood samples at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following administration for analysis of coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters. As a result, D-dimer concentrations at 6, and 8 hours, and blood fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products at 4 hours after NK administration elevated significantly (p < 0.05, respectively). Factor VIII activity declined at 4 and 6 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), blood antithrombin concentration was higher at 2 and 4 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), and the activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged significantly at 2 and 4 hours following NK administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). All the changes, however, were within the normal range. In conclusion, thus, a single-dose of NK administration appears enhancing fibrinolysis and anti-coagulation via several different pathways simultaneously.

  3. Effects of combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on platelets, coagulative functions and inflammatory cytokines with ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Xia Lei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on platelets, coagulative functions and inflammatory cytokines in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC. Methods: A total of 267 patients with UC were collected. 137 patients were treated with combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine as experimental group and 130 patients were treated with only western medicine as controls. Platelet count, coagulation function indexes and inflammatory cytokines were measured before and 15 d after the treatment. Results: No significantly differences were found in all indexes before treatment between two groups. After different treatments, platelet count (PLT, platelet distribution width (PDW were significantly decreased in both groups, but mean platelet volumn (MPV were significantly increased than before treatment. PLT and PDW were significantly lower and MPV were significantly higher in experimental group than control group. Fibrinogen (Fib and D-dimer (DD decreased significantly after treatment. Fib and DD in experimental group were significantly lower than controls. No significantly differences were found in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and prothrobin time (PT. Tumor necrosisi factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 decreased significantly in both group after treatment. TNF-毩, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly lower in experimental group than controls. Conclusion: Combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine can more effectively improve the cogulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation in patients with UC than only western medicine therapy.

  4. The effects of three factor VII polymorphisms on factor VII coagulant levels in healthy Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S C; Low, P S; Saha, N; Heng, C K

    2006-11-01

    Factor VII (FVII) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Three polymorphisms of the factor VII gene (F7) were studied in a group of healthy newborns comprising 561 Chinese, 398 Malays and 226 Asian Indians from Singapore. The allele frequencies of 3 polymorphisms (R353Q, Promoter 0/10bp Del/Ins and Intron 7) in the FVII gene were ascertained through genotyping by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion of amplified fragments. In Chinese the minor allele frequencies are Q: 0.04, Ins: 0.03, R7: 0.44; Malays, Q: 0.06, Ins: 0.10, R7: 0.41; and Indians, Q: 0.25, Ins: 0.23, R7: 0.43. Strong linkage disequilibrium (Delta > 0.7) is observed between the 0/10 bp and the R353Q sites in all ethnic groups. We conclude that: (i) the prevalence of the minor Q and Ins alleles of the R353Q and 0/10 bp polymorphisms are significantly higher in the Indian newborns than the Chinese and Malays; (ii) the Q allele is significantly associated (p = 0.01) with a lower plasma FVII coagulant level in the Indian and Malay neonates; and this polymorphism explains up to 3.8% of the variance in FVII coagulant levels; (iii) there is no significant difference in allele frequencies of the three polymorphisms between neonates with and without family histories of CAD.

  5. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the structure and function of important multiple blood components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Keke; Feng, Ru; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated the application of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in biomedicine, because of their special nanoscale hollow tubular structure. Although the cytocompatibility of HNTs has been studied, their blood compatibility has not been systematically investigated. In this work, the effect of HNTs on the structure and function of different blood components has been studied, including the morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs). Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, optical density test and flow cytometry analysis, we found that HNTs can affect the morphology and membrane integrity of RBCs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a content-dependent way. In particular, based on UV–vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, HNTs can alter the secondary structure and conformation of human fibrinogen and γ-globulins. In addition, the detection of biomarker molecules C3a and C5a in plasma suggests that HNTs can trigger complement activation. In the blood clotting assay, HNTs were found to significantly prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), shorten the prothrombin time (PT) of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and change the thromboelastography (TEG) parameters of whole blood coagulation. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to test intracellular uptake by macrophages, and the cellular uptake of HNTs in the RAW 264.7 was found to be content-dependent, but not time-dependent. These findings provide insight for the potential use of HNTs as biofriendly nanocontainers for biomaterials in vivo. - Highlights: • Comprehensive study of blood compatibility halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) is processed. • We examine and analyze the effect of HNTs on conformation changes of three plasma proteins. • We prove HNTs can affect blood components at high content but little at low content. • We prove HNTs could be used as biomaterials

  6. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the structure and function of important multiple blood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Keke; Feng, Ru; Jiao, Yanpeng, E-mail: tjiaoyp@jnu.edu.cn; Zhou, Changren

    2017-06-01

    Many researchers have investigated the application of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in biomedicine, because of their special nanoscale hollow tubular structure. Although the cytocompatibility of HNTs has been studied, their blood compatibility has not been systematically investigated. In this work, the effect of HNTs on the structure and function of different blood components has been studied, including the morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs). Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, optical density test and flow cytometry analysis, we found that HNTs can affect the morphology and membrane integrity of RBCs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a content-dependent way. In particular, based on UV–vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, HNTs can alter the secondary structure and conformation of human fibrinogen and γ-globulins. In addition, the detection of biomarker molecules C3a and C5a in plasma suggests that HNTs can trigger complement activation. In the blood clotting assay, HNTs were found to significantly prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), shorten the prothrombin time (PT) of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and change the thromboelastography (TEG) parameters of whole blood coagulation. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to test intracellular uptake by macrophages, and the cellular uptake of HNTs in the RAW 264.7 was found to be content-dependent, but not time-dependent. These findings provide insight for the potential use of HNTs as biofriendly nanocontainers for biomaterials in vivo. - Highlights: • Comprehensive study of blood compatibility halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) is processed. • We examine and analyze the effect of HNTs on conformation changes of three plasma proteins. • We prove HNTs can affect blood components at high content but little at low content. • We prove HNTs could be used as biomaterials

  7. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  8. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Núñez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae, Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae, Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae; the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae; the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae; rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae, Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae and Dracontium croatii (Araceae, and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae. After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 µg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 µg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g. All extracts (6.2-200 µg/mouse partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition, with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 µg/mouse also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection, the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  9. Intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants: coagulation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Amir A; Kenet, Gili; Papadakis, Emmanuel; Brenner, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    It has long been considered that a severe coagulation deficiency in premature newborns could be a major contributing factor in the occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). High-grade IVH has also been shown to coincide with severe derangement of coagulation in extremely low birth weight infants. This review focuses on the relevance of the physiologically developing immature hemostatic system to IVH, and the potential benefit of agents affecting hemostasis for IVH therapy or prevention in preterm infants. The findings of small, open-label interventional studies on the effect of ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII, and prothrombin complex concentrate on the premature coagulation system will be reviewed. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  10. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  11. Upregulation of the coagulation factor VII gene during glucose deprivation is mediated by activating transcription factor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Cronin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Constitutive production of blood coagulation proteins by hepatocytes is necessary for hemostasis. Stressful conditions trigger adaptive cellular responses and delay processing of most proteins, potentially affecting plasma levels of proteins secreted exclusively by hepatocytes. We examined the effect of glucose deprivation on expression of coagulation proteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of coagulation factor VII, which is required for initiation of blood coagulation, was elevated by glucose deprivation, while expression of other coagulation proteins decreased. Realtime PCR and ELISA demonstrated that the relative percentage expression +/- SD of steady-state F7 mRNA and secreted factor VII antigen were significantly increased (from 100+/-15% to 188+/-27% and 100+/-8.8% to 176.3+/-17.3% respectively, p<0.001 at 24 hr of treatment. The integrated stress response was induced, as indicated by upregulation of transcription factor ATF4 and of additional stress-responsive genes. Small interfering RNAs directed against ATF4 potently reduced basal F7 expression, and prevented F7 upregulation by glucose deprivation. The response of the endogenous F7 gene was replicated in reporter gene assays, which further indicated that ATF4 effects were mediated via interaction with an amino acid response element in the F7 promoter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicated that glucose deprivation enhanced F7 expression in a mechanism reliant on prior ATF4 upregulation primarily due to increased transcription from the ATF4 gene. Of five coagulation protein genes examined, only F7 was upregulated, suggesting that its functions may be important in a systemic response to glucose deprivation stress.

  12. [Effects and mechanisms of platycladi cacumen carbonisatum on rats with blood-heat and hemorrhage syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Li; Yao, Ying-Zhi; Ding, An-Wei; Yu, Bin; Shan, Ming-Qiu; Yao, Wei-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the effect and mechanism of Platycladi Cacumen Carbonisatum (PCC) on rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndromes. Rats were fed with 15 g x kg(-1) water decoctions of Zingiberis Rhizoma and 5% alcohol for 15 days to establish the blood-heat and hemorrhage syndrome model. Yunnan Baiyao was taken as the positive control drug, and PCC decoctions (5.0, 10.0 g x kg(-1)) were given simultaneously, in order to detect changes in general physical signs of rats, such as body weight, daily diet, volume of daily drinking and urine and stool, and rectal temperature. Automatic hematology analyzers was used to determine white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT), blood time by docking (BT). Blood rheometers was used to detect whole blood and plasma viscosities, thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen content (FIB). Indexes related to thyroid functions, such as triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by radio-immunoassay, and changes in lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stain. After modeling, rats witnessed slow-down in weight growth rate, significant increase in daily diet, volume of daily drinking, urine and temperature, significant decrease in stools and their water content (P rise in plasma T4 level, notable growth in T3 and rT3 concentrations (P high, middle and low whole blood viscosities and plasma viscosity (P syndromes (P syndromes by inhibiting thyroid functions and correcting hemorheological and coagulation disorders.

  13. Disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by moojenactivase, a procoagulant snake venom metalloprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartim, Marco A; Cezarette, Gabriel N; Jacob-Ferreira, Anna L; Frantz, Fabiani G; Faccioli, Lucia H; Sampaio, Suely V

    2017-10-01

    Snake venom toxins that activate coagulation factors are key players in the process of venom-induced coagulopathy, and account for severe clinical manifestations. The present study applies a variety of biochemical, hematological, and histopathological approaches to broadly investigate the intravascular and systemic effects of moojenactivase (MooA), the first described PIIId subclass metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops sp. venom that activates coagulation factors. MooA induced consumption coagulopathy with high toxic potency, characterized by prolongation of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time, consumption of fibrinogen and the plasma coagulation factors X and II, and thrombocytopenia. MooA promoted leukocytosis and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, accompanied by tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This metalloprotease also caused intravascular hemolysis, elevated plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB, aspartate transaminase, and urea/creatinine, and induced morphopathological alterations in erythrocytes, heart, kidney, and lungs associated with thrombosis and hemorrhage. Diagnosis of MooA-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation represents an important approach to better understand the pathophysiology of Bothrops envenomation and develop novel therapeutic strategies targeting hemostatic disturbances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  15. Acute Effects of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice on Blood Pressure, Hemostasis and Vascular Inflammation Markers in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Raubenheimer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits are evident in older adults. We investigated the effects of 140 mL of nitrate-rich (HI-NI; containing 12.9 mmol nitrate versus nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (LO-NI; containing ≤0.04 mmol nitrate on blood pressure, blood coagulation, vascular inflammation markers, plasma nitrate and nitrite before, and 3 h and 6 h after ingestion in healthy older adults (five males, seven females, mean age: 64 years, age range: 57–71 years in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Plasma nitrate and nitrite increased 3 and 6 h after HI-NI ingestion (p < 0.05. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure decreased 3 h relative to baseline after HI-NI ingestion only (p < 0.05. The number of blood monocyte-platelet aggregates decreased 3 h after HI-NI intake (p < 0.05, indicating reduced platelet activation. The number of blood CD11b-expressing granulocytes decreased 3 h following HI-NI beetroot juice intake (p < 0.05, suggesting a shift toward an anti-adhesive granulocyte phenotype. Numbers of blood CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocyte subtypes slightly increased 6 h after HI-NI beetroot juice ingestion (p < 0.05, but the clinical implications of this response are currently unclear. These findings provide new evidence for the acute effects of nitrate-rich beetroot juice on circulating immune cells and platelets. Further long-term research is warranted to determine if these effects reduce the risk of developing hypertension and vascular inflammation with aging.

  16. Investigational drugs for coagulation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Mancuso, Maria Elisa

    2013-08-01

    The current standard treatment in persons with hemophilia (PWH) is prophylaxis, given intravenously twice or thrice weekly, which is associated with a non negligible burden on patients' quality of life. Therefore the main attempts aiming to improve the management of PWH are targeted towards the development of a new generation of coagulation factors endowed with properties facilitating prophylaxis and/or a better control of bleeding. This article summarizes the main results obtained so far in the development of new antihemophilic products, and emphasizes the formidable requirements imposed upon by regulatory agencies to get marketing authorization for new drugs, which make progress in this field difficult. Published literature on new molecules for replacement treatment in hemophilia A and B has been retrieved by using PubMed search and all ongoing clinical trials have been looked for online. New molecules are usually engineered to have a longer plasma half-life but also in some instances a higher potency. The prolongation of half-life may be obtained by using sustained release delivery vehicles, by chemical modification or by creating fusion proteins. Factors VIII, IX and VII have been variably modified in order to obtain improved coagulation products and results from Phase I/II studies are encouraging, particularly for factor IX. However, Phase III studies that should provide evidence on efficacy and effectiveness more cogent for clinical use are still ongoing and results are not yet available.

  17. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Testing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker AMAS Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANCA/MPO/ ... Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases ...

  18. Effect of Qingnao tablet on blood viscosity of rat model of blood stasis induced by epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Ma, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To establish a rat model of blood stasis with adrenaline (Adr) subcutaneous injection and ice bath stimulation. The effects of different doses on the blood viscosity of blood stasis model rats were observed. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group (no model), model group, positive control group, high, middle and low dose group. The whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were detected by blood viscosity instrument. Compared with the blank group, model group, high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased, TT PT significantly shortened, APTT was significantly prolonged, FIB increased significantly, indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, can significantly reduce the Naoluotong group (cut, low cut). Qingnaopian high dose group (low cut), middle dose group (cut, low shear blood viscosity) (Pgroup, high dose group (Pgroup (Pblood rheology of blood stasis mice abnormal index, decrease the blood viscosity, blood stasis has certain hemostatic effect.

  19. In vivo evaluation of homeostatic effects of Echis carinatus snake venom in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The venom of the family Viperidae, including the saw-scaled viper, is rich in serine proteinases and metalloproteinases, which affect the nervous system, complementary system, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. One of the most prominent effects of the snake venom of Echis carinatus (Ec) is its coagulation activity, used for killing prey. Materials and methods Subfractions F1A and F1B were isolated from Ec crude venom by a combination of gel chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose (DE-52). These subfractions were then intravenously (IV) injected into NIH male mice. Blood samples were taken before and after the administration of these subfractions. Times for prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen were recorded. Results and conclusions Comparison of the prothrombin time before and after F1A and F1B administrations showed that time for blood coagulation after injection is shorter than that of normal blood coagulation and also reduced coagulation time after Ec crude venom injection. This difference in coagulation time shows the intense coagulation activity of these subfractions that significantly increase the coagulation cascade rate and Causes to quick blood coagulation. The LD50 of the Ec crude venom was also determined to be 11.1 μg/mouse. Different crude venom doses were prepared with physiological serum and injected into four mice. Comparison of the prothrombin times after injection of subfractions F1A and F1B showed that the rate of mouse blood coagulation increases considerably. Comparing the partial thromboplastin times after injecting these subfractions with this normal test time showed that the activity rate of intrinsic blood coagulation system rose sharply in mice. Finally, by comparing the fibrinogen time after subfraction injections and normal test time, we can infer intense activation of coagulation cascade and fibrin production. PMID:23848979

  20. In vivo evaluation of homeostatic effects of Echis carinatus snake venom in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmanizadeh Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The venom of the family Viperidae, including the saw-scaled viper, is rich in serine proteinases and metalloproteinases, which affect the nervous system, complementary system, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. One of the most prominent effects of the snake venom of Echis carinatus (Ec is its coagulation activity, used for killing prey. Materials and methods Subfractions F1A and F1B were isolated from Ec crude venom by a combination of gel chromatography (Sephadex G-75 and ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose (DE-52. These subfractions were then intravenously (IV injected into NIH male mice. Blood samples were taken before and after the administration of these subfractions. Times for prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen were recorded. Results and conclusions Comparison of the prothrombin time before and after F1A and F1B administrations showed that time for blood coagulation after injection is shorter than that of normal blood coagulation and also reduced coagulation time after Ec crude venom injection. This difference in coagulation time shows the intense coagulation activity of these subfractions that significantly increase the coagulation cascade rate and Causes to quick blood coagulation. The LD50 of the Ec crude venom was also determined to be 11.1 μg/mouse. Different crude venom doses were prepared with physiological serum and injected into four mice. Comparison of the prothrombin times after injection of subfractions F1A and F1B showed that the rate of mouse blood coagulation increases considerably. Comparing the partial thromboplastin times after injecting these subfractions with this normal test time showed that the activity rate of intrinsic blood coagulation system rose sharply in mice. Finally, by comparing the fibrinogen time after subfraction injections and normal test time, we can infer intense activation of coagulation cascade and fibrin production.

  1. Self-production of tissue factor-coagulation factor VII complex by ovarian cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yokota, N; Koizume, S; Miyagi, E; Hirahara, F; Nakamura, Y; Kikuchi, K; Ruf, W; Sakuma, Y; Tsuchiya, E; Miyagi, Y

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thromboembolic events are a major complication in ovarian cancer patients. Tissue factor (TF) is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissue and correlates with intravascular thrombosis. TF binds to coagulation factor VII (fVII), changing it to its active form, fVIIa. This leads to activation of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. fVII is produced by the liver and believed to be supplied from blood plasma at the site of coagulation. However, we recently showed that ovarian ca...

  2. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  3. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  4. Comparative study on the effect of radiation on whole blood and isolate red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of the dielectric properties of red blood cells requires several steps for preparation and isolation from whole blood. These steps may results in changes in the cells properties, and they are time consuming . The present study aims to compare the properties of both whole blood and isolated red blood cells and the effect of gamma radiation on these properties. Adult male rats were exposed to 1, 3.5 and 7 Gy as single dose, from Cs-137 source.The studies dielectric properties, in the frequency range 40 k Hz to 5 MHz, and light scattering studies for suspensions of whole blood and isolated red blood cells from the same groups were measured. The obtained results showed that whole blood and red blood cells suspensions followed the same trend in their response to radiation, which suggests the possibility of using whole blood suspension for the evaluation of the red blood cells properties

  5. Quality control in the development of coagulation factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, T J

    1987-01-01

    Limitation of process change is a major factor contributing to assurance of quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing. This is particularly true in the manufacture of coagulation factor concentrates, for which presumptive testing for poorly defined product characteristics is an integral feature of finished product quality control. The development of new or modified preparations requires that this comfortable position be abandoned, and that the effect on finished product characteristics of changes to individual process steps (and components) be assessed. The degree of confidence in the safety and efficacy of the new product will be determined by, amongst other things, the complexity of the process alteration and the extent to which the results of finished product tests can be considered predictive. The introduction of a heat-treatment step for inactivation of potential viral contaminants in coagulation factor concentrates presents a significant challenge in both respects, quite independent of any consideration of assessment of the effectiveness of the viral inactivation step. These interactions are illustrated by some of the problems encountered with terminal dry heat-treatment (72 h. at 80 degrees C) of factor VIII and prothrombin complex concentrates manufactured by the Blood Products Laboratory.

  6. Ambient hemolysis and activation of coagulation is different between HeartMate II and HeartWare left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birschmann, Ingvild; Dittrich, Marcus; Eller, Thomas; Wiegmann, Bettina; Reininger, Armin J; Budde, Ulrich; Strüber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are still a major cause of complications. Therefore, the balance between anti-coagulant and pro-coagulant factors needs to be tightly controlled. The principle hypothesis of this study is that different pump designs may have an effect on hemolysis and activation of the coagulation system. Referring to this, the HeartMate II (HMII; Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, CA) and the HeartWare HVAD (HeartWare International Inc, Framingham, MA) were investigated. For 20 patients with LVAD support (n = 10 each), plasma coagulation, full blood count, and clinical chemistry parameters were measured. Platelet function was monitored using platelet aggregometry, platelet function analyzer-100 system ( Siemens, Marburg, Germany), vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay, immature platelet fraction, platelet-derived microparticles, and von Willebrand diagnostic. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome could be detected in all patients. Signs of hemolysis, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean, 470 U/liter HMII, 250 U/liter HVAD; p < 0.001), were more pronounced in the HMII patients. In contrast, D-dimer analysis indicated a significantly higher activation of the coagulation system in HVAD patients (mean, 0.94 mg/liter HMII, 2.01 mg/liter HVAD; p < 0.01). The efficacy of anti-platelet therapy using clopidogrel was not sufficient in more than 50% of the patients. Our results support the finding that all patients with rotary blood pumps suffered from von Willebrand syndrome. In addition, a distinct footprint of effects on hemolysis and the coagulation system can be attributed to different devices. As a consequence, the individual status of the coagulation system needs to be controlled in long-term patients. © 2013 Published by International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation on behalf of International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

  7. Effects of ioxaglate to blood rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid-Schoenbein, H.; Teitel, P.; Tietz, G.; Oezlen, A.

    1984-01-01

    Almen and Aspelin have shown that the use of non-ionic radio contrast media allows to increase the iodine concentration (which is desirable because of its effect on radio opacity) without a very large increase in osmolarity (which is undesirable because it impaires the fluidity of erythrocytes). This latter effect can also be diminished by reducing the osmolarity of a dimeric contrast medium as it has been achieved by incorporating more iodine atoms into the molecule in the case of Ioxaglate (Hexabrix). In various microrheological test systems, the fluidity of packed red cell suspension, the corrected filtration rate though 5 μm pores and the relative apparent viscosity of blood - contrast media mixtures (1 to 50% concentration) were determined in experiments comparing this compound with Urografin 76 of the same iodine content. In all systems, the former showed lesser rheological effects. In whole blood viscometry, this can be detected only after appropriate corrections for the effects of the two contrast media on hematocrit and plasma viscosity. Owing to a more pronounced water shift from the cells to the plasma, Urografin tends to reduce the viscosity of the plasma-contrast media mixture. The concomitant reduction in MCV and hematocrit level tends to screen the macrorheological effect of the dehydrated cells becomes immediately obvious when the viscometric data are corrected for hematocrit value and plasma viscosity effects. (orig.)

  8. Effect of batroxobin combine with ginkgo-damole injection on hemodynamics, coagulation function, fibrinolytic function and related factors in patients with sudden deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of combined use of Batroxobin and Ginkgo Leaf Extract and Dipyridamole Injection on hemodynamics, coagulation function, fibrinolytic function and related factors in patients with sudden deafness. Methods: A total of 94 patients with sudden deafness in our hospital were selected, and divided them into control group and observation group randomly, 47 cases in each group. All patients were given 10BU batroxobin injection intravenous drip after admission every other day; And the patients of observation group were given intravenous drip of 30ml ginkgo-damole injection, 1 time a day. The hemodynamics, coagulation function, fibrinolytic function and related factors were detected and compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there was no statistical difference in hemodynamics, coagulation function, fibrinolytic function and related factors between the two groups; After treatment, the levels of WBV and PV in the control group was (5.21±0.58 mPa/s and (1.78±0.32 mPa/s, and the observation group was (4.13±0.47 mPa/s and (1.31±0.26 mPa/s, compared with the same group before treatment, there were statistical difference, and there was also statistical difference between the two groups; The levels of PT, APTT, TT and PF was (19.22±3.98 s, (43.57±9.88 s, (15.64±3.27 s and (58.22±10.58 μg/L, and the observation group was (23.97±4.82 s, (52.49±10.38 s, (20.59±4.15 s and (41.03±8.46 μg/L, compared with the same group before treatment, there were statistical difference, and there was also statistical difference between the two groups; The levels of Fib, D-dimer and FDP was (4.52±0.93 g/L, (6.53±1.88 mg/L and (8.17±2.34 μg/mL, and the observation group was (3.13±0.75 g/L, (9.75±2.14 mg/L, (13.52±2.58 μg/ mL, compared with the same group before treatment, there were statistical difference, and there was also statistical difference between the two groups; The serum

  9. Coagulation function of stored whole blood is preserved for 14 days in austere conditions: A ROTEM feasibility study during a Norwegian antipiracy mission and comparison to equal ratio reconstituted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandenes, Geir; Austlid, Ivar; Apelseth, Torunn O; Hervig, Tor A; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan; Herzig, Maryanne C; Cap, Andrew P; Pidcoke, Heather F; Kristoffersen, Einar K

    2015-06-01

    Formulation of a medical preparedness plan for treating severely bleeding casualties during naval deployment is a significant challenge because of territory covered during most missions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concept of "walking blood bank" as a supportable plan for supplying safe blood and blood products. In 2013, the Royal Norwegian Navy conducted antipiracy operations from a frigate, beginning in the Gulf of Aden and ending in the Indian Ocean. Crews were on 24-hour emergency alert in preparation for an enemy assault on the frigate. Under an approved command protocol, a "walking blood bank," using crew blood donations, was established for use on board and on missions conducted in rigid-hulled inflatable boats, during which freeze-dried plasma and leukoreduced, group O low anti-A/anti-B titer, cold-stored whole blood were stored in Golden Hour Boxes. Data demonstrating the ability to collect, store, and provide whole blood were collected to establish feasibility of implementing a whole blood-focused remote damage-control resuscitation program aboard a naval vessel. In addition, ROTEM data were collected to demonstrate feasibility of performing this analysis on a large naval vessel and to also measure hemostatic efficacy of cold-stored leukoreduced whole blood (CWB) stored during a period of 14 days. ROTEM data on CWB was compared with reconstituted whole blood. Drills simulating massive transfusion activation were conducted, in which 2 U of warm fresh whole blood with platelet sparing leukoreduction were produced in 40 minutes, followed by collection of two additional units at 15-minute increments. The ROTEM machine performed well during ship-rolling, as shown by the overlapping calculated and measured mechanical piston movements measured by the ROTEM device. Error messages were recorded in 4 (1.5%) of 267 tests. CWB yielded reproducible ROTEM results demonstrating preserved fibrinogen function and platelet function for at least 3.5 weeks and

  10. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF GRADIENT VELOCITY AND DETENTION TIME TO COAGULATION – FLOCCULATION OF DYES AND ORGANIC COMPOUND IN DEEP WELL WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Lindu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep well water of Trisakti University by coagulation and flocculation using baffle channel system has been conducted. The detention time of hydrolic were varied. The coagulant dose was varied as 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 ppm. Water of well sampel was added by coagulant with rotation velocity 200 rpm for 1 minute. The optimal coagulant dose was determined by measuring turbidity, colour, total suspended solids and organic compound. The result showed that the organic compound and colour of deep well water of Trisakti University could be reduced by coagulation and flocculation process by hydrolyc system. The optimal dose of the coagulant was 250 ppm. The removal efficiency of colour and organic compound using optimal dose for continuous flow reactor reached after water flow passed the reactor for 3 - 5 times detention time in the reactor. The optimal gradient velocity (G was 30 - 35 sec-1 and collision energy (GT was 65.000 - 79.000 to get optimal flocculation. With this condition, the removal efficiency of turbidity, colour and organic was more than 90%.   Keywords: coagulation, flocculation, colour, organic compound, deep well

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Alonso, I.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that 20-25% of cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relate to an underlying neoplasia primarily hematologic. It is estimated that about 5% of patients with solid tumors have CID clinic, although the incidence of subclinical alterations is much higher. The CID is not limited to the activation of the coagulation cascade, which leads to bleeding micro thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. Solid tumors are frequently associated adenocarcinomas producers mucin (especially gastric), usually in the context of a disseminated disease. The mucin may act as a promoter of the cascade, but probably it is a multi-event. High levels of TNF to produced by the tumor mass and chemotherapy-induced cell lysis have Also linked. Although the bleeding is usually oriented diagnosis, the most frequent cause of death is thrombosis. There are no specific tests for diagnosis. Elevated levels of D-dimer and products oriented fibrinogen degradation diagnosis. No reduction fibrinogen and almost always, one thrombocytopenia consumption. Treatment is complex and there is no consensus on many points. To recover the lost factors for consumption, it is recommended to use fresh frozen plasma and / or washed red blood cells. the heparin anticoagulation low dose is indicated since the disease causal can not be controlled quickly, but should not be initiated if there thrombocytopenia 50.000.El under profuse bleeding can require the use of tranexamic acid or EACA. Acute DIC, the case of our patient, is rare and very serious

  13. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  14. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  15. A case of radiation hemorrhagic gastritis successfully treated by endoscopic argon plasma coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Ho, Nichyau; Kuroda, Ken; Ikarashi, Kentarou; Hata, Koujirou; Tukioka, Satosi

    2003-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman underwent irradiation of 46 Grey in total dose, for lumbago of the advanced pancreatic cancer in August 2000. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe anemia in February 2001 with occasionally positive fecal occult blood. Endoscopy revealed erosive gastric mucosa diffuse in the lower body of the stomach, which resulted from radiation. We applied argon plasma coagulation (APC) in March 2001 and succeeded in hemostasis of the widely spreading radiation hemorrhagic gastritis. The progress of the severe anemia improved without cicatricial stenosis. As the coagulation of the APC is limited in the surface mucosa, APC is an easy and effective treatment for radiation hemorrhagic gastritis. (author)

  16. Beneficial effect of treatment with a monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with active Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, DW; van Dullemen, HM; Levi, M; Van der Ende, A; Woody, J; Tytgat, GNJ; van Deventer, SJH

    1997-01-01

    Crohn's disease has frequently been associated with coagulation abnormalities, causing intravascular deposition of fibrin and local infarction which can subsequently compromise the gut mucosa. Also, arterial and venous thromboembolic complications of larger vessels appear to be associated with

  17. Effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis induced by influenza in mice with a reduced capacity to generate activated protein C and a deficiency in plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Tymen T.; van der Sluijs, Koen F.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom; van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Büller, Harry R.; Levi, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Influenza infections increase the risk of diseases associated with a prothrombotic state, such as venous thrombosis and atherothrombotic diseases. However, it is unclear whether influenza leads to a prothrombotic state in vivo. To determine whether influenza activates coagulation, we measured

  18. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Solvent, detergent and heat treatment. Hemofil-M. Baxter. Pooled human venous plasma. Immunoaffinity chromatography using murine monoclonal anti- body. Solvent and detergent. Monarc-M. American. Red Cross. Pooled human venous plasma. Immunoaffinity chromatography using murine monoclonal antibody.

  19. [Effect on the microbicidal efficacy of formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde, peracetic acid, chloramine T (N-chloro-4-toluenesulfonamide), m-cresol, ethanol and benzyldimethyldodecacylammonium bromide by blood (model experiments for chemical disinfection of instruments)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, G; Peters, J

    1998-02-01

    In a preceding paper (Zbl. Hyg. 191 [1991] 457-477) we reported on the dependence of the microbicidal efficacy of active agents of the disinfection of instruments on the amount of coagulated blood adhering to the instruments. In the present investigation, we were interested in the dependence of the microbicidal effects on the amount of blood in the solutions of the active agents. Test areas of 2 cm2 were contaminated with 50 and 100 microliters coagulating blood, respectively, containing cells of Staphylococcus aureus as test germ. The solutions of the microbicidal agents were contaminated with heparinized blood up to a concentration of 4% immediately before starting the disinfection and 24 hours before, respectively. After a period of action lasting 1 hour at 20 degrees C, the relative number of test germs capable of multiplying (N/N0) was determined. The concentration of the microbicidal substances reducing the relative number of test germs capable to multiply to 10(-4) served for estimating the dependence of the microbicidal efficacy of the agents on the blood content of the solutions. The experimental results depended on the thickness of the layer of coagulated blood. The dependence of the efficacy of the microbicidal substances on the blood content of the solutions was the higher the thinner the blood layer was. At a thickness of the layer of the coagulated blood of 0.25 mm, a blood content of the solution of 4%, and applying it immediately after adding the blood, the concentration of glutardialdehyde had to be 1.6 times that without blood to reach the same microbicidal efficacy. When applying the solution 24 hours after adding the blood, the concentration of glutardialdehyde had to be 4.2 times that without blood. The quaternary ammonium compound reacted faster with the blood than did glutardialdehyde; the respective factors were 2.6 and 4.5. The concentration factors of chloramine T were 3.3 and 3.8. Under the conditions of the test, peracetic acid exhibited

  20. Hyperglycemia stimulates coagulation, whereas hyperinsulinemia impairs fibrinolysis in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, Michiel E.; van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Levi, Marcel; de Vos, Alex F.; Tanck, Michael W.; Sauerwein, Hans P.; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance syndromes are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular and thrombotic complications. A disturbed balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis has been implicated in the pathogenesis hereof. To determine the selective effects of hyperglycemia and

  1. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    . Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, very-low-density lipoprotein ( VLDL)- triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), blood pressure, and body weight were determined......-triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, FVIIc, or blood pressure. Drinking wine was associated with relative body weight increments closely corresponding to the energy contributed by the alcohol component. Conclusion: Moderate red wine consumption for 4 weeks is associated with desirable changes in HDL-C and fibrinogen......Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study...

  2. Effects of mealtime insulin aspart and bedtime NPH insulin on postprandial coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Henriksen, Je; Akram, S

    2012-01-01

    and Methods: This was tested in a parallel controlled study in well-controlled patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to bedtime NPH insulin (n=41) or mealtime insulin aspart (n=37). They were served standard diabetic meals for breakfast (8:00) and lunch (12:00). Blood samples were collected at 7:40 (fasting...

  3. Anxiety and depression in patients three months after myocardial infarction: Association with markers of coagulation and the relevance of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Franziska; Urbach, Anne Sarah; Harbrecht, Ursula; Conrad, Rupert; Pötzsch, Bernd; Amann, Nele; Kiesewetter, Katharina; Sieke, Alexandra; Wolffs, Kyra; Skowasch, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Anxiety and depression are associated with an activation of coagulation and an impairment of fibrinolysis, which may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the two disorders. However, very few studies have examined the impact of psychological distress on coagulation factors in coronary artery disease patients. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between anxiety/depression and factors of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients who had suffered an acute MI three months prior. In 148 patients, anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) shortly after MI and three months later. At the second time of assessment, plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, prothrombin-fragment 1 and 2, tissue-plasminogen-activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, and homocysteine were measured. In 32% of the patients, elevated levels of anxiety and depression were found three months after a MI. Multiple regression analyses showed that coagulation and fibrinolysis markers were not significantly associated with HADS anxiety and depression scores. We found that age, gender, BMI, and smoking status were significant predictors for haemostasis factors. A higher age was associated with a higher coagulability but lower anxiety levels. We measured parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients three months after MI and found no predictive value of HADS anxiety and depression scores shortly after MI or at the time of blood sampling. The effects of age on the relationship between anxiety and haemostasis should be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coagulation Function of Stored Whole Blood is Preserved for 14 Days in Austere Conditions: A ROTEM Feasibility Study During a Norwegian Antipiracy Mission and Comparison to Equal Ratio Reconstituted Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-24

    mechanical piston movements measured by the ROTEM device. Error messages were recorded in 4 (1.5%) of 267 tests. CWB yielded repro- ducible ROTEM results... piston movement analysis, error message frequency, and result variability and (2) compare the clotting properties of cold-stored WB obtained from a walking...signed the selection form, which tracked TTD screening and blood grouping results. That same form doubled as a transfusion form and was used to

  5. Comparison of coagulation activity tests in vitro for selected biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeveren, W; Haan, J; Lagerman, P; Schoen, T

    Testing of coagulation induced by external communicating medical devices is an International Standardisation Organization (ISO) requirement for products exposed to human blood. Four categories of tests are indicated by ISO 10993/4: a clotting test (partial thromboplastin time; PTT), thrombin

  6. The Radiation Effect on Peripheral Blood Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae June; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Im, Sun Kyun; Choi, Ki Chul

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate radiation effect on the hematopoietic system, we analyzed 44 patients who were treated with conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) at Chonbuk National University Hospital. According to the treatment sites, we classified them into three groups: group I as head and neck, group II as thorax, and group III as pelvis. White blood cell, lymphocyte, platelet and hemoglobin were checked before and during RT The results were as follow; 1. White blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte count were declined from the first week of RT to the third week, and then slightly recovered after the third or fourth week. There was prominent decrease in lymphocyte counts than WBC. 2. Platelet counts were declined until the second week of the RT, showed slight recovery at fourth week in all groups. Hemoglobin values were slightly decreased in the first week and then recovered the level of pretreatment value, gradually. 3. Lymphocyte count were declined significantly on group III(p<0.01), WBC and platelet counts were decreased on group II but statistically not significant

  7. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the structure and function of important multiple blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keke; Feng, Ru; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2017-06-01

    Many researchers have investigated the application of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in biomedicine, because of their special nanoscale hollow tubular structure. Although the cytocompatibility of HNTs has been studied, their blood compatibility has not been systematically investigated. In this work, the effect of HNTs on the structure and function of different blood components has been studied, including the morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs). Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, optical density test and flow cytometry analysis, we found that HNTs can affect the morphology and membrane integrity of RBCs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a content-dependent way. In particular, based on UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, HNTs can alter the secondary structure and conformation of human fibrinogen and γ-globulins. In addition, the detection of biomarker molecules C3a and C5a in plasma suggests that HNTs can trigger complement activation. In the blood clotting assay, HNTs were found to significantly prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), shorten the prothrombin time (PT) of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and change the thromboelastography (TEG) parameters of whole blood coagulation. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to test intracellular uptake by macrophages, and the cellular uptake of HNTs in the RAW 264.7 was found to be content-dependent, but not time-dependent. These findings provide insight for the potential use of HNTs as biofriendly nanocontainers for biomaterials in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  9. Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC: protocol and statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleema Shakur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized controlled trial of its effect on maternal health outcomes in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial is ongoing. We will examine the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a subset of WOMAN trial participants.   Methods. Adult women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion in the WOMAN trial. In a sub-group of trial participants, blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of tranexamic acid or matching placebo.  Our primary objective is to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis will be assessed by measuring D-dimers and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM. Secondary outcomes are international normalized ratio (INR, prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrinogen, haemoglobin and platelets. We aim to include about 180 women from the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria.   Discussion:  This sub-study of WOMAN trial participants should provide information on the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in women with postpartum haemorrhage. We present the trial protocol and statistical analysis plan. The trial protocol was registered prior to the start of patient recruitment. The statistical analysis plan was completed before un-blinding.     Trial registration: The trial was registered: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00872469 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00872469; ISRCTN registry, Identifier   ISRCTN76912190 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date: 22/03/2012.

  10. The effects of acclimatization on blood clotting parameters in exertional heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Zoran; Vukasinović-Vesić, Milica; Dincić, Dragan; Surbatović, Maja; Radaković, Sonja S

    2013-07-01

    Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. Considering the coagulation abnormalities are of major importance in development of severe heat stroke, we wanted to examine changes in hemostatic parameters in soldiers during exertional heat stress test as well as the effects of a 10-day passive or active acclimatization in a climatic chamber. A total of 40 male soldiers with high aerobic capacity performed exertional heat stress test (EHST) either in cool [20 degrees C, 16 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], or hot (40 degrees C, 29 degrees C, (WBGT) environment, unacclimatized (U) or after 10 days of passive (P) or active (A) acclimatization. Physiological strain was measured by tympanic temperatures (Tty) and heart rates (HR). Platelet count (PC), antithrombin III (AT), and prothrombin time (PT) were assessed in blood samples collected before and immediately after the EHST. EHST in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty and HR), with a significant increase in prothrombin time in the groups U and A. Platelet counts were significantly higher after the EHST compared to the basic levels in all the investigated groups, regardless environmental conditions and acclimatization state. Antithrombin levels were not affected by EHST whatsoever. In the trained soldiers, physiological heat stress caused mild changes in some serum parameters of blood clotting such as prothrombin time, while others such as antithrombin levels were not affected. Platelet counts were increased after EHST in all groups. A 10-day passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber showed no effect on parameters investigated.

  11. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartim, Marco A; Costa, Tassia R; Laure, Helen J; Espíndola, Milena S; Frantz, Fabiani G; Sorgi, Carlos A; Cintra, Adélia C O; Arantes, Eliane C; Faccioli, Lucia H; Rosa, José C; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-05-01

    Coagulopathies following snakebite are triggered by pro-coagulant venom toxins, in which metalloproteases play a major role in envenomation-induced coagulation disorders by acting on coagulation cascade, platelet function and fibrinolysis. Considering this relevance, here we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of moojenactivase (MooA), a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, and investigate its involvement in hemostasis in vitro. MooA is a glycoprotein of 85,746.22 Da, member of the PIIId group of snake venom metalloproteases, composed of three linked disulfide-bonded chains: an N-glycosylated heavy chain, and two light chains. The venom protease induced human plasma clotting in vitro by activating on both blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and X, which in turn generated α-thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. Additionally, MooA induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on the membrane surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which led these cells to adopt pro-coagulant characteristics. MooA was also shown to be involved with production of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, suggesting an association between MooA pro-inflammatory stimulation of PBMC and TF up-regulation. We also observed aggregation of washed platelets when in presence of MooA; however, the protease had no effect on fibrinolysis. Our findings show that MooA is a novel hemostatically active metalloprotease, which may lead to the development of coagulopathies during B. moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders.

  12. Effect of individual dietary fatty acids on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII and fibrinolysis in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Miller, G.J.; Bysted, Anette

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances to the hemostatic system. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is increased in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma may promote factor VII (FVII) activation...

  13. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    : Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  14. In Vitro Effect of Activated Recombinant Factor VII (rFVIIa) on Coagulation Properties of Human Blood at Hypothermic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    is co- agulopathy, particularly when it is associated with metabolic acidosis and hypothermia, often referred to as the “lethal triad”.3–5 Substantial...that rFVIIa may be able to improve early survival of mas- sively bleeding trauma patients.27 It is also suggested that the correction of acidosis and...ratio and clotting time was measured. Fibrinogen in plasma was also determined based on a clotting assay in which a large excess of bovine thrombin (50

  15. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Strandberg, Karin; Malm, Jan

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as nov...

  16. Experimental melanoma metastasis in lungs of mice with congenital coagulation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Niers, Tatjana M.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Experimental animal studies as well as clinical trials have shown that interventions targeting the blood coagulation cascade inhibit cancer cell metastasis. These data support the hypothesis that congenital prothrombotic disorders, like factor V Leiden, facilitate metastasis whereas bleeding

  17. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera) Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Mohajeri, Mohammad; Babaie, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Bee venom (BV) is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera) on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50), and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT) and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD) values of BV were determined. Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs) = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa), respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  18. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  19. Reincarnation of ancient links between coagulation and complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E M

    2015-06-01

    Throughout evolution, organisms have developed means to contain wounds by simultaneously limiting bleeding and eliminating pathogens and damaged host cells via the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. Disease emerges when there is unchecked activation of innate immune and/or coagulation responses. A key component of innate immunity is the complement system. Concurrent excess activation of coagulation and complement - two major blood-borne proteolytic pathways - is evident in numerous diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, venous thromboembolic disease, thrombotic microangiopathies, arthritis, cancer, and infectious diseases. Delineating the cross-talk between these two cascades will uncover novel therapeutic insights. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. Detrimental effects of perioperative blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of infectious complications after major surgery and of cancer recurrence after curative operation. This has been attributed to immunosuppression. Several authors have suggested that filtered whole blood and/or red...... cell concentrate, or leucocyte- and buffy coat-reduced red cells in artificial medium or their own plasma, may reduce postoperative immunosuppression. It was also anticipated that the use of autologous blood might minimize the risk of perioperative transfusion, but studies have unexpectedly shown...... similar postoperative infectious complications and cancer recurrence and/or survival rates in patients receiving autologous blood donated before operation and those receiving allogeneic blood. Future studies should identify common risk factors associated with blood storage....

  1. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  2. The effect of three different doses of tranexamic acid on blood loss after cardiac surgery with mild systemic hypothermia (32 degrees C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karski, J M; Dowd, N P; Joiner, R; Carroll, J; Peniston, C; Bailey, K; Glynn, M F; Teasdale, S J; Cheng, D C

    1998-12-01

    Prophylactic administration of tranexamic acid (TA), an antifibrinolytic agent, decreases bleeding after cardiac surgery with systemic hypothermia (25 degrees C to 29 degrees C). Warmer systemic temperatures during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may reduce bleeding and thus alter the requirement for TA. The effect of three different doses of TA on bleeding after cardiac surgery with mild systemic hypothermia (32 degrees C) is evaluated. Double-blind, prospective, randomized study. University hospital. One hundred fifty adult patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass or valvular cardiac surgery. Patients received TA, 50 (n = 50), 100 (n = 50), or 150 (n = 50) mg/kg intravenously before CPB with mild systemic hypothermia. Blood loss through chest drains over 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery and total hemoglobin loss were measured. Autotransfused blood, transfused banked blood and blood products, and coagulation profiles were measured. Analysis of variance on log-transformed data for blood loss and confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.95 were calculated and transformed to milliliters of blood. No patient was re-explored for bleeding. Blood loss at 6 hours was statistically greater in the 50-mg/kg group compared with the other two groups (p = 0.03; p = 0.02). Total hemoglobin loss was statistically greater in the 50-mg/kg group compared with the 150-mg/kg group (p = 0.04). There was no statistical difference in blood tranfusion rate or coagulation profiles among the three groups. However, preoperative hemoglobin level was statistically lower in the 150-mg/kg group compared with the other two groups (p = 0.01). Of the three doses of TA studied, the most efficacious and cost-effective dose to reduce bleeding after cardiac surgery with mild hypothermic systemic perfusion is 100 mg/kg.

  3. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  4. The effect of sympathectomy on bone blood flow in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, T.; Alhava, E.M.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Hendolin, H.; Oksala, I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of lumbar sympathectomy on bone blood flow was measured in seven patients with a Xe-133 washout method. On the third postoperative day there was a significant increase of blood flow in the proximal femur and a slight increase in the proximal tibia. Two months after the operation blood flow in the proximal part of the femur was no more significantly increased but in the proximal tibia there was a significant increase. The study suggests that the positive effect of sympathectomy on bone blood flow may be of value in cases where the increase of blood flow to peripheral bones is required

  5. Evaluating the Efficiency of Tragacanth Coagulant Aid in Removing Colloidal Materials and Suspended Solids Creating Turbidity from Karun River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Farhadi; Afshin Takdastan; Roghayeh Baghbany

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Colloidal materials and suspended solids cause turbidity in water. To remove turbidity, clarification method is used that includes processes of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. Due to the long duration of coagulation process, coagulant aids are applied. Despite the favorable efficiency of synthetic polyelectrolytes as a coagulant aid, due to their harmful effects on human health, in this process, natural organic polymers are used instead. Materials and Methods: I...

  6. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect....

  7. Effects of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on the Apparent Viscosity of Blood Flow in Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-11-01

    In arterioles and venules (20-200μ diameter), the low shear rates enable red blood cells to form aggregate structures of varying sizes and morphology. The size and distribution of the aggregates affect the flow impedance within a microvascular network; this effect may be characterized by an "apparent viscosity". In this study, we measure the apparent viscosity of blood flow in 50μ glass tubes as a function of shear rate and red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit); for a fixed tube geometry and an imposed flow rate, the viscosity is determined by measuring the pressure drop across the tube. To correlate the apparent viscosity with the size and spatial distribution of the aggregates in the flow, video images of the flow are recorded and analyzed using power spectral techniques. Pig blood and sheep blood are used as the models for aggregating and non-aggregating blood, respectively. Supported by NSF PFF Award CTS-9253633

  8. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  9. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  10. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  11. The Effect of Blood Transfusion on Outcomes in Aortic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Camilo A; Singh, Mrinal; Bin Mahmood, Syed Usman; Brownstein, Adam J; Zafar, Mohammad A; Saeyeldin, Ayman; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2017-09-01

    The use of blood transfusion in cardiac surgery varies widely. The beneficial effects of blood products are offset by an increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite multiple studies showing an association between blood product exposure and adverse short- and long-term events, it is difficult to determine causality. Nevertheless, the implication is sufficient to warrant the search for alternative strategies to reduce the use of blood products while providing a standard of care that optimizes postoperative outcomes. Aortic surgery, in particular, is associated with an increased risk of bleeding requiring a blood transfusion. There is a paucity of evidence within aortic surgery regarding the deleterious effects of blood products. Here, we review the current evidence regarding patient outcomes after blood transfusion in cardiac surgery, with special emphasis on aortic surgery.

  12. OPTIMISATION OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AS A NATURAL COAGULANT TO TREAT CONGO RED IN WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUN Y. YONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of coagulation is commonly practiced in water and wastewater treatment to reduce level of dissolved chemical, turbidity and so on with the usage of coagulant. Aluminium sulphate (alum is the most commonly used coagulant, however, recent studies show that residual aluminium in drinking water and sludge may induce Alzheimer’s disease and environmental issues. Natural coagulant which is environmental friendly and non-toxic is developed as an alternative to overcome these issues. In this work, Hibiscus Sabdariffa was studied as natural coagulant to treat dye wastewater containing Congo red. The seeds were extracted with different solvent such as distilled water, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.05 M NaOH to extract the coagulation agent. The working parameters were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. 0.5 M NaCl was found to have highest colour removal of 95.1 % among the solvents. In addition, Hibiscus Sabdariffa seed was found to be an effective coagulant that has 91.2 % colour removal at the optimal working condition of pH 2, 190 mg/L coagulant dosage at 400 ppm of dye concentration. It was also been identified that the performance of natural coagulant is comparable with conventional coagulant, aluminium sulphate with colour removal of 91.2 % and 92.3 % respectively.

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on blood and blood components: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The present publication reviews, in a comprehensive manner, the relevant literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on whole blood, blood cells, and other blood components. It presents the interested reader with sufficient information and data to facilitate rational decisions in relation to the feasibility of irradiation of blood and blood products for the purposes stated above. The IAEA expects that this can promote a wider use of the technology for improving health care practice in Member States, particularly in view of the recent spread of conventional as well as ''modern'' diseases which exert immunosuppressive effects in afflicted patients, with pathological consequences. Innumerable patients could thus benefit from this application of ionizing energy. 209 refs, 1 tab

  14. Biomaterials trigger endothelial cell activation when co-incubated with human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, Manuela; Hanke, Jasmin; Hänsel, Stefanie; Drichel, Juliane; Marx, Monique; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation resulting from biomaterial contact or biomaterial-induced blood activation may in turn also affect hemostasis and inflammatory processes in the blood. Current in vitro hemocompatibility assays typically ignore these modulating effects of the endothelium. This study describes a co-incubation system of human whole blood, biomaterial and endothelial cells (ECs) that was developed to overcome this limitation. First, human endothelial cells were characterized in terms of their expression of coagulation- and inflammation-relevant markers in response to various activators. Subsequently, their capacity to regulate hemostasis as well as complement and granulocyte activation was monitored in a hemocompatibility assay. After blood contact, quiescent ECs exhibited anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. When they were co-incubated with surfaces exhibiting pro-coagulant or pro-inflammatory characteristics, the ECs down-regulated coagulation but not complement or leukocyte activation. Analysis of intracellular levels of the endothelial activation markers E-selectin and tissue factor showed that co-incubation with model surfaces and blood significantly increased the activation state of ECs. Finally, the coagulation- and inflammation-modulating properties of the ECs were tested after blood/biomaterial exposure. Pre-activation of ECs by biomaterials in the blood induced a pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state of the ECs, wherein the pro-coagulant response was higher for biomaterial/blood pre-activated ECs than for TNF-α-pre-activated cells. This work provides evidence that biomaterials, even without directly contacting the endothelium, affect the endothelial activation state with and have consequences for plasmatic and cellular reactions in the blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of gastric bypass followed by a randomized study of physical training on markers of coagulation activation, fibrin clot properties, and fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Mundbjerg, Lene Hymøller; Funch-Jensen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    disease risk markers within coagulation activation, fibrin clot properties, and fibrinolysis. Setting: Bariatric center, Hospital of Southwest Jutland, Denmark. Methods: Sixty obese patients underwent RYGB and 6 months after RYGB were randomized to 26 weeks of physical training or a control group...

  16. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of private umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Anjali J; Smith, Catherine C; Laros, Russell K; Caughey, Aaron B; Cheng, Yvonne W

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the cost-effectiveness of private umbilical cord blood banking. A decision-analytic model was designed comparing private umbilical cord blood banking with no umbilical cord blood banking. Baseline assumptions included a cost of $3,620 for umbilical cord blood banking and storage for 20 years, a 0.04% chance of requiring an autologous stem cell transplant, a 0.07% chance of a sibling requiring an allogenic stem cell transplant, and a 50% reduction in risk of graft-versus-host disease if a sibling uses banked umbilical cord blood. Private cord blood banking is not cost-effective because it cost an additional $1,374,246 per life-year gained. In sensitivity analysis, if the cost of umbilical cord blood banking is less than $262 or the likelihood of a child needing a stem cell transplant is greater than 1 in 110, private umbilical cord blood banking becomes cost-effective. Currently, private umbilical cord blood banking is cost-effective only for children with a very high likelihood of needing a stem cell transplant. Patients considering private blood banking should be informed of the remote likelihood that a unit will be used for a child or another family member. III.

  18. Enhanced algae removal by Ti-based coagulant: comparison with conventional Al- and Fe-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yanxia; Gao, Baoyu; Zhao, Qian

    2018-05-01

    The water eutrophication caused by cyanobacteria seasonally proliferates, which is a hot potato to be resolved for water treatment plants. This study firstly investigated coagulation performance of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) for Microcystis aeruginosa synthetic water treatment. Results show complete algal cell removal by TiCl 4 coagulation without damage to cell membrane integrity even under harsh conditions; 60 mg/L TiCl 4 was effective in removing the microcystins up to 85%. Furthermore, besides having stronger UV 254 removal capability and the higher removal of fluorescent substances over Al- and Fe-based coagulants, TiCl 4 coagulant required more compact coagulation and sedimentation tanks due to its significantly improved floc growth and sedimentation speed. Meanwhile, its' short hydraulic retention time avoided algal cell breakage and subsequent algal organic matter release. Microcystin concentrations were kept at a low level during sludge storage period, indicating that the TiCl 4 flocs could prevent algal cells from natural lysis. To facilitate water recycling without secondary contamination, the algae-containing sludge after TiCl 4 coagulation ought to be disposed within 12 days at 20 °C and 8 days at 35 °C.

  19. [Blood conservation effect and safety of shed mediastinal blood autotransfusion after cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, T; Ban, K; Yamazaki, K; Date, O; Nakamura, T; Kanzaki, Y

    1998-10-01

    Autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood after cardiac surgery has been used to reduce risks related to homologous blood transfusions. To document the efficacy and safety of autotransfusion, we compared clinical findings of 80 patients receiving shed mediastinal blood (autotransfusion group) with those of the control group of 52 patients. The amount of the autotransfusion was limited to 800 ml, given the potentially harmful effects of shed blood transfusion. The mean transfused shed volume was 314 +/- 236 ml (S.D.). The serum levels of FDP-E, D-dimer and TAT after autotransfusion were higher in the autotransfusion group than in the control group (p = 0.01, p = 0.0004, p = 0.001, respectively). However, postoperative blood loss and the rate of reexploration for bleeding were similar in the two groups. The patients receiving blood products were fewer in the autotransfusion group than those in the control group (21% vs 44%; p = 0.005). Autotransfusion did not increase postoperative complications, including infection. Thus, although autotransfusion of mediastinal shed blood has the potential to affect hemostasis, unless the amount of autotransfusion exceeds 800 ml, it appears that this method is clinically safe and effective as a mean of blood conservation.

  20. Effect of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma on fibrinolysis in reconstituted whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van der Meer, Pieter F; Brinkman, Herm Jan M; de Korte, Dirk; Bontekoe, Ido J; Korsten, Herbert H; Middelburg, Rutger A; van der Bom, Johanna G; Schipperus, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis has been observed in patients heavily transfused with solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma). We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic variables in blood containing S/D plasma with blood containing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), with and without α2-antiplasmin or tranexamic acid (TXA) supplementation. Whole blood samples were reconstituted from red blood cells, platelet (PLT) concentrates, and varying mixtures of FFP and S/D plasma. Hematocrit and PLT count of reconstituted whole blood samples were varied. For a subset of runs, α2-antiplasmin or TXA was added to S/D plasma whole blood samples. Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was performed to assess 50% clot lysis time (CLT 50% ), maximum amplitude (MA), and initial clotting time (R-time). The change in CLT 50% of whole blood as the plasma compartment transitions from FFP to S/D plasma was -52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60% to -45%; p plasma in whole blood. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restored clot lysis time in S/D plasma whole blood. Whole blood with S/D plasma has shorter clot lysis times in vitro compared to whole blood with FFP. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restore clot lysis time of S/D plasma whole blood to that of FFP whole blood. Clinicians should be aware of the decreased clot lysis time associated with S/D plasma transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Application of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder for Iron (III) Coagulation on Local Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetyaningtyas, Fadillah Utami; Rumhayati, Barlah; Masruri, Masruri

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to know the effect of the use of powder moringa seed to coagulant mass and coagulation process, and its effectiveness to increase the quality of pure water. This research uses factorial research design and statistic test MANOVA. To analyse water quality, the researcher uses Fe parameter.  A graphic of coagulant mass and time for each parameter is used to analyse the data. Based on the research result, the uses of moringa seed as coagulant in each 300 mL mineral water gives ...

  2. Blood pressure lowering effect of Tylophora hirsuta wall | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude hydromethanolic extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) was studied in spontaneous hypertensive Wistar rats for possible effects on high blood pressure and heart rate. In the absence of atropine, fall in arterial blood pressure was 64±7 mmHg at the dose of 100 mg/kg while in the presence of atropine, there was no effect ...

  3. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte Profile of Mild to Moderate Hypertensive Nigerians: A Comparative Study with Hydrochlorothiazide. ... Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of HS consumption on blood pressure (BP) and electrolytes of mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians ...

  4. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  5. Effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статей 1. Gilbert K, Nian H, Yu C, Luther JM, Brown NJ. Fenofibrate lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive but not salt-resistant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013 Apr;31(4:820-9. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835e8227. 2. Kwang K. K. Does Fenofibrate Lower Blood Pressure? Hypertension. 2013 Mar;61(3:e27. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00792.

  6. Correlation between thromboelastography and traditional coagulation test parameters in hospitalized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubanick JV

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean V Rubanick, Medora B Pashmakova, Micah A Bishop, James W Barr Department of Veterinary Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: A hospital-based, prospective cross-sectional study was used to compare kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG parameters with traditional coagulation tests in 29 hospitalized dogs. Cases were included if the attending clinician requested coagulation testing. Blood was obtained from each dog and coagulation (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin activity, d-dimer concentration, and fibrinogen concentration and TEG analyses were performed. Hematocrit (Hct was also measured. Traditional coagulation results were evaluated for correlation with those from kaolin-activated TEG. Spearman’s correlation was used to calculate correlation coefficients. Fibrinogen was positively correlated with maximum amplitude (Pearson r=0.72, P<0.001 and global clot strength (Pearson r=0.72, P<0.001. There was no correlation between any of the remaining coagulation variables, TEG parameters, or Hct. Results of kaolin-activated TEG and traditional coagulation tests are not interchangeable means of monitoring coagulation derangements in this intensive care unit patient population. Determination of a true outcome measure is necessary to establish TEG’s clinical relevance to veterinary medicine. Keywords: TEG, thromboelastography, coagulation, hemostasis

  7. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Futhermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfuson of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion of irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted

  8. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Furthermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfusion of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion or irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted

  9. Effect of casein to whey protein ratios on the protein interactions and coagulation properties of low-fat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L L; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Mao, X Y

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of casein (CN) to whey protein (WP) ratios (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) on gelation properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt made with reconstituted skim milk with or without addition of whey protein concentrate. The rheological properties (storage modulus, G'; yield stress; and yield strain) of the obtained low-fat yogurt were greatly enhanced, the fermentation period was shortened, and the microstructure became more compact with smaller pores as the CN:WP ratio decreased. When CN:WP was 2:1 or 1:1, the obtained yogurt coagulum showed higher G' and greater yield stress, with more compact crosslinking and smaller pores. In addition, the more of skim milk powder was replaced by whey protein concentrate, the more disulfide bonds were formed and the greater the occurrence of hydrophobic interactions during heat treatment, which can improve the rheological properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Effect on thrombus growth and thrombolysis of two types of osmolar contrast media in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Pascucci, C.; Agnelli, G.; Sturk, A.; Hoek, J.; ten Cate, J. Wouter

    1990-01-01

    Thromboembolic complications have been reported after diagnostic or interventional radiological procedures. However, contrast media inhibit platelet function and blood coagulation in vitro. To investigate these characteristics in vivo, we determined the effect of nonionic and ionic low osmolar

  12. Extraction and structural properties of Acanthophora muscoides (Rhodophyceae extracellular matrix sulfated polysaccharides and their effects on coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acanthophora muscoides (Rhodophyta contains structurally heterogeneous sulfated polysaccharides (Am-SPs with pharmacological importance; however, its matrix SPs composition has not been still extensively investigated. This study sequentially extracted and compared the structural features and the in vitro anticoagulant effects of the Am-SPs. Papain-extraction sequence yielded Am.E-1, Am.E-2 and Am.E-3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (26.18-33% and hexoses (42.02-60.67% based on chemical analyses. One- (1H and two-dimensions (1H/13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments showed very complex Am-SPs composed of alternating 4-linked-α-galactopyranosyl units and 3-linked-β-galactopyranosyl units presenting variable sulfation, CH3 substitutions and3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose units and pyruvated-D-galactose residues, respectively, typical of agarocolloids. Different chromatographic profiles (DEAE-cellulose were observed, with fractions (Am I, Am II and Am III eluted with 0.5, 0.75 and/or 1 M of NaCl, respectively revealing charge density patterns and distinct mobility to heparin by agarose-electrophoresis and, when analyzed by polyacrylamide-electrophoresis, a dispersive migration and similar mobility as chondroitin-6-sulfate for Am I fractions were noted. Regarding the activated partial thromboplastin time test, fractions had no virtually anticoagulation (1.47→3.07 IU mg-1 in comparison with 193 IU mg-1 heparin. Therefore, Am-SPs show significantly lower anticoagulation than heparin.

  13. Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.; Eripret, C.; Park, S.H.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Vronska, O.; Tamburic, B.; Kim, J.H.; Shon, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency >97%); although TiCl4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. <9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

  14. Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in algal turbid water

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.

    2016-11-11

    Seasonal green algae blooms in freshwaters have raised attention on the need to develop novel effective treatment processes for the removal of algae in water. In the present study, the performance of newly developed polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC) coagulant for the removal of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been investigated and compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) coagulant and the conventional ferric chloride (FeCl3) coagulant. The main benefit of using titanium-based coagulants is that the sludge produced after flocculation may be recycled into a valuable product: titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Both titanium-based coagulants achieved good flocculation over a broader pH range and coagulant dose compared to conventional FeCl3 coagulant. All three coagulants achieved comparable performance in terms of turbidity removal (i.e. turbidity removal efficiency >97%); although TiCl4 performed slightly better at the lower tested dose (i.e. <9 mg/L). Zeta potential measurements indicated that charge neutralisation may not be the sole mechanism involved in the coagulation of algae for all three coagulants. Analysis of the dynamic floc size variation during floc breakage showed no regrowth after floc breakage for the three coagulants. The flocs formed by both Ti-based coagulants were larger than those formed by FeCl3 and also grew at a faster rate. This study indicates that Ti-based coagulants are effective and promising coagulants for algae removal in water.

  15. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Rushiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21. All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situation is of subjects was examined, then, all students, at the same time, gave blood for analysis. In this experiment, three main hematologic parameters were taken in consideration: such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells. The same analyses were carried out after the 10-day stay at a high altitude. The results of the experiment have shown significant changes after the ten-day stay at high altitude, despite the previous results that show changes only after the twenty-day stay in such elevations.

  16. Effect of fluocinolone acetonide cream on human skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoskey, J.E.; Holloway, A. Jr.; Flanagan, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Blood flow rate was measured in the forearm skin of human subjects exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Blood flow was determined by the 133 Xe disappearance technique 18 hr after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with a Westinghouse RS sunlamp held 10 inches from the skin for 10 min. Ultraviolet irradiation caused skin blood flow to increase. Application of fluocinolone acetonide cream, 0.025 percent, 4 times in the 16 hr following UV irradiation had no effect on either control skin blood flow or the UV-induced hyperemia

  17. Effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome after radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Hua, Qingli; Jin, Changming; Guo, Chunling; Song, Bing

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome (MS) after radical gastrectomy. A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer, who were treated in Daqing Longnan Hospital from November, 2015 to May, 2017, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into the MS group (80 cases) and non-MS group (70 cases). Patients in the MS group were given corresponding drugs to control blood pressure, blood lipids and blood glucose, while patients in the non-MS group were not treated with those drugs. Patients in the MS group were divided into the normal and abnormal groups according to the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure. Moreover, occurrences of complications were compared between the normal and abnormal groups. Before surgery, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure of the MS group decreased significantly compared to those before operation (pblood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total triglycerides (TGs), LDL, mean blood pressure and BMI (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in patients with gastric cancer complicated with MS after radical gastrectomy can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and promote postoperative recovery.

  18. Effect of Marijuana Smoking on Blood Chemistry and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of marijuana smoking on blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations in humans was investigated. Eighty Marijuana addicts and twenty non- marijuana smokers were used in the study. Blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations of the marijuana addicts and controls, were ...

  19. Effects of Malaria on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Electrocardiogram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of malaria on blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram and the cardiovascular responses to postural change were studied in malaria patients. Blood pressure was measured by the sphygmomanometric-auscultatory method. Standard ECG machine was used to record the electrocardiogram. Heart rate was ...

  20. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    fruits of this species by the local population for gastrointestinal disorders. Considering the pharmacological potential of the genus, this work aimed to carry out study of phytochemical characterization of this species and study the effects of the aqueous (AE, ethanol (EE and hexane (HE extracts from its leaves on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. Thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance were carried out for the phytochemical characterization. The effect of the extracts on the coagulation was evaluated by prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT tests. The effect on the platelet aggregation was evaluated in platelet-rich plasma by spectrophotometric method, using adenosine diphosphate (ADP and adrenaline (ADR as inducers of aggregation. The AE, EE and HE extracts showed coagulant activity by the PT test, and the EE showed anticoagulant activity by the aPTT. When induced by ADP, the AE, EE and HE extracts showed 50% inhibitory concentration values (IC50, µg/mL of 450.5 ± 50.7, 511.2 ± 35.5 and 394.4 ± 8.9, respectively, and when induced by ADR showed values of 438.7 ± 5.2, 21.0 ± 1.9 and 546.9 ± 49.9, respectively. The EE showed inhibitory effect on the aggregation. The phytochemical characterization was suggestive of the presence of flavonoids and coumarins, which can be attributed in part to the biological effects studied.

  1. Effects of seasonal changes in feeding management under part-time grazing on the evolution of the composition and coagulation properties of raw milk from ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, E; Virto, M; Nájera, A I; Salmerón, J; Albisu, M; Pérez-Elortondo, F J; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2010-09-01

    Ewe raw milk composition, rennet coagulation parameters, and curd texture were monitored throughout the milk production season in 11 commercial flocks reared under a part-time grazing system. Milking season lasted from February to July. During that period, the diet of the animals shifted from indoor feeding, consisting of concentrate and forage, to an outdoor grazing diet. Lean dry matter, fat, protein, calcium, and magnesium contents increased throughout the milking season, as did rennet coagulation time, curd firmness, and curd resistance to compression. However, lean dry matter, protein content, and curd resistance to compression stabilized when sheep started to graze. Principal component analysis correlated curd resistance to compression and proteins, whereas curd firmness was highly correlated with fat content and minerals. Discriminant analysis distributed milk samples according to the feeding management. Curd firmness, fat, and magnesium turned out to be discriminant variables. Those variables reflected the evolution of the composition and coagulation parameters when fresh pasture prevailed over other feeds in the diet of the flocks. The present study shows that seasonal changes associated with feeding management influence milk technological quality and that milk of good processing quality can be obtained under part-time grazing. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of repeated blood donations on the iron status of male Saudi blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saleh M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Regular blood donation can lead to iron deficiency. Screening donors’ serum ferritin levels at the time of first donation and subsequently once every year is a very rational way to pick up iron deficiency in a voluntary blood donor population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of blood donation and the prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency (sideropenia) in Saudi male blood donors. Materials and methods. The study was prospectively conducted, between December 2008 and March 2009, on 182 male native Saudi blood donors at King Fahd Central Hospital in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Each donor gave 450±50 mL of whole blood. Following the donation, samples were removed into 2.5 mL EDTA tubes for measurement of mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and into 7.5 mL plain tubes for estimation of iron and serum ferritin concentrations. The blood donors were divided into five groups, according to the number of donations they had given in the preceding 3 years. The blood donors in group I were first-time donors, with no previous history of blood donation. Group II donors had donated once in the last 3 years. Subjects in groups III, IV and V had donated more than once in the preceding 3 years and were considered regular donors. Results. The mean serum iron was significantly higher among subjects with no previous history of blood donation (group I) than among regular donors who had donated twice or more. The difference in serum ferritin concentration was statistically significant (pdonated once in the last 3 years, and in first-time blood donors (131.4 μg/L) was not statistically significant (pdonated between two to five times had iron deficiency. The prevalence of erythropoiesis with iron deficiency in regular blood donors was 4.3%. Conclusion. The results of this study show that an increase in the number of donations results in an increase in the frequency of depleted iron stores and subsequently in

  3. Effect of blood activity on dosimetric calculations for radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Alexandra; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Li, Wei Bo; Schlattl, Helmut; Oeh, Uwe; Zankl, Maria; Graner, Frank Philipp; Hoeschen, Christoph; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Parodi, Katia; Schwaiger, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of the definition of blood as a distinct source on organ doses, associated with the administration of a novel radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging—(S)-4-(3-18F-fluoropropyl)-L-glutamic acid (18F-FSPG). Personalised pharmacokinetic models were constructed based on clinical PET/CT images from five healthy volunteers and blood samples from four of them. Following an identifiability analysis of the developed compartmental models, person-specific model parameters were estimated using the commercial program SAAM II. Organ doses were calculated in accordance to the formalism promulgated by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) using specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons previously derived for the ICRP reference adult computational voxel phantoms. Organ doses for two concepts were compared: source organ activities in organs parenchyma with blood as a separate source (concept-1); aggregate activities in perfused source organs without blood as a distinct source (concept-2). Aggregate activities comprise the activities of organs parenchyma and the activity in the regional blood volumes (RBV). Concept-1 resulted in notably higher absorbed doses for most organs, especially non-source organs with substantial blood contents, e.g. lungs (92% maximum difference). Consequently, effective doses increased in concept-1 compared to concept-2 by 3-10%. Not considering the blood as a distinct source region leads to an underestimation of the organ absorbed doses and effective doses. The pronounced influence of the blood even for a radiopharmaceutical with a rapid clearance from the blood, such as 18F-FSPG, suggests that blood should be introduced as a separate compartment in most compartmental pharmacokinetic models and blood should be considered as a distinct source in

  4. The effect of partial portal decompression on portal blood flow and effective hepatic blood flow in man: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemurgy, A S; McAllister, E W; Godellas, C V; Goode, S E; Albrink, M H; Fabri, P J

    1995-12-01

    With the advent of transjugular intrahepatic porta-systemic stent shunt and the wider application of the surgically placed small diameter prosthetic H-graft portacaval shunt (HGPCS), partial portal decompression in the treatment of portal hypertension has received increased attention. The clinical results supporting the use of partial portal decompression are its low incidence of variceal rehemorrhage due to decreased portal pressures and its low rate of hepatic failure, possibly due to maintenance of blood flow to the liver. Surprisingly, nothing is known about changes in portal hemodynamics and effective hepatic blood flow following partial portal decompression. To prospectively evaluate changes in portal hemodynamics and effective hepatic blood flow brought about by partial portal decompression, the following were determined in seven patients undergoing HGPCS: intraoperative pre- and postshunt portal vein pressures and portal vein-inferior vena cava pressure gradients, intraoperative pre- and postshunt portal vein flow, and pre- and postoperative effective hepatic blood flow. With HGPCS, portal vein pressures and portal vein-inferior vena cava pressure gradients decreased significantly, although portal pressures remained above normal. In contrast to the significant decreases in portal pressures, portal vein blood flow and effective hepatic blood flow do not decrease significantly. Changes in portal vein pressures and portal vein-inferior vena cava pressure gradients are great when compared to changes in portal vein flow and effective hepatic blood flow. Reduction of portal hypertension with concomitant maintenance of hepatic blood flow may explain why hepatic dysfunction is avoided following partial portal decompression.

  5. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.; Obrist, W.D.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of 133 Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial 133 Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic 133 Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic 133 Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBF varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications

  6. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hasim Rushiti; Florian Miftari; Besim Halilaj

    2015-01-01

    The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21). All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situat...

  7. Is argon plasma coagulation an effective and safe treatment option for patients with chronic radiation proctitis after high doses of radiotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hortelano

    grade 2 rectal incontinence, respectively. Conclusions: The argon plasma coagulation is an effective and safe management option in patients with medically refractory rectal bleeding after high doses of radiation for prostate cancer.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age...... and accrued $155 261 in lifetime costs, while intensive management yielded 10.5 QALYs and accrued $176 584 in costs. Intensive blood pressure management cost $23 777 per QALY gained. In a sensitivity analysis, serious adverse events would need to occur at 3 times the rate observed in SPRINT and be 3 times...

  9. Bladder perforation owing to a unipolar coagulating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakter, J; Budnick, L D

    1981-09-15

    A report on a patient who sustained a burn and perforation of the urinary bladder from visible sparks emanating from a unipolar coagulating device during the couse of laparoscopic sterilization is presented. It is the first report of urinary bladder burns using a unipolar coagulating device. A 24-year-old woman, gravida 10, para 3, abortus 7, underwent a laparoscopic sterilization with a unipolar coagulating device. As the physician was finishing the coagulation, a spark from the device caused a 1-2 cm burn with a central area of perforation into the urinary bladder. Conservative treatment was recommended, and consisted of Foley catheterization and drainage for 5 days. Initial urine culture revealed Klebsiella species, and oral ampicillin was prescribed. Hematuria was noted throughout the patient's hospitalization, and blood clots were present in the urine on Day 2 postoperation. The patient had no abdominal or flank pain, was afebrile, and had a stable hemoglobin level during the hospital stay. Cystography was performed on Day 5 postoperatively and demonstrated no perforation. Foley catheter was removed. Patient was discharged 2 days later and remains in good health 3 months postoperatively.

  10. The Inflammatory Actions of Coagulant and Fibrinolytic Proteases in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schuliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aside from their role in hemostasis, coagulant and fibrinolytic proteases are important mediators of inflammation in diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. The blood circulating zymogens of these proteases enter damaged tissue as a consequence of vascular leak or rupture to become activated and contribute to extravascular coagulation or fibrinolysis. The coagulants, factor Xa (FXa, factor VIIa (FVIIa, tissue factor, and thrombin, also evoke cell-mediated actions on structural cells (e.g., fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells or inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages via the proteolytic activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs. Plasmin, the principle enzymatic mediator of fibrinolysis, also forms toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 activating fibrin degradation products (FDPs and can release latent-matrix bound growth factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Furthermore, the proteases that convert plasminogen into plasmin (e.g., urokinase plasminogen activator evoke plasmin-independent proinflammatory actions involving coreceptor activation. Selectively targeting the receptor-mediated actions of hemostatic proteases is a strategy that may be used to treat inflammatory disease without the bleeding complications of conventional anticoagulant therapies. The mechanisms by which proteases of the coagulant and fibrinolytic systems contribute to extravascular inflammation in disease will be considered in this review.

  11. Effects of low dose gamma irradiation on PVC blood bags containing anticoagulant CPDA solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, D.; Varshney, Lalit; Arjun, Chanda

    2006-01-01

    PVC blood bags were exposed to 20Gy and 60Gy low gamma radiation dose to investigate possibility of change in leaching behavior of the plasticizer into CPDA solution and the blood. Reversed phase HPLC was used for the investigations on anti coagulant solution CPDA(citrate, phosphate, dextrose and adenine) contained in PVC bag before and after gamma irradiation. The studies were repeated using methanol as an extractant instead of CPDA solution, considering higher extractability of plasticizer by blood. Irradiation of PVC bags by gamma radiation for a dose up to 60Gy does not lead to change in leaching behavior of the plasticizer in CPDA solution and methanol indicating similar expected behavior in blood. (author)

  12. Preventing blood transfusion failures: FMEA, an effective assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Zhila; Hasoumi, Mojtaba; Behzadi, Faranak; Mohamadi, Efat; Jafary, Mohamadreza; Saeedi, Morteza

    2017-06-30

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a method used to assess the risk of failures and harms to patients during the medical process and to identify the associated clinical issues. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of blood transfusion process in a teaching general hospital, using FMEA as the method. A structured FMEA was recruited in our study performed in 2014, and corrective actions were implemented and re-evaluated after 6 months. Sixteen 2-h sessions were held to perform FMEA in the blood transfusion process, including five steps: establishing the context, selecting team members, analysis of the processes, hazard analysis, and developing a risk reduction protocol for blood transfusion. Failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers (RPNs) were identified. The overall RPN scores ranged from 5 to 100 among which, four failure modes were associated with RPNs over 75. The data analysis indicated that failures with the highest RPNs were: labelling (RPN: 100), transfusion of blood or the component (RPN: 100), patient identification (RPN: 80) and sampling (RPN: 75). The results demonstrated that mis-transfusion of blood or blood component is the most important error, which can lead to serious morbidity or mortality. Provision of training to the personnel on blood transfusion, knowledge raising on hazards and appropriate preventative measures, as well as developing standard safety guidelines are essential, and must be implemented during all steps of blood and blood component transfusion.

  13. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. Significance The aging population in Western countries is causing a progressive reduction of blood donors and a constant increase of blood recipients. Because blood is the main therapeutic option to treat acute hemorrhage, cost-effective alternatives to blood donations are being actively investigated. The enormous replication capability of induced pluripotent stem cells and their promising results in many other fields of medicine could be an apt solution to produce the large numbers of viable cells required in transfusion and usher in a new era in transfusion medicine. The present report describes the potentiality, technological hurdles, and promises of induced pluripotent stem cells to generate red blood cells by redifferentiation. PMID:26819256

  14. Effect of warming and flow rate conditions of blood warmers on red blood cell integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, T G; Pruneau, D; Dorval, J; Thibault, L; Fisette, J-F; Bédard, S K; Jacques, A; Beauregard, P

    2016-11-01

    Fluid warmers are routinely used to reduce the risk of hypothermia and cardiac complications associated with the infusion of cold blood products. However, warming blood products could generate haemolysis. This study was undertaken to compare the impact of temperature of blood warmers on the per cent haemolysis of packed red blood cells (RBCs) heated at different flow rates as well as non-flow conditions. Infusion warmers used were calibrated at 41·5°C ± 0·5°C and 37·5°C ± 0·5°C. Cold RBC units stored at 4°C in AS-3 (n = 30), aged 30-39 days old, were divided into half units before being allocated under two different scenarios (i.e. infusion pump or syringe). Blood warmers were effective to warm cold RBCs to 37·5°C or 41·5°C when used in conjunction with an infusion pump at flow rate up to 600 ml/h. However, when the warmed blood was held in a syringe for various periods of time, such as may occur in neonatal transfusions, the final temperature was below the expected requirements with measurement as low as 33·1°C. Increasing the flow with an infusion pump increased haemolysis in RBCs from 0·2% to up to 2·1% at a flow rate of 600 ml/h regardless of the warming device used (P < 0·05). No relevant increase of haemolysis was observed using a syringe. The use of a blood warmer adjusted to 41·5°C is probably the best choice for reducing the risk of hypothermia for the patient without generating haemolysis. However, we should be cautious with the use of an infusion pump for RBC transfusion, particularly at high flow rates. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Coagulation Status in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Johansen, Maria Egede; Mogensen, Ulla B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases other than hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) have been associated with prothrombotic/hypercoagulable status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible association between the chronic inflammatory skin disease HS and prothrombotic/hypercoagulable state. METHODS: We.......3432). CONCLUSION: We did not find an association between HS and prothrombotic/hypercoagulable status. Thus, thrombocytes may not be activated in HS. Furthermore, INR may not be affected in HS, suggesting that intrinsic and vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors appear unaffected....

  16. Valproic acid modulates platelet and coagulation function ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E; Halaweish, Ihab

    2017-01-01

    of coagulopathy, it remains unknown whether this is a direct effect of the drug, or the establishment of an overall prosurvival phenotype. We thus conducted an ex-vivo experiment to determine if VPA has an effect on coagulation and platelet function. Ten swine were subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI...

  17. Blood harmane, blood lead, and severity of hand tremor: evidence of additive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gerbin, Marina; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Tremor is a widespread phenomenon in human populations. Environmental factors are likely to play an etiological role. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-β]indole) is a potent tremor-producing β-carboline alkaloid. Lead is another tremor-producing neurotoxicant. The effects of harmane and lead with respect to tremor have been studied in isolation. We tested the hypothesis that tremor would be particularly severe among individuals who had high blood concentrations of both of these toxicants. Blood concentrations of harmane and lead were each quantified in 257 individuals (106 essential tremor cases and 151 controls) enrolled in an environmental epidemiological study. Total tremor score (range = 0-36) was a clinical measure of tremor severity. The total tremor score ranged from 0 to 36, indicating that a full spectrum of tremor severities was captured in our sample. Blood harmane concentration correlated with total tremor score (p = 0.007), as did blood lead concentration (p = 0.045). The total tremor score was lowest in participants with both low blood harmane and lead concentrations (8.4 ± 8.2), intermediate in participants with high concentrations of either toxicant (10.5 ± 9.8), and highest in participants with high concentrations of both toxicants (13.7 ± 10.4) (p=0.01). Blood harmane and lead concentrations separately correlated with total tremor scores. Participants with high blood concentrations of both toxicants had the highest tremor scores, suggesting an additive effect of these toxicants on tremor severity. Given the very high population prevalence of tremor disorders, identifying environmental determinants is important for primary disease prevention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frampton Mark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence indicates that ambient air pollution is associated with exacerbation of chronic diseases like chronic pulmonary disease. A prospective panel study was conducted to investigate short-term changes of blood markers of inflammation and coagulation in response to daily changes in air pollution in Erfurt, Germany. 12 clinical visits were scheduled and blood parameters were measured in 38 male patients with chronic pulmonary disease during winter 2001/2002. Additive mixed models with random patient intercept were applied, adjusting for trend, weekday, and meteorological parameters. Hourly data on ultrafine particles (UFP, 0.01-0.1 μm, accumulation mode particles (ACP, 0.1-1.0 μm, PM10 (particulate matter 2], carbon monoxide [CO], and sulphur dioxide [SO2] were collected at a central monitoring site and meteorological data were received from an official network. For each person and visit the individual 24-hour average of pollutants immediately preceding the blood withdrawal (lag 0 up to day 5 (lag1-4 and 5-day running means were calculated. Results Increased levels of fibrinogen were observed for an increase in one interquartile range of UFP, PM10, EC, OC, CO, and NO revealing the strongest effect for lag 3. E-selectin increased in association with ACP and PM10 with a delay of one day. The ACP effect was also seen with the 5-day-mean. The pattern found for D-dimer was inconsistent. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 decreased with lag 4 consistently for all particulate pollutants. Von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF showed a consistent decrease in association with almost all air pollutants with all lags except for lag 0. No associations were found for C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, serum amyloid A and factor VII. Conclusion These results suggest that elevated concentrations of air pollution are associated with changes in some blood markers of inflammation and coagulation in patients with

  19. Application of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder For Iron (III Coagulation on Local Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadillah Utami Prasetyaningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of the use of powder moringa seed to coagulant mass and coagulation process, and its effectiveness to increase the quality of pure water. This research uses factorial research design and statistic test MANOVA. To analyse water quality, the researcher uses Fe parameter.  A graphic of coagulant mass and time for each parameter is used to analyse the data. Based on the research result, the uses of moringa seed as coagulant in each 300 mL mineral water gives a possitives result to the river water sample using 100 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, well water sample using 500 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, tap water sample using 300 mg  coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 90 minutes. The effective coagulant that increase the water quality on well water is 98,32% of moringa seed powder, on river water is 96,64%  and for tap water is 25,62%.

  20. The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid-coagulated milk products such as fresh acid-coagulated cheese varieties and yogurt areimportant dairy food products. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in gel formation, physical properties of acid gels, and the effects of processing variables such as heat treatment and gelation temperature on the important physical properties of acid milk gels. This paper reviews the modern concepts of possible mechanisms involved in the formation of particle milk gel aggregation, along with recent developments including the use of techniques such as dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology to observe the gel formation process, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor gel microstructure.

  1. The Coagulant Type Influence on Removal Efficiency of 5- and 6-Ring Pahs During Water Coagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results on investigation of the removal efficiency of selected 5- and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene from water during coagulation and sedimentation process. Two pre-hydrolyzed aluminum coagulants: PAX XL 19H and FLOKOR 105V were chosen for research. Process was carried out at optimum process parameters: rapid-mixing - 3 min at the rotational speed of 200 rpm, slow mixing - 10 min at 30 rpm, sedimentation - 60 min. The removal effectiveness was dependant on coagulant type and its composition. Better results in the removal of 5-and 6-ring PAHs were obtained after application of FLOKOR 105V (lower aluminum content than after using PAX XL 19H.

  2. Peripheral vascular effects on auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbany, S Y; Drzewiecki, G M; Noordergraaf, A

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the accuracy of the conventional auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement. The influence of the physiologic state of the vascular system in the forearm distal to the site of Korotkoff sound recording and its impact on the precision of the measured blood pressure is discussed. The peripheral resistance in the arm distal to the cuff was changed noninvasively by heating and cooling effects and by induction of reactive hyperemia. All interventions were preceded by an investigation of their effect on central blood pressure to distinguish local effects from changes in central blood pressure. These interventions were sufficiently moderate to make their effect on central blood pressure, recorded in the other arm, statistically insignificant (i.e., changes in systolic [p cooling experiments was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Moreover, both measured systolic (p < 0.004) and diastolic (p < 0.001) pressure decreases during the reactive hyperemia experiments were statistically significant. The findings demonstrate that alteration in vascular state generates perplexing changes in blood pressure, hence confirming experimental observations by earlier investigators as well as predictions by our model studies.

  3. The effect of fish oil supplements on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339

  4. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia R; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time.

  5. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  6. Blood compatibility of gas plasma-treated diamond-like carbon surface-Effect of physicochemical properties of DLC surface on blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Akira; Ogawa, Tatsuhisa; Okamoto, Keishi; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Nitta, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    From the knowledge that zwitterion-type polymers show good blood compatibility, the introduction of both cationic and anionic functional groups onto diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface is expected to improve blood compatibility. Thus, DLC films were treated with oxygen and ammonia gas plasmas. The surfaces were characterized in terms of chemical composition by XPS, contact angle, and zeta potential. XPS analysis showed the introductions of a carboxyl group by oxygen plasma treatment and nitrogen atoms by ammonia plasma treatment. The evaluation of blood compatibility for the DLC surfaces was carried out in terms of platelets and the coagulation system. Excellent improvement of platelet compatibility was observed by the treatment with the gas plasmas, regardless of the plasma species. As for the compatibility with the coagulation system, DLC surfaces with a high concentration of carboxyl groups (COOH) markedly activated the system via the intrinsic pathway. However, the surfaces treated with ammonia plasma did not activate the system even though they had high COOH concentration. Measurement of the zeta potential revealed that the ammonia plasma treatment raised the potential from a negative value to a positive one. Though the introduction of amino groups to the surface was not detected directly, the treatment of ammonia plasma changed the electrical state of the DLC surface having COOH group, causing a difference in blood compatibility among the DLCs obtained by various plasma conditions.

  7. Cost-effective practices in the blood service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaliaki, Korina

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study is to recommend alternative policies, which are tested on a computer simulation model, towards a more cost-effective management of the blood supply chain in the UK. With the use of primary and secondary data from the National Blood Service (NBS) and the supplied hospitals, statistical analysis is conducted and a detailed discrete event simulation model of a vertical part of the UK supply chain of blood products is developed to test and identify good ordering, inventory and distribution practices. Fewer outdates, group substitutions, shortages and deliveries could be achieved by blood banks: holding stock of rare blood groups of red blood cells (RBC), having a second routine delivery per weekday, exercising a more insensitive ordering point for RBC, reducing the total crossmatch release period to less than 1.5 days, increasing the transfusion-to-crossmatch ratio to 70%, adhering to an age-based issuing of orders, holding RBC stock of a weighted average of approximately 4 days. The blood supply simulation model can offer useful pieces of advice to the stakeholders of the examined system which leads to cost reductions and increased safety. Moreover, it provides a great range of experimental capabilities in a risk-free environment.

  8. Evaluation of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in the Craniocerebral Traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Altinel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury is one of the most important cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. It occurs because of blood loss and hemodilution due to fluid resuscitation. The incidence of trauma associated DIC is mainly higher in the craniocerebral traumas. Even though craniocerebral trauma related DIC is well defined, the pathophysiology has been poorly characterized in the literature. Due to the fact that brain tissue is highly significant for procoagulant molecules, craniocerebral traumas are closely related to DIC. In the current study, 30 patients admitted to emergency room have been considered on the first and fifth day of admission to the hospital for the coagulation tests to evaluate DIC in both two groups. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 488-495

  9. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to coagulation process during treatment of a beverage industrial wastewater to remove some of its trace metals content such as lead, cadmium, total iron, total chromium, nickel and zinc. Experiments were conducted using the standard Jar ...

  10. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Laura P. B.; Wijnberge, Marije; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Poland, Dennis C. W.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Fliers, Eric; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal coagulation tests have been observed in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) suggesting a prothrombotic effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Vitamin D deficiency (VIDD) is the most frequent cause of secondary HPT. Aim of our study was to investigate the influence of HPT secondary

  11. Particle counter as a tool to control pre-hydrolyzed coagulant dosing and rapid filtration efficiency in a conventional treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumińska, Jolanta; Kłos, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Filtration efficiency in a conventional water treatment system was analyzed in the context of pre-hydrolyzed coagulant overdosing. Two commercial coagulants of different aluminum speciation were tested. A study was carried out at a water treatment plant supplied with raw water of variable quality. The lack of stability of water quality caused many problems with maintaining the optimal coagulant dose. The achieved results show that the type of coagulant had a very strong influence on the effectiveness of filtration resulting from the application of an improper coagulant dose. The overdosing of high basicity coagulant (PAC85) caused a significant increase of fine particles in the outflow from the sedimentation tanks, which could not be retained in the filter bed due to high surface charge and the small size of hydrolysis products. When using a coagulant of lower basicity (PAC70), it was much easier to control the dose of coagulant and to adjust it to the changing water quality.

  12. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  13. Low-dose effect on blood chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.

    1992-01-01

    Linear dose response relationships of biological effects at low doses are experimentally and theoretically disputed. Structural chromosome aberration rates at doses ranging from normal background exposures up to about 30 mGy/yr in vivo and up to 50 mGy in vitro were investigated by the author and other scientists. Results are comparable and dose effect curves reveal following shapes; within the normal burden and up to 2-10 mGy/yr in vivo rates they increase sharply to about 3-6 times the lowest values; subsequent doses either from natural, occupational or accidental exposures up to about 30 mGy/yr yield either constant aberration rates, assuming a plateau, or perhaps even a decrease. In vitro experiments show comparable results up to 50 mGy. Other biological effects seem to have similar dose dependencies. The non-linearity of low-dose effects can be explained by induction of repair enzymes at certain damage to the DNA. This hypothesis is sustained experimentally and theoretically by several papers in literature. (author). 14 refs., 5 figs

  14. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  15. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide (PAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, P A; Zouboulis, A I

    2009-08-01

    Currently, research is focused on the synthesis of new composite coagulants, which are constituted of both inorganic and organic materials. In this paper, the development of relevant reagents was investigated, by combining the inorganic pre-polymerised iron-based coagulant Polyferric Sulphate (PFS) with an organic, non-ionic polymer (Polyacrylamide, PAA) under different PAA/Fe (mg/l) and OH/Fe molar ratios. Moreover, the new reagents were characterised in terms of typical properties, stability and morphological analysis (XRD, FTIR, SEM). Their coagulation performance, when treating low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions, was also investigated, whereas the applied coagulation mechanisms were discussed by using the Photometric Dispersion Analysis (PDA) analysis. The results show that the new coagulation reagents present improved properties, including increased effective polymer species concentration, and they exhibit very good stability. The respective tests using PDA confirmed that the predominant coagulation mechanism of PFS-PAA is the bridge formation mechanism. Coagulation experiments in low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions reveal that the novel composite reagent PFS-PAA exhibits better coagulation performance, when compared with simple PFS, in terms of zeta-potential reduction, turbidity and organic matter removal and residual iron concentration.

  16. Comparison of the Performance of Corn Starch Coagulant Aid Accompany with Alum, Polyaluminum Chloride and Ferric Chloride Coagulants in Turbidity Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mosleh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important process in water treatment plant is coagulation and flocculation. Regular chemical coagulant which used in Iran are aluminum sulfate (Alum and ferric chloride. Chemical coagulants have hazardous effect on human health and their cost is high for developing country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparison of chemical coagulants accompany with corn starch as a coagulant aid, for the turbidity removal from water. Methods: This study was accomplished in pilot-scale with synthetic turbid water using clay. In this research, initial turbidity of 250 and 500 NTU was experimented. Chemical coagulant dose during the experiment was 1, 2 and 5 ppm and natural coagulant dose was 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 ppm. Results: The results showed that maximum removal efficiency of turbidity in initial turbidity of 250 NTU belonged to poly aluminum chloride with 5 ppm dosage and corn starch with 0.7 ppm dosage which removed and reduced the initial turbidity to 98.48% and 3.73 NTU, respectively. Moreover, in initial turbidity of 500 NTU the maximum removal efficiency was 98.52% which belonged to ferric chloride and corn starch (5 and 0.7 ppm respectively and reduced the initial turbidity to 7.4 NTU. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that using natural coagulant aid reduce the chemical coagulant consumption, and also does not have significant effect on pH range and reduce the health risks. While huge amount of required polyelectrolytes for water treatment plant imported to the country and the production of corn starch in our country is high, it is hope that the results of this project can be used in industrial scale.

  17. Evaluation of Impact of Coagulant Type on Operation Parameters in Direct Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Torabian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous advantages have been reported on PAC (poly aluminum chloride used as a coagulant over other coagulants such as alum and ferric chloride used in conventional water treatment process with medium and high turbidity levels. These include lower amounts of PACL required specially in removing turbidity, larger floc grain formation, reduced floc sedimentation time, lower sludge production, and relaxation of the need for pH adjustment by lime, among others. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of different coagulants such as ferric chloride and PACL on direct filtration and to identify the most effective material based on both turbidity and particle removal efficiencies. A perfectly experimental pilot system, including raw water preparation, coagulation, flocculation, distribution measurement, and filtration units, was designed and used. Raw water turbidity level in the experimental pilot was below 10 NTU. The effects of various parameters such as coagulant type, filtration rate, and coagulant dosage on the performance of the filter were investigated. The results obtained from several filtration cycles under different conditions indicated that average effluent turbidity level, effluent particle numbers, effluent turbidity variation graph, and effluent particle graph were lower throughout the filtration cycle when PACL was used compared to when ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. Increasing filtration rate led to increased turbidity and particle number. Addition of 2 mg/l of PACL (poor coagulation and flocculation scenario was compared with addition of 5 mg/l of ferric chloride (strong coagulation and flocculation scenario. The results indicated that higher average values of turbidity removal but lower turbidity and particle removal efficiencies obtained in the case of the poor coagulation and flocculation scenario.

  18. Coagulant effect of ferric chloride for separation of biomass from the microalgae Chlorella sp. of the water; Efeito coagulante do cloreto ferrico para separacao da biomassa da microalga Chlorella sp. da agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Tamara Daiane de; Mendes, Mucio Andre dos Santos Alves [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental], E-mail: tamara_daiane@yahoo.com.br; Matos, Antonio Teixeira de [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Lo Monaco, Paola Alfonsa Vieira [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Santa Teresa, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2010-07-01

    Currently, much interest has been focused on the biotechnological potential of microalgae, mainly in the production of biofuels. For this to become viable the biomass of algae should be separated from the water and the process of coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation may be an alternative. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric chloride as coagulant agent of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Were tested five concentrations of ferric chloride in the suspension containing the microalgae: 20,0; 30,0; 40,0; 50,0 e 100,0 g L{sup -1}. The tests were performed using the Jar-test apparatus and the turbidity was measured in suspensions after 2 hours of sedimentation. Mathematical equations were adjusted by regression, relating the concentration used in the tests according to the turbidity of the suspension. There was a linear decrease in turbidity with the addition of ferric chloride, and for concentration of 100.0 g L{sup -1} was achieved a removal efficiency of turbidity of 58%. However, it is necessary to conduct further research, evaluating the economic feasibility of the technique in the separation of microalgae from the water. (author)

  19. Effect of sonochemical synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles and coagulation bath temperature on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes prepared via phase inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini Reza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asymmetric pure CA and CA/ TiO2 composite membranes were prepared via phase inversion by dispersing TiO2 nanopaticles in the CA casting solutions induced by immersion precipitation in water coagulation bath. TiO2 nanoparticles, which were synthesized by the sonochemical method, were added into the casting solution with different concentrations. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration (0 wt. %, 5wt.%, 10wt.%, 15wt.%, 20wt.% and 25wt.% and coagulation bath temperature (CBT= 25°C, 50°C and 75°C on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux (PWF of the prepared membranes were studied and discussed. Increasing TiO2 concentration in the casting solution film along with higher CBT resulted in increasing the membrane thickness, water content (WC, membrane porosity and pure water flux (PWF, also these changes facilitate macrovoids formation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA shows that thermal stability of the composite membranes were improved by the addition of TiO2 nanopaticles. Also TGA results indicated that increasing CBT in each TiO2 concentration leads to the decreasing of decomposition temperature (Td of hybrid membranes.

  20. Effects of Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Seed on Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, with its associated complications, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of citrullus lanatus seed extract on blood glucose concentration and electrolyte parameters. Citrullus lanatus is an antioxidant and has been shown to reduce oxidative stress (Khaki et al., 2013). Effects ...

  1. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlund, Iris; Koli, Raika; Alfthan, Georg; Marniemi, Jukka; Puukka, Pauli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Mattila, Pirjo; Jula, Antti

    2008-02-01

    Berries are a particularly rich source of polyphenols. They also contain other bioactive substances, such as vitamin C. Previous studies indicated that the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (eg, cocoa, tea, and red wine) may induce beneficial changes in pathways related to cardiovascular health. Whether the consumption of berries has similar effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of berry consumption on hemostatic function, serum lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Middle-aged unmedicated subjects (n = 72) with cardiovascular risk factors consumed moderate amounts of berry or control products for 8 wk in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Berry consumption inhibited platelet function as measured with a platelet function analyzer (using collagen and ADP as platelet activator) [changes: 11% and -1.4% in the berry and control groups, respectively; P = 0.018, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)]. Plasma biomarkers of platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis did not change during the intervention. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased significantly more (P = 0.006, ANCOVA) in the berry than in the control group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively), but total cholesterol and triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Systolic BP decreased significantly (P = 0.050, ANCOVA); the decrease mostly occurred in subjects with high baseline BP (7.3 mm Hg in highest tertile; P = 0.024, ANCOVA). Polyphenol and vitamin C concentrations in plasma increased, whereas other nutritional biomarkers (ie, folate, tocopherols, sodium, and potassium) were unaffected. The consumption of moderate amounts of berries resulted in favorable changes in platelet function, HDL cholesterol, and BP. The results indicate that regular consumption of berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Radioprotective effect of antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Gu Xuandi; Zhu Genbo; Feng Jixing; Su Liaoyuan

    1991-09-01

    By using an improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as fluorometric agent, the antiradiation effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray irradiation inducing final products of lipid peroxides (LPO), i.e. malodialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes, were investigated with LPO value as an indicator. The results of the experiment were as following: (1)The radioprotective effect of exogenous antioxidants added to human blood lymphocytes on radiation-induced LPO damage of cellular membrane were remarkable; (2)The radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged like this: SOD > VE >VC, Se 4+ ; (3)Radioprotective effects of antioxidants on radiation-induced damage varied especially with the property of antioxidants, drug concentration, and pretreatment and monitoring time, etc., as well as irradiated dosage and various kinds of incubated cells. In addition, the mechanism of these antioxidants as radioprotectants on human blood lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  3. Potential of Hibiscus Sabdariffa and Jatropha Curcas as Natural Coagulants in the Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibartie Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical wastewater is one of the most difficult wastewater to treat due to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds resulting in high concentration of organic matter, high turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD. Chemical-based coagulation is a common method used to treat wastewater. However, the issue that has been raised with the use of chemical coagulants is their presence in water after treatment that can cause risks to the human health such as Alzheimer and cancer. Natural coagulants can be used as a safe alternative to these chemicals instead. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to study the effect of H. Sabdariffa and J. Curcas as natural coagulants, separately and as a combination, on the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. Jar test experiment were carried out where beakers of 0.5L wastewater were mixed with the coagulants. The pH of the wastewater was varied from 2 to 12 while the coagulant dosage was varied from 40 to 200 mg/L. It was found that H. Sabdariffa works best at pH 4 and at a coagulant dosage of 190 mg/L with a highest turbidity removal of 35.8% and a decrease of COD by 29%. J. Curcas was found to perform best at pH 3 and with a coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L with a highest turbidity removal of 51% and a decrease of COD by 32%. When J. Curcas and H. Sabdariffa were used in combination, the optimum composition was found to be 80% J. Curcas and 20% H. Sabdariffa by weight with a maximum turbidity removal of 46.8% and a decrease in COD by 46%. In comparison between the two natural coagulants, J. Curcas is found to be a better and more suited coagulative agent for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. The same experiment was carried with alum at pH 6 and coagulant dosage of 750 mg/L and a turbidity removal of 48% and a decrease in COD by 38% were recorded. In comparison with alum, J. Curcas was a better coagulant in treating the pharmaceutical wastewater. This shows that natural coagulants can be

  4. The effect of targeted temperature management on coagulation parameters and bleeding events after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marrit; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is part of the standard treatment of comatose patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to attenuate neurological injury. In other clinical settings, hypothermia promotes coagulopathy leading to an increase in bleeding and thrombosis tendency......, thrombelastography (TEG), bleeding, and stent thrombosis events. Platelet counts were lower in the TTM33-group compared to TTM36 (p=0.009), but neither standard coagulation nor TEG-parameters showed any difference between the groups. TEG revealed a normocoagulable state in the majority of patients, while...... approximately 20% of the population presented as hypercoagulable. Adverse events included 38 bleeding events, one stent thrombosis, and one reinfarction, with no significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence supporting the assumption that TTM at 33°C was associated with impaired...

  5. The Effect of Shape Memory on Red Blood Cell Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiting; Shi, Lingling; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2013-11-01

    An elastic spring model is applied to study the effect of the shape memory on the motion of red blood cell in flows. In shear flow, shape memory also plays an important role to obtain all three motions: tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. In Poiseuille flow, cell has an equilibrium shape as a slipper or parachute depending on capillary number. To ensure the tank-treading motion while in slippery shape, a modified model is proposed by introducing a shape memory coefficient which describes the degree of shape memory in cells. The effect of the coefficient on the cell motion of red blood cell will be presented.

  6. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  7. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by coagulation and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumczyk, Jeremi; Bogacki, Jan; Marcinowski, Piotr; Kowalik, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the treatment process of three cosmetic wastewater types has been investigated. Coagulation allowed to achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 74.6%, 37.7% and 74.0% for samples A (Al2(SO4)3), B (Brentafloc F3) and C (PAX 16), respectively. The Fenton process proved to be effective as well - COD removal was equal to 75.1%, 44.7% and 68.1%, respectively. Coagulation with FeCl3 and the subsequent photo-Fenton process resulted in the best values of final COD removal equal to 92.4%, 62.8% and 90.2%. In case of the Fenton process, after coagulation these values were equal to 74.9%, 50.1% and 84.8%, while in case of the H2O2/UV process, the obtained COD removal was 83.8%, 36.2% and 80.9%. High value of COD removal in the Fenton process carried out for A and C wastewater samples was caused by a significant contribution of the final neutralization/coagulation. Very small effect of the oxidation reaction in the Fenton process in case of sample A resulting from the presence of antioxidants, 'OH radical scavengers' in the wastewater.

  8. Characterization of a human coagulation factor Xa-binding site on Viperidae snake venom phospholipases A2 by affinity binding studies and molecular bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda Veerabasappa T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snake venom group IIA secreted phospholipases A2 (SVPLA2, present in the Viperidae snake family exhibit a wide range of toxic and pharmacological effects. They exert their different functions by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PL at the membrane/water interface and by highly specific direct binding to: (i presynaptic membrane-bound or intracellular receptors; (ii natural PLA2-inhibitors from snake serum; and (iii coagulation factors present in human blood. Results Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR protein-protein interaction measurements and an in vitro biological test of inhibition of prothrombinase activity, we identify a number of Viperidae venom SVPLA2s that inhibit blood coagulation through direct binding to human blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa via a non-catalytic, PL-independent mechanism. We classify the SVPLA2s in four groups, depending on the strength of their binding. Molecular electrostatic potentials calculated at the surface of 3D homology-modeling models show a correlation with inhibition of prothrombinase activity. In addition, molecular docking simulations between SVPLA2 and FXa guided by the experimental data identify the potential FXa binding site on the SVPLA2s. This site is composed of the following regions: helices A and B, the Ca2+ loop, the helix C-β-wing loop, and the C-terminal fragment. Some of the SVPLA2 binding site residues belong also to the interfacial binding site (IBS. The interface in FXa involves both, the light and heavy chains. Conclusion We have experimentally identified several strong FXa-binding SVPLA2s that disrupt the function of the coagulation cascade by interacting with FXa by the non-catalytic PL-independent mechanism. By theoretical methods we mapped the interaction sites on both, the SVPLA2s and FXa. Our findings may lead to the design of novel, non-competitive FXa inhibitors.

  9. In vitro effects of recombinant activated factor VII on thrombin generation and coagulation following inhibition of platelet procoagulant activity by prasugrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeffi, Michael; Szlam, Fania; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Sugidachi, Atsuhiro; Levy, Jerrold H

    2013-07-01

    Prasugrel is a thienopyridyl P2Y12 antagonist with potent antiplatelet effects. At present, little is known about its effects on thrombin generation or what strategies may emergently reverse its anticoagulant effects. In the current study we evaluated whether recombinant activated factor VII may reverse prasugrel induced effects and increase thrombin generation in an in vitro model. The effect of prasugrel active metabolite, PAM (R-138727), was evaluated on platelet aggregation, thrombin generation, and rotational thromboelastometry parameters using blood from 20 healthy volunteers. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and recombinant activated factor VII on restoring these parameters towards baseline values. PAM reduced maximum platelet aggregation and led to platelet disaggregation. It also decreased peak thrombin, increased lag time, and increased time to peak thrombin. Treatment with recombinant activated factor VII restored all three parameters of thrombin generation towards baseline. ADP decreased lag time and time to peak thrombin, but had no effect on peak thrombin. When recombinant activated factor VII and ADP were combined they had a greater effect on thrombin parameters than either drug alone. PAM also increased thromboelastometric clotting time and clot formation time, but had no effect on maximum clot firmness. Treatment with either recombinant activated factor VII or ADP restored these values towards baseline. Recombinant activated factor VII restores thrombin generation in the presence of PAM. In patients taking prasugrel with life-threatening refractory bleeding it has the potential to be a useful therapeutic approach. Additional clinical studies are needed to validate our findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Samad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims all over the world fast in the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting means abstinence from drinking any liquids, eating, smoking and taking anything parenterally.  It is intermittent in nature from the start of dawn to end at dusk. Fasting has various physiological effects on different biological parameters of the human body. Previous studies that look at effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure have focused mainly on hypertensive patients and patients with already established heart disease.(1,2There is very limited data regarding the effect of fasting on the normal population. (3,4 A few previous studies have advocated a hypotensive role of fasting.(5 In our study published in Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad (JAMC in 2015, “Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males”, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure of normotensive men. We conducted a repeated measure observational study in Karachi, Pakistan on 70 individuals who were normotensive, non-smokers between the ages of 18–50 years. . Blood pressure, pulse, BMI of each participant was recorded one week before the start of Ramadan and in the first, second and third week of Ramadan. The results of our study show that intermittent fasting has a hypotensive effect in normotensive males as proven in animal models and certain human population. There was an average drop of 8/3 mmHg and while the results are significant, their clinical relevance needs to be analysed. Studies on animal models have suggested atrial natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, opiates and body mass index as possible reasons for the decrease in blood pressure due to fasting.(3, 6  Dewanti et al suggested that the cause of drop in blood pressure was the drop in BMI however in our study we found that a drop in BMI only occurred before Iftar towards the end of the fast. There was no significant drop in post-Iftar BMI although there was a significant drop in blood

  11. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness

  12. Acute effect of glucose on cerebral blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pascual, Juan M; Xiao, Guanghua; Huang, Hao; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-02-01

    While it is known that specific nuclei of the brain, for example hypothalamus, contain glucose-sensing neurons thus their activity is affected by blood glucose level, the effect of glucose modulation on whole-brain metabolism is not completely understood. Several recent reports have elucidated the long-term impact of caloric restriction on the brain, showing that animals under caloric restriction had enhanced rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle flux accompanied by extended life span. However, acute effect of postprandial blood glucose increase has not been addressed in detail, partly due to a scarcity and complexity of measurement techniques. In this study, using a recently developed noninvasive MR technique, we measured dynamic changes in global cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2 ) following a 50 g glucose ingestion (N = 10). A time dependent decrease in CMRO2 was observed, which was accompanied by a reduction in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with unaltered cerebral blood flow (CBF). At 40 min post-ingestion, the amount of CMRO2 reduction was 7.8 ± 1.6%. A control study without glucose ingestion was performed (N = 10), which revealed no changes in CMRO2 , CBF, or OEF, suggesting that the observations in the glucose study was not due to subject drowsiness or fatigue after staying inside the scanner. These findings suggest that ingestion of glucose may alter the rate of cerebral metabolism of oxygen in an acute setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Influence of Baseline Diastolic Blood Pressure on Effects of Intensive Compared With Standard Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Chertow, Glenn M; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Rahman, Mahboob; Greene, Tom; Wei, Guo; Campbell, Ruth C; Conroy, Margaret; Freedman, Barry I; Haley, William; Horwitz, Edward; Kitzman, Dalane; Lash, James; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Pisoni, Roberto; Riessen, Erik; Rosendorff, Clive; Watnick, Suzanne G; Whittle, Jeffrey; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    In individuals with a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the potential benefits or risks of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering are unclear. SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target baseline DBP. Mean baseline SBP and DBP were 139.7±15.6 and 78.1±11.9 mm Hg, respectively. Regardless of the randomized treatment, baseline DBP had a U-shaped association with the hazard of the primary cardiovascular disease outcome. However, the effects of the intensive SBP intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline DBP level ( P for interaction=0.83). The primary outcome hazard ratio for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.07) in the lowest DBP quintile (mean baseline DBP, 61±5 mm Hg) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) in the upper 4 DBP quintiles (mean baseline DBP, 82±9 mm Hg), with an interaction P value of 0.78. Results were similar for all-cause death and kidney events. Low baseline DBP was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease events, but there was no evidence that the benefit of the intensive SBP lowering differed by baseline DBP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The effect of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko.

    1989-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled CO 2 , O 2 and CO gases, the effects of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were investigated in 6 patients with meningioma accompanying peritumoral brain edema. The same study was done in 5 normal volunteers. The changes of blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin were also examined. After a drip infusion of glycerol, the regional CBF increased not only in the peritumoral cortex and white matter but also in the intact cortex and white matter on the contralateral side. The increase of CBF was extensive and substantially there were no regional differences. In contrast, the changes of CMRO 2 were not significant. This was derived from the increase in oxygen extraction fraction throughout extensive areas including the peritumoral area. There were no changes in CBV. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to a small degree. In the normal volunteers, the same findings were noted. Thus, glycerol increases the functional reserve for cerebral oxygen metabolism, not only in the peritumoral regions but also in the intact regions. The effects of glycerol on hemodynamics and metabolism were discussed with reference to some differences from mannitol. (author)

  15. Effects of an exopolysaccharide (kefiran) on lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Zhu, Xia; Omura, Kazunobu; Suzuki, Shiho; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was reported to produce an exopolysaccharide named kefiran. In the present study, we developed a new medium, rice hydrolyzate (RH) medium, for the culture of L. kefiranofaciens. Structural analyses revealed that the exopolysaccharide produced by L. kefiranofaciens from RH medium was composed of a hexasaccharide repeating unit, and essentially identical to the kefiran reported in previous studies. A study on the effects of kefiran in animals demonstrated that kefiran significantly suppressed increase of blood pressure and reduced the serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP/Hos rats when subjects consumed excessive dietary cholesterol. Kefiran supplementation demonstrated the ability to significantly lower blood glucose in KKAy mice. In addition, the administration of kefiran in constipated SD rats caused an obvious improvement in the levels of fecal moisture and wet weights of feces. These results suggest that kefiran could be used as a functional food to prevent some commonly occurring diseases.

  16. Removal of algal blooms from freshwater by the coagulation-magnetic separation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Peng; Wei, Guanran; Dong, Wenbo; Hui, Franck

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of changing waste into useful materials for water treatment and proposed a coagulation-magnetic separation technique. This technique was rapid and highly effective for clearing up harmful algal blooms in freshwater and mitigating lake eutrophication. A magnetic coagulant was synthesized by compounding acid-modified fly ash with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Its removal effects on algal cells and dissolved organics in water were studied. After mixing, coagulation, and magnetic separation, the flocs obtained from the magnet surface were examined by SEM. Treated samples were withdrawn for the content determination of chlorophyll-a, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. More than 99 % of algal cells were removed within 5 min after the addition of magnetic coagulant at optimal loadings (200 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiencies of COD, total nitrogen, and phosphorus were 93, 91, and 94 %, respectively. The mechanism of algal removal explored preliminarily showed that the magnetic coagulant played multiple roles in mesoporous adsorption, netting and bridging, as well as high magnetic responsiveness to a magnetic field. The magnetic-coagulation separation method can rapidly and effectively remove algae from water bodies and greatly mitigate eutrophication of freshwater using a new magnetic coagulant. The method has good performance, is low cost, can turn waste into something valuable, and provides reference and directions for future pilot and production scale-ups.

  17. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  18. Evaluation of Chitin as Natural Coagulant in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saritha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic coagulants is not regarded as suitable due to health and economic considerations. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitin as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The experiment was conducted at three different pH conditions of 6, 7 and 8. The dosages chosen were 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mg/l. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction. Hardness removal efficiency was observed to be 93% at pH 7 with 1mg/l concentration by alum whereas chitin was stable at all the pH ranges showing highest removal at 1 and 1.5mg/l with pH 7. At low concentration chitin showed marginally better performance on hardness. In conclusion, using natural coagulants results in considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

  19. Performance of alum and assorted coagulants in turbidity removal of muddy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Qasim H.

    2018-03-01

    Coagulation is a primary and cost effective process in water treatment plants. Under optimum conditions, not only it effectively removes turbidity but also results in reduced sludge volume and subsequently minimizes sludge management costs. Highly turbid water from streams, canals, rivers and rain run offs was run through jar test for turbidity removal. The brown water with 250NTU turbidity when coagulated with alum and assorted coagulants proved that maximum turbidity removal was witnessed using alum dose of 0.25 g/l at ph 6 with a sedimentation time of 30 min.

  20. The effects of Moringa stenopetala on blood parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Moringa stenopetala and related species are commonly used in folk medicine for various human diseases such as antimalarial, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and as antispasmodic. Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of M. stenopetala on blood parameters, and ...

  1. Effect Of Exogenous Progesterone On Blood Chemistry Of Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exogenous hormones are major economic factors in swine production. This study evaluate the effects of exogenous administration of progesterone on the blood chemistry of pigs.Experiment involved weekly injections of progesterone to 24 pigs (12 males and 12 females)from day old to 24 weeks and only corn oil to another ...

  2. effects of septrin administration on blood cells parameters in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    honey

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... RESEARCH PAPER. EFFECTS OF SEPTRIN ADMINISTRATION ON BLOOD CELLS PARAMETERS IN. HUMANS. *1Onyebuagu P.C., 2Kiridi K. and 1Pughikumo D.T.. 1Department of Human Physiology, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa, Nigeria. 2Department of Radiology, Niger. Delta University, Bayelsa ...

  3. Data-driven analysis of blood glucose management effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannings, B.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Bosman, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The blood-glucose-level (BGL) of Intensive Care (IC) patients requires close monitoring and control. In this paper we describe a general data-driven analytical method for studying the effectiveness of BGL management. The method is based on developing and studying a clinical outcome reflecting the

  4. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  5. Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (18), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper. Effects of ... blood glucose level (P<0.05) of the diabetic rats by 81.3% after 24 h of extract administration. ..... The endocrine pancreas and the.

  6. Effects of Triphasic Exercise on Blood Rheology and Pathophysiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to study the relevance of physiology and pathophysiology in blood rheology as effects of triphasic exercise. Regular exercise which has been established as life prolonging has led to decrease in both peripheral vascular and coronary morbidity that has been associated with certain improvements in ...

  7. What Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood clotting. With fewer platelets and clotting factors in the blood, serious bleeding can occur. DIC can cause internal and external bleeding. Internal bleeding occurs inside the body. External ...

  8. Microwave coagulation therapy and drug injection to treat splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoming; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jie; Dong, Lei; Mu, Nannan; Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaofei; Liang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the efficacy of 915- and 2450-MHz contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided percutaneous microwave coagulation with that of CEUS-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of trauma-induced spleen hemorrhage. In a canine splenic artery hemorrhage model with two levels of arterial diameter (A, microwaves and drug injection. Therapy efficacy was measured by comparing bleeding rate, hemostatic time, bleeding index, bleeding volume, and pathology. The most efficient technique was CEUS-guided 915-MHz percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy in terms of action time and total blood loss. The success rate of the 915-MHz microwave group was higher than that of the 2450-MHz microwave and the drug injection groups (except A level, P microwave group than those in the 2450-MHz microwave and drug injection groups (P microwave group, but pathologic changes of light injury could be seen in the other groups. The present study provides evidence that microwave coagulation therapy is more efficient than thrombin injection for the treatment of splenic hemorrhage. Furthermore, treatment with 915-MHz microwaves stops bleeding more rapidly and generates a wider cauterization zone than does treatment with 2450-MHz microwaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Coagulation factor VII levels in uremic patients and theirs influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Xia, Ling-Hui; Wei, Wen-Ning; Song, Shan-Jun

    2004-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate coagulation factor VII level in uremic patients with chronic renal failure and to explore theirs influence factors. The plasma levels of coagulation factor VII were detected in 30 uremic patients with chronic renal failure before and after hemodialysis for 1 month, the factor VII activity (FVII:C) was determined by one-stage coagulation method, while activated factor VII (FVIIa) was measured by one-stage coagulation method using recombinant soluble tissue factor, and factor VII antigen was detected by ELISA. The results showed that: (1) The FVIIa, FVII:C and FVIIAg levels in chronic uremic patients before hemodialysis were 4.00 +/- 0.86 microg/L, (148.5 +/- 40.4)% and (99.8 +/- 21.1)% respectively, which were significantly increased, as compared with healthy controls [2.77 +/- 1.02 microg/L, (113.1 +/- 33.0)% and (73.7 +/- 18.3)% respectively, P factor VII was positively correlated with levels of blood uria nitrogen and serum creatinine before hemodialysis but not after hemodialysis. It is concluded that the enhanced levels of coagulation factor VII in chronic uremic patients suggested abnormal activated state, herperactivity and elevated production of factor VII which correlated with renal functional injury. The abnormality of factor VII in uremia may be aggravated by hemodialysis. Coagulation factor (FVII) may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events in uremic patients who especially had been accepted long-term hemodialysis.

  10. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure and Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam sadat Amirkalali sijavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims during which avoid from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse for about 13-17 hours. The aim of this study was surveying the effects of Islamic fasting in Ramadan on lipid profile and blood pressure.Materials and Methods: we designed this study in two phases, a week before and a week after Ramadan month. Eighty nine healthy subjects with 20-50 years old were participated in this study. Blood sampling for lipid profile measurement was done in the morning and blood pressure was measured in the afternoon with digital sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16.0 software.Results: In a week after Ramadan, body weight and body mass index (BMI decreased in both sexes, comparing with the week before Ramadan measurements (p

  11. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Gum, Si Nae; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lim, Hyo Hee; Kim, Kyong-Chol; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Inoue, Kenichi; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nattokinase supplementation on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age with an initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg received nattokinase (2,000 FU/capsule) or a placebo capsule for 8 weeks. Seventy-three subjects completed the protocol. Compared with the control group, the net changes in SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were -5.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.5 to -0.57 mmHg; pnattokinase group compared with the control group (pnattokinase supplementation resulted in a reduction in SBP and DBP. These findings suggest that increased intake of nattokinase may play an important role in preventing and treating hypertension.

  12. Process of coagulating asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, J A; Pfersch, G

    1931-03-28

    The present invention has for its object a process of deasphaltizing and deparaffining applicable to mixtures of hydrocarbons such as crude mineral oils and tars obtained under the influence of heat from shales, lignites, peats, and similar products, to natural bitumens and those obtained by extraction with organic solvents and also all those derived from the substances, the process in question having the following characteristics: the coagulation or the precipitation of the asphaltic material, the resinous material, and the asphaltic and resinous material, which is found in the colloidal state or any other state in the substances given above, is obtained by the addition of a small amount of solvent and of acids or mixtures of acids.

  13. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  14. Performance optimization of coagulant/flocculant in the treatment of wastewater from a beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuda, O S; Amoo, I A; Ajayi, O O

    2006-02-28

    This study investigated the effect of coagulation/flocculation treatment process on wastewater of Fumman Beverage Industry, Ibadan, Nigeria. The study also compared different dosages of coagulant, polyelectrolyte (non-ionic polyacrylamide) and different pH values of the coagulation processes. The effect of different dosages of polyelectrolyte in combination with coagulant was also studied. The results reveal that low pH values (3-8), enhance removal efficiency of the contaminants. Percentage removal of 78, 74 and 75 of COD, TSS and TP, respectively, were achieved by the addition of 500 mg/L Fe2(SO4)3.3H2O and 93, 94 and 96% removal of COD, TSS and TP, respectively, were achieved with the addition of 25 mg/L polyelectrolyte to the coagulation process. The volume of sludge produced, when coagulant was used solely, was higher compared to the use of polyelectrolyte combined with Fe2(SO4)3.3H2O. This may be as a result of non-ionic nature of the polyelectrolyte; hence, it does not chemically react with solids of the wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation may be useful as a pre-treatment process for beverage industrial wastewater prior to biological treatment.

  15. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    2016-01-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  16. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  17. Effects of Nattokinase on Whole Blood Viscosity and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Cengiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nattokinase is a serin protease having potent fibrinolytic effect derived from fermentation of boiled soy bean by the use of Basillus Subtilis Natto. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of intragastric Nattokinase (6 mg/day administration for 7 days prior to formation of sepsis on plasma fibrinogen levels, whole blood viscosity and mortality in rats. Materials and Methods: Intraabdominal sepsis were performed by cecal ligation and puncture in rats supplemented with nattokinase or olive oil for 7 days prior to sepsis formation. Plasma fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity analysis and survival analysis was performed after intraabdominal sepsis formation. Results: Mean blood viscosity of rats was lower in Nattokinase and cecal ligation group at lowest shear rate (p<0.05. However, the differences between groups were not significant at higher shear rates. No difference was found in survival rates and survival times of Nattokinase and cecal ligation and cecal ligation and puncture groups. Conclusion: Our results were unable to show the effects of intragastric nattokinase supplementation prior to sepsis on plasma fibrinogen levels or whole blood viscosity, except low shear rate. Nattokinase did not altered survival in septic rats. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9: 85-9

  18. Effects of midazolam on cerebral blood flow in human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, A.; Juge, O.; Morel, D.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of intravenously administered midazolam on cerebral blood flow were evaluated in eight healthy volunteers using the 133 Xe inhalation technique. Six minutes after an intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg midazolam, the cerebral blood flow decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from a value of 40.6 +/- 3.3 to a value of 27.0 +/- 5.0 ml . 100 g-1 . min-1. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) increased from 2.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 to 0.6 mmHg/(ml . 100 g-1 . min-1)(P less than 0.001). Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) from 117 +/- 8 to 109 +/- 9 mmHg and arterial carbon dioxide tension increased from 33.9 +/- 2.3 to 38.6 +/- 3.2 mmHg (P less than 0.05). Arterial oxygen tension remained stable throughout the study, 484 +/- 95 mmHg before the administration of midazolam and 453 +/- 76 mmHg after. All the subjects slept after the injection of the drug and had anterograde amnesia of 24.5 +/- 5 min. The decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was probably not important since it remained in the physiologic range for cerebral blood flow autoregulation. The increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension observed after the midazolam injection may have partially counteracted the effect of this new benzodiazepine on cerebral blood flow. Our data suggest that midazolam might be a safe agent to use for the induction of anethesia in neurosurgical patients with intracranial hypertension

  19. Effects of Aggregation on Blood Sedimentation and Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhbanov, Alexander; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test has been used for over a century. The Westergren method is routinely used in a variety of clinics. However, the mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation remains unclear, and the 60 min required for the test seems excessive. We investigated the effects of cell aggregation during blood sedimentation and electrical conductivity at different hematocrits. A sample of blood was drop cast into a small chamber with two planar electrodes placed on the bottom. The measured blood conductivity increased slightly during the first minute and decreased thereafter. We explored various methods of enhancing or retarding the erythrocyte aggregation. Using experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, we show that the initial increase in blood conductivity was indeed caused by aggregation, while the subsequent decrease in conductivity resulted from the deposition of erythrocytes. We present a method for calculating blood conductivity based on effective medium theory. Erythrocytes are modeled as conducting spheroids surrounded by a thin insulating membrane. A digital camera was used to investigate the erythrocyte sedimentation behavior and the distribution of the cell volume fraction in a capillary tube. Experimental observations and theoretical estimations of the settling velocity are provided. We experimentally demonstrate that the disaggregated cells settle much slower than the aggregated cells. We show that our method of measuring the electrical conductivity credibly reflected the ESR. The method was very sensitive to the initial stage of aggregation and sedimentation, while the sedimentation curve for the Westergren ESR test has a very mild slope in the initial time. We tested our method for rapid estimation of the Westergren ESR. We show a correlation between our method of measuring changes in blood conductivity and standard Westergren ESR method. In the future, our method could be examined as a potential means of accelerating

  20. The effect of whole-blood donor adverse events on blood donor return rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bruce H; Newman, Daniel T; Ahmad, Raffat; Roth, Arthur J

    2006-08-01

    Some blood donation-related adverse events (AEs) can negatively impact the blood donor return rate (BDRR) and decrease donor retention. One-thousand randomly selected whole-blood donors were interviewed 3 weeks after a 525-mL index whole-blood donation for seven AEs. The number of return visits and duration of follow-up were recorded for each of the 1000 donors. A negative binomial regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of the four most common AEs to the BDRR, and interactions between these AEs were also evaluated. The four most common AEs were bruise alone (15.1%), sore arm "alone" (7.0%), fatigue "alone" (5.1%), and donor reaction "alone" (4.2%), where "alone" is defined to also include donors who had a bruise but no other AE. The estimated BDRR for donations without AEs was 1.32 visits per year. The estimated BDRRs for the four most common AEs were: bruise alone, 1.32 visits per year; sore arm alone, 1.30 visits per year (2% reduction in BDRR); fatigue alone, 1.06 visits per year (20% reduction in BDRR); and donor reaction alone, 0.87 visits per year (34% reduction in BDRR). The BDRR for donor reaction, fatigue, and sore arm together was 0.20 visits per year (85% reduction in BDRR). Donor reaction had the most negative impact on the BDRR. There appears to be a synergistic effect between donor reaction, fatigue, and sore arm. Theoretically, amelioration of some AEs has the potential to improve BDRRs.

  1. Effects of Nattokinase on Whole Blood Viscosity and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Cengiz; Pınar Karadamar; Murat Yılmaz; Nesil Coşkunfırat; Atilla Ramazanoğlu; Sabahat Özdem; Oğuz Kerim Başkurt; Herbert J Meiselman

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nattokinase is a serin protease having potent fibrinolytic effect derived from fermentation of boiled soy bean by the use of Basillus Subtilis Natto. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of intragastric Nattokinase (6 mg/day) administration for 7 days prior to formation of sepsis on plasma fibrinogen levels, whole blood viscosity and mortality in rats. Materials and Methods: Intraabdominal sepsis were performed by cecal ligation and puncture in rats s...

  2. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  3. Fetoscopic laser coagulation of intertwin anastomoses reduces discordant placental autophagic activities in discordant twin growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Lung Chang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The discordance of placenta autophagic activity in the monochorionic twin with sIUGR was reduced after laser coagulation of the intertwin anastomoses, which may result from the effect of correction of the discordant intertwin placenta perfusion.

  4. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  5. MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CATTLE BREEDS REARED IN ALPINE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Visentin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.

  6. Patient-centered blood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmuth, Benjamin; Ozawa, Sherri; Ashton, Maria; Melseth, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Transfusions are common in hospitalized patients but carry significant risk, with associated morbidity and mortality that increases with each unit of blood received. Clinical trials consistently support a conservative over a liberal approach to transfusion. Yet there remains wide variation in practice, and more than half of red cell transfusions may be inappropriate. Adopting a more comprehensive approach to the bleeding, coagulopathic, or anemic patient has the potential to improve patient care. We present a patient-centered blood management (PBM) paradigm. The 4 guiding principles of effective PBM that we present include anemia management, coagulation optimization, blood conservation, and patient-centered decision making. PBM has the potential to decrease transfusion rates, decrease practice variation, and improve patient outcomes. PBM's value proposition is highly aligned with that of hospital medicine. Hospitalists' dual role as front-line care providers and quality improvement leaders make them the ideal candidates to develop, implement, and practice PBM. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  7. Review of Coagulation Technology for Removal of Arsenic: Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sancha, Ana María

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation technology has been used since 1970 in northern Chile for removing arsenic from drinking-water. This experience suggests that coagulation is an effective technology for the removal of arsenic. It is currently possible to reduce arsenic from 400 μg/L to 10 μg/L at a rate of 500 L/sec, assuming pH, oxidizing and coagulation agents are strictly controlled. The Chilean experience with the removal of arsenic demonstrates that the water matrix dictates the selection of the arsenic-remov...

  8. Effects of Blood-cooling and Stasis-removing Formula on Hemorheology in Rats with Acute Blood Stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyi Ning

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula on hemorheology in rats with acute blood stasis induced by mutifactor stimuli. Methods: The selected SD rats orally took blood-cooling and stasis-removing granule for six days, then the model of acute blood stasis was prepared on the fifth day by injection of epinephrine combined with ice-water bath. The variations of blood-cooling and stasis-removing granule on hemorheology were detected. Results: The high-dose group of blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula can decrease plasma viscosity in rats with acute blood stasis, and obviously reduce the blood viscosity under the condition of shear rates (200s-1, 30s-1, 5s-1, 1s-1 (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. The middle-dose group can decrease the blood viscosity under the condition of shear rate (30s-1 (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula can improve abnormal hemorheology in rats with acute blood stasis.

  9. The performance of double layer structure membrane prepared from flowing coagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieow Kee, Chan; Xeng, Anthony Leong Chan; Regal, Sasiskala; Singh, Balvinder; Raoo, Preeshaath; Koon Eu, Yap; Sok Choo, Ng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane with double layer structure is favourable as it exhibits smooth surface and macrovoids free structure. However, its’ performance in terms of permeability, porosity and strength has not been studied thoroughly. Additionally, the effect of flowing coagulant on the formation of double layer membrane has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the performance of double layer membranes, which were prepared using flowing coagulant. Results showed that when the coagulant flow changed from laminar to turbulent, the pure water permeation of the membrane increased. It was due to the higher porosity in the membrane, which prepared by turbulent flow (CA-Turbulent) compared to the membrane which fabricated under laminar condition (CA-Laminar). This can be explained by the rapid solvent-coagulant exchange rate between the polymer solution and the turbulent coagulant. In term of strength, the tensile strength of the CA-Turbulent was ~32 MPa, which was 100% higher compared to CA-Laminar. This may due to the presence of large amount of nodules on its surface, which reduced the surface integrity. In conclusion, flowing coagulant altered the membrane properties and adopting turbulent coagulant flow in membrane fabrication would improve the porosity, surface roughness and the strength of the membrane.

  10. The Effects of Blood Transfusion on Delirium Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Vera; Beishuizen, Sara J; Scholtens, Rikie M; de Jonghe, Annemarieke; de Rooij, Sophia E; van Munster, Barbara C

    2016-08-01

    Both anemia and blood transfusion could be precipitating factors for delirium; hence in postoperative patients with anemia at high risk for delirium, it is controversial whether transfusion is the best option. The aim of thi